Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Chlorophylls from which the magnesium has been removed by treatment with weak acid.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Type C cytochromes that are small (12-14 kD) single-heme proteins. They function as mobile electron carriers between membrane-bound enzymes in photosynthetic BACTERIA.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A genus of gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE consisting of chemoorganotrophic, straight rods with rounded ends. They are aerobic and acidophilic.
A family in the order Rhizobiales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA comprised of many genera of budding or appendaged bacteria.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Organelles of phototrophic bacteria which contain photosynthetic pigments and which are formed from an invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)
A family of phototrophic bacteria, in the order Rhodospirillales, isolated from stagnant water and mud.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A specific bacteriochlorophyll that is similar in structure to chlorophyll a.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A genus of facultatively or obligately anaerobic marine phototrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
This membrane protein complex, called a photosynthetic reaction center, was known to play a crucial role in initiating a simple ... "Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction centre of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3Å resolution". Nature. ... Deisenhofer determined the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex found in certain photosynthetic bacteria. ... Deisenhofer, J.; Epp, O.; Miki, K.; Huber, R.; Michel, H. (1984). "X-ray structure analysis of a membrane protein complex". ...
Photosynthetic reaction center Pairs of bacteriochlorophylls (green) inside the membrane capture energy from sunlight, then ... Barnase/barstar complex 1994 F1 ATPase 1995 Heterotrimeric G proteins 1996 Green fluorescent protein 1996 CDK/cyclin complex ... Crystal structures of protein and nucleic acid molecules and their complexes are central to the practice of most parts of ... It was used in Anfinsen's seminal research on protein folding which led to the concept that a protein's 3-dimensional structure ...
... free and bound to the photosynthetic reaction center and the cytochrome bc1 complex". Journal of Molecular Biology. 368 (1): ... It is composed of two membrane proteins CcsB and CcsA. The CcsBA protein complex was suggested to act as a heme transporter ... An example is the Photosynthetic reaction centre of Rhodopseudomonas viridis that contains a tetraheme cytochrome c subunit. ... Cytochromes c possess a wide range of properties and function as electron transfer proteins or catalyse chemical reactions ...
... photosynthetic electron transfer governs transcription of reaction centre genes in chloroplasts". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B ... which binds to the imported protein and a Sec membrane complex to shuttle the protein across. Proteins with a twin arginine ... Cytochrome b6f complexEdit. Main article: Cytochrome b6f complex. The cytochrome b6f complex is part of the thylakoid electron ... Photosystem I contains a pair of chlorophyll a molecules, designated P700, at its reaction center that maximally absorbs 700 nm ...
... photosynthetic reaction centers). There, the electric field which is formed in the reaction center, following the light induced ... such as proteins. The photoacoustic immunoassay labels and detects target proteins using nanoparticles that can generate strong ... The second mechanism shows up in photosynthetically active sub-cell complexes in suspension (e.g. ... The photoacoustic signal from preparations which carry out the primary electron transfer reactions (e.g. reaction centers) is a ...
... protein complex (acpPC), along with typical photosynthetic electron transport systems such as the photosystem II reaction ... aP700 reaction centre complex of photosystem I. Also associated with the thylakoids are the xanthophylls dinoxanthin, ... Response of chlorophyll-protein complexes to different photon-flux densities". Marine Biology. 130 (1): 23-33. doi:10.1007/ ... The light-harvesting and reaction centre components in the thylakoid membrane include a water-soluble peridinin-chlorophyll ( ...
Next, the electron-accepting reaction centers include iron-sulfur proteins. Last, redox centres in complexes of both ... Photosystem I (PSI, or plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase) is one of two photosystems in the photosynthetic light reactions ... Located within the antenna complex of PSI are molecules of chlorophyll called P700 reaction centers. The energy passed around ... Webber AN, Malkin R (May 1990). "Photosystem I reaction-centre proteins contain leucine zipper motifs. A proposed role in dimer ...
2965-2982 with George Feher, et al.: Light-induced structural changes in photosynthetic reaction center: implications for ... with MH Stowell: Structure and stability of membrane proteins, Advances in Protein Chemistry, Volume 46, 1995, pp. 279-311 with ... 971-984 with FA Tezcan, JT Kaiser, D. Mustafi, MY Walton, JB Howard: Nitrogenase Complexes: Multiple Docking Sites for a ... He examines the structure and function of metal-containing proteins, especially nitrogenase in biological nitrogen fixation, ...
... photosynthetic electron transfer governs transcription of reaction centre genes in chloroplasts". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B ... which binds to the imported protein and a Sec membrane complex to shuttle the protein across. Proteins with a twin arginine ... There are four major protein complexes in the thylakoid membrane: Photosystems I and II Cytochrome b6f complex ATP synthase ... This results in the four major thylakoid protein complexes being encoded in part by the chloroplast genome and in part by the ...
Å resolution represents the first structural model of a joint photosynthetic reaction centre and core antenna system, Nature ... he is best known for his research on X-ray crystallography of membrane proteins and protein-nucleic acid complexes. He has ... 1979 Specific protein-nucleic acid recognition in ribonuclease T1−2'-guanylic acid complex: an X-ray study, Nature 1982 DNA ... Wolfram Saenger (born 1939) is a German biochemist and protein crystallographer. In his research career spanning over 30 years ...
"for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre". ... especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins". ... "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes". ... "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions; for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions". ...
... needed to drive this electron transport chain come from light-gathering proteins called photosynthetic reaction centres. ... In animals, these reactions involve complex organic molecules that are broken down to simpler molecules, such as carbon dioxide ... Reaction centers are classed into two types depending on the nature of photosynthetic pigment present, with most photosynthetic ... This process uses the ATP and NADPH produced by the photosynthetic reaction centres, as described above, to convert CO2 into ...
"Mechanism of the initial charge separation in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers". Proceedings of the National Academy ... ultrafast spectroscopy to study complex condensed phase dynamics in systems including natural photosynthetic complexes and ... Fleming, Graham R.; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Hohjai (8 June 2007). "Coherence Dynamics in Photosynthesis: Protein Protection of ... "Femtosecond spontaneous-emission studies of reaction centers from photosynthetic bacteria". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
... that a protein compound was chemically formed, ready to undergo still more complex changes, at the present such matter would be ... Ultraviolet rays from the Sun induced reactions on a mixture of water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. Organic substances such as ... and it is one of the remaining two points of the theory that much of the debate now centers. Apart from the Miller-Urey ... which included photosynthetic pigments, enzymes and the ability to synthesize organic compounds from CO2 and H2O; for Oparin it ...
... which involves these antioxidants reacting with over-reduced forms of the photosynthetic reaction centres to prevent the ... In other cells, it is maintained in its reduced form by reaction with glutathione, which can be catalysed by protein disulfide ... A paradox in metabolism is that, while the vast majority of complex life on Earth requires oxygen for its existence, oxygen is ... This species is produced from hydrogen peroxide in metal-catalyzed redox reactions such as the Fenton reaction. These oxidants ...
Light-harvesting complexes are involved in the energy transfer to the reaction centre. These are integral membrane protein ... the photosynthetic unit which is composed by the light-harvesting complexes LHI and LHII and the photosynthetic reaction centre ... Light-harvesting complexes surrounding a reaction centre (RC) harvest photons in the form of resonance energy, exciting ... LHI is directly associated with the reaction centre forming a polymeric ring-like structure around it. LHI has an absorption ...
It is a photosynthetic organism that can exist in almost all habitats found in polar, tropical, and temperate regions. It can ... Trebouxia has a complex life cycle. The details of the life cycle are not properly understood and more research is required. ... Many introns can self splice or reverse the splicing reaction or gain motility at DNA or RNA levels that can mediate the ... The horizontal gene transfer of protein encoding genes occurred between fungi and Trebouxia. There is also evidence of intron ...
... by the remaining proteins are beginning to be uncovered with the first three-dimensional structure of a Mg2+ transport complex ... except magnesium is at the center of the chlorophyll molecule and iron is at the center of the hemoglobin molecule, with other ... In photosynthetic organisms, Mg2+ has the additional vital role of being the coordinating ion in the chlorophyll molecule. This ... The Lewis acidity of Mg2+ (pKa 11.4) is used to allow both hydrolysis and condensation reactions (most common ones being ...
They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout the body. Each protein molecule is composed of amino ... Some dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they occur naturally, or at least as complex compounds, or ... U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. ... besides the three major elemental nutrients carbon and oxygen that are obtained by photosynthetic plants from carbon dioxide in ...
There is a complex set of essential fatty acid interactions. α-Linolenic acid can only be obtained by humans through their ... A Wittig reaction of the phosphonium salt of [(Z-Z)-nona-3,6-dien-1-yl]triphenylphosphonium bromide with methyl 9-oxononanoate ... "Omega-3 fatty acids". University of Maryland Medical Center. Breanne M Anderson; David WL Ma (2009). "Are all n-3 ... Plant chloroplasts consisting of more than 95 percent of photosynthetic thylakoid membranes are highly fluid due to the large ...
It is thought that lichens may be even more complex symbiotic systems that include non-photosynthetic bacterial communities ... When a crustose lichen gets old, the center may start to crack up like old-dried paint, old-broken asphalt paving, or like the ... Lichen identification uses growth form and reactions to chemical tests. The outcome of the "Pd test" is called "Pd", which is ... However, lichens are very low in protein and high in carbohydrates, making them unsuitable for some animals. Lichens are also ...
... has low protein binding in plasma. The bioavailability of penicillin depends on the type: penicillin G has low ... This reaction is encoded by the gene penDE, which is unique in the process of obtaining penicillins. Medicinal fungi ... Behring Center, Washington, D. C. Retrieved 2020-12-28. Robinson GL (1947). "Penicillin in general practice". Postgrad Med J. ... The actual process of resistance mechanism can be very complex. In case of reduced permeability in bacteria, the mechanisms are ...
... and proteins. The large number of reactions involved are exceedingly complex and not described easily. Refer to (cellular ... The respiratory centers try to maintain an arterial CO2 pressure of 40 mm Hg. With intentional hyperventilation, the CO2 ... Some of these chemical species are consumed by photosynthetic organisms that remove carbon from the cycle. Increased CO2 in the ... The reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate (limestone or chalk) is shown below: CaCO 3 + 2 HCl → CaCl 2 + H ...
... in animals and fungi all these fatty acid synthase reactions are carried out by a single multifunctional protein, while in ... "Chronological history of lipid center". Cyberlipid Center. Archived from the original on 2017-10-13. Retrieved 2017-12-01. ... Bertrand included in the concept not only the traditional fats (glycerides), but also the "lipoids", with a complex ... are important components of membranes of chloroplasts and related organelles and are the most abundant lipids in photosynthetic ...
First life needed an energy source to bring about the condensation reaction that yielded the peptide bonds of proteins and the ... The researchers used the term "cyanosulfidic" to describe this network of reactions. The spontaneous formation of complex ... harbors mixed nickel-iron-sulfur clusters in its reaction centers and catalyzes the formation of acetyl-CoA (similar to acetyl- ... hence the unique photosynthetic properties mediated by ZnS provided just the right energy conditions to energize the synthesis ...
The oxygen binding site is a binuclear iron center. The iron atoms are coordinated to the protein through the carboxylate side ... Plastocyanin is one of the family of blue copper proteins that are involved in electron transfer reactions. The copper-binding ... Troponin, along with actin and tropomyosin, is the protein complex to which calcium binds to trigger the production of muscular ... Later in the photosynthetic cycle, chlorophyll is reduced back again. This reduction ultimately draws electrons from water, ...
The photopigment rhodopsin found in human rod cells is composed of retinal, a form of vitamin A, bound to an opsin protein. ... Cone photoreceptors are concentrated in a depression in the center of the retina known as the fovea centralis and decrease in ... It is characterized by a breakdown of the RPE/Bruch's membrane complex in the retina, leading to an accumulation of cholesterol ... The photochemical reaction is: Rhodopsin ⇌ retinal + opsin Using increment threshold experiments, light adaptation can be ...
... in animals and fungi all these fatty acid synthase reactions are carried out by a single multifunctional protein,[88] while in ... Leray, C. Chronological history of lipid center. Cyberlipid Center. Last updated on 11 November 2017. link. ... Examples of these are the simple and complex glycosphingolipids such as cerebrosides and gangliosides. ... are important components of membranes of chloroplasts and related organelles and are the most abundant lipids in photosynthetic ...
The reaction centre for photosynthesis in Chlorobi and Chloroflexi (another photosynthetic group) is formed by a structures ... It is composed of only 6 genera of obligate intracellular pathogens with a complex life cycle. Species include Chlamydia ... Proteins are shown in blue and the single RNA strand in tan.[13] ... Other candidate phyla that have been the center of some studies ... Cyanobacteria, major photosynthetic clade believed to have caused Earth's oxygen atmosphere, also known as the blue-green algae ...
... atoms can form the skeletons of complex 3-dimensional structures with definite architectures such as nucleic acids and proteins ... "Who discovered that the Sun was a Star?". Stanford Solar Center. Mukundchandra G. Raval (2016). Meru: The Center of our Earth. ... Life on Earth requires water as a solvent in which biochemical reactions take place. Sufficient quantities of carbon and other ... This replenishment occurs on Earth through photosynthetic organisms. One way to analyze the atmosphere of an exoplanet is ...
... the mass of any one element at the beginning of a reaction will equal the mass of that element at the end of the reaction.[24]: ... "Food web theory centers around the idea of connectance."[65]:1648 Quantitative formulas simplify the complexity of food web ... This realization has made trophic classifications more complex.[15] Trophic dynamics[edit]. The trophic level concept was ... and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as supplies of energy as well as building blocks; the part that functions as ...
"for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[80] ... especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[40] ... "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"[75] ... "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"[93] 2002 John B. Fenn امریکا "for the development of methods for ...
"for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[87] ... especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[47] ... "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"[82] ... "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"[113] Michael Levitt ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்கா. ஐக்கிய இராச்சியம் ...
... which involves these antioxidants reacting with over-reduced forms of the photosynthetic reaction centres to prevent the ... In other cells, it is maintained in its reduced form by reaction with glutathione, which can be catalysed by protein disulfide ... A paradox in metabolism is that, while the vast majority of complex life on Earth requires oxygen for its existence, oxygen is ... Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, thereby leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells ...
... by the remaining proteins are beginning to be uncovered with the first three-dimensional structure of a Mg2+ transport complex ... except magnesium is at the center of the chlorophyll molecule and iron is at the center of the hemoglobin molecule, with other ... The Lewis acidity of Mg2+ (pKa 11.4) is used to allow both hydrolysis and condensation reactions (most common ones being ... In photosynthetic organisms, Mg2+ has the additional vital role of being the coordinating ion in the chlorophyll molecule. This ...
Protein characterizationEdit. Main article: Protein mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry is an important method for the ... Found mostly in the operating room, they were a part of a complex system, in which respired gas samples from patients ... Types of chromatograms include selected ion monitoring (SIM), total ion current (TIC), and selected reaction monitoring (SRM), ... the shape of the electric field near the center of the trap, the region where the ions are trapped, forms a shape similar to ...
... new evidence from the study of carbon isotope ratios in Precambrian rocks has suggested that complex photosynthetic plants ... Plants protect themselves from frost and dehydration stress with antifreeze proteins, heat-shock proteins and sugars (sucrose ... Incident light that stimulates a chemical reaction in one leaf, will cause a chain reaction of signals to the entire plant via ... Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - Native Plant Information Network at University of Texas, Austin ...
Organisms that use more oxygen have the opportunity to produce more complex proteins, providing a template for further ... centers on three key points: whether there really was a mass diversification of complex organisms over a relatively short ... Once a saturation point was reached for the reactions in rock and water, oxygen was able to exist as a gas in its diatomic form ... probably defending small photosynthetic algae from single-celled eukaryotic predators.[96][97] ...
The reaction is therefore catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme inside the red blood cells.[21] The reaction can go in ... Surfactant immune function is primarily attributed to two proteins: SP-A and SP-D. These proteins can bind to sugars on the ... Ventilation of the lungs in mammals occurs via the respiratory centers in the medulla oblongata and the pons of the brainstem.[ ... The anatomical structure of the lungs is less complex in reptiles than in mammals, with reptiles lacking the very extensive ...
"for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[80]. ... especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[40]. ... "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"[75]. ... "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"[93]. 2002 John B. Fenn United States "for the development of methods ...
with sulfur to form carbon disulfide and with steam in the coal-gas reaction:. C(s) + H2O(g) → CO(g) + H2(g).. Carbon combines ... from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.. *^ Rachel Gross (Sep 21, 2013). "Deep, and dank mysterious". New ... For example, photosynthetic plants draw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (or seawater) and build it into biomass, as in the ... More than 20% of the carbon in the universe may be associated with PAHs, complex compounds of carbon and hydrogen without ...
... which involves these antioxidants reacting with over-reduced forms of the photosynthetic reaction centres to prevent the ... The thioredoxin system contains the 12-kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion thioredoxin reductase.[128] Proteins related ... A paradox in metabolism is that, while the vast majority of complex life on Earth requires oxygen for its existence, oxygen is ... Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, thereby leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells ...
Breathing problems may indicate a serious reaction to toxins in the sea urchin.[53] They inflict a painful wound when they ... The mouth lies in the centre of the oral surface in regular urchins, or towards one end in irregular urchins. It is surrounded ... Sea urchins possess a hemal system with a complex network of vessels in the mesenteries around the gut, but little is known of ... A Novel Form of Dual Protein Targeting" (PDF). Traffic. 17 (8): 923-39. doi:10.1111/tra.12411. PMC 4981915. PMID 27161495.. ...
"For her ground-breaking and novel use of mass spectrometry for the characterisation of large protein complexes.". [129] ... Surrey, Alexander Robert (1961). Name reactions in organic chemistry. [S.l.]: Academic Press. p. 101. ... The Oxford Centre for Molecular Sciences and Dyson Perrins Laboratory: American Chemical Society. pp. 2631-2650. Consultado em ... "In recognition of his pioneering work in chemistry and biology, particularly his elucidation of the photosynthetic pathway for ...
University of Maryland Medical Center 2011. *^ Frances, Densmore (1974). How Indians Use Wild Plants for Food, Medicine, and ... The new photosynthetic plants (along with their algal relatives) accelerated the rise in atmospheric oxygen started by the ... Their energy is used in the light-independent reactions of the Calvin cycle by the enzyme rubisco to produce molecules of the 3 ... Gene expression can also be controlled by repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA and prevent that region ...
... atoms can form the skeletons of complex 3-dimensional structures with definite architectures such as nucleic acids and proteins ... "Stanford Solar Center.. *^ Crowe, Michael J. (1999). The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, 1750-1900. Courier Dover Publications. ... Life on Earth requires water as a solvent in which biochemical reactions take place. Sufficient quantities of carbon and other ... This replenishment occurs on Earth through photosynthetic organisms. One way to analyze the atmosphere of an exoplanet is ...
Some groups that have lost the photosynthetic properties of their original red algae plastids has obtained new photosynthetic ... Dinoflagellates have a complex cell covering called an amphiesma or cortex, composed of a series of membranes, flattened ... The luciferin-luciferase reaction responsible for the bioluminescence is pH sensitive.[71] When the pH drops, luciferase ... In place of histones, dinoflagellate nuclei contain a novel, dominant family of nuclear proteins that appear to be of viral ...
Researchers recently discovered archaeal involvement in ammonia oxidation reactions. These reactions are particularly important ... These proteins found in the cell membranes are capable of converting light energy to biochemical energy due to a change in ... More complex life, in the form of crown eukaryotes, didn't appear until the Cambrian explosion a mere 500 million years ago. ... doi:10.1007/978-3-319-47935-4_7. ISBN 978-3-319-47933-0. NCBI Taxonomy Browser: Roseobacter National Center for Biotechnology ...
... and a complex array of RNA and protein molecules to "read" these instructions and use them for growth, maintenance, and self- ... orbiting the nebular center. The center of the nebula, not having much angular momentum, collapsed rapidly, the compression ... The first step in the emergence of life may have been chemical reactions that produced many of the simpler organic compounds, ... A similar event occurred with photosynthetic cyanobacteria entering large heterotrophic cells and becoming chloroplasts.:60-61: ...
Plants and other photosynthetic organisms are at the base of most food chains because they use the energy from the sun and ... Their energy is used in the light-independent reactions of the Calvin cycle by the enzyme rubisco to produce molecules of the 3 ... Gene expression can also be controlled by repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA and prevent that region ... Clements is credited with the idea of climax vegetation as the most complex vegetation that an environment can support and ...
Muchel, H (1982) 3-Dimensional crystals of a membrane protein complex. The photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodopseudomonas ... The 110-kDa reaction center protein of photosystem I P700-chlorophyll a-protein 1, is an iron-sulfur protein. J Biol Chem 261: ... Crystallization of reaction center I of photosynthesis, low-concentration crystallization of photoactive protein complexes from ... Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3 Å resolution. Nature ...
... far behind those of soluble proteins mainly because of the difficulties associated with crystallization of membrane proteins ... Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3A solution, Nature 318 ... Three-dimensional structures of seven membrane protein complexes have been determined. These are: the bacterial photosynthetic ... Conformation and orientation of the protein in the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 682: 273- ...
This membrane protein complex, called a photosynthetic reaction center, was known to play a crucial role in initiating a simple ... "Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction centre of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3Å resolution". Nature. ... Deisenhofer determined the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex found in certain photosynthetic bacteria. ... Deisenhofer, J.; Epp, O.; Miki, K.; Huber, R.; Michel, H. (1984). "X-ray structure analysis of a membrane protein complex". ...
This membrane protein complex, called a photosynthetic reaction center, was known to play a crucial role in initiating a simple ... "Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction centre of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3Å resolution". Nature ... Deisenhofer determined the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex found in certain photosynthetic bacteria. ... used X-ray crystallography to determine the exact arrangement of the more than 10,000 atoms that make up the protein complex. ...
Reaction Centers: Structure and Mechanism 10. Organization of Photosynthetic Membrane Proteins into Supercomplexes 11. ... The Purple Bacterial Photosynthetic Apparatus 7. Light Harvesting in Green Bacteria 8. Light Harvesting Complexes in ... Quantum Aspects of Photosynthetic Energy Transfer 15. Photoinduced Electron Transfer in the Reaction Centers 16. Modulation of ... and the second section looking at photosynthetic proteins, including light harvesting in higher plants, algae, cyanobacteria, ...
Michel H. (1982). Three-Dimensional Crystals of a Membrane Protein Complex: The Photosynthetic Reaction Centre from ... Michel H, Epp O., Deisenhofer J. (1986). Pigment-Protein Interactions in the Photosynthetic Reaction Centre from ... Subunits of the Photosynthetic Reaction Centre from Rhodopseudomonas viridis: Isolation of the Genes, Nucleotide and Amino Acid ... Mooseker M.S. (1983). Actin Binding Proteins of the Brush Border, Cell, 35, 11 13.. 1016. Morgan CG, Fitton J.E, Yianni Y.P. ( ...
The crystal structure of the photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodopseudomonas viridis.- Structure and function of some ... 7 Protein - Nucleic Acids.- A bacteriophage repressor/operator complex at 7 Å Resolution.- Refined structure of DNase I at 2 Å ... 1 Crystallization and Data Collection.- Crystallization of integral membrane proteins.- Crystallization of protein and nucleic ... Periplasmic binding proteins : Structures and new understanding of protein-ligand interactions.- Crystal structure of thaumatin ...
... for pigment-protein complexes corresponding to photosystem II reaction centre (PSII RC) and light-harvesting chlorophyll (a,b)- ... Maximum quantum yield (Figure 1.9) occurs when both reaction centres absorb equal numbers of such quanta. When one photosystem ... b-protein complexes (LHC in Figure 1.8, lower curves) develop a secondary absorption peak at 472 nm with a shoulder at 653 nm, ... protein complexes (LHC). A secondary peak at 472 nm and a shoulder at 653 nm indicate contributions from Chl b to these ...
... tepidumharvests light and transfers the energy to the photosynthetic reaction centre. Here the authors determine the structure ... formed by the protein CsmA and bacteriochlorophyll a. Here we present the first high-resolution structure of the CsmA baseplate ... One of the most complex antenna systems, the chlorosome, found in the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum (Cba ... Photosynthetic antenna systems enable organisms harvesting light and transfer the energy to the photosynthetic reaction centre ...
... but also to develop systems that can emulate the photosynthetic apparatus in the trapping and transfer of photosynthetic energy ... but also higher levels of structure including interactions with proteins and other nucleic acids regulate the functional ... but also includes studies to work out how photosynthetic cells regulate the expression of genes encoding the photosynthetic ... a critical dimension of every photosynthetic energy storage process. We are developing approaches not only toward the ...
A conformational change of the photoactive bacteriopheophytin in reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Müh, F., ... A conserved domain in the coronavirus membrane protein tail is important for virus assembly. Arndt, A. L., Larson, B. J. & ... A continuous epitope from transmissible gastroenteritis virus S protein fused to E. coli heat-labile toxin B subunit expressed ... Frank, M. S. & Balanis, C., Nov 1987, In : IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. GE-25, 6, p. 691-701 11 p.. ...
Photosynthesis is regulated by a dynamic interplay between proteins, enzymes, pigments, lipids, and cofactors that takes place ... Chromophore-protein interactions and the function of the photosynthetic reaction center: a molecular dynamics study. Proc Natl ... The light reactions are regulated principally by four different integral membrane multi-protein complexes binding pigments and ... Vassiliev S, Bruce D (2006) A protein dynamics study of photosystem II: the effects of protein conformation on reaction center ...
The photosynthetic reaction center is a membrane protein as well - the very first membrane protein whose structure could be ... Cytochrome c oxidase is part of Complex IV. Graph: T-Fork, based on graph by LadyofHats, both public domain ... "for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre", together with Johann Deisenhofer ... Determining protein structures with the help of x-ray crystallography is a very elaborate process: first, the protein needs to ...
Photosynthetic reaction center Pairs of bacteriochlorophylls (green) inside the membrane capture energy from sunlight, then ... Barnase/barstar complex 1994 F1 ATPase 1995 Heterotrimeric G proteins 1996 Green fluorescent protein 1996 CDK/cyclin complex ... Crystal structures of protein and nucleic acid molecules and their complexes are central to the practice of most parts of ... It was used in Anfinsens seminal research on protein folding which led to the concept that a proteins 3-dimensional structure ...
MGD is highly enriched in the photosystem II reaction center/core complex (5) and a single MGD molecule is tightly associated ... Evidence also suggests that MGD is more directly involved in certain photosynthetic reactions (5-9). Because photosynthesis is ... The sequence of the protein encoded by the MGD1 cDNA (GenBank accession no. CAA19745) is shown in Fig. 2B. It has been aligned ... with the photosystem II reaction center (6). It has been shown to stimulate the activity of chloroplastic ATP synthase in vitro ...
... propose that OHP1 and OHP2 play an essential role in the assembly or stabilization of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes ... especially photosystem reaction centers, in the thylakoid membrane. ... The proteins of the ELIP family were proposed to function in photoprotection or assembly of thylakoid pigment-protein complexes ... The proteins of the ELIP family were proposed to function in photoprotection or assembly of thylakoid pigment-protein complexes ...
... proteorhodopsins and the photosynthetic reaction center (Klassen, 2010; Cui et al., 2011). The unique structural coevolution ... The complex secondary structure of cyclases (Figure 3) might be recruited from multiple protein families for catalysis ... and the formation of ROS in the reaction center of PSII (Wang et al., 2003). Nutrient starvation, high salinity, and oxidative ... A lycopene β-cyclase/lycopene ε-cyclase/light-harvesting complex-fusion protein from the green alga Ostreococcus lucimarinus ...
... complexes as well as the reaction center (RC) complex. The cyt bc\ complex (with the mobile cyt ci protein) and the ATP ... Pigment-protein interactions in the photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodopseudomonas viridis. E M B O J. 5: 2445-2451. 80. ... Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction centre of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3A resolution. Nature ( ... Pigment-protein complexes of purple photosynthetic bacteria: an overview. J. Cell . Biochem. 23: 159-169. 113. v a n N i e l , ...
Engineering protein structure for electron transfer function in photosynthetic reaction centers. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992; ... In photosynthesis, the reaction center, also called light harvesting complex, is responsible for harvesting the energy in the ... Special requirements for proteins that are involved in photosynthetic reaction centers have been discussed by Dutton and ... proteins and CuA centers [1-10], cytochromes [10-17], and iron-sulfur (FeS) proteins [10,18-24]. Each class of ET proteins ...
conformations, free and bound to the photosynthetic reaction center and the cytochrome bc1 complex. . University Line, La Jolla ... Crystallization of membrane proteins. ... Book Bindery 1; Careers Service 2; Catering 3; Centre for ... Training and Development 4(CETAD); Chaplaincy Centre 5; Computer Facilities 6; Conference Thesis binding online. 4 easy steps ...
... complexes were studied in the temperature range of 25-80 °C using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and circular... ... The protein secondary structure and pigments microenvironment in photosystem 1 (PS1) ... Protein secondary structure of the isolated photosystem II reaction centre and conformational changes studied by Fourier ... polarized absorption by photosynthetic proteins. - Biophys. J. 71: 1934-1951, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
... and proteins; photovoltaic devices; single photosynthetic complex spectroscopy; chemical carcinogenesis; carcinogen metabolism ... Site-Energies of Active and Inactive Pheophytins in the Reaction Center of Photosystem II from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii K. ... Effects of the Distributions of Energy Transfer Rates on Spectral Hole Burning in Pigment-Protein Complexes at Low Temperatures ... Electron Transfer in the Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Reaction Center Containing Zn-Bacteriochlorophylls (Zn-RC) and its β-Zn-RC ...
... encodes pigment-binding proteins (pufB and pufA for light-harvesting complex I [LHI] and pufL and pufM for the reaction center ... which encodes proteins that build the photosynthetic complexes (reviewed in Klug [1993]). Differential stabilities of the ... Segmental differences in puf mRNA stability contribute to the stoichiometry of LHI to reaction center complexes (Klug et al, ... indicating that RNase E also acts on the formation of photosynthetic complexes by affecting the levels of such protein ...
... the photosynthetic parameters of the remaining PSII centers stay constant until very late in the process. We interpret these ... The adaptive benefit of keeping the antenna and dismantling the reaction centers is not clear, but has been demonstrated during ... This was probably because different fractions of leaf proteins had slightly different δ15N values, due to differences in their ... Not surprisingly, phosphates bound to other complexes are less readily remobilized than those of the adenylate pool. Sulfur ...
The data presented here show that transcripts encoding core PSI and PSII reaction center complexes and light harvesting ... Transcripts encoding photosynthetic proteins, including the thylakoid NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome b/f complexes, and ... The WHIRLY1 protein is targeted to plastids, where it is one of the major DNA binding proteins and a constituent of the ... The expression of nuclear genes encoding photosynthetic proteins, therefore, seems to be uncoupled to some extent from plastid ...
... photosynthetic electron transfer governs transcription of reaction centre genes in chloroplasts". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B ... which binds to the imported protein and a Sec membrane complex to shuttle the protein across. Proteins with a twin arginine ... Cytochrome b6f complexEdit. Main article: Cytochrome b6f complex. The cytochrome b6f complex is part of the thylakoid electron ... Photosystem I contains a pair of chlorophyll a molecules, designated P700, at its reaction center that maximally absorbs 700 nm ...
... photosynthetic activity rests with the repair of the photodamaged reaction centers and on the synthesis of new centers. When ... 1995). Role of the RCII-D1 protein in the reversible association of the oxygen-evolving complex proteins with the lumenal side ... 1990). Light-dependent D1 protein synthesis and translocation is regulated by reaction center II. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 12563- ... 1994). Light-induced degradation of photosystem II reaction centre D1 protein in vivo: An integrative approach. In ...
The Cytochrome Subunit of the Photosynthetic Reaction Center from Rhodopseudomonas viridis Is a Lipoprotein, Biochemistry, 26, ... T-Cell-Mediated Association of Peptide Antigen and Major Histocompatibility Complex Protein Detected by Energy Transfer in a ... Vos-Scheperkeuter G.H., Witholt R (1984). Assembly Pathway of Newly Synthesized LamB Protein, an Outer Membrane Protein of ... The Amino Acid Sequence of Protein II and its Phosphorylation Site for Protein Kinase C; the Domain Structure Ca2 * -modulated ...
... managed to crystallize a photosynthetic reaction center after a painstaking series of experiments. He then proceeded to ... With this technique Klug has investigated the structure of large nucleic acid-protein complexes, such as viruses and chromatin ... A limit in investigating reaction rates is set by the speed with which the reaction can be initiated. If this is done by rapid ... This is especially true of reactions in living organisms, and Cornforth has mainly studied enzyme-catalyzed reactions, so his ...
Effect on Photosynthetic Energy-Transfer between B875 and Reaction Center Complexes. Journal of Bacteriology, 162:3, 1126-1134. ... Tadros, M.H, Frank, R., Takemoto, J., Drews, G., (1988). Localization of Reaction Center and B800-850 Antenna Pigment Proteins ... Bachmann, R.C, Gillies, K., Takemoto, J.Y, (1981). Membrane topography of the photosynthetic reaction center polypeptides of ... Bachmann, R.C, Takemoto, J.Y, (1983). Near-Neighbor Relationships of the Photosynthetic Reaction Center Polypeptides of ...
  • Hartmut Michel (born 18 July 1948) is a German biochemist, who received the 1988 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determination of the first crystal structure of an integral membrane protein, a membrane-bound complex of proteins and co-factors that is essential to photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This membrane protein complex, called a photosynthetic reaction center, was known to play a crucial role in initiating a simple type of photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their research increased the general understanding of the mechanisms of photosynthesis, revealed similarities between the photosynthetic processes of plants and bacteria and established a methodology for crystallising membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photosynthesis is regulated by a dynamic interplay between proteins, enzymes, pigments, lipids, and cofactors that takes place on a large spatio-temporal scale. (springer.com)
  • In this membrane, the initial steps of photosynthesis, collectively known as the light reactions, take place. (springer.com)
  • Today, photosynthesis is considered "the most important chemical reaction on earth", providing food for humans and animals, releasing oxygen for them to breathe - and millions of years later, this process provides fossil fuel in the form of oil, coal and natural gas, as Michel likes to point out. (lindau-nobel.org)
  • In this review, we first describe the importance of tuning E° of ET centers, including the metalloproteins described above, and its role in regulating the ET in bioenergetic processes including photosynthesis and respiration. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • They are the site of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • The thylakoid membrane is the site of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis with the photosynthetic pigments embedded directly in the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biosphere is known to consist mainly of photosynthetic organisms and organotrophs that directly or indirectly consume products of photosynthesis-organic substances and oxygen. (slideshare.net)
  • 2. 2.1 Light-Dependent Cyclic Redox Chain of Purple Bacteria Let us start not from that main (oxygenic) photosynthesis that has just been mentioned above, but from the more primitive photosynthetic mechanisms that have been described in phototrophic bacteria (they have already been mentioned in the Chap. 1). (slideshare.net)
  • The main function of the pigment-binding proteins is to harvest solar energy and deliver it, in the form of excitation energy, ultimately to P680 although individual pigment-proteins may be engaged in other photosynthesis-related processes as well. (edu.pl)
  • Anderson J, Wentworth M, Walters RG, Howard CA, Ruban AV, Horton P, Jansson S (2003) Absence of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 proteins of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II - effects on photosynthesis, grana stacking and fitness. (edu.pl)
  • 162. "Interchromophore Interactions in Pigment-modified and Dimerless Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers", Laura J. Moore and Steven G. Boxer, Photosynthesis Research , 55 , 173-180 (1998). (stanford.edu)
  • The reaction center is a membrane-bound complex that mediates the initial photochemical event in the electron transfer process of photosynthesis. (uniprot.org)
  • 1978 Thesis Primary and Cytochrome Reactions in Bacterial Photosynthesis 'cum laude', Leiden University. (weebly.com)
  • Photosynthesis produces chemical energy from photon energy in the photosynthetic electron transport and assimilates CO 2 using the chemical energy. (nature.com)
  • Under CO 2 -limited photosynthesis (double-headed blue arrow), excess photon energy accumulates in a photosynthetic electron transport system located on the thylakoid membranes, which causes the production of reactive oxygen species. (nature.com)
  • His interests and contributions include structure/function aspects of the water splitting enzyme and photosynthetic reaction centres, proton-coupled electron transfer, evolution of photosynthesis, photochemistry, mechanisms of photoinhibition, redox tuning, molecular enzymology of water splitting, artificial photosynthesis, energy accounting. (royalsociety.org)
  • The personal perspective of Duysens (1989) provides an account of the discovery of the two light reactions of photosynthesis, necessary for understanding the context of the present day view of photosynthesis. (illinois.edu)
  • Room-temperature energy-sampling Kß X-ray emission spectroscopy on the Mn4Ca complex of photosynthesis reveals three manganese-centered oxidation steps and suggests a coordination change prior to O2 formation. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Many of these proteins are associated with iron transport, photosynthesis, or ATP synthesis. (g3journal.org)
  • Proteins containing iron participate in a wide range of biological processes, including the tricarboxylic acid cycle, photosynthesis, respiration, H 2 production, N 2 fixation, gene regulation, and oxygen transport. (g3journal.org)
  • High light exposure causes frequent saturation of the photosynthetic membrane with energy that cannot be used for photosynthesis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • NPQ is broadly considered to be a major factor in the rapid regulation of light harvesting in order to protect the PSII reaction centres (RCII) against photodamage that leads to photoinhibition of photosynthesis [ 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Photosynthesis occurs in plants, photosynthetic protist (algae), and some bacteria. (biologyreference.com)
  • Photosynthesis is divided into two sets of reactions: the light-dependent (light) reactions and the light-independent (dark) reactions. (biologyreference.com)
  • photosynthesis can occur from proteins released from a digested chloroplast. (personalshopperbudget.it)
  • Adapted from 'Killing Chloroplasts', National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science Herbicides Targeting Photosynthesis You're provided with five data sets related to products at various stages in photosynthesis. (personalshopperbudget.it)
  • This is achieved through photosynthesis where the plant gets to change the en. (personalshopperbudget.it)
  • Bromoxynil, a benzonitrile compound with herbicide activity against broadleaf plants, binds to a protein on the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts, where energy transfers take place that drive carbon fixation in photosynthesis. (personalshopperbudget.it)
  • Energy dissipation in photosynthesis : does the quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence originate from antenna complexes of photosystem II or from the reaction center? (nii.ac.jp)
  • Nanoscale Photosynthesis: Photocatalytic Production of Hydrogen by Platinized Photosystems I Reaction Centers", Photochemistry and Photobiology, 73(6): 630-635, 2001. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Although to the layman the word 'photosynthesis' is usually associated with green plants, much of our understanding of the molecular basis of biological transduction of light energy has come from studies of purple photosynthetic bacteria. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Discoveries in Photosynthesis presents a sweeping overview of the history of photosynthesis investigations, and detailed accounts of research progress in all aspects of the most complex bioenergetic process in living organisms. (springer.com)
  • The photosystems are the functional units of photosynthesis where the initial light-driven electron transfer reactions take place [ 8 , 9 ], and their major protein subunits are always chloroplast-encoded [ 6 , 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Increased global transcription of chloroplast genes in high light enables chloroplasts to keep up with an increased demand for components of the photosynthetic machinery as the rate of photosynthesis increases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Phenylcarbamates, pyridazinones, triazines, triazinones, and uracils are herbicides that inhibit photosynthesis by binding to the Q B -binding niche on the D1 protein of the photosystem II complex in chloroplast thylakoid membranes. (weedscience.org)
  • Hence, its unspecific interference with photosynthetic membranes in vitro suggests that the inhibitory effect observed on intact cell photosynthesis is caused by uncoupling of phosphorylation. (diva-portal.org)
  • In conclusion, the results of RNA-seq analysis indicated that at the same concentration (100 ng L −1) and at the same time (the 12 days), GenX and PFOA had similar mechanism of effect on photosynthesis of C. pyrenoidosa, because most of the genes related to photosynthetic proteins in … klopos1234. (reachingkidsforjesus.com)
  • molecular mechanisms of photosynthesis Nov 07, 2020 Posted By Danielle Steel Publishing TEXT ID 03870b85 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library whilst retaining the first editions clear writing style and accessible description of this complex process updates now include cutting edge applications of photosynthesis Nelson, … Uploaded by. (reachingkidsforjesus.com)
  • Local irritations of plants induce various photosynthetic responses in intact leaves, including fast and long-term inactivation of photosynthesis, and its activation. (reachingkidsforjesus.com)
  • It begins with an introduction to properties of various pigments, and the pigment proteins in plant, algae, and bacterial systems. (routledge.com)
  • Chapters are divided into five main parts, the first focused on pigments, their properties and biosynthesis, and the second section looking at photosynthetic proteins, including light harvesting in higher plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and green bacteria. (routledge.com)
  • Photosystems have an absolute requirement for catalytic amounts of these accessory pigments, but their more substantive involvement is via dissipation of potentially harmful energy that would otherwise impact on delicate reaction centres when leaves experience excess photon irradiance (further details in Chapter 12). (edu.au)
  • The light reactions are regulated principally by four different integral membrane multi-protein complexes binding pigments and other cofactors. (springer.com)
  • Photosynthetic pigments are bound to the proteins that constitute the cores of PSII and PSI and to the outer antennae: the light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) or the phycobilisomes (Croce and van Amerongen 2014 ). (springer.com)
  • The pigment-to-protein ratio is generally very high in the antennae: in the case of plants and green algae, for example, ~ 25 kDa of protein can bind ~ 15 kDa of pigments (Nicol and Croce 2018 ). (springer.com)
  • The protein secondary structure and pigments' microenvironment in photosystem 1 (PS1) complexes were studied in the temperature range of 25-80 °C using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, respectively. (springer.com)
  • protein microenvironment of pigments of PS1 complexes, was destroyed by heat treatment which might come from the changes of protein secondary structure of PS1. (springer.com)
  • Aging of cell-free chloroplasts at pH 7.0 and 9.0 causes a decline in the level of photosynthetic pigments, quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence and enhancement in fluorescence polarization. (bvsalud.org)
  • The metal ion is found to induce membrane lipid peroxidation, loss of photosynthetic pigments and degradation of proteins. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chlorophylls a and b (Chl a , Chl b ) represent the majority of the antenna complex pigments and thus are of great importance for light absorption, oxygen evolution, and conversion of light energy to chemical energy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been suggested that Photosynthetic Pigments be merged into this article or section. (statemaster.com)
  • Eleven proteins belonging to photosystem II (PSII) bind photosynthetic pigments in the form of thylakoid membrane-associated pigment-protein complexes. (edu.pl)
  • Five of them (PsbA, PsbB, PsbC, PsbD and PsbS) are assigned to PSII core complex while the remaining six (Lhcb1, Lhcb2, Lhcb3, Lhcb4, Lhcb5 and Lhcb6) constitute, along with their pigments, functional complexes situated more distantly with regard to P680 - the photochemical center of PSII. (edu.pl)
  • The reaction centers, P700 and P680, are photo-oxidized via light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll (Chl). (nature.com)
  • These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a. (curehunter.com)
  • Therefore, in the course of evolution, the microscopic photosynthetic bacteria acquired light harvesting systems, or antennae, built of various proteins carrying and coordinating many interconnected pigments capable of efficiently absorbing and delivering photon energy to the photosynthetic apparatus [ 1 , 2 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The light reactions rely on colored molecules called pigments to capture the energy of light. (biologyreference.com)
  • The accessory pigments capture wavelengths of light that chlorophylls cannot, and then transfer the energy to chlorophyll, which uses this energy to carry out the light reactions. (biologyreference.com)
  • These pigments are arranged in the thylakoid membranes in clusters, along with proteins and electron carriers, to form light-harvesting complexes referred to as photosystems. (biologyreference.com)
  • At the center of each photosystem is a special chlorophyll molecule called the reaction center, to which all the other pigments molecules pass the energy they harvest from sunlight. (biologyreference.com)
  • Pigmentation is a common feature of bacteria of different phylogenetic and environmental origins There are several groups of bacterial pigments which are in general noncovalently bound to proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • This contribution is dedicated to pigments and lipids synthesized within or from plastids/photosynthetic membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • Photosynthetic antenna systems enable organisms harvesting light and transfer the energy to the photosynthetic reaction centre, where the conversion to chemical energy takes place. (nature.com)
  • Photosynthetic organisms use a variety of structurally and evolutionary unrelated light-harvesting antenna complexes 1 . (nature.com)
  • These antennas are essential for the organisms to harvest light energy, which is transferred to the photosynthetic reaction centre and converted to chemical energy. (nature.com)
  • Investigators are studying the various components that make up the photosynthetic reaction center complexes in many different organisms. (unt.edu)
  • In oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, visible and near-infrared sunlight energy is mainly absorbed by chlorophylls (Chls). (springer.com)
  • 2018 ). For a detailed review on the light-harvesting building blocks of photosynthetic organisms we refer the reader to Croce et al. (springer.com)
  • A common feature of all photosynthetic organisms is that the conversion of light energy into chemical energy is performed by large pigment-protein complexes in specialized membrane systems, the thylakoids ( Nelson and Ben-Shem, 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These steps constitute the most common part of carotenoid biosynthesis in photosynthetic organisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemistry has a position in the center of the sciences, bordering onto physics, which provides its theoretical foundation, on one side, and onto biology on the other, living organisms being the most complex of all chemical systems. (nobelprize.org)
  • General energy diffusion parameters (D, L, .tau.fi, kh) and the lifetimes of the primary photoinduced reactions in the RC of different photosynthetic organisms were compared. (eurekamag.com)
  • A conclusion on the universality of mechanisms operating in the primary photosynthetic processes in evolutionary different organisms was made. (eurekamag.com)
  • Metabolism (/məˈtæbəlɪzəm/, from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable reactions that require energy that will not occur by themselves, by coupling them to spontaneous reactions that release energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore spectral variations in the time-dependent fluorescence signature of photosynthetic organisms under varying light conditions can be traced and assigned to practical emitting species leading to a number of interpretations of their molecular origins. (bio-storage.com)
  • The photosynthetic organisms of our planet first evolved in aquatic environments where light intensity is normally very low. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Eventually, evolution allowed some photosynthetic organisms (plants) to emerge onto land. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Carotenoids: Electronic States and Biological Functions Part 2: Building the Light Harvesting Apparatus: Proteins 4. (routledge.com)
  • The Purple Bacterial Photosynthetic Apparatus 7. (routledge.com)
  • This work not only involves understanding the kinetics of energy transfer and storage in plants, but also includes studies to work out how photosynthetic cells regulate the expression of genes encoding the photosynthetic apparatus. (unt.edu)
  • We are developing approaches not only toward the utilization of sophisticated chemistry to store photon energy, but also to develop systems that can emulate the photosynthetic apparatus in the trapping and transfer of photosynthetic energy. (unt.edu)
  • Because much of the photosynthetic apparatus is embedded within thylakoids, the lipids that make up these membranes are of profound importance. (pnas.org)
  • A manifestation of heat damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. (springer.com)
  • The photosynthetic apparatus of purple bacteria is located in the internal (i.e. cytoplasmic) membrane and in chromatophores-intracellular vesicles that split off that membrane. (slideshare.net)
  • In the second half of the 1940s, Alexander Krasnovsky (Fig. 2.1) discovered reactions of pho- toinduced chlorophyll oxidation and reduction (Krasnovsky 1948), this discovery being the first step in the understanding of the mechanism of functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus. (slideshare.net)
  • The spectral properties of the different subunits of the cyanobacterial photosynthetic apparatus have been analyzed in the past (observe e.g. (bio-storage.com)
  • However, its excess seems also to be particularly damaging to the photosynthetic apparatus (Mukhopadhyay and Sharma, 1991). (conicyt.cl)
  • Rhodobacter capsulatus regA - or regB -deficient mutants recovered the synthesis of a photosynthetic apparatus that still retained regulation by oxygen tension when complemented with reg genes from Rhodovulum sulfidophilum and Roseobacter denitrificans . (asm.org)
  • Many species of purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria regulate the synthesis of their photosynthetic apparatus in response to alterations in oxygen tension and light intensity. (asm.org)
  • A group of obligate aerobic bacteria, represented in this study by Roseobacter denitrificans , have been found to synthesize a photosynthetic apparatus aerobically. (asm.org)
  • However, this bacterium synthesizes much less of the photosynthetic apparatus under these growth conditions than under aerobic conditions (data not shown) ( 58 , 60 ). (asm.org)
  • Intact cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as well as isolated thylakoid membranes and photosystem II complexes were used to examine a possible mechanism of anthracene (ANT) interaction with the photosynthetic apparatus. (diva-portal.org)
  • Together with Michel and Huber, Deisenhofer determined the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex found in certain photosynthetic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galactose-containing lipids are the predominant nonproteinaceous components of photosynthetic membranes in plants, algae, and a variety of bacteria. (pnas.org)
  • For example, acidic lipids can be found in thylakoid membranes, cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic bacteria and are involved in the functional integrity of the photosystems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The famous tropical forests (African and South American jungles) as well as the World's ocean do not play an important role in this process due to the presence of vast numbers of heterotrophic bacteria that absorb that very oxygen that is produced by photosynthetic organ- isms. (slideshare.net)
  • Enzymatic reactions associated with arsenate and mercuric detoxification are rare or unique compared to other purple bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This thesis dealt with the evidence of excitation energy transfer in many photosynthetic systems, including anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. (illinois.edu)
  • The RCs found in plants, algae and photosynthetic bacteria use energy derived from sunlight to power a process of membrane-spanning electron transfer [ 1 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The overall electron transfer process is cyclic in purple photosynthetic bacteria, involving the RC, the intramembrane quinone pool, a membrane-embedded cytochrome bc 1 complex and a water-soluble mobile redox protein such as cytochrome c 2 . (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Genes coding for putative RegA, RegB, and SenC homologues were identified and characterized in the purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria Rhodovulum sulfidophilum and Roseobacter denitrificans , species that demonstrate weak or no oxygen repression of photosystem synthesis. (asm.org)
  • These are photosynthetic bacteria that exhibit a high level of oxygen repression of photosystem synthesis controlled by the RegA-RegB two-component regulatory system. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, these "aerobic photosynthetic bacteria" cannot utilize light as the sole energy source for growth. (asm.org)
  • Although the molecular basis for different responses of photosynthetic bacteria to oxygen is unknown, previous studies with Rhodobacter capsulatus and R. sphaeroides have indicated that the molecular mechanism of the oxygen inhibition of photosystem synthesis is controlled, in large part, by regulating the transcription of photosynthesis genes. (asm.org)
  • Our basic mission in this program is to couple our chemical and biophysical expertise to understand how not only the primary structure of nucleic acids, but also higher levels of structure including interactions with proteins and other nucleic acids regulate the functional activity of genes. (unt.edu)
  • Although all lines showed globally similar low nitrogen-dependent changes in transcripts and metabolites, the increased abundance of FAR-RED IMPAIRED RESPONSE1-like transcripts in nitrogen-deficient W1-7 leaves infers that WHIRLY1 has a role in communication between plastid and nuclear genes encoding photosynthetic proteins during abiotic stress. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This pretreatment has been shown to induce the expression of several nuclear heat shock protein 70 ( HSP70 ) genes, including HSP70B , encoding a chloroplast-localized chaperone. (plantcell.org)
  • Hence, although there is enormous genetic diversity in nature, there remains a relatively stable set of core genes coding for the major redox reactions essential for life and biogeochemical cycles. (sciencemag.org)
  • Genes encoding proteins involved in chemotaxis as well as a sophisticated dual flagellar system have also been mapped. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In total, less than a fifth of all protein-coding genes were differentially expressed during the first 72 hr. (g3journal.org)
  • In this system, chloroplasts (or plastids) are transformed with genes for herbicide resistance as in the selection marker process because most target proteins for herbicides are compartmentalized within this organelle. (personalshopperbudget.it)
  • We therefore implemented a search system that is independent of protein-coding genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results suggest that differential expression of photosynthetic genes in response to aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions is not the result of altered redox sensing by the sensor kinase protein, RegB. (asm.org)
  • Light Harvesting Complexes in Chlorophyll c-containing Algae 9. (routledge.com)
  • Photosynthetic energy conversion in plants and algae forms the basis for almost all life on earth. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although in vitro evidence for both models exists, the lack of clear data supporting the occurrence of reaction-center quenching in vivo ( 15 ), as well as the isolation of mutants of both higher plants and green algae highly perturbed in NPQ development because of deficiencies in the xanthophyll cycle ( 6 ), has brought about a general consensus that the major form of quenching occurs in the PSII antenna. (pnas.org)
  • While some in vitro studies have questioned the significance of NPQ in the protection of PSII against photodamage [ 8 ], it is commonly accepted that qE, the major, rapidly reversible NPQ component, reflects a key molecular protective process in the photosynthetic membrane of higher plants and algae, which enables rapid adjustment of light harvesting efficiency to incidental light intensity [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Symbioses between a variety of marine invertebrates, including Cnidarians, and unicellular photosynthetic algae are common in the marine environment. (biologists.org)
  • The consequences of this change on the macrophytic red algae, that possess accessory light harvesting complexes, are currently uncertain. (photobiology.com)
  • Under laboratory conditions diurnal changes of these ratios were well correlated with diurnal changes in photosynthetic pigment content in the red algae Porphyra laciniata and Chondrus crispus [5]. (photobiology.com)
  • Bengis, C and Nelson, N (1975) Purification and properties of photosystem I reaction center from chloroplasts. (springer.com)
  • Chua, N-H and Schmidt, GW (1979) Transport of proteins into mitochondria and chloroplasts. (springer.com)
  • Cline, K (1986) Import of proteins into chloroplasts. (springer.com)
  • The lipid monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGD) is a major structural component of photosynthetic membranes in chloroplasts. (pnas.org)
  • Such degradation brings about a drastic modification of lipid-protein organization of chloroplasts as reflected from a blue shift of absorption peaks and lowering of chlorophyll-a fluorescence intensity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Such a binding of metal ion exposes the lipid-protein complex for an easier entry and attack of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during incubation of chloroplasts in light and dark, thereby resulting in higher disorganization, which is evident from cation- induced changes in absorption and emission characteristics of the organelle. (bvsalud.org)
  • A modification of water oxidation complex in spinach chloroplasts by rose bengal (RB), a known histidine modifying agent, has been studied using thermoluminescence (TL) technique. (bvsalud.org)
  • Native chloroplasts, subchloroplast particles, enriched in PS II and RC complexes, containing about 40 chlorophyll a (Chl) molecules per photoactive primary electron donor were used. (eurekamag.com)
  • Disulfide transfer pathways that function in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and chloroplasts of plants play critical roles in the development of protein storage organelles and the biogenesis of chloroplasts, respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of the various disulfide transfer pathways involved in oxidative protein folding in the ER, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of plants. (hindawi.com)
  • Hashimoto, A., Ettinger, W.F., Yamamoto, Y. and Theg, S. M. (1997) Assembly of newly imported oxygen-evolving complex subunits in isolated chloroplasts: sites of assembly and mechanism of binding. (gonzaga.edu)
  • The light reactions, which convert the energy in light into chemical energy, take place within the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts, whereas the dark reactions, which use that chemical energy to fix CO 2 into organic molecules, take place in the stroma of the chloroplast. (biologyreference.com)
  • Photochemically active chlorophyll-containing proteins from chloroplasts and their localization in the thylakoid membrane. (uni-bremen.de)
  • 264."Trapping the P + B L - Initial Intermediate State of Charge Separation in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers from Rhodobacter capsulatus", Brett Carter, Steven Boxer, Dewey Holten, and Christine Kirmaier, Biochemistry , 48 (12), 2571-2573, (2009). (stanford.edu)
  • 236. "High Yield of M-Side Electron Transfer in Mutants of Rhodobacter Capsulatus Reaction Centers Lacking the L-Side Bacteriopheophytin", Jessica I. Chuang, Steven G. Boxer, Dewey Holten, and Christine Kirmaier, Biochemistry , 45 , 12, 3845-3851 (2006). (stanford.edu)
  • Structural arrangement of the cofactors in the reaction center of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides with the L, M, and H protein subunits. (nationalballetconservatory.com)
  • Membrane-associated cytochrome cy of Rhodobacter capsulatus is an electron carrier from the cytochrome bc1 complex to the cytochrome c oxidase during respiration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A novel membrane-associated c-type cytochrome, cyt cy, can mediate the photosynthetic growth of Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rhodobacter sphaeroides. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification of nitric oxide reductase activity in Rhodobacter capsulatus: the electron transport pathway can either use or bypass both cytochrome c2 and the cytochrome bc1 complex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Structure of the reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26: the protein subunits. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This review provides a short overview of the structure and mechanism of the purple bacterial RC, focusing in the main on the most heavily studied complex from Rhodobacter sphaeroides . (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • These mutants produced smaller amounts of photopigments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating that the RegA-RegB regulon controls photosynthetic gene expression in this bacterium as it does as in Rhodobacter species. (asm.org)
  • In higher plants, the photosystem I complex is composed of eight protein subunits, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phylloquinone and bound iron sulfur clusters. (springer.com)
  • Transcripts encoding specific subsets of chloroplast-localized proteins, such as ribosomal proteins, subunits of the RNA polymerase, and thylakoid nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) and cytochrome b 6 / f complexes, were much more abundant in the W1-7 leaves than the wild type. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In contrast, at least under low light conditions, photosystem II subunits are still present and assemble into a physiologically active complex. (rupress.org)
  • One major obstacle in crystallizing membrane proteins was that they are actually membrane proteins and lipids together, meaning the membrane is partly hydrophobic and it is thus impossible to create an aqueous solution. (lindau-nobel.org)
  • Up to 80% of all lipids in plants are associated with photosynthetic membranes, and MGD is widely considered to be the most abundant membrane lipid on earth. (pnas.org)
  • [6] Lipids forming the thylakoid membranes, richest in high-fluidity linolenic acid [7] are synthesized in a complex pathway involving exchange of lipid precursors between the endoplasmic reticulum and inner membrane of the plastid envelope and transported from the inner membrane to the thylakoids via vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biological membrane is composed of lipids and proteins. (slideshare.net)
  • or anabolic - the building up (synthesis) of compounds (such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • Both triplet chlorophyll and singlet oxygen can abstract hydrogen from unsaturated lipids, producing a lipid radical and initiating a chain reaction of lipid peroxidation. (weedscience.org)
  • Lipids and proteins are attacked and oxidized, resulting in loss of chlorophyll and carotenoids and in leaky membranes which allow cells and cell organelles to dry and disintegrate rapidly. (weedscience.org)
  • 1991), photoactive yellow protein (PYP) from the purple photoautotropic bacterium, Ectothiorhodospila halophilia (McRee et al . (springer.com)
  • Rhodospirillum centenum is a photosynthetic non-sulfur purple bacterium that favors growth in an anoxygenic, photosynthetic N 2 -fixing environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acne vulgaris (commonly called acne) provides a promising disease model to study the interactions between the host and the skin microbiota in disease pathogenesis because the microbiota is less complex and the disease has been associated with a single dominant bacterium, Propionibacterium acnes ( 2 , 6 - 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In both ohp1 and ohp2 mutants, the levels of numerous photosystem components were strongly reduced and photosynthetic electron transport was almost undetectable. (frontiersin.org)
  • The absorption of light in excess of the capacity of the photosynthetic electron transport chain can be harmful to plants (reviewed in refs. (pnas.org)
  • Together, these reactions are termed 'photosynthetic electron transport', and are the source of chemical energy in the forms NADPH and ATP, which are used for CO 2 assimilation in the Calvin-Benson cycle 3 . (nature.com)
  • Electrons from photosystem II are passed down a longer electron transport chain, eventually arriving at photosystem I, where they replace the electrons given up by photosystem I's reaction center. (biologyreference.com)
  • Photosynthetic electron transport regulates chloroplast gene transcription through the action of a bacterial-type sensor kinase known as chloroplast sensor kinase (CSK). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Herbicide binding at this protein location blocks electron transport from Q A to Q B and stops CO 2 fixation and production of ATP and NADPH 2 which are all needed for plant growth. (weedscience.org)
  • On the other hand, stimulation of oxygen uptake by ANT-treated thylakoids suggested that ANT could either act as an artificial electron acceptor in the photosynthetic electron transport chain or function as an uncoupler. (diva-portal.org)
  • The molecular biology and biochemistry of the complex are discussed in relation to the structure and function of the individual components. (springer.com)
  • Since 1987 he has been director of the Molecular Membrane Biology department at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysics in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, and professor of biochemistry at the Goethe University Frankfurt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integral Membrane Proteins Significantly Decrease the Molecular Motion in Lipid Bilayers: A Deuteron NMR Relaxation Study of Membranes Containing Myelin Proteolipid Apoprotein, Proc. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Structural characterization of the CsmA baseplate is very challenging, due to the complex and heterogeneous composition of the native molecular assembly that precludes analysis with traditional techniques such as X-ray crystallography or liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (nature.com)
  • Since x-ray crystallography was, and still is, the best way to reveal the molecular structure of proteins, neither their structure nor their function could be determined without crystallization. (lindau-nobel.org)
  • Therefore, HSP70B may participate in vivo both in the molecular protection of the photosystem II reaction centers during photoinhibition and in the process of photosystem II repair. (plantcell.org)
  • Selective molecular communication between disulfide-generating enzymes and disulfide carrier proteins, which reflects the molecular and structural diversity of disulfide carrier proteins, is key to the efficient transfer of disulfides to specific sets of substrates. (hindawi.com)
  • VMD is a molecular graphics program designed for the display and analysis of molecular assemblies, in particular biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids. (uiuc.edu)
  • In the light reactions, the energy of light is used to 'split water,' stripping a pair of electrons from it (and causing the two hydrogens to be lost), thus generating molecular oxygen. (biologyreference.com)
  • Integration of Photosynthetic Protein Molecular Complexes in Solid-State Electronic Devices", Nano Letters, 4(6): 1079-1083, 2004. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Their RCs (reaction centres) and attendant light-harvesting complexes have been subjected to an intensive spectroscopic scrutiny, coupled with genetic manipulation and structural studies, that has revealed many of the molecular and mechanistic details of biological energy transfer, electron transfer and coupled proton translocation. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • [13] In 1837, Jean-Baptiste Dumas - the science concerned with the laws and effects of molecular forces [14] , in 1947, it came to mean the science of substances: their structure, their properties, and the reactions that change them into other substances - a characterization accepted by Linus Pauling . (periodic.im)
  • Molecular biology of chloroplast biogenesis: gene expression, protein import and intraorganellar sorting. (unipd.it)
  • We focus on molecular machines involved in protein targeting, insertion and membrane translocation. (db-engine.de)
  • Our goal is to deduce the molecular and structural framework of this multistep regulatory pathway that ensures the fidelity of protein transport. (db-engine.de)
  • Short and long term responses, and potential strategies and mechanisms for adaptation to light at individual, cellular and molecular levels, are discussed with special reference to the photosynthetic equipment. (photobiology.com)
  • Lower curves: In situ absorption spectra (eluted from gel slices) for pigment-protein complexes corresponding to photosystem II reaction centre (PSII RC) and light-harvesting chlorophyll ( a,b )-protein complexes (LHC). (edu.au)
  • These complexes can be classified as follows: two photosystems, PSII and PSI which are large pigment-binding protein complexes [ ≫ 500 kDa (Heinemeyer et al. (springer.com)
  • The light-harvesting complexes are functionally connected to the cores of PSII and PSI forming "supercomplexes" (Gao et al. (springer.com)
  • Such a large pigment/protein ratio results in crowded supercomplexes, e.g., in the example of the largest PSII supercomplex isolated from plants (Caffarri et al. (springer.com)
  • Its appearance was not accompanied by zeaxanthin synthesis but was associated with a reversible inactivation of a fraction of photosystem II (PSII) centers. (pnas.org)
  • We interpret the induction of this phenomenon as due to the generation of a quenched state in the PSII core complex. (pnas.org)
  • Two classes of model were proposed, depending on whether the quencher was assumed to be associated with the reaction center ( 13 ) or to occur within the chlorophyll antenna bed of PSII ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • PsbH and PsbB are essential requirements for PSII assembly in photosynthetic eukaryotes, and their absence in hcf107 is consistent with the PSII-less mutant phenotype. (plantcell.org)
  • The oxidized P700 in PSI accepts electrons from PSII via plastoquinone, the cytochrome b 6 / f complex, and plastocyanin (or cytochrome c 6 ). (nature.com)
  • From this perspective Photosystem II (PSII) is "energy squeezed", having insufficient energy in the 680nm photon to be able to achieve i) high quantum yield charge separation, ii) PSII chemistry (reduction of quinone and oxidation of water), and iii) the appropriate driving forces (over-potentials), while at the same time avoiding 1 O 2 -mediated photodamage from back-reactions. (royalsociety.org)
  • 1993)] or without PSII [ΔPSII without CP47 and CP43 proteins and with at most 10? (bio-storage.com)
  • This excess energy potentially causes damage to the photosynthetic reaction centres, particularly of photosystem II (PSII), leading to the sustained decline of its efficiency (photoinhibition), undermining plant well-being and impacting their diversity in the natural environment and the productivity of crops [ 3 - 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Even solid-state NMR, such as cross-polarization magic angle spin NMR, to compensate the anisotropy, has limited success in obtaining structural information about prosthetic groups in membrane proteins, such as retinal in bacteriorhodopsin (Harbison et al . (springer.com)
  • The need for large quantities of structural informations and the necessity to tackle more and more complex problems are a strong incenti ve to develop new methods in order to overcome the varfous bottlenecks of a structure determi nati on. (exlibris.ch)
  • This structure has three essential functions: (i) ensuring the structural integrity of the chlorosome organelle, (ii) connecting the chlorosomes to the photosynthetic reaction centre in the cell membrane and (iii) transferring excitation energy from the protein-free BChl c/d/e antennae towards the reaction centre. (nature.com)
  • The half-lives of mRNA can vary in response to environmental cues or in different growth phases not only because of altered levels of ribonucleases and altered interaction with sRNAs or proteins, but also because of RNA modifications, structural changes, or cellular localization of RNAs or RNA-degrading enzymes and enzyme complexes (reviewed in Mohanty & Kushner [2016] ). (life-science-alliance.org)
  • Redox potentials of the photosynthetic bacterial cytochromes c2 and the structural bases for variability. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In: Structural tools for the analysis of protein-nucleic acid complexes, S. 109 - 126. (mpg.de)
  • The combination of structural biology to elucidate the three-dimensional architecture of macromolecular complexes with functional analyses provides the mechanistic principles. (db-engine.de)
  • Assembling the photosynthetic complexes in the thylakoid membrane requires a tight coordination of protein synthesis and folding with pigment synthesis and delivery. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, the reactivation of photosystem II after photoinhibition was enhanced in the HSP70B -overexpressing strain when compared with the wild type, both in the presence or absence of synthesis of chloroplast-encoded proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • The resulting deficiency in EPSP production leads to reductions in aromatic amino acids that are vital for protein synthesis and plant. (personalshopperbudget.it)
  • To the best of my knowledge, the word carbogen ("During the last fifty years complex carbogen synthesis has extended its frontier to near the conceivable limit. (docme.ru)
  • Structured noncoding RNAs perform many functions that are essential for protein synthesis, RNA processing, and gene regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the sites of quinone reduction/protonation and quinol oxidation/deprotonation are on opposite sides of the membrane, protons are translocated from the bacterial cytoplasm to the periplasmic space, generating an electrochemical gradient of protons (the protonmotive force) that can be used to power reactions such as the synthesis of ATP. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • some compounds in this group may also inhibit carotenoid biosynthesis (fluometuron) or synthesis of anthocyanin, RNA, and proteins (propanil), as well as effects on the plasmalemma (propanil) (Devine et al. (weedscience.org)
  • EPSP inhibition leads to depletion of the aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, all needed for protein synthesis or for biosynthetic pathways leading to growth. (weedscience.org)
  • Lee 1980) suggests that factors other than protein synthesis inhibition may be involved. (weedscience.org)
  • N is a necessary component of proteins, enzymes, and metabolic products involved in the synthesis and transfer of energy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The SRP system is regulated by a unique set of GTP binding proteins which communicate with an RNA to coordinate protein synthesis at the ribosome with membrane insertion by the translocon. (db-engine.de)
  • Galactolipids play an important role in the organization of photosynthetic membranes. (pnas.org)
  • 1966). Protein Conformations in Cellular Membranes, Proc. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by damage to both photosynthetic and mitochondrial membranes, is shown to play a central role in both injury to the partners and to inter-partner communication of a stress response. (biologists.org)
  • ROS causes major cellular damage including oxidizing membranes, denaturing proteins and damaging nucleic acids ( Lesser, 2006 ). (biologists.org)
  • Three-dimensional structures of seven membrane protein complexes have been determined. (springer.com)
  • The photosynthetic reaction center is a membrane protein as well - the very first membrane protein whose structure could be elucidated. (lindau-nobel.org)
  • Assembly Pathway of Newly Synthesized LamB Protein, an Outer Membrane Protein of Escherichia coli K-12, J. Mol. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Evaluation of Methods for the Prediction of Membrane Protein Secondary Structures, Proc. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Fish, LE, Kuch, U and Bogarad, L (1985b) Analysis of the two partially homologous P700 chlorophyll a proteins of maize photosystem I: predictions based on the primary sequences and features shared by other chlorophyll proteins. (springer.com)
  • Obviously, chlorophyll in leaves is not in solution but exists in a gel-like state where all pigment molecules are linked to proteins, and absorption spectra differ accordingly (see Evans and Anderson 1987). (edu.au)
  • Most photosynthetic antennas consist of a protein scaffold upon which pigment molecules are organized. (nature.com)
  • In the chemical sciences investigators are increasing our understanding of the fundamental chemistry of electronically excited molecules, a critical dimension of every photosynthetic energy storage process. (unt.edu)
  • Crystal structures of protein and nucleic acid molecules and their complexes are central to the practice of most parts of biophysics, and have shaped much of what we understand scientifically at the atomic-detail level of biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carotenoid binding to proteins can confer solubility in the aqueous cellular environment (most carotenoid molecules are highly apolar). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Carotenoids are highly involved in the first steps of the photosynthetic process, where they assume a paradoxical double function: they play a role as light harvesters [ 14 - 18 ], and at the same time they act as photoprotective molecules via a number of different mechanisms, including excitation energy quenching. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Carotenoids have also been reported to stabilize protein structures, because many photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes do not fold properly without these molecules [ 34 - 36 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It is within this reaction that carbon molecules (as acetyl CoA) obtained from pyruvate oxidation are fed into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA or citric acid) cycle. (nationalballetconservatory.com)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our realisation of the significance of oxygen in disorders and stress-induced dysfunctions in cultivated plants is recent due in no small part to the difficulty in detecting and tracing oxygen molecules, to the multitude of forms and intermediates that oxygen can assume, and to the extreme reactivity and rate of the chemical reactions involved. (plantstress.com)
  • When the reaction-center chlorophyll absorbs light or receives energy from its accessory molecules, a pair of electrons on it becomes excited. (biologyreference.com)
  • Bengis, C and Nelson, N (1977) Subunit structure of chloroplast photosystem I reaction center. (springer.com)
  • Bradbeer, JW (1981) Development of photosynthetic function during chloroplast biogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Membrane integration of thylakoid precursor protein reconstituted in chloroplast lysates. (springer.com)
  • Bellafiore S, Barneche F, Peltier ZG, Rochaix J-D (2005) State transitions and light adaptation require chloroplast thylakoid protein kinase STN7. (edu.pl)
  • Plants are unique among eukaryotes in having evolved organelles: the protein storage vacuole, protein body, and chloroplast. (hindawi.com)
  • Although chloroplast genomes are miniscule by eukaryotic standards, they encode some of the core proteins of the photosynthetic machinery [ 6 , 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • First, the reading frame is conserved in all land plant chloroplast genomes ( 15 ) and displays a high degree of DNA homology as well as putative protein sequence homology ( 23 ). (rupress.org)
  • Some cyanobacteria overcome this challenge by expressing paralogous photosynthetic proteins and by synthesizing and incorporating ~8% chlorophyll f into their Photosystem I (PSI) complexes, enabling them to grow under far-red light (FRL). (sciencemag.org)
  • Cyanobacteria are suffering from responses to keep up the balance between the energy absorbed and the energy used in different pigment-protein complexes. (bio-storage.com)
  • For the systematic study provided the multiplicity and a number of systems cyanobacteria possess to regulate the photosynthetic electron transportation (Kirilovsky et al. (bio-storage.com)
  • Identifying Regions of Membrane Proteins in Contact with Phospholipid Head Groups: Covalent Attachment of a New Class of Aldehyde Lipid Labels to Cytochrome Oxidase, Biochemistry, 25, 182 193. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Localization of Photosystem 1 and of the Cytochrome b -f Complex, Biochim. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Cytochrome c oxidase is part of Complex IV. (lindau-nobel.org)
  • These data and additional experiments with the cytochrome b 6 f complex mutant hcf152 , which is defective in 3′ psbH processing, suggest that only those psbH -containing transcripts that are processed at their −45 5′ ends can be translated. (plantcell.org)
  • A new electrogenic step in the ubiquinol:cytochrome c2 oxidoreductase complex of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In biological systems such as cytochrome c oxidase that mediate a series of ET reactions, the reduction potentials of successive electron acceptors are often only slightly higher than the potential of the upstream donor. (ictinike.org)
  • These products provide a reductant and an oxidant respectively for the cytochrome bc 1 complex [ 7 - 10 ], with quinol oxidation occurring at the so-called Q o site on the periplasmic side of the membrane (also referred to as the Q p site in some texts). (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The number of protons translocated across the membrane per electron passing through the RC is increased through the operation of a Q-cycle in the cytochrome bc 1 complex [ 7 , 11 , 12 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • All the enzymes of the Krebs TCA cycle have been shown to bind specifically to proteins of the matrix surface of the mitochondrial inner membrane (D'Souza and Srere, 1983). (nationalballetconservatory.com)
  • 1987). A reduced amount of ADP causes accumulation of precursor NADH which in turn can inhibit a number of enzymes. (nationalballetconservatory.com)
  • Enzymes act as catalysts - they allow a reaction to proceed more rapidly - and they also allow the regulation of the rate of a metabolic reaction, for example in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the first organelle in the secretory pathway, and this dynamic and highly specialized organelle contains enzymes and chaperones that mediate the folding and assembly of newly synthesized proteins [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In plants, it participates in the structure of photosynthetic proteins and enzymes. (conicyt.cl)
  • Based on these data, we propose that OHP1 and OHP2 play an essential role in the assembly or stabilization of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, especially photosystem reaction centers, in the thylakoid membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • During the light-dependent reaction, protons are pumped across the thylakoid membrane into the lumen making it acidic down to pH 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • VIPP1 appears to be required for basic thylakoid membrane formation, but not for the assembly of protein complexes of the thylakoid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction is probably caused by the transient overacidification of the thylakoid lumen, whereas its dissipation results from the relaxation of both the pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane and redox pressure upon activation of carbon fixation. (pnas.org)
  • The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge regarding the structure, functions and degradation of this family of proteins. (edu.pl)
  • However, a subset of membrane proteins involved in important physiological processes ranging from intracellular trafficking to protein degradation and programmed cell death lack such a signal sequence. (db-engine.de)
  • Circular Dichroism Analysis of Membrane Proteins: An Examination of Differential Light Scattering and Absorption Flattening Effects in Large Membrane Vesicles and Membrane Sheets, Anal. (bio-cat.ru)
  • The most common result of such carotenoid-protein interactions is a red-shift of the carotenoid absorption maximum-such as the shift in absorption of the carotenoid astaxanthin from 480 to 630 nm in crustacyanin, the blue carotenoid protein complex in the shell of the lobster Homarus gammarus or Homarus americanus [ 9 - 13 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 174. "Excited State Electronic Asymmetry of the Special Pair in Photosynthetic Reaction Center Mutants: Absorption and Stark Spectroscopy", Laura J. Moore, Huilin Zhou, and Steven G. Boxer, Biochemistry , 38 , 11949-11960 (1999). (stanford.edu)
  • Energy migration and electron transfer processes in photosystem II (PS) reaction: centers (RC) were studied using picosecond fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. (eurekamag.com)
  • S3 transition of photosynthetic water oxidation revealed by time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy. (fu-berlin.de)
  • attaches to the so-called Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein complex, which is the last antenna before the energy reaches the reaction centre ( Fig. 1a,b ) 2 . (nature.com)
  • Anderson J, Walters RG, Horton P, Jansson S (2001) Antisense inhibition of the photosynthetic antenna proteins CP29 and CP26: implications for the mechanism of protective energy dissipation. (edu.pl)
  • Reaction-center quenching seems therefore to be a common transient feature during illumination, being replaced by other phenomena (photochemical or antenna quenching and photoinhibition), depending on the balance between light and carbon fixation fluxes. (pnas.org)
  • The RC is fed with energy by one or more types of light-harvesting or 'antenna' pigment-proteins, and a number of recent reviews have covered the structure and organization of the purple bacterial photosystem [ 2 - 6 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Reaction Centers: Structure and Mechanism 10. (routledge.com)
  • 175. "The Mechanism of Triplet Energy Transfer from the Special Pair to the Carotenoid in Bacterial Reaction Centers", Alex deWinter and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Physical Chemistry , 103 , 8786-8789 (1999). (stanford.edu)
  • In the second mechanism (the efflux system), transport proteins pump C14 Amine dehydrogenase and C15 macrolides out of the cell (M phenotype). (egfr-inhibitor.com)
  • This chronological list of biophysically notable protein and nucleic acid structures is loosely based on a review in the Biophysical Journal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carotenoids also participate in photosynthetic energy transduction. (edu.au)
  • b ) Cartoon of a carotenosome showing CsmA (green), non-CsmA polypeptides (magenta), the surrounding lipid monolayer (red), BChl a rods (dark green), carotenoids (brown), the FMO complex (grey) and the reaction centres (dark blue) in the cytoplasmic membrane. (nature.com)
  • In the second part of the review, we use a number of specific examples to show that the relationships can be used to disentangle the different mechanisms tuning the functional properties of protein-bound carotenoids. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence approach has been applied for the past 5 years to quantify the photoprotective effectiveness of the NPQ and the light tolerance in Arabidopsis plants grown under various light conditions, during ontogenetic development as well as in a range of mutants impaired in carotenoid and protein biosynthesis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ) is a phenomenon that reflects a process of prompt absorbed light energy dissipation into heat, which takes place during high light exposure in the photosynthetic membrane [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • According to semiclassical Marcus theory, the energies of the products and reactants can be plotted as a function of an abstract reaction coordinate which takes into account the positions of all nuclei relevant to the system (the donor and acceptor plus a solvation sphere). (ictinike.org)
  • this excitation energy is eventually trapped by a reaction centre pigment-protein complex and converted into an electrical potential [ 19 , 20 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The R. sphaeroides RC is a membrane-embedded pigment-protein complex made up of three polypeptide chains and ten cofactors ( Figure 1 A). The X-ray crystal structure is known to a resolution of approx. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Polarized Expression of a Chimeric Protein in Which the Transmembrane and Cytoplasmic Domains of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Have Been Replaced by Those of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus G Protein, Proc. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Basolateral Expression of a Chimeric Protein in Which the Transmembrane and Cytoplasmic Domains of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus G Protein Have Been Replased by Those of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin, J. Biol. (bio-cat.ru)
  • The proteins of the ELIP family were proposed to function in photoprotection or assembly of thylakoid pigment-protein complexes and are further divided into subgroups with one to three transmembrane helices. (frontiersin.org)
  • This may be attributed to heat-induced changes of pigment microenvironment and protein secondary structure, especially transmembrane α-helix located in PsaA/B of PS1. (springer.com)
  • In addition to other activities, they assist in the correct folding of nascent polypeptide chains as they emerge from the ribosome, they participate in transmembrane protein transport, and they prevent aggregation of denatured proteins and allow the disassembly of multimolecular complexes. (plantcell.org)
  • The Distribution of Positively Charged Residues in Bacterial Inner Membrane Proteins Correlates with the Transmembrane Topology, The EMBO Journal, 5, 3021 3027. (bio-cat.ru)
  • It is essentially a lipid bilayer with transmembrane proteins floating in it. (slideshare.net)
  • De Las Rivas, J., Barber, J.: Structure and thermal stability of photosystem II reaction centres studied by infrared spectroscopy. (springer.com)
  • Evidence also suggests that MGD is more directly involved in certain photosynthetic reactions ( 5 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • The analysis method introduced with this work allows to interpret SRF data in terms of R406 species-associated spectra of open/closed reaction centers (RCs) (un)quenched PB and state 1 versus state 2. (bio-storage.com)
  • 287. "Photochemistry of a Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Center Missing the Initial Bacteriochlorophyll Electron Acceptor", Brett Carter, Steven G. Boxer, Dewey Holten, and Christine Kirmaier, J. Phys. (stanford.edu)
  • HSP70s are involved in almost every step of protein biogenesis (reviewed in Hartl, 1996 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Ribonuclease S, the cleaved, two-component form studied by Fred Richards, was also enzymatically active, had a nearly identical crystal structure (PDB file 1RNS), and was shown to be catalytically active even in the crystal, helping dispel doubts about the relevance of protein crystal structures to biological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • Aerobic biological electron transfer systems avoid side-reactions with O 2 by redox tuning. (royalsociety.org)
  • Platinization: A Novel Technique to Anchor Photosystem I Reaction Centres Onto a Metal Surface at Biological Temperature and pH", Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 11(4): 375-387, 1996. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Manganese biogeochemistry in soils is complex, because it is present in several oxidation states (0, II, III, IV, VI and VII), while in biological systems it occurs preferably as II, III and IV. (conicyt.cl)
  • NO can exert its biological function through different ways, such as the modulation of gene expression, the mobilization of second messengers, or interplays with protein kinases. (mdpi.com)
  • Both forms of chlorophyll are involved in light harvesting, whereas special forms of only Chl a are linked into energy-processing centres of photosystems. (edu.au)
  • Differential Scanning Calorimetric Studies of Lipid-Protein Interactions in Model Membrane Systems, Biochim. (bio-cat.ru)
  • We then discuss the factors that affect redox potentials of these ET centers including metal ion, the ligands to metal center and interactions beyond the primary ligand, especially non-covalent secondary coordination sphere interactions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The remaining two sequential reactions are the putative interactions with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). (nationalballetconservatory.com)
  • [1] [2] It includes the properties of different levels of matter - atoms , chemical bonds and compounds , intermolecular forces that give matter its general properties, and the interactions between substances through chemical reactions to form different substances. (periodic.im)
  • The photosynthetic membrane, or thylakoid, is a continuous membrane system consisting of a lipid bilayer composed mainly of galactolipids and phospholipids (Duchêne and Siegenthaler 2000 ), with embedded protein complexes and cofactors. (springer.com)
  • Although susceptibility of aphid ( Myzus persicae ) infestation was similar in all lines, the WHIRLY1-deficient plants showed altered responses to nitrogen deficiency, maintaining higher photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation rates than the wild type under limiting nitrogen. (plantphysiol.org)
  • However, relatively few ssDNA binding proteins have been characterized in plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Plants cannot survive without this protein, and reduced VIPP1 levels lead to slower growth and paler plants with reduced ability to photosynthesize. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo protein labeling, in vitro phosphorylation, and immunoblot experiments revealed that the psbB gene product (CP47) and an 8-kD phosphoprotein, the psbH gene product (PsbH), are absent in mutant plants. (plantcell.org)
  • Nevertheless, even the dark reactions will cease if the plants are deprived of light for too long because they rely on the products of the light reactions. (biologyreference.com)
  • The mechanisms regulating these processes are complex, but it is vital that they are well understood to improve NUE in plants [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These reactions underpin the "power plants" and "power grids" of bioenergetics, and they challenge us to understand how evolution manipulates structure to control ET kinetics. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • a) Pigment-protein complexes are organized as photosynthetic units and consist either as photosynthetic reaction centers or as light-harvesting complexes. (hindawi.com)
  • Similarly, centers with less positive values of E° are often referred to as low E° centers and their oxidation is more favorable, hence are better reductants [ 25 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions. (iupac.org)
  • Chitins, PR, Nechushtai, R and Thornber, JP (1987) Insertion of the precursor of the lightharvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein into the thylakoids requires the presence of a developmentally regulated stromal factor. (springer.com)
  • Grana thylakoids and stroma thylakoids can be distinguished by their different protein composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane and vesicle formation from fragments and proteins of thylakoids. (uni-bremen.de)
  • They also were the first protein structures that showed two near-identical domains, presumably related by gene duplication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within these structures, single-stranded DNA ( ssDNA ) binding proteins are responsible for binding and stabilizing the ssDNA until it is used by DNA polymerase or other proteins involved in DNA recombination and repair. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Chlorophylls in a Protein Environment: How to Calculate Their Spectral and Redox Properties (From MO to DFT) 3. (routledge.com)
  • Each class of ET proteins transfer electrons between different redox partners which possess different reduction potentials (E°) ( Figure 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Therefore, the ET centers need to adjust their E° in a way that matches those of their redox partners. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The major focus of this review is to summarize recent work in designing the ET centers, the factors that affect redox potentials of ET centers, and strategies to fine-tune them, including several case studies that illustrate recent successes in this area. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Axial ligation and redox changes at the cobalt ion in cobalamin bound to corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CoFeSP) or in solution characterized by XAS and DFT. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Western blotting experiments, performed with antibodies raised against SynK, revealed that expression of the channel protein is correlated with growth and seems to be regulated by redox-state. (unipd.it)
  • One very effective way to 'deal' with free oxygen is the production of 'oxygen reductases': proteins that reduce oxygen to water, and simultaneously conserve the energy inherent in this chemical reaction. (lindau-nobel.org)
  • The first stage of the photosynthetic system is the light-dependent reaction, which converts solar energy into chemical energy. (statemaster.com)
  • Anderson JM, Andersson B (1988) The dynamic photosynthetic membrane and regulation of solar energy conversion. (edu.pl)
  • This reaction was identified as a form of high-energy-state quenching. (pnas.org)
  • 220."Excited-State Energy Transfer Pathways in Photosynthetic reaction Centers: 5. (stanford.edu)
  • 182. "Excited State Energy Transfer Pathways in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers. (stanford.edu)
  • The basal metabolic rate of an organism is the measure of the amount of energy consumed by all of these chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orange line shows photon energy and red line shows photosynthetic activity. (nature.com)
  • The occurrence of anomalously energy-inefficient reactions in aerobic bioenergetics can be understood in these terms. (royalsociety.org)
  • The electronic state for each activation step is shown with the energy of the reaction in Kcal/mole. (plantstress.com)
  • The overall reaction is the reverse of respiration, which releases energy by oxidizing carbohydrates to produce CO 2 and water. (biologyreference.com)
  • So, in order to conserve the total energy of the system, electron transfer must proceed either by pre-equilibration to a nuclear configuration whose energy is the same for the DA and D+A- electronic configurations (thermal ET reactions) or by addition of light energy to make the energy of the DA complex equal to that of a D+A- complex with the DA equilibrium nuclear configuration (photoinduced ET reactions). (ictinike.org)
  • The energy that must be supplied to overcome the lack of prior rearrangement of the nuclei is the reorganization energy, l , defined as the charge transfer energy for a system where the D G for the reaction is zero (self-exchange reactions). (ictinike.org)
  • Some of these compounds are continuously synthesized at the planet's surface by a variety of chemical reactions, often using light as an energy source, while others are delivered by the infall of microscopic dust particles that is still adding the last few kilometers to the planet's diameter. (berkeley.edu)
  • and the basic principles of photosynthetic energy storage.The book's website includes downloadable PowerPoint slides. (reachingkidsforjesus.com)
  • 1990), light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex (Kühlbrandt et al . (springer.com)
  • 1987-1990 Vertretungsprofessur an der Universität Frankfurt a.M. (uni-bremen.de)
  • For more than the last ten years, Hartmut Michel has studied different oxygen reductases at the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics in Frankfurt, where he became director in 1987. (lindau-nobel.org)
  • In addition, the oxygen uptake rate decreased by 90.81 % at 70 °C and was lost completely at 80 °C showing that heat treatment damaged the regular function of PS1 complexes. (springer.com)
  • As a consequence we often in our experiments can only look for the 'footprints' of oxygen reactions in our attempts to determine cause-effect relationships in stress responses. (plantstress.com)
  • According to Pauli's exclusion principle, this precludes reactions with a divalent reductant, unless this reductant also has two unpaired electrons with parallel spin opposite to that of the oxygen, which is a very rare occurrence. (plantstress.com)
  • This spin restriction means that the most common mechanisms of oxygen reduction in biochemical reactions are those involving transfer of only a single electron (monovalent reduction). (plantstress.com)
  • This activation overcomes the spin restriction and singlet oxygen can consequently participate in reactions involving the simultaneous transfer of two electrons (divalent reduction). (plantstress.com)
  • A dismutation reaction leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen can occur spontaneously or is catalysed by the enzyme superoxide dismutase. (plantstress.com)
  • The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, each step being facilitated by a specific enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we show that OHP1 and OHP2 are highly conserved in photosynthetic eukaryotes, but have probably evolved independently and have distinct functions in Arabidopsis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Early on, the photosynthetic eukaryotes split into several lineages, giving rise to the now living Glaucophytes, Chloroplastida, and Rhodophytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • We could show e.g. that SRP RNA remodeling by SRP68 in eukaryotes is required for SRP function in elongation arrest and protein translocation. (db-engine.de)
  • He received the Bijvoet Medal at the Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research of Utrecht University in 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1960 - Myoglobin was the very first high-resolution crystal structure of a protein molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • So we imagine that the carbon dioxide molecule, in order to be assimilated, must be firmly attached to a" reducing centre " which is coupled, in an energetic respect, to the source of quanta, that is, to the chlorophyll. (reachingkidsforjesus.com)
  • The enzyme catalyzes the reaction of 2 carbon acetyl CoA with 4 carbon oxaloacetate to form the 6 carbon citrate. (nationalballetconservatory.com)
  • Citrate synthase (CS) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting reaction of the citric acid cycle (1,2). (nationalballetconservatory.com)
  • 8. The plant cell of claim 7 wherein the soluble RUBISCO enzyme comprises at least about 30% of the soluble proteins of the cell. (freepatentsonline.com)