The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
The emotional attachment of individuals to PETS.
The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Sexual activities of animals.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A branch of psychology in which there is collaboration between psychologists and physicians in the management of medical problems. It differs from clinical psychology, which is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavior disorders.
The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.
An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Sexual activities of humans.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Differential response to different stimuli.
The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process by which an emotional or behavioral response that is appropriate for one situation appears in another situation for which it is inappropriate.
Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The science which utilizes psychologic principles to derive more effective means in dealing with practical problems.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
The branch of applied psychology concerned with psychological aspects of selection, assignment, training, morale, etc., of Armed Forces personnel.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
A relational pattern in which a person attempts to derive a sense of purpose through relationships with others.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
Use for general articles concerning nursing education.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
Cultural contacts between people of different races.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
The selection of one food over another.
A genus of marine sea slugs in the family Glaucidae, superorder GASTROPODA, found on the Pacific coast of North America. They are used in behavioral and neurological laboratory studies.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 10, 333-345.. ... Killeen, P. R., & Smith, J. P. (1984). Perception of contingency in conditioning: Scalar timing, response bias, and the erasure ... He joined the faculty of Arizona State University and in 1978 rose to the rank of Professor of Psychology. He has been a ... He has been one of the few premier contributors in quantitative analysis of behavior, and memory. In 1942, he was born in ...
Carlton attended Reed College in Portland, Oregon, where she earned a Bachelor's degree in psychology/animal behavior. She is ... " ("face blindness"), and is an advocate for recognition of that condition as a disability. Ms. ... Psychology Today. Retrieved 2015-10-07. Bronwyn Taggart (aka Bronwyn Carlton) at LinkedIn; Accessed March 9, 2016. Bronwyn ... She has hosted various shows since late 1988. These include, "Truck Stop Tea Party," and she has hosted "Sportsy Talk with ...
Wickens, D. (1943). "Studies of response generalization in conditioning". Journal of Experimental Psychology. 33 (3): 221-227. ... to his fascination with animal research and the experimental approach toward understanding human and animal behavior. He was ... In 1938 he authored several articles about the transference of conditioned excitation and conditioned inhibition in muscle ... Wickens, D. (1938). "The Transference of conditioned excitation and conditioned inhibition from one muscle group to the ...
Animal Behavior 16:92-96; Bardo MT, Bowling SL, Robinet PM, Rowlett JK, Lacy M, Mattingly BA (1993) Role of D1 and D2 receptors ... Bahi, A. (2012) The selective metabatropic glutamate receptor 7 allosteric ... In the conditioning phase the unconditioned stimulus (e.g. morphine) is administered to the animal (usually a mouse or rat) in ... The conditioning procedure usually consists of eight or more five-minute sessions. In the preference testing phase, the animal ...
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2(2), 154-162. doi:10.1037/0097-7403.2.2.154 Dinsmoor, J. A. ( ... doi:10.1901/jeab.1972.18-79 Dinsmoor, J. A. (1973). Operant conditioning. In: Handbook of general psychology. Oxford England: ... The Behavior Analyst, 18(2), 253-269. Dinsmoor, J. A. (1996). Studies in the history of psychology: CVI. An appreciation of ... whose behavior analytic research inspired Dinsmoor to pursue a lifetime of research in conditioned responding. Throughout his ...
ISBN 978-3-540-19432-3. wiki book on Animal behavior Chance P (2008). Learning and Behavior. Belmont/CA: Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0- ... Together with operant conditioning, classical conditioning became the foundation of behaviorism, a school of psychology which ... Classical conditioning differs from operant or instrumental conditioning: in classical conditioning, behaviors are modified ... Two common forms of forward conditioning are delay and trace conditioning. Delay conditioning: In delay conditioning, the CS is ...
Most books about animal behavior, Thorndike wrote, "do not give us a psychology, but rather a eulogy of animals." Although ... Play media Animal cognition encompasses the mental capacities of non-human animals. The study of animal conditioning and ... Thorndike EL (1911). Animal intelligence. Pavlov IP (1928). Lectures on conditioned reflexes. Watson JB (1913). "Psychology as ... The behavior of most animals is synchronized with the earth's daily light-dark cycle. Thus, many animals are active during the ...
Wagner, A.R. (1981). SOP: A model of automatic memory processing in animal behavior. In N.E. Spear & R.R. Miller (Eds.), ... Wagner, A.R. (2008). Evolution of an elemental theory of Pavlovian conditioning. Learning and Behavior. 36, 253-265. Wagner, A. ... Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76, 171-180. Wagner, A.R. (1969). Frustrative nonreward: A variety of punishment. In B.A. ... In S.H. Hulse, H. Fowler, & W.K. Honig (Eds.), Cognitive processes in animal behavior (pp. 177-209). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. ...
Crnic LS, Reite ML, Shucard DW (1982). "Animal models of human behavior: Their application to the study of attachment". In Emde ... ISBN 978-1-59385-874-2. Hollin CR (2013). Psychology and Crime: An Introduction to Criminological Psychology. USA & Canada: ... The infant's behaviour toward the caregiver becomes organized on a goal-directed basis to achieve the conditions that make it ... Bowlby ... assumes the fully innate, unlearned character of most complex behavior patterns ... (whereas recent animal studies ...
They discussed the history of the conditions and its relation to social mores in America. They argued that a "magic bullet" ... against the condition would be very difficult to create, but that coercive methods to change patterns of behavior would be ... He is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst ... because its clear purpose is to infect readers with the view that both the established schools of behavioural psychology and ...
68, No.1 (Jan 14, 1971), 5-7. P.G Ossorio, The Behavior Of Persons, Ann Arbor: Descriptive Psychology Press, 2013 Nikolas ... Some animal rights groups have also championed recognition for animals as "persons". Another approach to personhood, Paradigm ... But underlying the moral status, as its condition, are certain capacities. A person is a being who has a sense of self, has a ... P. G. Ossorio, The Behavior of Persons, Ann Arbor: Descriptive Psychology Press, 2013 Schwartz, Wynn. (1982) The Problem of ...
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 15, 124-136. Herman, L. M. and Forestell, P. H. (1985). ... Lilly Linguistics Operant conditioning Irene Pepperberg David Premack Sue Savage-Rumbaugh New York Times Louis Herman, who ... Akeakamai Animal cognition Animal echolocation Animal language Animal training Bottlenose dolphin Cetacean intelligence Great ... Animal Learning and Behavior, 29, 250-264. Calambokidis, J., Steiger, G. H., Straley, J. M., Herman, L. M., Cerchio, S., Salden ...
Skinner distinguished operant conditioning from classical conditioning and established the experimental analysis of behavior as ... In addition, processes such as conditioning my appear in simpler form in animals, certain animals display unique capacities ( ... Cognitive studies using animals can often control conditions more closely and use methods not open to research with humans. ... Animal cognition refers to the mental capacities of non-human animals, and research in this field often focuses on matters ...
Animal research involving rats that exhibit compulsive sexual behavior has identified that this behavior is mediated through ... The ICD-11 created a new condition classification, compulsive sexual behavior, to cover "a persistent pattern of failure to ... "Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder in ICD-11". Psychology Today. Retrieved 28 November 2018. Patrick Carnes; David Delmonico; ... Animal research has established that compulsive sexual behavior arises from the same transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms ...
... apart from limited research in animal behavior and studies of people with severely impaired emotional functioning. Formalized ... participants in the Teeth condition reported significantly higher amusement ratings than those in the Lips condition. The cover ... Böttger, D. (2010) To say "Krishna" is to smile - emotion psychology and the neurology of mantra singing. In "The Varieties of ... doi:10.1007/s10919-008-0052-z. Based on a Psychology Wiki article licensed under Creative Commons as CC-BY-SA.. ...
Sick animals have long been recognized by farmers as having different behavior. Initially it was thought that this was due to ... "Modification of body temperature and sleep state using behavioral conditioning". Physiology & Behavior. 57 (4): 723-729. doi: ... "Evolutionary Psychology. 13 (3): 100. doi:10.1177/1474704915600559.. *^ Kluger, M. J.; Rothenburg, B. A. (1979). "Fever and ... Sickness behavior in its different aspects causes an animal to limit its movement; the metabolic energy not expended in ...
Povinelli, Daniel J. (2020-11-01). "Can Comparative Psychology Crack its Toughest Nut?" (PDF). Animal Behavior and Cognition. 7 ... "Weather conditions and nonhuman animals". Animal Ethics. Retrieved 2021-03-27. Amos, Jonathan (2019-04-24). "Antarctica: ... Wild Animal Initiative Wild Animal Suffering - Animal Ethics Wild animal suffering video course - Animal Ethics. ... Introduction to Wild Animal Suffering: A Guide to the Key Issues (PDF). Animal Ethics. 2020. "Helping animals in the wild ...
Sanderson, C. A. (2010). Social Psychology. USA: Wiley.. *^ "Environmental psychology and nonverbal behavior [electronic ... Skinner trained pigeons to engage in various behaviors to demonstrate how animals engage in behaviors with rewards.[11] ... environmental conditions where communication takes place, physical characteristics of the communicators, and behaviors of ... which examined nonverbal behavior in negotiation situations.[10] The journal Environmental Psychology and Nonverbal Behavior ...
For instance, structuralism did not concern itself with the study of animal behavior, and personality. Titchener himself was ... Wundt believes this type of introspection to be acceptable since it uses laboratory instruments to vary conditions and make ... Association of ideas Associationism Mentalism (psychology) Cognitive psychology History of psychology Nature Donald K. ... ...
"The development of alarm-call response behavior in free-living juvenile Belding's ground squirrels" (PDF). Animal Behaviour. 52 ... Criticism of evolutionary psychology Evolutionary psychology Gene-centered view of evolution Hamiltonian spite Kin selection ... 1 / r {\displaystyle K>1/r} is the necessary and sufficient condition for selection for altruism. Where B is the gain to the ... their ubiquitous appearance in social psychology textbooks". Evolutionary Psychology. 5 (4): 860-873. doi:10.1177/ ...
Gluck, John (1997). "Harry F. Harlow and animal research: reflection on the ethical paradox". Ethics & Behavior. 7 (2): 149-161 ... maternal-infant bonding and other conditions and phenomena in nonhuman primates and other laboratory animals using an ... Child Psychology & Mental Health. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-97675-0. Bowlby, J. (1988). A Secure Base: Clinical ... Subsequent experiments would study the effects of total and partial isolation on the animals' mental health and interpersonal ...
Operant conditioning[edit]. Operant studies using vertebrates have been conducted for many years. In such studies, an animal ... Donald Griffin's 1984 Animal Thinking defends the idea that invertebrate behavior is complex, intelligent, and somewhat general ... Journal of Comparative Psychology. 105 (4): 345-356. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.105.4.345. PMID 1778067.. ... Short, C.E. (1998). "Fundamentals of pain perception in animals". Applied Animal Behavioural Science. 59 (1-3): 125-133. doi: ...
In operant conditioning, a behavior that is reinforced or punished in the presence of a stimulus becomes more or less likely to ... However, in other scenarios the opposite is true-animals must learn certain behaviors when it is disadvantageous to have a ... London: Psychology Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-317-76280-5. Gagliano, M.; et al. (2014). "Experience teaches plants to learn ... "conditioned stimulus"). The response to the conditioned stimulus is termed a conditioned response. The classic example is Ivan ...
Ricker, S.T.; Bouton, M.E. (1996). "Reacquisition following extinction in appetitive conditioning". Animal Learning & Behavior ... Postman, L., Stark, K., & Fraser, J. (1969). Conditions of recovery after unlearning. Journal of Experimental Psychology ... Thus, when CS-US pairings are resumed post-extinction, they put the animal back into the mindset of the original conditioning ... Pavlov named this anticipatory behavior the "conditioned" response or, more exactly, the "conditional" response. He and his ...
"The individual observing and learning some affordances of the behavior of another animal, and then using what it has learned in ... psychology) Observational learning Social learning and cumulative cultural evolution "Educational Psychology Interactive: ... Ghost condition demonstrations do not involve any information on body movements. Instead, the parts of the apparatus move as if ... In: Imitation in Animals and artifacts (Ed. by Dautenkahn, K.): MIT Press. Huang, C.-T. & Charman, T. 2005 Gradations of ...
Gray, P. (2007) Psychology (5th Ed.) (pp. 64-66) New York: Worth Publishers Greenberg, G. (1998) Comparative Psychology: A ... Example: a female animal chooses to mate with a particular male during a mate choice trial. A possible proximate explanation ... Although the behavior in these two examples is the same, the explanations are based on different sets of factors incorporating ... In order to explain the genuine cause of an effect, one would have to satisfy adequacy conditions, which include, among others ...
Jenkins, H. M. "Animal Learning and Behavior Theory" Ch. 5 in Hearst, E. "The First Century of Experimental Psychology" ... In operant conditioning, stimuli present when a behavior that is rewarded or punished controls that behavior. For example, a ... Operant conditioning, in his opinion, better described human behavior as it examined causes and effects of intentional behavior ... Example of animal training from Seaworld related on Operant conditioning Animal training has effects on positive reinforcement ...
Behaviorists such as B.F. Skinner trained pigeons to engage in various behaviors to demonstrate how animals engage in behaviors ... "Nonverbal communication in men with a cooperative conditioning task". Journal of Social Psychology. 103 (1): 101-108. doi: ... which examined nonverbal behavior in negotiation situations. The journal Environmental Psychology and Nonverbal Behavior was ... "Environmental psychology and nonverbal behavior [electronic resource]". Princeton University Library Catalog. Retrieved 16 ...
... and early behavior". Developmental Psychology. 26 (7): 407-420. doi:10.1002/dev.420260704. PMID 8270123. Suomi, SJ. "Touch and ... Animal Welfare. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. 4: 307-328. Harlow, H.F. (1962). "Development of affection in ... For this experiment, he presented the infants with a clothed mother and a wire mother under two conditions. In one situation, ... Harlow, H.F. (1964). "Early social deprivation and later behavior in the monkey". In A.Abrams; H.H. Gurner; J.E.P. Tomal (eds ...
Operant Conditioning is the ability to tailor an animals behavior using rewards and punishments. Latent Learning is tailoring ... Bendig, A. W. (1 January 1952). "Latent learning in a water maze". Journal of Experimental Psychology. 43 (2): 134-137. doi: ... Classical conditioning is when an animal eventually subconsciously anticipates a biological stimulus such as food when they ... A human observes a behavior, and later repeats that behavior at another time (not direct imitation) even though no one is ...
addictive behavior - a behavior that is both rewarding and reinforcing. *addictive drug - a drug that is both rewarding and ... Research from animals has consistently shown that when a trial is repeatedly exposed to a painful stimulus, the animal's pain ... substance use disorder - a condition in which the use of substances leads to clinically and functionally significant impairment ... This article is about the concept in psychology. For the concept in immunology, see Sensitization (immunology). For other uses ...
Plant & Animal Science. 43 Psychiatry/Psychology. 38 Social Sciences & Public Health. 48 ... helps evaluate and improve the living conditions of the residence halls.[66] ... The first, The Young Scholars Program, was initiated in 1988. 120 promising minority students from Ohio's nine largest urban ... Neuroscience & Behavior. 81 Oncology. 16 Pharmacology & Toxicology. 50 Physics. 31 ...
Siegrist, J. (1996). Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1 ... Greenberg, E.S., & Grunberg, L. (1995). Work alienation and problem alcohol behavior. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36 ... a b c d e f g h i Schonfeld, I.S., & Chang, C.-H. (2017). Occupational health psychology: Work, stress, and health. New York, ... Occupational Health Psychology (OHP). [1] *^ a b Everly, G.S., Jr. (1986). An introduction to occupational health psychology. ...
In animals, observational learning is often based on classical conditioning, in which an instinctive behavior is elicited by ... Zentall, Thomas R (2012). "Perspectives On Observational Learning In Animals". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 126 (2): 114- ... Finally, a behavior's stability in animal culture depends on the context in which they learn a behavior. If a behavior has ... Other human and animal behavior experiments[edit]. When an animal is given a task to complete, they are almost always more ...
Animal sexual behaviour. *Non-reproductive sexual behavior in animals. *Homosexual behavior in animals (list) ... "Frontiers in Psychology. ISSN 1664-1078.. *. Morris, Bonnie J. (2016). The Disappearing L: Erasure of Lesbian Spaces and ... Political conditions and social attitudes also affect the formation of lesbian relationships and families in open. ... a b Haines, Megan; et al. (2008). "Predictors and Effects of Self-Objectification in Lesbians", Psychology of Women Quarterly ...
... and the sexual behavior of animals and people.[18][19]. *Sir Edward Battersby Bailey FRS (1881-1965): British geologist, ... Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology. Psychology Press, 2013, p. 175. "Watson's outspoken atheism repelled many in Greensville." ... widely known for first describing the phenomenon of classical conditioning.[262] ... Nonverbal Behavior and Communication. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1978. Print. *^ Thomas Steven Molnar (1980). ...
Animal sacrifices may be offered and the dead person is well perfumed.[157] Burial usually follows within 24 hours of death. In ... He describes the conditions of the slaves in his community of Essaka, and points out the difference between the treatment of ... This can be through behavior, physical traits and statements by the child. A diviner can help in detecting who the child has ... Psychology Press. p. 109. ISBN 0-7146-1633-8. *^ Joshuaproject: "Igbo Populations". ...
"Health: Conditions and Diseases: Immune Disorders: Immune Deficiency: AIDS". DMOZ (en inglés).. ... Kirby DB, Laris BA, Rolleri LA (2007). "Sex and HIV education programs: their impact on sexual behaviors of young people ... dependen do tempo en que se considere que se produciu o paso do virus de animal a humano. Os estudos xenéticos do virus suxiren ... Psychology, health & medicine 17 (2): 235-54. PMID 22372741. doi:10.1080/13548506.2011.579984.. ...
Of course, a main criticism of animal models is that development and cognition in animals and humans are starkly different. ... "Journal of Individual Psychology. 36 (2): 136-149.. *^ Eacott, M. J.; Crawley, R. A. (1998). "The offset of childhood amnesia: ... Feigley, D. A.; Spear, N. E. (1970-12-01). "Effect of age and punishment condition on long-term retention by the rat of active ... behaviors, or emotions) from around age 3, whereas event memories are usually recalled from slightly later.[16][26][11] This is ...
Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology, Vols. 1 and 2, translated by G. E. M. Anscombe, ed. G. E. M. Anscombe and G. H. von ... I told him he wasn't a teacher, he was an animal-trainer! And that I was going to fetch the police right away!"[190] ... He describes this metaphysical environment as like being on frictionless ice: where the conditions are apparently perfect for a ... He conducted research into the behavior of kites in the upper atmosphere, experimenting at a meteorological observation site ...
Douglas A. Smith, "The Neighborhood Context of Police Behavior", Crime and Justice, Vol. 8, Communities and Crime (1986), pp. ... Due to segregated conditions and widespread poverty some African-American neighborhoods in the United States have been called " ... Because of religious practices, such as animal sacrifice, which are no longer common among the larger American religions, these ... "Raising E and Yo..." Psychology Today.. *^ Thomas Sowell, Affirmative Action around the World, 2004. Basic Books. pp. 115-156. ...
"The Psychology of Forgiveness." Handbook of Positive Psychology, 2002. *^ Berry, Jack W.; Everett, L. Jr. Worthington (2001). " ... A study in 2015 looks at how self-forgiveness can reduce feelings of guilt and shame associated with hypersexual behavior.[119] ... the conditions under which forgiveness can mediate a resumption of social link.[11] ... "Psychology Today. Retrieved 19 December 2019.. *^ Marsh, Jason. "Is Vengeance Better For Victims, than Forgiveness?". Greater ...
The Theacher's Report Form on Child Behavior Checklist *↑ J. W. V. Wait, L. Stanton J. F. Schoeman, Attention-Deficit ... loengutel (The Goulstonian Lectures on Some Abnormal Psychical Conditions in Children) Arstide Kuninglikus Akadeemias ... Vivienne A Russell, Terje Sagvolden ja Espen Borgå Johansen, Animal models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, ... Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1964, 28. väljanne, nr 1, lk 14-22, [2017, veebruar 17] ...
mTBI abrogated both contextual fear and impairments in social behavior seen in PTSD animals. In comparison with other animal ... "conditions of great stress".[231] The diagnosis includes language which relates the condition to combat as well as to "civilian ... Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Shattered Assumptions: Toward a New Psychology of Trauma. New York: Free Press.. [page needed] ... In this study, PTSD animals demonstrated recall of traumatic memories, anxiety, and an impaired social behavior, while animals ...
Journal of Clinical Psychology. 64 (7): 821-839. CiteSeerX doi:10.1002/jclp.20492. PMID 18425790. Archived ( ... 2017). "Stop This Waste of People, Animals and Money". Nature. 549 (7670): 23-25. Bibcode:2017Natur.549...23M. doi:10.1038/ ... and comply to a standardised set of conditions.[note 28] A recent study has shown that Beall's criteria of "predatory" ... "The Effect of Publishing Peer Review Reports on Referee Behavior in Five Scholarly Journals". Nature Communications. 10 (1): ...
... and operant conditioning could readily be studied with ganglia isolated from Aplysia. "While recording the behavior of a single ... following the exact protocol used for classical conditioning with natural stimuli in intact animals."[citation needed] ... However, while Skinner championed a strict separation of psychology, as its own level of discourse, from biological ... Kandel was aware that comparative studies of behavior, such as those by Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen, and Karl von Frisch had ...
In psychology and cognitive science, a schema (plural schemata or schemas) describes a pattern of thought or behavior that ... Referral information for veterinarian care for service animals. *Access to a place to rest during the day (if the conference ... which include persons with pre-existing conditions who receive an official disability designation. One of the biggest ... Dearing, J; Rogers, E (1988). "Agenda-setting research: Where has it been, where is it going?". Communication Yearbook. 11: 555 ...
Piper, Ross (2007), Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals, Greenwood Press. ... Martinez, D. R., & Klinghammer, E. (1970). The Behavior of the Whale Orcinus orca: a Review of the Literature. Zeitschrift für ... International Journal of Comparative Psychology. 17: 3-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 10 ... meaning their reproductive strategy is associated with stable environmental conditions and comprises a low birth rate, ...
... is also requisite as a condition;[22] and that the difference between human and animal behavior is a radical difference in kind ... What Man Has Made of Man: A Study of the Consequences of Platonism and Positivism in Psychology (1937)[32] ... The Conditions of Philosophy: Its Checkered Past, Its Present Disorder, and Its Future Promise (1965) ... He believed that the brain is only a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for conceptual thought; that an "immaterial ...
A model of automatic memory processing in animal behavior.". In Spear NE, Miller RR. Information processing in animals: Memory ... Together with operant conditioning, classical conditioning became the foundation of behaviorism, a school of psychology which ... Classical conditioning differs from operant or instrumental conditioning: in classical conditioning, behaviors are modified ... Classical Conditioning II. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.. *. Schmidt RF (1989). "Behavior Memory (Learning by Conditioning ...
"Journal of Managerial Psychology. 23 (1): 18-39. doi:10.1108/02683940810849648.. *^ Bertrand, Marianne (September 2004). "Are ... In human social behavior, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction towards, a person based on ... Singer, Peter (1999) [1993]. "Equality for Animals?". Practical Ethics (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp ... Colquhoun". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 48 (2012): 752-756. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2011.12.002.. ...
It was later known for high rates of crime and poor living conditions, and it went through particularly bad times in the 1970s ... They provided services like behavior health, cancer care, cardiac & vascular, gynecology services, neurology, orthopedics, ... Approximately 20% are Business/marketing, 18% Health Professional, 12% Psychology, 12% Social Sciences, 7% Biology, 7% Security ... where people go to explore the 9 main exhibits that contain more than 220 species of animals. Another activity that is open to ...
Since the animals become hungry, food becomes highly desired. The pigeons are then placed in an operant conditioning chamber ... These studies draw on the tenets of comparative psychology, where the main goal is to discover analogs to human behavior in ... It is necessary to account for the biologically determined diphasisms of human behavior in everyday low-stress conditions and ... The evolutionary psychology of economics. In Roberts, S. C. (2011). Roberts, S. Craig, ed. "Applied Evolutionary Psychology". ...
Within these categories are further subdivisions-while most animals take 只 (隻) zhī, domestic animals take 头 (頭) tóu, long and ... The categorical, "classical"[40] view of classifiers was that each classifier represents a category with a set of conditions; ... Volume 3 of Routledge language family series (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 85. ISBN 0-7007-1129-5. . Retrieved 2012- ... However, the grammatical behavior of words of the two types is largely identical. ...
Klein, S.; Thorne, B. M. (3 October 2006). Biological psychology. New York, N.Y.: Worth. ISBN 978-0-7167-9922-1. .. [page ... Both conditions present with altered low-frequency brain wave oscillations.[111] Altered brain waves from PTSD patients present ... Beta activity is closely linked to motor behavior and is generally attenuated during active movements.[84] Low-amplitude beta ... Beck started experiments on the electrical brain activity of animals. Beck placed electrodes directly on the surface of the ...
... cruelty to animals and lack of conscience. They also give an example from the Evergreen Consultants in Human Behavior which ... Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (December 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this ... Zaslow R, Menta M (1975), The psychology of the Z-process: Attachment and activity, San Jose, CA: San Jose University Press. ... Attachment behaviors used for the diagnosis of RAD change markedly with development and defining analogous behaviors in older ...
Animal dispersion in relation to social behavior. Oliver & Boyd, London. *↑ Wynne-Edwards V. 1986. Evolution through group ... Today, Galton is remembered for many things he did in statistics and psychology. *Forrest D.W 1974. Francis Galton: The life ... Rye is a tougher plant than wheat: it survives in harsher conditions. Having become a crop like the wheat, rye was able to ... In nature, some animals do survive better than others, and it does lead to animals better adapted to their circumstances. With ...
Skin conditions. UV rays also treat certain skin conditions. Modern phototherapy has been used to successfully treat psoriasis ... Psychology Today, 17 November 2011. *^ Young, S. N. (2007). "How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs". ... Some animals, including birds, reptiles, and insects such as bees, can see near-ultraviolet wavelengths. Many fruits, flowers, ... Butterflies use ultraviolet as a communication system for sex recognition and mating behavior. For example, in the Colias ...
Man is a conjugal animal, meaning an animal which is born to couple when an adult, thus building a household (oikos) and, in ... Malcolm Jeeves, Human Nature: Reflections on the Integration of Psychology and Christianity (Templeton ,2006), 115. ... This condition is sometimes called "total depravity".[38] Total depravity does not mean that humanity is as "thoroughly ... "this gene selfishness will usually give rise to selfishness in individual behavior".[47] ...
Epstein, Mark (2009). Going on Being: Buddhism and the Way of Change, a Positive Psychology for the West. Wisdom. ... Conditioning Factors or Mental Afflictions. The processes that not only describe what we perceive, but also determine our ... The basic idea is that certain powerful reactions have the capacity to take hold of us and drive our behavior. We believe in ... Guenther, Herbert V. & Leslie S. Kawamura (1975), Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The ...
Psychology and mental health Psychophysiology Research Running Psychological aspects Taste Taste (Sense) ... Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 12, 16-24. doi:10.1037/0097-7403.12.1.16 SALVY, S-J., PIERCE, W ... HOLDER, M. a (1988a). Possible role of confounded taste stimuli in conditioned taste aversions. Animal Learning & Behavior, 16 ... Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 23, 56-67. doi:10.1037/0097-7403.23.1.56 BONARDI, C., HONEY, R. ...
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 10, 333-345.. ... Killeen, P. R., & Smith, J. P. (1984). Perception of contingency in conditioning: Scalar timing, response bias, and the erasure ... He joined the faculty of Arizona State University and in 1978 rose to the rank of Professor of Psychology. He has been a ... He has been one of the few premier contributors in quantitative analysis of behavior, and memory. In 1942, he was born in ...
Carlton attended Reed College in Portland, Oregon, where she earned a Bachelors degree in psychology/animal behavior. She is ... " ("face blindness"), and is an advocate for recognition of that condition as a disability. Ms. ... Psychology Today. Retrieved 2015-10-07. Bronwyn Taggart (aka Bronwyn Carlton) at LinkedIn; Accessed March 9, 2016. Bronwyn ... She has hosted various shows since late 1988. These include, "Truck Stop Tea Party," and she has hosted "Sportsy Talk with ...
Kruijt (1964) proposed that, in young animals, the motor components of behavior often function... ... The purpose of this chapter is to present a general framework for studying the development of behavior. ... Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1984, 10, 413-425.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Blass, E. M., Ganchrow, J. R., and Steiner, J. E. Classical conditioning in newborn humans 2-48 hours of age. Infant Behavior ...
Psychology and mental health Animal behavior Research Odors Psychological aspects ... Effects of conspecific and predator odors on defensive behavior, analgesia, and spatial working memory.(Special Issue: Odorous ... Animal Learning & Behavior, 7, 392-396. PINEL, J. P. J., & TREIT, D. (1981). The conditioned defensive burying paradigm and ... Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 10, 168-181. PETERSON, C., MAIER, S. F., & SELIGMAN, M. E. P. ( ...
Animal Learning & Behavior, 7, 452-456. * Marchant, III, H.G. & Moore, J.W. (1973). Blocking of the rabbits conditioned ... Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 3, 162-177. * Egger, M.D. & Miller, N.E. (1962). Secondary ... condition an animal to respond to a simple CS, consisting of Element A. Then, condition the animal to respond to a compound, ... Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 31, 172-183. * Pineño, O., Urushihara, K., Stout, S., Fuss, J ...
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 34, 283-293.. LETT, B. T., & GRANT, V. L. (1996). Wheel running ... Condition 1), and data from the VR fixed-revolution condition (Condition 4) was compared to the FR fixed-revolution condition ( ... Physiology and Behavior, 72, 355-358.. LETT, B. T., GRANT, V. L., & KOH, M. T. (2002). Delayed backward conditioning of place ... Animal Learning & Behavior, 22, 267-274.. BELKE, T. W., PIERCE, W. D., & DUNCAN, I. D. (2006). Reinforcement value and ...
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 14, 96-104.. Lamb, M.R. & Robertson, L.C. (1988). The processing ... ethylketocyclazocine and n-allynormetazocine on acquisition of the classically conditioned nictitating membrane response. ... Animal Learning & Behavior, 9, 575-580.. Riley, D.A., Cook, R.G., & Lamb, M.R. (1981). A classification and analysis of short ... Animal Learning & Behavior, 12, 41-49.. Lamb, M.R. & Riley, D.A. (1981). Effects of element arrangement on the processing of ...
Laboratory Animal Science: 42(1), pp. 83-85. Pryor, K. (1969). Behavior modification: the porpoise caper. Psychology Today, pp ... Priest, G.N. (1990). The use of operant conditioning in training husbandry behavior with captive exotic animals. Proceedings of ... Hediger, H. (1992). The psychology and behavior of animals in zoos and circuses. New York, Dover Press. ... Laboratory Animal Science 38(3), PP. 305-308. Coe, J.C. (1995). Operant conditioning: A tool for integrating the design and ...
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes. 7:175-190. 1981 * CONTINGENCY IN FEAR CONDITIONING - A ... Learning and Behavior Animal Learning and Behavior Psychonomic science. 15:40-46. 1987 ... Learning and Behavior Animal Learning and Behavior Psychonomic science. 11:302-308. 1983 ... Conditioned inhibition and excitation in operant discrimination learning.. Journal of experimental psychology. 75:255-266. 1967 ...
... the principles of instrumental conditioning using a puzzle box that required that an animal exhibit a certain behavior (push a ... "A System of Behavior." In A History of Psychology: Original Sources and Contemporary Research, ed. Ludy T. Benjamin. New York: ... The main difference between instrumental conditioning and classical conditioning is that the emphasis is on behavior that is ... a behavior. Thorndike named this principle of instrumental conditioning the law of effect. He argued that if a behavior had a ...
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and ... Context-specific conditioning in the conditioned-emotional-response procedure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal ... Context-specific conditioning in the conditioned-emotional-response procedure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal ... Re-assessing causal accounts of learnt behavior in rats. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 38(2), ...
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 35, 447-472.Google Scholar ... Optimal behavior by rats in a choice task is associated to a persistent conditioned inhibition effect. Behavioural Processes, ... Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 40, 12-21.Google Scholar ... Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavioral Processes, 8, 313-328.Google Scholar ...
"Resistance to Extinction in Evaluative Conditioning", Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 32(1): 71- ... Thus, classical conditioning seemed to some to be too restrictive to explain the panoply of novel behavior organisms appear to ... For Pavlov, classical conditioning was in part an experimental paradigm for teaching animals to learn new associations between ... In a series of works re-analyzing animal behavior, Gallistel (Gallistel et al. 2004; Gallistel and King 2009) has argued that ...
Make research projects and school reports about Behavior easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Animal behavior. The scientific study of animal behavior under natural conditions, known as ethology, focuses on both ... Behavior. See also 28. ATTITUDES ; 279. MOODS ; 334. PSYCHOLOGY .. aberrance, aberrancy the condition or state of being deviant ... Behavior. Animal behavior includes the actions and reactions of animals to external stimuli. The study of animal behavior ...
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 12, 371-380.. Gentry, G. D., Weiss B & Laties, V. G. (1983). The ... Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43, 321-330.. Palya, W. L., & Bevins, R. A. (1990). Serial conditioning as a ... The cause of behavior change is seen as a change in the consequence of that behavior. Behavior analysis is also often concerned ... Animal Learning & Behavior, 17, 83-93. Zeiler, M. D. (1979). Output dynamics. In M. D. Zeiler & P. Harzem (Eds.), Reinforcement ...
Animal cognition: an introduction to modern comparative psychology. Harvard University Press.. Williams GC 1966. Adaptation and ... This school argued that a rigorous control of the experimental conditions was crucial, so that research had to be done in ... Study of animal behavior and LESCA. Herein I will briefly introduce the historical development of studies on animal behavior, ... In parallel to the group above, some were studying animal behavior in a distinct manner. They would watch animals during their ...
Vaughan, W. J., &Greene, S. L. (1984). Pigeon visual memory capacity.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior ... Huber, L. (1994). Amelioration of laboratory conditions for pigeons (Columba livia).Animal Welfare,3, 321-324.Google Scholar ... Fetterman, J. G. (1996). Dimensions of stimulus complexity.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes,22, 3- ... Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes,22, 405-419.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
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67] Johnston, A.L. and File, S.E. (1991) Sex differences in animal tests of anxiety. Physiology & Behavior, 49, 245- 250. doi: ... ii) Context-conditioned freezing (i.e. classically conditioned fear) is negatively related to the efficiency to acquire two-way ... 1Medical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry & Forensic Medicine, Institute of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, ... 4) The levels of context-conditioned freezing (i.e. classically conditioned fear) displayed by NIH-HS rats during the initial ...
Behavior, Issue 76, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Medicine, Psychology, Mice, rats, anxiety-like behaviour, plus-maze, behaviour ... After SNX, animals are allowed to recover for two days followed by LNNA in drinking water (20 mg/L) for a further period of 4 ... and to gaining insight into possible causes of deficits in social behaviour in such clinical conditions as social anxiety and ... Behavior, Issue 81, Schizophrenia, Disorders with Psychotic Features, Psychology, Clinical, Psychopathology, behavioral ...
History of Psychology, 13(1), 25-45. doi:10.1037/a0017660 Watson, J. B., & Rayner, R. (2000). Conditioned Emotional Reactions. ... Some of the psychological effects of stress manifest themselves as stereotypical behavior. Animals are motivated by the need ... Classical and operant conditioning, how animals learn[edit]. How animals learn underpins what motivates them and suggests they ... Psychology is a fascinating topic and animal psychology is almost a new science for researchers and pet owners alike. This ...
Managing livestock using animal behavior: mixed-species stocking and flerds* - Volume 6 Issue 8 - D. M. Anderson, E. L. ... Goats under household conditions. Small Ruminant Research 51, 131-136. Linnell, JD, Smith, ME, Odden, J, Kaczensky, P, Swenson ... Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 62, 298-306. Campbell, EG, Johnson, RL 1983. Food habits of mountain goats ... Applied Animal Behavior Science Science 17, 305-318. Hobbs, NT, Carpenter, LH 1986. Viewpoint: animal-unit equivalents should ...
Beecher, M. D. (1971). Operant conditioning in the bat Phyllostomus hastatus. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior ... Professor of Psychology & Biology Department of Psychology. University of Washington latest media news. Seattle, Washington ... In Yasukawa, K. (editor) Animal Behavior, Volume 3, pp. 33-61, Preager: Santa Barbara, CA.. ... Animal Behaviour, 59, 29-37.. Nordby, J. C., Campbell, S. E., Burt, J. M. & Beecher M. D. (2000) Social influences during song ...
Animal Learning and Behavior, 23(3), 237-244. (20.16). McSweeney, F. K., Weatherly, J. N., Roll, J. M., & Swindell, S. (1995). ... behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27(3), 177-189. (02.16). Lehman, W. E. K., Farabee, D., & Bennett, J. B. (1998 ... McSweeney, F. K., & Roll, J. M. (1993). Responding changes systematically within sessions during conditioning procedures. ... Animal Learning and Behavior, 22(3), 252-266. (20.17). McSweeney, F. K., Weatherly, J. N., & Roll, J. M. (1995). Within-session ...
Think you are using classical conditioning or counter conditioning when you are introducing that new object and pairing it with ... Hill has been teaching psychology at St. Marys University, San Antonio, TX since 2007 and is an Associate Professor. Dr. Hill ... Behavior can inform humans about animal health, animal social tendencies, animal enrichment, animal food/habitat preferences, ... Behavior can inform humans about humans watching animals, including what to attend to, whether they attend to the animals, how ...
Darwin, C. (1872). The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1998 edition: Revised and with Commentary by P. Ekman). ... Freud, S. (1895). Project for a Scientific Psychology. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund ... Deci, E. L., and Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. New York, NY: Plenum. doi: ... A determining factor is subjective utility or individual motivation, termed meaning, which has been shown to be conditioned by ...
As it is seen in captive animals but not in wild animals, attention has been focused on the situations in which this behaviour ... It is considered an indication of poor psychological well-being in these animals. ... Developmental Psychology 17:313-318. 17. Paulk, H.H., Dienske, H. and Ribbens, L.G. (1977). Abnormal behavior in relation to ... 1995). A comparison of the welfare of sows in different housing conditions. Animal Science 61:369-385. 10. Odberg, R. (1986). ...
Dulawa, S. C., Holick, K. A., Gundersen, B., Hen, R. Effects of chronic fluoxetine in animal models of anxiety and depression. ... Paré, W. P. Open field, learned helplessness, conditioned defensive burying, and forced-swim tests in WKY rats. Physiology and ... Kessler, R. C. The effects of stressful life events on depression. Annual Review of Psychology. 48, 191-214 (1997). ... Behavior. Using the FishSim Animation Toolchain to Investigate Fish Behavior: A Case Study on Mate-Choice Copying In Sailfin ...
Sick animals have long been recognized by farmers as having different behavior. Initially it was thought that this was due to ... "Modification of body temperature and sleep state using behavioral conditioning". Physiology & Behavior. 57 (4): 723-729. doi: ... "Evolutionary Psychology. 13 (3): 100. doi:10.1177/1474704915600559.. *^ Kluger, M. J.; Rothenburg, B. A. (1979). "Fever and ... Sickness behavior in its different aspects causes an animal to limit its movement; the metabolic energy not expended in ...
  • In 1988 he joined the Department of Psychology and the Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology at Concordia University and was promoted to the rank of Professor in 1991. (
  • In quantitative analysis of behavior, Killeen and Fetterman (1988) are the developers of a major behavioral theory of timing. (
  • Dealing with specific behavioral problems using operant conditioning with bonobos (Pan paniscus). (
  • Meeting behavioral objectives while maintaining healthy social behavior and dominance- a delicate balance. (
  • In today´s world, behavioral ecologists are also interested in the proximate causation of behavior, and neurobiologists and cognitivist psychologists (which study mainly proximate questions) have also used the comparative method and an evolutionary approach. (
  • In terms of methods, we use, for both research areas, techniques that are somehow similar to those used by naturalists when we observe and describe behaviors in the field, and techniques that remind experimental psychologists when we conduct behavioral experiments in rigorously controlled conditions. (
  • Sickness behavior is a coordinated set of adaptive behavioral changes that develop in ill individuals during the course of an infection . (
  • Beery's research lab studies the neurobiology of prosocial behavior, using group-living rodents to focus on pathways supporting affiliative social behavior between peers and a variety of species and behavioral paradigms. (
  • Although much of our work has focused on the neural mechanisms by which the ovarian hormones, estradiol and progesterone, influence the expression of reproductive behaviors, a new interest of our group is the study of the long-term effects of exposure to particular stressors or immune challenges around the time of puberty on behavioral response to the hormones in adulthood. (
  • alterations that occur under conditions of hypoxia, there have been few investigations of the mood and behavioral changes associated with altitude. (
  • Together with Lorenz, Tinbergen established European ethology as the study of the behavioral patterns of animals in the context of their natural environments. (
  • However, a series of recent advances in modern behavioral neuroscience and neuroethology reminds us that freely behaving animals treat self-generated stimuli differently from other stimuli. (
  • I will use a number of examples to argue that the variability measured in the behavioral performance of animals is exactly the kind of output that is required to effectively detect which of the stimuli in the incoming stream of sensory input can be controlled by the animal and which cannot. (
  • Faced with novel situations, humans and most animals spontaneously increase their behavioral variability [3-5]. (
  • Explores solving behavioral problems through operant conditioning techniques. (
  • This research usually involved using the traditional triadic experimental design in which separate groups of rats initially received one of three conditions in a wheel-turn box: escapable shock, yoked-inescapable shock, or no shock. (
  • The experiments described in the three chapters cited above employed Estes and Skinner's Conditioned Emotional Response (CER) procedure with rats (Estes & Skinner, 1941). (
  • The CER procedure using rats as subjects has been a popular model system for quantitative studies of classical conditioning. (
  • In Kamin's experiments, the operant behavior was bar pressing for food by motivated (food restricted) rats. (
  • Studies on animal cognition have been carried out with dogs, cats (Leblanc & Duncan, 2007) monkeys, rats and birds. (
  • Rats were first trained to press one of two levers to obtain sucrose pellets, and then separately conditioned to associate a Pavlovian cue with free sucrose pellets. (
  • Niche-related learning in laboratory paradigms: The case of maze behavior in laboratory rats. (
  • Timberlake, W., & Hoffman, C.M. (2002) How does the ecological foraging behavior of desert kangaroo rats (Dipodomys deserti) relate to their behavior on radial mazes? (
  • However, lesions of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) increase the amount of freezing seen to conditional fear cues acquired under conditions in which intact rats do not demonstrate much fear conditioning. (
  • When rats are placed in a distinct environment and shocked, two behaviors can be observed. (
  • To examine neuronal activation associated with incentive motivation for cocaine, cocaine-seeking behavior (operant responding without cocaine reinforcement) and Fos expression were examined in rats exposed to saline and cocaine priming injections and/or a self-administration environment. (
  • Prenatal choline availability alters the context sensitivity of Pavlovian conditioning in adult rats. (
  • Age-related declines in exploratory behavior and markers of hippocampal plasticity are attenuated by prenatal choline supplementation in rats. (
  • The true foundations of ethology, however, lie in the work of two men during the period between 1930 and 1950: the Austrian zoologist Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) and the Dutch ethologist Nikolaas Tinbergen (1907-1988). (
  • The following century, a very important contribution was given by Nikolaas Tinbergen (1907-1988), Karl von Frisch (1886-1982) and Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989), scientists that won the Nobel Prize of Medicine (since there is no prize for "Ethology") for their brilliant studies on animal behavior. (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 10, 333-345. (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 234-245. (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 88-94. (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19, 471-487. (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 17 , 45-54. (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition (2019-2024). (
  • Raymond S. Nickerson Prize for the best paper in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied . (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes , 14 , 43-55. (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes , 22 , 3-18. (
  • Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology , 52B , 351-379. (
  • Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology , 46B , 1-18. (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 33, 225-243. (
  • Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 72(2), pp. 222-237. (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition 41(4), pp. 309-321. (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition 41(3), pp. 266-276. (
  • Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (12) , pp. 2717-2725. (
  • Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (2) , pp. 274-284. (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition 44 (4) , pp. 358-369. (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (2) , pp. 171-182. (
  • He also has served as Editor of the Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology (2009 - 2013), Associate Editor of Psychologische Forschung/Psychological Research 1988-2002, and Consulting Editor of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance. (
  • Because the taste--running correlation is critical for the establishment of the aversion, this learning phenomenon has been regarded as a kind of Pavlovian conditioning, with the target taste as a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the running as an unconditioned stimulus (US). (
  • Kamin blocking refers to failures of learning and/or the expression of classically conditioned responses (CRs) when a target conditioned stimulus (CS) is presented to an animal as part of a compound that includes another CS that had been used previously to establish the target CR. (
  • In a series of experiments reported in three chapters published in the late 1960s, Kamin showed that the prior conditioning response training with CS A interferes with the acquisition of the CR to CS B when they are presented together as compound stimulus AB. (
  • Measurement of stimulus control during discriminative operant conditioning. (
  • One of the principal manifestations of plant behavior is tropism, a response to a stimulus that acts in a particular direction, thus encouraging growth either toward or away from that stimulus. (
  • In some cases its internal environment can act as a stimulus, as when an animal reaches the age of courtship and mating and responds automatically to changes in its body. (
  • Stimulus selection and feature selection in learning and behavior. (
  • This is the ability to detect noxious stimuli which evokes a reflex response that moves the entire animal, or the affected part of its body, away from the source of the stimulus. (
  • The success of this technique requires that glutamate first be increased in the circuit that involves the conditioning stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus. (
  • This procedure involves presenting a biologically neutral conditioned stimulus (CS), often a tone, with a noxious or harmful unconditioned stimulus (US), typically a mild electric shock. (
  • Cheng, Srinivasan, & Zhang, 1999) It is claimed that many animals both vertebrate and invertebrate can find their way back home or back to a previous destination, partly it is claimed due to spatial information processing and recognition of landmarks. (
  • Eric Gaynor Butterfield (Congreso de Desarrollo Organizacional, Argentina - 1999) hace mención a dos intervenciones de consultoría donde encuentra sustento al hecho que algunas personas tienen "en sus cabezas" una forma de liderar diferencial, y que la misma está relacionada con "la visión que tienen respecto de cómo opera una empresa" (más estructurada o menos estructurada). (
  • Delusional disorder (DD) may be described as a psychiatric condition in which a delusion is the primary symptom, and patients are otherwise 'normal' (Charlton & McClelland, 1999). (
  • 1999). Learning and Behavior. (
  • 1999). Animal Training: Successful Animal Management through Positive Reinforcement. (
  • The CER is often referred to as conditioned suppression because the learned response is a CS-elicited reduction in the rate of free-operant response rates established by food reward using various schedules of reinforcement. (
  • Conditioned suppression occurs when a CS paired with a foot shock US results in a reduction in the baseline operant rate of responding for food reinforcement in the presence of the CS. (
  • The CSs, lights and noise, were 3 minutes in duration and foot shook employed to instill classical conditioning were 1-milliampere foot shocks of 0.5-sec duration delivered via metal grids comprising the floor of the operant chamber. (
  • The topic is training primates, also referred to as operant conditioning, depending upon who you talk to. (
  • Operant conditioning: A tool for integrating the design and operation of zoo facilities. (
  • Operant conditioning in today's zoo. (
  • Conditioned inhibition and excitation in operant discrimination learning. (
  • Is the operant contingency enough for a science of behavior? (
  • The renewed interest in the biological mechanisms of operant conditioning is the result of many years of research towards a more sophisticated view of the main function of brains. (
  • Step-by-step approach to applying operant conditioning in a zoological setting. (
  • This essay summarizes Kamin's basic findings and his ideas about their implications for associative learning and classical Pavlovian conditioning. (
  • We assessed the impact of CRF microinjections into the medial shell of nucleus accumbens using a pure incentive version of Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer, a measure specifically sensitive to the incentive salience of reward cues (which it separates from influences of aversive stress, stress reduction, frustration and other traditional explanations for stress-increased behavior). (
  • Trends in Pavlovian conditioning. (
  • Conditioned inhibitory effects of discriminated Pavlovian training with food are related to search modes and their repertoires. (
  • Pavlovian conditioning procedures have been used in a wide variety of contexts, in which roughly similar phenomena have been observed. (
  • These different contexts for Pavlovian conditioning can be categorized in terms of the levels of representation of the stimuli used, and assessed according to the nature of the stimuli which the system observed can respond to, and the degree of involvement of attentional and motivational processes. (
  • An additional quotation is that Pavlovian conditioning is not a unitary process (Cardinal et al. (
  • Research on Pavlovian fear conditioning has been very successful in revealing what has come to be called the brain's fear system. (
  • The brain mechanisms of fear have been studied extensively using Pavlovian fear conditioning, a procedure that allows exploration of how the brain learns about and later detects and responds to threats. (
  • In this article, I focus on Pavlovian fear conditioning, a procedure that has been used extensively to study the so-called fear system. (
  • Fear is the most extensively studied emotion, and the way it has most often been investigated is through Pavlovian fear conditioning. (
  • The nature of phenotypic variation in Pavlovian conditioning. (
  • Killeen has also developed a theory of learning as causal inference (1981) bringing these together in his paper on the perception of contingency in conditioning: Scalar timing, response bias, and the erasure of memory by reinforcement (Killeen, 1984). (
  • Perception of contingency in conditioning: Scalar timing, response bias, and the erasure of memory by reinforcement. (
  • Conditioning of nyala (Tragelaphus angasi) to blood sampling in a crate with positive reinforcement. (
  • The present paper characterizes the chronic variability in behavior maintained under some "simple" contingencies of reinforcement. (
  • In this model, animals are first trained to press a lever for cocaine reinforcement. (
  • Subsequently, they are tested for cocaine-seeking behavior (i.e., lever pressing without cocaine reinforcement) elicited by environmental stimuli or priming injections of cocaine. (
  • Partial reinforcement and conditioned taste aversion: No evidence for resistance to extinction. (
  • I am co-ordinator for the Final Year module Animal Learning and Cognition , give Year Two tutorials, and contribute to the Year One module Psychological Research . (
  • Comparative Cognition and Behavior Reviews , 2, 139-144. (
  • Constructing animal cognition. (
  • Lieberman, D. (2000/1993) Learning: Behavior and Cognition . (
  • In Year 3, I contribute to the Animal Learning and Cognition module. (
  • and research psychology, which involves the scholarly study and/or teaching about the human mind (such as cognition and behavior). (
  • Evolutionary perspectives on the role of oxytocin in human social behavior, social cognition and psychopathology. (
  • Family relationships, animal bonding, developmental phases, and neuroscience are important aspects of this cluster's research. (
  • Neuroscience is predominantly interested in elucidating the effects environmental stimuli cause in our brains and how the brain transforms these stimuli into meaningful behavior. (
  • Instead of neuroscience, scientifically-minded philosophers influenced by functionalism sought evidence and inspiration from cognitive psychology and "program-writing" artificial intelligence. (
  • He shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns in animals . (
  • Following a varying period of freezing, the rat then engages in repetitive approach-withdrawal reactions to and from the shock prod, and finally the rat begins to bury the prod with the bedding material using vigorous forepaw movements until the prod is typically covered (see Pinel & Wilkie, 1983, and Fanselow, Sigmundi, & Williams, 1987, for more complete descriptions and interpretations of the significance of this type of burying behavior). (
  • Proceedings of the 1983 International Marine animal Trainers' Association Conference, Minneapolis, MN. (
  • [6] Though he refused to take the required swimming test for a bachelor's degree (a matter that was rectified when Columbia gave him an honorary degree in 1983), he stayed at the university and eventually received an instructorship and finally a doctorate in psychology. (
  • Conference on the Human-Animal Bond, Irvine, CA. June 1983. (
  • 1976). In Isaac Asimov s Book of Science and Nature Quotations (1988), 331. (
  • 1976 DPhil, University of Sussex, Laboratory of Experimental Psychology. (
  • 1976-1978: SERC Research Fellow, Department of Psychology, University of York. (
  • 2001) and it has been suggested that this kind of conditioning is selectively impaired in Alzheimer's disease (Woodruff-Pak, 1996, 2001). (
  • 2002). The Cognitive Animal .Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (
  • In 2002, I accepted the position of Small Animal ICU and ER Services Coordinator at Texas A&M. My special interests include envenomation, toxicology, trauma, and transfusion medicine. (
  • Attention in humans and animals: Is there a capacity limitation at the time of encoding? (
  • Certainly not all behavior on the part of higher animals is automatic, though, as we have noted, even humans are capable of some automatic responses. (
  • Language is one thing that defines humans from animals, (Connor, 2007) however it is acknowledged that dolphins also have their own language of squeaks and whistles. (
  • 1 A wide range of animals, from canaries 2 to polar bears 3 to humans 4,5,6 can exhibit stereotypes. (
  • In a highly prosocial species like humans, however, sickness behavior may act as a signal to motivate others to help and care for the sick individual. (
  • [8] In the book, Darwin argued that all mammals, both humans and animals, showed emotion through facial expressions. (
  • Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: Recent advances and future directions. (
  • We think, however, that it is critical to recognize the potential influence of verbally communicated information in humans when thinking about the possibilities and limitations of new animal models and their interpretation. (
  • Because recent critiques of animal models have also called for incorporation of social factors [ 1 ], it is worth noting here that language in humans evolved in tandem with culture, which encompasses social norms and laws, religious and moral feelings, group identity, and interpersonal connections. (
  • Although animals, particularly those in the wild, probably have "cultures" to varying degrees, those cultures are limited by inability to transmit the rich bodies of information that humans transmit through spoken or written communication. (
  • How does the presence of language in humans affect the validity of the animal models of drug taking? (
  • This did not mean that animal behavior should be extrapolated to humans but that the same methodology could be applied. (
  • The partnership between Lorenz and Tinbergen proved fruitful and memorable, leading to great advances in our understanding of the behavior of both animals and humans. (
  • Animals including humans are thought to react with a complex combination of innate and learned "responses" to one or a set of external stimuli. (
  • He joined the faculty of the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine as Associate Professor and Coordinator of Medical Services in 1982, and was appointed Professor of Companion Animal Medicine in 1986. (
  • From 1986 until 1997, he was Professor and Head of the Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery at Texas A&M University, and served as Deputy Dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine. (
  • Guidelines on Handling and Training of Laboratory Animals. (
  • Laboratory Animal Science 38(3), PP. 305-308. (
  • Laboratory Animal Newsletter, 34:2, pp.1-4. (
  • This school argued that a rigorous control of the experimental conditions was crucial, so that research had to be done in laboratory conditions. (
  • Amelioration of laboratory conditions for pigeons ( Columba livia ). (
  • Hansen and Spuhler [1] developed a more naturalistic, genetically heterogeneous rat stock with the aim of optimizing the distribution of genotypic frequencies and recombination and under the hypothesis that the NIH-HS stock could yield a broad-range distribution of responses (broader than commonly used laboratory rat strains) to experimental conditions, and thus serve as a base population for selection studies. (
  • Along the last decade, in a series of studies we have phenotypically characterized the NIH-HS rat stock (a colony exists at our laboratory since 2004) for their anxiety/fearfulness profiles (using a battery of both unconditioned and conditioned tests/tasks), as well as regarding their stress-induced hormonal responses, coping style under inescapable stress and spatial learning ability. (
  • Members of my laboratory employ different animal models to study the nature, regulation, and function of circadian clocks in regions of the forebrain important in stress, motivation, and emotion. (
  • His laboratory program seeks to understand the principles of how social and defensive stimuli are encoded in the activity of neurons, and how this process can be modulated by behavior state, experience, and neuromodulation. (
  • Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 50(6):856-863. (
  • Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 42(5):21-23. (
  • Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals. (
  • In: Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, editors. (
  • The Development of Science-Based Guidelines for Laboratory Animal Care: Proceedings of the November 2003 International Workshop. (
  • He has been one of the few premier contributors in quantitative analysis of behavior, and memory. (
  • He is one of the premier integrators and critics of models in quantitative analysis of behavior. (
  • Quantitative studies of behavior. (
  • Quantitative analyses of behavior (Vol. 8, pp. 187-214). (
  • Quantitative analysis of behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 209-229). (
  • In Handbook of Comparative Psychology, American Psychological Association. (
  • It is considered an indication of poor psychological well-being in these animals. (
  • The critiques of sociobiology and behavior genetic analysis: psychological, statistical, biological. (
  • 2012: British Psychological Society Award for Excellence in Psychology Education. (
  • A new therapy for phobias, PTSD, addictive behaviors and other psychological issues was first described by Dr. Roger Callahan and involves thought activation of the problem followed by tapping on certain acupoints in a specific sequence. (
  • Scheman-Baumann JD (1988): Life stress and psychological adjustment in adolescents. (
  • Psychological healing is unlikely until those working with AI/AN people come to respect and accept the Native perspective on conditions and events affecting the lives of Native people, and to understand that continuing to view these conditions and events from a Eurocentric perspective only fosters misunderstanding and inequity (Duran & Duran, 1995). (
  • Judith Scheman, PhD, is a psychologist at the Cleveland Clinic's Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Section of Pain Management. (
  • The emergence of fetal behavior. (
  • Piontelli's pioneering use of ultrasound to observe actual fetal behavior has, in fact, for the first time confirmed my own conclusions made from historical material about the relationship between the fetus and its placenta. (
  • Effects of conspecific and predator odors on defensive behavior, analgesia, and spatial working memory. (
  • In contrast, the vPAG seems to be necessary for postencounter freezing defensive behavior. (
  • Learning more about the factors that influence postreinforcement pause (PRP) duration is important in the experimental analysis of behavior, particularly with respect to understanding differences between qualitatively different reinforcers. (
  • Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11 , 1-8. (
  • Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior , 31 , 189-207. (
  • 1988-1992: Reader, School of Psychology, University of Wales College of Cardiff. (
  • Animal Behaviour , 1988, 36 . (
  • My research interests involve how animals and people adapt to their environments: how learning and memory influence behaviour and decision-making. (
  • This chapter will attempt to unravel some of the mysteries of animal behaviour and how it relates to emotions and motivation. (
  • Of the many theorists and researchers who have contributed to the study in this field, this chapter will exclusively deal with those involved in animal behaviour. (
  • It is widely acknowledged that when animals are born, instinct and learned behaviour have enabled animals to adapt to their environment, be it in the wild or in a domestic situation. (
  • Animal Behaviour 105, 267-274. (
  • Animal Behaviour, 94, 151-159. (
  • As it is seen in captive animals but not in wild animals, attention has been focused on the situations in which this behaviour develops. (
  • An animal may eat in a set manner, sitting in the same place, using a distinct motor pattern for a prolonged time but this would not be considered abnormal stereotyped behaviour as it has an obvious function. (
  • Stereotypic behaviour is evaluated in terms of frequency and duration, in other words, how often does the animal engage in bouts of such behaviour and how long do the bouts last? (
  • There may be less concern for an animal that spends 3% to 5% of its time engaged in stereotypic behaviour than one that spends 75% of its time in stereotypy. (
  • Applied Animal Behaviour Science 137(3):148-156. (
  • Applied Animal Behaviour Science 91(3-4):337-353. (
  • Applied Animal Behaviour Science 103(3):229-254. (
  • Applied Animal Behaviour Science 90(2):107-129. (
  • Animal Behaviour 21(2):316-325. (
  • This is known as the behaviorist perspective because of its strict adherence to the study of observable behaviors. (
  • This perspective was first articulated in 1913 by John Watson, who argued that psychology should be the study of observable phenomena, not the study of consciousness or the mind. (
  • Watson believed that objective measurement of observable phenomena was the only way to advance the science of psychology. (
  • At first glance, this might seem to encompass only animal behavior, but, in fact, plants display observable behavior patterns as well. (
  • He suggested that blocking implies that some higher-order "attentional" processes are involved in conditioning, processes that had been regarded with suspicion (if not disdain) by most psychologists concerned with animal learning and behavior. (
  • This perspective falls under the broad rubric of cognitive learning theory, and it was first articulated by Wilhem Wundt, the acknowledged "father of psychology," who used introspection as a means of studying thought processes. (
  • Equipotential learning means that learning processes are the same for all animals, both human and nonhuman. (
  • By studying learning in nonhuman animals, the early behaviorists believed they were identifying the basic processes that are important in human learning. (
  • The first is classical conditioning, which is associated with the work of Ivan Pavlov (1849 - 1936), a Russian physiologist who studied the digestive processes of dogs. (
  • Chair of the Scientific Advisory Board (2011-2017) for the 'Center for Excellence' grant (Generalization research in health and psychopathology: Transdiagnostic processes and transfer of knowledge (GRIP*TT)) from the K.U. Leuven Research Council awarded to the Department of Psychology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (value: €3.2M). (
  • Chaotic processes are simple deterministic systems that show continual, apparently random variation, much like the anomalous variability seen in operants maintained under steady-state conditions. (
  • The term Collective behavior refers to social processes and events which do not reflect existing social structure (laws, conventions, and institutions ), but which emerge in a "spontaneous" way. (
  • In order to learn how hormones act in the brain to modify brain function and behavior and how the social environment can influences these processes, we study the cellular and neuroanatomical mechanisms of ovarian steroid hormone action on reproductive behavior and the interactions between the environment, neurotransmitters and steroid hormone receptors. (
  • Terms like "fear conditioning" and "fear system" blur the distinction between processes that give rise to conscious feelings of fear and nonconscious processes that control defense responses elicited by threats. (
  • Palya, 1985 ), and to poor effect to explain the various changes in behavior that continue to occur even after extended exposure to unchanging conditions (Zeiler, 1979). (
  • También se revisaron los conceptos y prácticas de Robert Blake y Jane Mouton (The managerial grid III, Gulf - 1985) en relación con la postura que adopta el superior ante sus subordinados. (
  • Much of the research that I will be describing in this article is derived from the notion that specific odors emitted by various animals, often in combination with the subject's previous experimental history, have a major impact on behaviors that reflect changes in motivational, sensory, and cognitive systems. (
  • The strength of Kamin's evidence from his blocking experiments fueled the then nascent "cognitive" perspective, which in the ensuing decades became a dominant feature of modern learning theory and computational models of classical conditioning . (
  • For animal learning theory, the cognitive revolution began in earnest with Kamin blocking. (
  • Cognitive Psychology, 23, 299-330. (
  • Do Animals Have Cognitive Maps? (
  • This suggests that the conditioning process is anatomically separate from other kinds of memory, and there is evidence to support this from the use of methods in which brain activity is mapped or scanned during the performance of various cognitive tasks (e.g. (
  • A bad fall at age three left Alonzo Clemons with permanent cognitive impairment, Amato learned, and a talent for sculpting intricate replicas of animals. (
  • Relationship between exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cognitive function in early breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy: a pilot study. (
  • Doug published extensively in the fields of Cognitive Psychology, Statistics, and Computational Modeling. (
  • I will propose and defend a different way of talking about this research, one that focuses on the actual subject matter and data (threat detection and defense responses) and that is less likely to compel the interpretation that conscious states of fear underlie defense responses elicited by conditioned threats. (
  • Conditioned hedonic responses elicited by contextual cues paired with nausea or with internal pain. (
  • The NNNS is a noninvasive neonatal assessment tool with demonstrated validity as a predictor, not only of medical outcomes such as cerebral palsy diagnosis, neurological abnormalities, and diseases with risks to the brain, but also of developmental outcomes such as mental and motor functioning, behavior problems, school readiness, and IQ. (
  • Intelligence in animals such as dolphins could be related to brain size since research has shown that dolphins, whales and elephants all have large brain sizes. (
  • However, in the 1960s, it was shown that animals produced a blood-carried factor X that acted upon the brain to cause sickness behavior. (
  • Further research showed that the brain can also learn to control the various components of sickness behavior independently of immune activation. (
  • Hormone-dependent brain development and behavior. (
  • Brain and Early Behavior Development in the Fetus and Infant. (
  • Understanding the mechanisms underlying apathy is therefore of urgent concern but this has proven difficult because widespread brain changes in neurodegenerative diseases make interpretation difficult and there is no good animal model. (
  • and how disruption of clock gene expression within specific brain regions influence behavior. (
  • In a second line of research, lab participants study the role of early life experience on development of later social behaviors and epigenetic mechanisms (among others) by which experience changes the brain and behavior. (
  • Using terms that respect the distinction will help focus future animal research on brain circuits that detect and respond to threats, and should also help clarify the implications of this work for understanding how normal and pathological feelings of fear come about in the human brain. (
  • Although research on the brain mechanisms that detect and respond to threats in animals has important implications for understanding how the human brain feels fear, it is not because the threat detection and defense responses mechanisms are fear mechanisms. (
  • It may sound strange to you that eating a grain that wreaks havoc on your gut would manifest as symptoms related to your brain , rather than your digestion, but grains are inherently pro-inflammatory and will worsen any condition that has chronic inflammation at its root -- and not just inflammation in your gut, but anywhere in your body. (
  • In biology the term behavior refers to the means by which living things respond to their environments. (
  • Neither dlPAG lesions nor vPAG lesions affected footshock sensitivity (experiment 4) or consumption on a conditioned taste aversion test that does not elicit antipredator responses (experiment 5). (
  • Our research interests fall into two main groups: sensory ecology and behavior of arachnids. (
  • In the second research area, we deal with proximate questions when we describe the behaviors and structures with which predators capture their prey and with evolutionary questions when we show the adaptive value of some defensive mechanisms. (
  • This chapter is about theory and research on animal learning and training concepts, animal communication , with discussion about current training methods. (
  • Motivation and emotion are areas that researchers have explored for decades and training concepts have evolved as a result of this exciting new field of animal research. (
  • If you have a behavior management accomplishment, an intriguing case study, a research project, or innovation for the field, especially one that resonates with the theme of the conference, please come share it with your colleagues! (
  • Scientific research on nonverbal communication and behavior was started in 1872 with the publication of Charles Darwin's book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals . (
  • In a second line of research we study modes and mechanisms of plasticity within the master SCN clock focusing on the role of translation control mechanisms (eIF4E, 4E-BP) and of conditioning/associative learning. (
  • My research is concerned with understanding the fundamental mechanisms of intelligence in animals, with particular emphasis placed on learning. (
  • Most of the foregoing research is based on experiments conducted in test chambers that provide a well controlled environment for studying the fundamental mechanisms of animal intelligence. (
  • Research Associate in Animal Behavior. (
  • Research Psychologist in Animal Behavior. (
  • The download justice across borders the and variation at which long, gastrointestinal, and intellectual ice dehydrate in behavior is bound the traditional work of research. (
  • Gerald J.S. Wilde, Emeritus Professor in the Department of Psychology at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, died on 1st January 2019 in Oaxaca, Mexico at the age of 86. (
  • It is a strange fact, characteristic of the incomplete state of our present knowledge, that totally opposing conclusions are drawn about prehistoric conditions on our planet, depending on whether the problem is approached from the biological or the geophysical viewpoint. (
  • But despite increasing awareness of the condition, we lack a good biological model. (
  • I offer a series of lectures on animal intelligence for the Biological Psychology module in Year 1. (
  • According to Lorenz and Tinbergen, animals show fixed-action patterns (FAPs) of behavior which are strong responses to particular stimuli. (
  • They typically look for patterns in human behavior in order to diagnose conditions. (
  • Their behavior toward the placenta and umbilicus correlates with later behavior patterns in their infancy, so that, for instance, when Piontelli watches one fetus use the placenta as a pillow in the womb, observing it "sucking the cord [and] resting on the placenta as if it were a big pillow. (
  • Tinbergen established the famous "four questions about behavior": what are the exogenous and endogenous factors that trigger behavior, how a behavior develops in an individual, what is the adaptive value of a behavior and, finally, how this behavior has originated and has been modified throughout evolutionary history. (
  • [9] Darwin attributed these facial expressions to serviceable associated habits, which are behaviors that earlier in our evolutionary history had specific and direct functions. (
  • 2003. Treatment of persistent self-injurious behavior in rhesus monkeys through socialization: A preliminary report. (
  • This article presents an overview of pathological self-injurious behavior (SIB). (
  • These acts, grouped under the heading of self-injurious behavior (SIB) emerge from heterogeneous causes. (
  • For our purposes, self-injurious behavior (SIB) describes intentional infliction of bodily injuries to oneself without intent to die 1 or with intent to die. (
  • Many individuals treat their own injuries and thus, data sources such as police or hospital records may underestimate the prevalence of self-injurious behavior. (
  • In addition, stimulation of the dlPAG with nontoxic doses of kainic acid attenuated the potentiated startle elicited in the presence of cues fear-conditioned with moderate shock ( Walker and Davis, 1997 ). (
  • Behavior training of group-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) for handling purposes. (
  • Factors predicting increased incidence of abnormal behavior in male pigtailed macaques. (
  • Effect of an Enrichment Device on Stereotypic and Self-Aggressive Behaviors in Singly-Caged Macaques: A Pilot Study, by L. M. Watson. (
  • Lifestyle choices of parents living with AIDS: differences in health behavior and mental health. (
  • Scheman JD, Lockard JS, Mehler BL (1978), Influences of anatomical differences on gender specific book carrying behavior. (
  • Examples of such differences include differences in morphology , ornamentation, and behavior . (
  • The psychology and behavior of animals in zoos and circuses. (
  • While a tiny percentage of African elephants can be found in zoos and circuses, they are overwhelmingly wild, undomesticated animals, whose present population numbers are in the hundreds of thousands, down from the millions as recently as the early twentieth century. (
  • Ethology is the study of animal behavior, including its mechanisms and evolution. (
  • Lorenz and Tinbergen, who together are credited as founders of scientific ethology, contributed individually to the discipline and, during the mid-twentieth century, worked together on a theory that animals develop formalized, rigid sequences of action in response to specific stimuli. (
  • Tinbergen believed that the study of ethology should be applied to human behavior as well as animals. (
  • The CIA's human behavior control program was chiefly motivated by perceived Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean use of mind control techniques. (
  • Proceedings of the 1984 International Marine Animal Trainers' Association Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA. (
  • Kamin choose the CER because of its sensitivity to variables important for classical conditioning, a training procedure described originally by Pavlov (1927). (
  • In psychology, the term blocking refers broadly to failures to express knowledge or skill because of failures of learning or memory , as in the everyday experience of "blocking" of the name of a familiar face or object. (
  • In this paradigm, blocking refers to a low level of conditioned responding to B alone when compared to various control procedures. (
  • My growing preoccupation with the plight of farm animals did not particularly arise from the clear perception I now have of the exploitation of the reproductive system of the female farm animal epitomized by the dairy cow and the laying hen. (
  • Pavlov's classic experiment involved the conditioning of salivation to the ringing of a bell and other stimuli that were not likely to make a dog salivate without a previously learned association with food. (
  • Behavior in plants is primarily a matter of response to stimuli, which may be any one of a variety of influences that derive either from inside or outside the organism. (
  • Similarly, plants respond automatically to light and other stimuli in a range of behaviors known collectively as tropisms, which we explore later in this essay. (
  • These findings suggest that the BlA is involved in cocaine-seeking behavior elicited by cocaine-paired stimuli but not cocaine itself. (
  • Second, it is unclear whether dopamine plays a similar role in cocaine-seeking behavior elicited by cocaine versus cocaine-paired stimuli. (
  • Physiology & Behavior, 93, 337-350. (
  • Circadian rhythms are daily oscillations in behavior, physiology and gene expression that help organisms adapt to recurring challenges and opportunities in their physical and social environment. (
  • animal physiology class is all coming back. (
  • Compulsive eating behavior is hypothesized to be driven in part by reward deficits likely due to neuroadaptations to the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. (
  • The latter suggests that dopamine neurotransmission is necessary for cocaine-reinstated cocaine-seeking behavior. (
  • He joined the faculty of Arizona State University and in 1978 rose to the rank of Professor of Psychology. (
  • Professor of Psychology, Cardiff University. (
  • Visiting Professor (2012), Faculty of Psychology, University of San Sebastian. (
  • Honorary Professor of Experimental Psychology (2009-2012), Faculty of Science, University of Nottingham. (
  • Following an internship and residency in small animal internal medicine, he remained on the faculty at Auburn University as an Assistant Professor until 1982. (
  • Doug joined the Psychology Department of Queen's University in 1968 and was still active there as Professor Emeritus at the time of his passing. (
  • 1971 BSc, University of Leeds, Department of Psychology. (
  • The social psychology of of work. (
  • Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology. (
  • According to this theory, termed the Eyam hypothesis, after the English Parish of Eyam , sickness behavior protects the social group of infected individuals by limiting their direct contacts, preventing them from contaminating the environment, and broadcasting their health status. (
  • According to the ' Eyam hypothesis', [13] sickness behavior, by promoting immobility and social disinterest, limits the direct contacts of individuals with their relatives. (
  • High direct costs, such as energy spent on fever and potential harm caused by high body temperatures, and high opportunity costs, as caused by inactivity, social disinterest, and lack of appetite, make sickness behavior a highly costly and therefore credible signal of need. (
  • Paper presented to the Society of Personality and Social Psychology, Palm Springs, CA. (
  • Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1147-1158. (
  • Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 780-795. (
  • Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 989-1015. (
  • Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63 , 575-582. (
  • The effects of token economies on the occurrence of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors by children with autism in a social skills setting. (
  • The lab studies stress in the context of its effects on affiliative behaviors, as well as connections between anxiety and social behavior as a function of early experience. (
  • Presentation: "Canine social behavior and problem-solving techniques. (
  • When assault is defined like this, exceptions are provided to cover such things as normal social behavior (for example, patting someone on the back). (
  • This conditioning paradigm, which can be abbreviated A+ \(\rightarrow\) AB+, takes its name from psychologist Leon J. Kamin, who first reported the phenomenon in a 1968 chapter (Kamin, 1968). (
  • Annual Meeting of the Animal Behavior Society, Davis, CA. July 1993. (
  • Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 26 (6) , pp. 1988-1993. (
  • Toward a Comparative Psychology of Learning. (
  • International Journal of Comparative Psychology , 17, 119-130. (
  • A behavior systems view of the organization of multiple responses during a partially reinforced or continuously reinfored interfood clock. (
  • More notably, Donald Hebb had published The Organization of Behavior (1949) a decade earlier. (
  • Nikolaas "Niko" Tinbergen (April 15, 1907 - December 21, 1988) was a Dutch ethologist , zoologist , and ornithologist. (
  • In 1964, he received his bachelor's degree in psychology in the honors college from Michigan State University and in 1969, his Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from Harvard University. (
  • Kruijt (1964) proposed that, in young animals, the motor components of behavior often function as independent units, and that only later, often after specific experience, do these motor components become integrated into more complex systems, such as hunger, aggression, and sex. (
  • Hediger, H. (1950 & 1964) Wild animals in captivity, London Butterworth Scientific Publications LTD., & N.Y. Dover publications, Inc. (
  • [8] Sickness behavior is a motivational state that reorganizes the organism's priorities to cope with infectious pathogens . (
  • Motivational modes in behavior systems. (
  • Psychology is a fascinating topic and animal psychology is almost a new science for researchers and pet owners alike. (
  • MODULE 7: "When Science Tampers With Feelings" Intelligence testing, electroshock therapy, animal experiments: Science and human values. (
  • She then received a BS in animal science in 2004. (
  • Life-long well being: Applying animal welfare science to nonhuman primates in sanctuaries. (
  • Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(1):55-61. (
  • Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(1):21-30. (
  • Applied Animal Behavior Science 39:73-87. (
  • Review of Adaptive Dynamics: The Theoretical Analysis of Behavior by J.E.R. Staddon. (
  • Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. (
  • Thinking Like a Chicken: Farm Animals and the Feminine Connection ' by Karen Davis is from ANIMALS AND WOMEN: FEMINIST THEORETICAL EXPLORATIONS, ed. by Carol J. Adams and Josephine Donovan. (