Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.EnglandWater Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Water SofteningDrinking: The consumption of liquids.Great BritainSocial Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Authoritarianism: The personality pattern or syndrome consisting of behavioral and attitudinal characteristics reflecting a preoccupation with the factors of power and authority in interpersonal relationships.Nuclear Energy: Energy released by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.WalesLocal Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.LondonFamily Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Building Codes: Standards or regulations for construction which are designed to ensure safety against electrical hazards, fires, etc.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.United StatesDemocracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Swimming PoolsAquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Water Resources: Environmental reservoirs of water related to natural WATER CYCLE by which water is obtained for various purposes. This includes but is not limited to watersheds, aquifers and springs.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Professional Autonomy: The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Mandatory Reporting: A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Single-Payer System: An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Consumer Product SafetyNational Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.EuropeDrug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Public Housing: Housing subsidized by tax funds, usually intended for low income persons or families.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Nuclear Reactors: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Interdepartmental Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutional departments.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Regional Medical Programs: Coordination of activities and programs among health care institutions within defined geographic areas for the purpose of improving delivery and quality of medical care to the patients. These programs are mandated under U.S. Public Law 89-239.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Trustees: Board members of an institution or organization who are entrusted with the administering of funds and the directing of policy.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Legislation, Nursing: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of nursing, proposed for enactment by a legislative body.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Trihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Institutional Management Teams: Administrator-selected management groups who are responsible for making decisions pertaining to the provision of integrated direction for various institutional functions.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Housing: Living facilities for humans.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Judaism: The religion of the Jews characterized by belief in one God and in the mission of the Jews to teach the Fatherhood of God as revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Webster, 3d ed)France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Water Pollution, RadioactiveAquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.ItalySocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Negotiating: The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Employee Discipline: Regulations or conditions imposed on employees by management in order to correct or prevent behaviors which are counterproductive to the organization.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Physician Executives: Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Quarantine: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Partnership Practice: A voluntary contract between two or more doctors who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Baths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Informed Consent By Minors: Voluntary authorization by a person not of usual legal age for diagnostic or investigative procedures, or for medical and surgical treatment. (from English A, Shaw FE, McCauley MM, Fishbein DB Pediatrics 121:Suppl Jan 2008 pp S85-7).Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Health Facility Administrators: Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of health care facilities such as nursing homes.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
  • Since glyphosate was registered in 1974, the Environmental Protection Agency and its committees have evaluated its carcinogenic potential, including in 1985, 1986, 1991 and 2015. (dlapiper.com)
  • Some water storage and delivery projects were completed in the 1980s and 1990s, perhaps most notably the Central Arizona Project in 1992, but the declining trend of the viability of traditional water projects has been clear. (nap.edu)
  • peripheral Medicinal Chemistry, sciatic), 1983-1986. (prigsbee.com)
  • Although the southern environment was extensively documented between 1947 and 1983, none of the agencies involved or the authorities nominally responsible gives it any urgency, and species such as the northern white rhino have thus been lost. (hrw.org)
  • Published classifications listing paper birch as a dominant in community types (cts), habitat types (hts), plant associations (pas), or ecosystem associations (eas) are presented below: Area Classification Authority interior AK postfire cts Foote 1983 AK general veg. (fed.us)
  • A predicted water solubility of 140 mg/l at 20°C was determined for the substance using a validated QSAR estimation method. (europa.eu)
  • Because of its solubility, iodine is relatively enriched in both surface and sea waters and onshore winds carrying sea spray contribute to the iodine content of soils near coasts. (teagasc.ie)
  • The authority already has approved providing sewage treatment for the community. (mcall.com)
  • Eutrophication is the process of the excessive increase in nutrients, such as phosphate and nitrate, in water due to the direct depositing of non-treated sewage. (cpcb.nic.in)
  • This funding is made available for local and regional projects that can include construction of municipal sewage and water recycling facilities, remediation for underground storage tank releases, watershed protection, nonpoint source pollution control, and other water protection projects. (ca.gov)
  • European Union has imposed limitations in sewage sludge usage that member country has to be followed (EC, 1986). (environmental-expert.com)
  • Waste Water Treatment Install MiamiA municipality adds pollution control with the help of Alliance Corporation as part of odor control of new sewage treatment plant.Application: Waste Water Treatment - Corona, CAProject: A 4,000 SCFM TRITON™ Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer constructed of 316 stainless steel. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Landowners and speculators subdivided land (including swampy and tidal areas) into lots, which often had poor access, no safe and sufficient water supply, and no hygienic disposal of waste water and sewage, either on site or through drainpipes. (teara.govt.nz)
  • SEWAGE or wastewater is the contaminated water from homes, schools, and businesses. (dovertownship.org)
  • With a salinity of 342 g/kg, or 34.2%, (in 2011), it is 9.6 times as salty as the ocean and one of the world's saltiest bodies of water . (wikipedia.org)
  • The State relies on the findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) - the world's leading authority on cancer - as the basis for listing chemicals that are known or probable carcinogens under Prop 65. (centerforfoodsafety.org)
  • The 60-metre concrete structure hastily erected after the world's worst nuclear accident in 1986 was expected to last 20 to 30 years. (newscientist.com)
  • Chapter 3: Source Waters discusses general issues relating to the quality of natural fresh water systems, ie, surface water and groundwater, and measures that can be taken to protect or enhance their quality. (scribd.com)
  • As more traditional water projects have become less viable, and as water demands continue to grow, federal, state, and municipal water managers across the West are considering a new water project prototype that entails nonstructural measures such water conservation, water use technologies, xerophytic landscaping, groundwater storage, and changes in water pricing policies. (nap.edu)
  • This contaminated groundwater has breached an underground barrier, is rising toward the surface and is exceeding legal limits of radioactive discharge, Shinji Kinjo, head of a Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) task force, [said]. (snopes.com)
  • The State and Regional Water Boards have administered numerous loan and grant funding programs from these bond measures (most recently from Propositions 13, 40, 50, and 84) to improve water quality and water recycling, implement watershed programs, and monitor groundwater. (ca.gov)
  • Water quality data collected under the funded projects are captured by the Water Boards' Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) or Groundwater Ambient Monitoring Assessment (GAMA) program. (ca.gov)
  • o) Section 507 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 33 U.S.C. 1367. (osha.gov)
  • BONN - Authorities Saturday lifted the last water pollution alerts that were posted when an estimated 30 tons of chemical poisons were dumped into the Rhine River. (latimes.com)
  • The water pollution alerts were called off for two towns in the Rhine Palatinate. (latimes.com)
  • Wells in the river flood plain were closed and water pollution alerts were imposed all along the Rhine after about 30 tons of chemical poisons spilled into the river Nov. 1 during a major fire at the Sandoz chemical factory in Basel, Switzerland. (latimes.com)
  • As a result there are high levels of water pollution and it is not uncommon to have streams or water bodies which are almost or completely anaerobic and heavily polluted with organics, pathogens and heavy metals. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The State Water Board provides financial assistance through various State and federal loan and grant programs to help local agencies, businesses, and individuals meet the costs of water pollution control, development of locally available sustainable water supplies, and cleanup. (ca.gov)
  • Traffic congestion, unaffordable housing, water and air pollution, social segregation -- these are the everyday costs in suburb and city alike of the geographic expansion of cities. (prospect.org)
  • The everyday consequences for suburb and city alike are familiar enough: traffic congestion and inefficient transportation, unavailable and unaffordable housing, water and air pollution, social segregation and lack of community. (prospect.org)
  • Furthermore, another aspect that cannot be ignored at all is the relation of water pollution with DurgaPuja. (countercurrents.org)
  • The artificially coloured idols of the Goddesses that are directly immersed in the rivers along with other wastes including plastics, directly paints the sad picture of water pollution. (countercurrents.org)
  • The biggest project, to be implemented by the Litani Water Authority, was for irrigation of some 15,000 hectares of high land (between 500 and 800 meters above sea level) in southern Lebanon over an 8 year period, scheduled to start in 1990. (countrystudies.us)
  • Individuals were assigned an annual 137 Cs exposure based on their place of residence (1986-1990), from which 5-year cumulative 137 Cs exposures were calculated, accounting for the physical decay of 137 Cs and changing residencies. (bmj.com)
  • The Water Authority works through its 23 member agencies to provide a safe, reliable water supply to support the region's $130 billion economy and the quality of life of 3 million residents. (sdcwa.org)
  • Public policies and standards for onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are to ensure the adequate management of domestic wastewater by introduction of cost-effective and long-term options to meet public health and water quality goals. (iwaponline.com)
  • How do you implement your water quality management strategy? (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • The development of models of the vertical distribution of suspended sediments is essential for solving a number of practical tasks like the prediction of sediment transport and estimation of water quality in bottom layers of natural water bodies. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The chapter finishes with a summary of matching water treatment processes with raw water quality. (scribd.com)
  • what is the worst water quality the treatment plant will have to cope with? (scribd.com)
  • will the quality of its waters pose special concerns for the efficacy of treatment? (scribd.com)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protects natural, untreated recreational beach water quality (for example. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1986, EPA developed recommended bacterial water quality criteria for marine and fresh recreational waters 1 to protect beachgoers from diarrheal illness. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2004, EPA established federal standards for those states and territories that had not yet adopted water quality criteria that met or exceeded the 1986 bacterial water quality criteria 2 . (cdc.gov)
  • Bacterial ambient water quality criteria for marine and fresh recreational waters. (cdc.gov)
  • Water quality standards for coastal and Great Lakes recreation waters. (cdc.gov)
  • Besides trying to test and, eventually, withdraw water from the site near Holopaw, the water authority is testing the water quality on the Bull Creek Wildlife Management Area in south Osceola. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The project should answer questions about water quality and the possibility of cleansing water through reverse osmosis, Massarelli said. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Lake Washington has been South Brevard's primary source of water for years, but the water authority has maintained its quality is poor and the amount is inadequate to meet the coastal county's growing needs. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The matter came to a boil in 1987 when legislators told the South Florida water district to test the quality and availability of water in Osceola. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Water systems are not required to follow these water quality standards external icon for the 15 contaminants listed. (cdc.gov)
  • Water shutoffs in each city continue, but in Flint residents are also faced with the extreme deterioration of the quality of their service. (workers.org)
  • Michigan's Department of Environmental Quality has been criticized for not exercising its authority in response to complaints from Flint residents. (workers.org)
  • A wastewater strategy must therefore be based on a water quality plan for all the receiving waters in the catchment, usually based on water quality objectives. (environmental-expert.com)
  • It is necessary to have explicit medium to long term objectives for the quality of water in the various waterbodies in the catchment under consideration. (environmental-expert.com)
  • A set of key numerical parameters can be defined for each use and the water quality objectives can be developed in terms of uses for different sections of the waterbodies and a strategy for achieving them (see related Note on Integrated Wastewater Management). (environmental-expert.com)
  • These activities can include the construction of treatment facilities, or the implementation of measures, to address or avoid water quality problems. (ca.gov)
  • In recent years, the State has made a concerted effort to improve water quality and water use efficiency, and maintain clean beaches through the passage of bond measures that provided funding for these critical areas. (ca.gov)
  • The plan also provides guidance to all sectors of the state for orderly management of growth, and expresses how Florida's water resources should be managed to prevent and correct inappropriate water ues, ensure the best development of water resources, conerve water, protect the environment and natural resources, and enhance the quality of life of Florida's citizens. (ufl.edu)
  • 2 A food regulation programme introduced in 1986 limited the 137 Cs activity in food sold to the public to 300 Bq/kg to assure that the dose from food intake was below 1 mSv per year. (bmj.com)
  • Datum of gage is NGVD of 1929 (South Carolina Public Service Authority bench mark). (usgs.gov)
  • Lewis currently serves as a delegate to the MWD board, SANDAG board representative and is a member of the Public Affairs, Water Policy and Desalination Ad Hoc committees. (sdcwa.org)
  • The San Diego County Water Authority is a public agency serving the San Diego region as a wholesale supplier of water from the Colorado River and Northern California. (sdcwa.org)
  • He has served as chair of the Quantification Settlement Agreement Ad Hoc Committee, vice chair of the Water Planning and Public Affairs committees, as a delegate to the MWD Board, and as a member of the Colorado River Board and several other posts with the Water Authority. (sdcwa.org)
  • In December 2013, legislation changed the term public health risk management plan to water safety plan. (scribd.com)
  • It discusses some of the information that is needed in the planning stages of developing a new water supply, and the barriers that can be used to protect public health. (scribd.com)
  • Although these contaminants may not be harmful to public health, if they are in water at levels above the standards, they can cause the water to look cloudy or colored, or to taste or smell bad. (cdc.gov)
  • Every public water system or community water supplier must provide an annual report, sometimes called a Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) , to its customers. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of the FBRR is to further protect public health by requiring public water systems (PWSs), where needed, to institute changes to the return of recycle flows to a plant's treatment process that may otherwise compromise microbial control. (federalregister.gov)
  • Public comments, the comment/response document, applicable Federal Register documents, other major supporting documents, and a copy of the index to the public docket for this rulemaking are available for review at EPA's Office of Water Docket: Docket W-99-10 Final Filter Backwash Recycling Rule, 401 M Street, SW. (federalregister.gov)
  • DISCLAIMER This manual is intended to provide information to assist States in conducting sanitary surveys of public water systems subject to the requirements of the Ground Water Rule. (epa.gov)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency believes that a comprehensive sanitary survey is an important part of helping water systems protect public health. (epa.gov)
  • 1. Introduction and Scope of This Manual This manual provides guidance on how to conduct a sanitary survey of a Public Water System (PWS) that is served by ground water. (epa.gov)
  • The Statute applies to "governmental records" maintained by "public agencies" and "public bodies" A "public agency'' means 'any agency, authority, department, or office of the state or of any county, town, municipal corporation, school district, school administrative unit, chartered public school, or other political subdivision. (rcfp.org)
  • The Chief of Engineers, in the exercise of his discretion, is further authorized to provide emergency supplies of clean water, on such terms as he determines to be advisable, to any locality which he finds is confronted with a source of contaminated water causing or likely to cause a substantial threat to the public health and welfare of the inhabitants of the locality. (house.gov)
  • The State Water Board develops and adopts project selection guidelines through a public process for its financial assistance programs. (ca.gov)
  • In 1987, a new limit of 1500 Bq/kg was introduced for game and reindeer meat, wild berries, mushrooms, fresh water fish and nuts sold to the public. (bmj.com)
  • In 1986, a fluoridation accident in New Haven (North Brantford), Connecticut, resulted in the public receiving water with 51 ppm fluoride for twelve hours. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Robert Carton, Ph.D., local scientist and editor of the newsletter The Fluoride Report, stated that "Quick action by Middletown authorities may have prevented a public health disaster. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Sarnia Mayor Bradley stated that the public should have been notified in time so people could choose whether to drink the water or not. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The program comprises the construction of a dam on the Mooi River and a water transfer network towards the Mgeni River. (afd.fr)
  • Urban areas are influenced by local interactions between human and natural systems and interact with distant systems through flows of water, food, energy, people, information, and capital. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • However, analyses of water sustainability and the management of water flows in urban areas are often fragmented. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • Between the 1930s and the 1970s, many multipurpose dams and reservoirs were constructed in the Colorado River basin in an effort to smooth natural variations in the river's flows and to store flood waters for use during drier periods. (nap.edu)
  • 26 3 1 In 2001, the Supreme Court clarified whether the words "flood or flood waters" 2 encompassed all the water that flows through a federal facility that was designed and is operated, 3 at least in part, for flood control purposes. (justia.com)
  • More tests will be made at deeper levels to determine whether the contamination will seep downward and affect the water supply, said Charles Ouseph, a district engineer with the state Department of Environmental Regulation. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The reason why the restrictions were imposed, Feindler said, is that the authority wants to be poised to implement tougher regulations if the dry conditions continue. (mcall.com)
  • In the United States, state and local governments establish and enforce regulations for protecting treated recreational water (for example, pools, spas, and interactive fountains) from naturally occurring and human-made contaminants. (cdc.gov)
  • 1997. The Urban Waste Water Treatment (England and Wales) Regulations 1994. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • It is generally recognised that atmospheric precipitation is the most important source of soil iodine (Fuge and Johnson, 1986). (teagasc.ie)
  • Wellington's filthy, smelly air, water and soil were debated in Parliament, and MPs and their resident families were concerned. (teara.govt.nz)
  • Throughout the period of growth, they monitored water use carefully by weighing and adding measured amounts of water to maintain a desirable soil water content as water lost by plant transpiration was replenished. (nap.edu)
  • He is the former Senior Deputy General Manager responsible for supervision of Water, Wastewater, Transportation, Engineering, Development Review, Parks and Recreation, Environmental Services and General Services. (sdcwa.org)
  • Previously, Lewis served as vice chair of the Board, as a delegate to the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD) board, and as a representative to the San Diego Association of Governments and the San Diego Area Wastewater Management District. (sdcwa.org)
  • Growing volumes of both industrial and municipal wastewater are being discharged to surface waters but the treatment provided frequently is inadequate to protect the desired uses of the receiving waters. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In such circumstances, management of industrial wastewater discharges is also frequently poor, with uncontrolled discharges of untreated effluent to surface waters (often drainage or stormwater channels) or to the sewer system. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Taking advantage from the European Union legislation and the motivations offered, the respective authorities started managing their urban wastes in an environmentally safe way establishing wastewater treatment plant units. (environmental-expert.com)
  • A Michigan American Civil Liberties Union report suggests that the local water department's testing methods are designed to conceal the level of lead exposure of residents. (workers.org)
  • Methods A closed cohort was defined as all individuals living in the three most contaminated counties in mid-Sweden in 1986. (bmj.com)
  • Commissioners hired Tallahassee attorney Robert MacFarland to lobby against a bill that would allow the South Brevard Water Management Authority to pump water from wells near Holopaw and the Deseret Ranch. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • There really is no way to know until after we put in some wells and test how much water we can pump. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Once they get wells in there we're going to find it very difficult to stop them from taking as much water as they want. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Osceola lost a lawsuit aimed at blocking the St. Johns Water Management District from allowing Brevard's drilling of wells at Holopaw. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Feindler said that while the authority's four wells are far from being in drought condition, "We felt it was prudent to go ahead and follow the lead of the other water authorities. (mcall.com)
  • The land is under the jurisdiction of the St. Johns River Water Management District, which is drilling six test wells. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The project, which must be approved by the St. Johns district and Melbourne officials, would involve drilling 10 wells and pumping water from them for as long as 30 days, Massarelli said. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • In February 1999, Sudanese environmentalists complained that the processes China's CNPC, part of the GNPOC consortium, used to extract oil from the wells produced contaminated water which would surely seep back into the underground waters. (hrw.org)
  • From the 1840s water was obtained mainly from urban streams (which by the 1860s were badly polluted with animal and human waste), and from springs, shallow wells or open rainwater tanks. (teara.govt.nz)
  • An 1870 study showed that none of the water collected from wells or tanks in crowded parts of the city was safe to drink, and all town streams were too polluted to use. (teara.govt.nz)
  • LAKE WORTH - Repeat tests have confirmed a trace of the cancer-causing chemical PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyls, in ground water about 70 feet above the level of wells supplying Lake Worth, an official said Thursday. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • In two earlier tests, no traces of the chemical were found in water taken from all of the wells. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Retired utilities worker Sam Reynolds, who was chairman of the Lake Worth Utilities Authority until May 1984, said he poured oil from the transformers onto the ground near one of the wells from 1972 to 1977. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • A chart purportedly showing radioactive water seeping into the ocean from the Fukushima nuclear plant actually depicts something else. (snopes.com)
  • Japan's nuclear watchdog has now declared the leak of radioactive water from Fukushima a "state of emergency. (snopes.com)
  • The massive (8.9) Tohoku earthquake and subsequent tsunami that hit Japan in March 2011 resulted in a series of equipment failures, nuclear meltdowns and releases of radioactive materials from the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, the largest nuclear disaster since the catastrophic accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine in April 1986. (snopes.com)
  • Highly radioactive water seeping into the ocean from Japan's crippled Fukushima nuclear plant is creating an "emergency" that the operator is struggling to contain, an official from the country's nuclear watchdog said on Monday. (snopes.com)
  • Objectives To determine the total cancer incidence in relation to a 5-year exposure to caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. (bmj.com)
  • Of the caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) released from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, about 5% was deposited in Sweden, with the highest fallout in the coastal counties on the Bothnian Sea. (bmj.com)
  • Bond represents the Water Authority as a director of California Colorado River Board and the Association of California Water Agencies. (sdcwa.org)
  • On the board since 2001, he currently serves as the board secretary and a delegate to the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California board. (sdcwa.org)
  • The region faces unprecedented water supply challenges caused by drought and court-ordered restrictions on water deliveries from the Bay-Delta in Northern California," Lewis said. (sdcwa.org)
  • California's Safe Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986, known colloquially as California Proposition 65, requires the State of California to maintain a list of chemicals known to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. (dlapiper.com)
  • Under ARRA, an amount in excess of $280 million became available through California Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) that is administered by the State Water Board. (ca.gov)
  • In January, Monsanto filed a lawsuit against the state of California for its intent to list glyphosate, the main chemical used in Monsanto's flagship Roundup herbicide, under California's Proposition 65, a law that mandates notification and labeling of all chemicals known to cause cancer, birth defects or other reproductive harm, and prohibits their discharge into drinking waters of the state. (centerforfoodsafety.org)
  • face multiple deprivations 60 Children in East Asia & Pacific Region face multiple deprivations "The study entitled Child Poverty in East Asia and the Pacific: Deprivations and Disparities noted that family poverty often affects children most directly through their access to shelter, food, water, sanitation, education, health and information. (issuu.com)
  • Yet Virginia Tech researchers found lead levels in Walters' water had reached 13,200 ppb - more than twice the amount at which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency declares water as hazardous waste. (workers.org)
  • GPIs were identified as Industries discharging effluents into a water course and a) handling hazardous substances, or b) effluent having BOD load of 100 Kg per day or more, or c) a combination of (a) and (b). (cpcb.nic.in)
  • Some of the broader aspects are covered in Chapter 3, and those more specifically related to water supply, in this chapter. (scribd.com)
  • A variety of sources are used for the purpose of water supply, ranging in size from those needed by single households (see Chapter 19) to supplies needed for large cities. (scribd.com)
  • As described in Chapter 2 , the strategy of building additional surface water storage capacity is encountering physical, economic, and political limits. (nap.edu)
  • This chapter reviews a variety of techniques and initiatives that have been and are being explored as means to augment and extend water supplies across the Colorado River basin. (nap.edu)
  • During his previous two-year board term, Wornham chaired the Administrative and Finance committee, served on the Legislation, Conservation and Outreach and Imported Water committees, and was a member of the Comprehensive Reliability and Cost Assessment Ad Hoc committee. (sdcwa.org)
  • These objectives are often based on defined beneficial uses for the waterbodies, typically including about a half dozen such as: water supply source, agricultural use, fisheries protection, etc. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The objectives of this paper are to examine plant responses to rising carbon dioxide levels and climatic changes and to interpret the consequences of these changes on crop water use and water resources for the United States. (nap.edu)
  • The State Water Board's financial assistance programs obtain revenue from various sources. (ca.gov)
  • For water years 2014 onward, choose a water year and parameter and an on-demand Water-Year Summary report will be generated. (usgs.gov)
  • For water years 2006 through 2013, choose a water year and an Annual Water Data Report will be provided. (usgs.gov)
  • For water years 2005 and earlier, Annual Water Data Reports may be available in digital format . (usgs.gov)
  • MWRO Co-Chair Marian Kramer, who lives in Highland Park, a small municipality surrounded by Detroit, reported that residents did not receive water bills for three years due to layoffs of meter readers. (workers.org)
  • In Greece during the last years waste water treatment plants were established in many cities, even the small ones. (environmental-expert.com)
  • 2 , 3 Based on the estimates of collective dose, the Swedish Radiation Authority calculated that 300 extra cancer deaths could occur in Sweden in the 50 years after the accident. (bmj.com)
  • He contacted me about six years ago when I was working on the Murray River and water issues. (jennifermarohasy.com)
  • 8 I. 9 Pursuant to the Flood Control Act's immunity provision, "[n]o liability of any kind shall 10 attach to or rest upon the United States for any damage from or by floods or flood waters at any 11 place. (justia.com)
  • The James Court concluded that 15 the terms "flood or flood waters" is not narrowly confined to those waters that a federal flood 16 control project is unable to control, and that it encompasses waters that are released for flood 17 control purposes when reservoired waters are at flood stage. (justia.com)
  • It is thus clear from 20 § 702c's plain language that the terms "flood" and "flood waters" apply to all waters 21 contained in or carried through a federal flood control project for purposes of or related to 22 flood control, as well as to waters that such projects cannot control. (justia.com)
  • A week-long, cross-state march, organized under the theme "Clean, Affordable Water for All: Detroit to Flint Water Justice Journey," ended in Flint, Mich., on July 10. (workers.org)
  • She blamed the local and state authorities. (workers.org)
  • With the enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Bill of 2009 (ARRA) on February 17, 2009, the State Water Board became one of several State agencies to receive ARRA funds. (ca.gov)
  • The State Water Board uses the guidelines and a variety of processes to solicit, review, and select projects for funding based on the goals of the program and the needs of project proponents (applicants). (ca.gov)
  • The review panels are made up of staff from the State and Regional Water Boards, partner agencies, and, occasionally, stakeholders, who are chosen to provide technical/scientific expertise, as well as regional and multiple agency perspectives. (ca.gov)
  • The State and Regional Water Board use a multi-faceted approach to ensuring the success of the projects it funds, which includes establishing a clear understanding of what will be done and when, monitoring the project throughout implementation to ensure that work is conducted as specified, and Regional Water Board review and approval of all project submittals, including invoices. (ca.gov)
  • The State Water Board has numerous financial assistance programs that provide funding for many purposes. (ca.gov)
  • Use Plan and to submit the Plan to the bseoutive Office of the governor within six months after the adoption of the State OnMprehenive Plan, or by January 1, 1986. (ufl.edu)
  • Like the State aprehensive Plan, the State water Use Plan does not create regulatory authority or authorize the adoption of agency rules, criteria or standards that are not otherwise authorized by law. (ufl.edu)
  • It provides guidance for all state agencies as they develop their agency functional plans and to the IWter anmagnant Districts as they develop their water management plans. (ufl.edu)
  • He will serve on the board's Water Planning and Administration and Finance committees, and on the Bay Delta Solutions and Colorado River Programs Ad Hoc committees. (sdcwa.org)
  • It controls access to land, and the dispersal of credit, fertilizer, and irrigation water (Lees 1973). (socionauki.ru)
  • Figure 7.1 shows the linear relationship between biomass produced and rainfall plus irrigation water used by Sart sorghum and Starr millet in Alabama, as adapted from data of Bennett et al. (nap.edu)
  • Finally, certain illegal drug precursors such as benzaldehyde, which is a US Drug Enforcement Agency-listed chemical, must be registered and require some amount of reporting and recordkeeping, at times including limited formula disclosure for customers or regulatory authorities. (perfumerflavorist.com)
  • The problems are typically diffuse with hundreds or thousands of small discharges and with the problems concentrated to some extent where particularly polluted streams or poorly treated effluents discharge to major water bodies. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The company harvests seaweed found in the waters of Breidafjördur in northwest Iceland using specially designed harvester crafts. (nea.is)
  • A model of the vertical distribution of suspended sediment in the bottom layer of a natural water body/Looduslikes veekogudes suspenseerunud setete vertikaalse jaotuse mudel. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The paper suggests a stationary model of the vertical distribution of the concentration of suspended sediment in the bottom layer of a natural water body with a flat bottom. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The New Year Honours 1986 were appointments by most of the Commonwealth realms of Queen Elizabeth II to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of those countries, and honorary ones to citizens of other countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water-Year Summary reports summarize a year of hydrologic data in a printer-friendly format. (usgs.gov)
  • Not all sites have reports available for every water year. (usgs.gov)
  • PERIOD OF RECORD - April 1986 to current year. (usgs.gov)
  • October 1986 to current year. (usgs.gov)
  • This project will ultimately supply 60 million m3 of additional water a year. (afd.fr)
  • Each day, 300 tons of radioactive water seeps into the ocean, and it's now clear that TEPCO has engage in a two-and-a-half-year cover-up of immense magnitude. (snopes.com)
  • With headwaters on the Darling Scarp, the Canning meanders through suburbs of Perth on the Swan Coastal Plain, including Cannington, Thornlie, Riverton, Shelley, Rossmoyne and Mount Pleasant, before joining the Swan at Melville Water just downstream of the Canning Bridge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Will it be that when the environmental degradation has done away with the sanctuaries and the region suffers a permanent water crisis, the plunderers and authorities will notice the damage? (dickrussell.org)