Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Afibrinogenemia: A deficiency or absence of FIBRINOGEN in the blood.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fibrinopeptide B: Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the beta chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin. Each peptide chain contains 20 amino acid residues. The removal of fibrinopeptides B is not required for coagulation.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Fibrinopeptide A: Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the alpha chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin during the blood coagulation process. Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Thrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA mixed with a THROMBIN solution. It is a measure of the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN, which is prolonged by AFIBRINOGENEMIA, abnormal fibrinogen, or the presence of inhibitory substances, e.g., fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products, or HEPARIN. BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin.Receptors, Fibrinogen: Receptors that bind FIBRINOGEN through distinct adhesive sequences on the fibrinogen molecule. Although MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN is considered an important signaling molecule for fibrinogen interaction, a variety of INTEGRINS from all three major families, (beta1, beta2, and beta3) have been shown to bind fibrinogen.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Fibrinolysin: A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.Protein PrecursorsViral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Factor XIII: A fibrin-stabilizing plasma enzyme (TRANSGLUTAMINASES) that is activated by THROMBIN and CALCIUM to form FACTOR XIIIA. It is important for stabilizing the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) which culminates the coagulation cascade.Ancrod: An enzyme fraction from the venom of the Malayan pit viper, Agkistrodon rhodostoma. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of a number of amino acid esters and a limited proteolysis of fibrinogen. It is used clinically to produce controlled defibrination in patients requiring anticoagulant therapy. EC 3.4.21.-.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Clot Retraction: Retraction of a clot resulting from contraction of PLATELET pseudopods attached to FIBRIN strands. The retraction is dependent on the contractile protein thrombosthenin. Clot retraction is used as a measure of platelet function.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Batroxobin: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 184.108.40.206.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).PhosphoproteinsOligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Plasminogen: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Oncogene Protein pp60(v-src): A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Factor VII: Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 220.127.116.11T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Thrombasthenia: A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX).RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Hemostatics: Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Fibrinogen alpha chain
Alternative splicing results in two isoforms that vary in the carboxy-terminus. Fibrinogen alpha chain has been shown to ... Fibrinogen Fibrinogen gamma chain GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171560 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Carboxy-terminal-extended variant of the human fibrinogen alpha subunit: a novel exon conferring marked homology to beta and ... Fibrinogen alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGA gene. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha ...
... and a carboxy-terminus cytoplasmic domain. The structure of ICAM-1 is characterized by heavy glycosylation, and the protein's ... and fibrinogen. These three proteins are generally expressed on endothelial cells and leukocytes, and they bind to ICAM-1 to ... ICAM-1 is a transmembrane protein possessing an amino-terminus extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, ... Abraham G, Colonno RJ (Aug 1984). "Many rhinovirus serotypes share the same cellular receptor". Journal of Virology. 51 (2): ...
Fibrinogen alpha chain - Wikipedia
Alternative splicing results in two isoforms that vary in the carboxy-terminus. Fibrinogen alpha chain has been shown to ... Fibrinogen Fibrinogen gamma chain GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171560 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Carboxy-terminal-extended variant of the human fibrinogen alpha subunit: a novel exon conferring marked homology to beta and ... Fibrinogen alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGA gene. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha ...
The light (B) chain (MW ~25,000) originates from the carboxy-terminus and contains the active site. Isolation and ... Trypsin-like proteolytic enzyme which cleaves fibrin, fibrinogen, q.q.v., and other plasma proteins. Component of the mammalian ... Hemostasis 10, 18-23 (1984). Enzyme specificity for lysine and arginine peptide bonds: W. Troll et al., J. Biol. Chem. 208, 85 ...
Method of producing disease-specific antigens - CHOU SZU-YI
... and carboxy-termini. Alternatively, the amino-terminus, the carboxy-terminus or both may be modified. For example, an N- ... WATER SOLUBLE REACTIVE DERIVATIVES OF CARBOXY POLYSACCHARIDES AND FIBRINOGEN CONJUGATES THEREOF. April, 2010. Amit et al. ... Moreover, the amino- and/or carboxy termini of the peptide modulator can be modified to alter a pharmacokinetic property of the ... terminus and 3 extra glutamine residues on the carboxyl (C) terminus. The peptide sequence of BSA5 also includes an amino acid ...
Immunoassays for and monoclonal antibodies to prothrombin activation peptide F1.2 - Akzo Nobel N.V.
... with binding specificity for an epitope on the carboxy terminus of prothrombin activation peptide F1.2, which can be used in ... A polyclonal antibody to a synthetic peptide emulating the F1.2 carboxy terminus is used as the solid phase capture antibody ... Fibrin is a protein generated from the action of the blood coagulation protein thrombin on fibrinogen. A thrombus is a deposit ... 1. A monoclonal antibody and fragments thereof that specifically bind to an epitope on the carboxy terminus of a prothrombin ...
ICAM-1 - Wikipedia
... and a carboxy-terminus cytoplasmic domain. The structure of ICAM-1 is characterized by heavy glycosylation, and the proteins ... and fibrinogen. These three proteins are generally expressed on endothelial cells and leukocytes, and they bind to ICAM-1 to ... ICAM-1 is a transmembrane protein possessing an amino-terminus extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, ... Abraham G, Colonno RJ (Aug 1984). "Many rhinovirus serotypes share the same cellular receptor". Journal of Virology. 51 (2): ...
US6103888A - Mammalian cationic proteins having lipopolysaccharide binding and anti-coagulant activity - Google Patents
... fragment found at the carboxy-terminus of CAP18. Polypeptides are capable of binding to LPS and inhibiting LPS-mediated ... The sequence derived from Edman degradation is found at the carboxy-terminus of the protein beginning at amino acid position ... Prothrombinase converts prothrombin (factor II) to thrombin (IIa). Thrombin generates fibrin monomers from fibrinogen. Because ... CAP18 includes a short peptide, usually present at its carboxy-terminus, referred to as the reactive nitrogen inhibitory ...
Infection-Derived Enterococcus faecalisStrains Are Enriched in esp, a Gene Encoding a Novel Surface Protein | Infection and...
... the amino terminus of Esp is displayed on the cell surface and suggests that the protein is anchored by its carboxy terminus. ... 1997) The dipeptide repeat region of the fibrinogen-binding protein (clumping factor) is required for functional expression of ... between the repeat units may lead to the expression of variant proteins that are identical at the amino and carboxy termini but ... The N terminus of the deduced Esp protein reveals that the first 49 aa could serve as a signal sequence directing export of the ...
Patent US6887473 - Inhibition of angiogenesis in disease states with an anti-αvβ3 monoclonal ... - Google Patents
COOH refers to the free carboxy group present at the carboxy terminus of a polypeptide. In keeping with standard polypeptide ... wherein said antibody preferentially inhibits fibrinogen binding to αvβ3 compared to fibrinogen binding to αIIbβ3. ... The unprotected linear peptide with free amino and carboxy termini so obtained is converted to its corresponding cyclic peptide ... herein by formulae whose left and right orientation is in the conventional direction of amino-terminus to carboxy-terminus. ...
US5719041A - DNA encoding ecotin homologs - Google Patents
USA 82:5132 1985!). Solid phase synthesis begins at the carboxy-terminus of the putative peptide by coupling a protected amino ... Factor Xa activates prothrombin to thrombin which cleaves fibrinogen to fibrin and ultimately results in the formation of a ... ID NO:8) and corresponded to the amino terminus of ecotin.. FIG. 6. Determination of the molecular weight of the ecotin •FXa ... For insoluble carriers, those which react with the carboxy group of the C-terminal amino acid to form a bond which is readily ...
Identification and Characterization of a Streptococcus pyogenes Operon Involved in Binding of Hemoproteins and Acquisition of...
Although Shr lacks overall homology to hemoprotein receptors, a heme-binding motif is found in the carboxy terminus of Shr (Fig ... 4I). Transferrin was included as a control, as was biotinylated fibrinogen. Human transferrin did not bind hemoglobin, ... This cleavage took place at the C terminus of rShr, since the resulting bands reacted with the anti-Xpress antibodies. The His ... The hydrophobic region found in the C terminus of Shr may help anchor the protein to the cell membrane. ...
Patente US5906975 - Conformationally stabilized cell adhesion peptides - Google Patentes
... the presence of a negatively charged group at the amino terminus and a positively charged group at the carboxy terminus creates ... Haverstick et al., Inhibition of Platelet Adhesion to Fibronectin, Fibrinogen and von Willebrand Factor Substrates by a ... The N-terminus of Gly 1 was cyclized to the side chain carboxyl group of Asp 7. The cyclization was accomplished by adding 10 ... Additional amino acids can be present at the NH2 and COOH termini, as represented by X and Y, respectively. ...
β3 integrin modulates transforming growth factor beta induced (TGFBI) function and paclitaxel response in ovarian cancer cells ...
In contrast to TGFBI, the carboxy-terminus of periostin, lacking a RGD motif, is unable to support adhesion of ovarian cancer ... The RGD motif present in the carboxy-terminus of TGFBI is necessary, but not sufficient, for SKOV3 cell adhesion and is ... De novo expression of the integrin alpha5beta1 regulates alphavbeta3-mediated adhesion and migration on fibrinogen. J Biol Chem ... Unlike periostin, the carboxy-terminus of rTGFBI supports adhesion of ovarian cancer cells and is dependent on an intact RGD ...
Jay L. Hess, PhD, MD
A carboxy-terminal domain of ELL is required and sufficient for immortalization of myeloid progenitors by MLL-ELL. DiMartino JF ... The amino terminus of the mixed lineage leukemia protein (MLL) promotes cell cycle arrest and monocytic differentiation. ... Fibrinogen fragment D is necessary and sufficient to anchor a surface plasminogen-activating complex in Streptococcus pyogenes. ... The amino terminus targets the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) protein to the nucleolus, nuclear matrix and mitotic chromosomal ...
The ubiquitous gp63-like metalloprotease from lower trypanosomatids: in the search for a function
Exopeptidases cleave the peptide bond proximal to the amino (NH2)or carboxy (COOH) termini of the proteinaceous substrate, ... fibrinogen, hemoglobin and immunoglobulins (Bouvier et al. 1990), as well as extracellular matrix components such as type IV ... Aminopeptidases act at a free NH2 terminus of the polypeptide chain and liberate a single amino acid residue, a dipeptide or a ... Based on their site of action at the NH2 or COOH terminus, the exopeptidases are classified as amino- or carboxipeptidases, ...
Staphylococcus aureus SdrE captures complement factor H's C-terminus via a novel 'close, dock, lock and latch' mechanism for...
2003) A dock, lock, and latch structural model for a staphylococcal adhesin binding to fibrinogen. Cell 115, 217-228 doi: ... 2005) Binding of complement factor H to endothelial cells is mediated by the carboxy-terminal glycosaminoglycan binding site. ... The C-terminus of the G′-strand bends around the N-terminal region of the CFH peptide to lock the ligand in place, and ... 2007) The C-terminus of complement factor H is essential for host cell protection. Mol. Immunol. 44, 2697-2706 doi:10.1016/j. ...
Regulation by Fibrinogen and Its Products of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression in Human Saphenous Vein Endothelial...
... sequences at the carboxy terminus and the middle section of the 2 Aα chains of fibrinogen17 are able to bind to endothelial ... at 1 μmol/L fibrinogen, to 171±18% at 2 μmol/L fibrinogen, and to 210±20% at 4 μmol/L fibrinogen (ANOVA, P,0.05; n=4). After ... of basal levels at 0.3 μmol/L fibrinogen, to 112±8% at 1 μmol/L fibrinogen, to 109±10% at 2 μmol/L fibrinogen, and to 94±4% at ... The role of fibrinogen as a bridging ligand was attributed to binding of the γ117-133 sequence of the fibrinogen D domain to ...
Clinical value of serum transferrin measurements - IFCC
... a 28-residue transmembrane region and a 671-residue extracellular carboxyl-terminus (McClelland et al 1984, Schneider et al ... The structure of the ectodomain has striking similarities to the membranebound carboxy peptidase II (Lawrence et al 1999), ... to recombinant human erythropoietin in patients with the anemia of renal failure by serum transferrin receptor and fibrinogen. ... 1984 Oct 18-24;311(5987):675-8.. Shih YJ, Baynes RD, Hudson BG, Flowers CH, Skikne BS, Cook JD. Serum transferrin receptor is a ...
Human Coronavirus NL63 Open Reading Frame 3 encodes a virion-incorporated N-glycosylated membrane protein | Virology Journal |...
... analysis and subsequent endoglycosidase H digestion we showed that ORF 3 protein is N-glycosylated at the N-terminus. Analysis ... Using N-terminally FLAG-tagged ORF 3 protein and an antiserum specific to the C-terminus we verified the proposed topology of ... an extracellular N-terminus and a cytosolic C-terminus. By in-vitro translation ... Escors D, Ortego J, Laude H, Enjuanes L: The membrane M protein carboxy terminus binds to transmissible gastroenteritis ...
Compositions for the Detection and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer - Patent application
... terminus or carboxy terminus of a polypeptide of the invention. An amino acid spacer is a sequence of amino acids that are not ... TABLE-US-00086 Fibrinogen alpha chain (FGA) (e.g., GenBank Accession Number NP 000499 (SEQ ID NO: 86)): 1 mfsmrivclv lsvvgtawta ... immediately contiguous with one or both of the amino and carboxy termini of the polypeptide.  Polypeptides of the ... TABLE-US-00102 Fibrinogen Beta Chain Precursor (e.g., GenBank Accession Number NP 005132 (SEQ ID NO: 102)): 1 mkrmvswsfh ...
Clotting Factor-Fc Chimeric Proteins to Treat Hemophilia - Patent application
The portion of an immunoglobulin constant region will have both an N, or an amino terminus, and a C, or carboxy terminus. In ... Factor Xa is required to convert prothrombin to thrombin, which converts fibrinogen to fibrin as a final stage in forming a ... wherein X is linked at its C terminus to the N terminus of L, and L is linked at its C terminus to the N terminus of F and ... When a is zero X is directly linked at its C terminus to the N terminus of F. For example, but not as a limitation, a may be 0 ...
Buy Baclofen Online
PKC stimulation led to eIF6 phosphorylation, and mutation of a serine residue in the carboxy terminus of eIF6 impaired RACK1/ ... Hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1C)), plasma fibrinogen, triglyceride and insulin levels increased apparently, especially in KK-A(y) ... Using data from the Supplement on Aging to the Health Interview Survey conducted in 1984, a structural model is developed to ...
Application # 2018/0142210. MODIFIED STEM CELLS AND USES THEREOF - Patents.com
A stem cell or differentiated cell of claim 1 wherein the chimeric molecule comprises from amino-terminus to carboxy-terminus: ... 8,361,794), fibrinogen domains (see, e.g., Weisel, et al., 1985, Science 230:1388), Kunitz domains (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. ... A stem cell or differentiated cell of claim 1 wherein the chimeric molecule comprises from amino-terminus to carboxy-terminus: ... A stem cell or differentiated cell of claim 1 wherein the chimeric molecule comprises from amino-terminus to carboxy-terminus: ...
Patente US6025194 - Nucleic acid sequence of senescence asssociated gene - Google Patentes
The amino acid sequence of the pGS-GC6 fusion protein of the invention is shown below in the amino to carboxy terminus ... AA442793 758863 fibrinogen receptor (glycoprotein IIb) AA444171 759500 ALK-3 AA424414 760179 peripherin (RDS) AA418421 767295 ... Useful pGC6 proteins of the invention may include heterologous sequences linked at the amino- or carboxy-terminus, wherein the ... amino acid sequences are shown in the amino to carboxy terminus direction; an * designates a stop codon). ...
Patent US7468458 - Accelerants for the modification of non-natural amino acids and non-natural ... - Google Patents
Similarly, a "carboxy terminus modification group" refers to any molecule that can be attached to the carboxy terminus of a ... fibrinogen, fibronectin, four-helical bundle protein, G-CSF, glp-1, GM-CSF, glucocerebrosidase, gonadotropin, growth factor, ... An "amino terminus modification group" refers to any molecule that can be attached to the amino terminus of a polypeptide. ... Multifunctional polymer derivatives include, but are not limited to, linear polymers having two termini, each terminus being ...
ICAM-1 | Open Access articles | Open Access journals | Conference Proceedings | Editors | Authors | Reviewers | scientific...
... and a carboxy-terminus cytoplasmic domain. The structure of ICAM-1 is characterized by heavy glycosylation, and the proteins ... and fibrinogen. These three proteins are generally expressed on endothelial cells and leukocytes, and they bind to ICAM-1 to ... ICAM-1 is a transmembrane protein possessing an amino-terminus extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, ... Abraham G, Colonno RJ; Colonno (August 1984). "Many rhinovirus serotypes share the same cellular receptor". J. Virol. 51 (2): ...
Patent US5837672 - Methods and compositions for the detection of soluble β-amyloid peptide - Google Patents
Likewise, an antibody to the last 20 amino acids at the carboxyl terminus of APP (60 amino acids beyond the βAP region) also ... 167:1094-1101). The detection of fragments of the carboxy-terminal portion of APP in plasma has also been reported (Rumble et ... 1-1000 0.2Fibrinogen Type I 1-1000 0Fibrinogen Type II 1-1000 0Fibrinogen Type III 1-1000 0 ... Seubert, et al., "Secretion of Beta-amyloid precursor protein cleaved at the amino terminus of the Beta-amyloid peptide", ...
How is stress fiber assembly regulated? | MBInfo
... domain at their carboxy terminus and an evolutionarily conserved globular head domain at their amino terminus… Read more… ... Podosome initiation occurs in response to interactions between ECM ligands, such as fibronectin and fibrinogen, with cell ... and a carboxy-terminal dimerization domain … Read more… ...
Assay of procarboxypeptidase U, a novel determinant of the fibrinolytic cascade, in human plasma. - Free Online Library
20.) Fleury V, Angles-Cano E. Characterization of the binding of plasminogen to fibrin surfaces: the role of carboxy-terminal ... Combined use of markers of muscle necrosis and fibrinogen conversion in the early differentiation of myocardial infarction and ... from the COOH terminus of peptides and proteins. In the plasma compartment, this family of enzymes is represented by ...
Primed to Understand Fibrinogen in Cardiovascular Disease | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Fibrinogen gamma′ chain carboxy terminal peptide selectively inhibits the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Br J Haematol. 2007; ... chain containing a unique 20-amino acid sequence at the C terminus. Between 8% and 15% of circulating fibrinogen in healthy ... to-total fibrinogen ratio7-11 suggests that γA/γ′ fibrinogen is not simply a biomarker for increased total fibrinogen. Together ... fibrinogen versus γA/γA fibrinogen.30 Accordingly, γA/γ′ fibrinogen may be increased to downregulate inflammation-induced ...
A gain-of-function variant in DIAPH1 causes dominant macrothrombocytopenia and hearing loss | Blood Journal
R1213 is 60 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of DIAPH1 within the DAD. In the amino acid sequence lineup of human DIAPH1 ... D) Representative confocal microscopy images of platelets after spreading on fibrinogen (2.5 μg cm−2). F-actin is displayed as ... Crystal structure of a complex between amino and carboxy terminal fragments of mDia1: insights into autoinhibition of ... For confocal microscopy, transfected A549 cells or platelets applied to fibrinogen-coated coverslips were fixed and probed with ...
- Following vascular injury, fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form fibrin, which is the most abundant component of blood clots. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, various cleavage products of fibrinogen and fibrin regulate cell adhesion and spreading, display vasoconstrictor and chemotactic activities, and are mitogens for several cell types. (wikipedia.org)
- Trypsin-like proteolytic enzyme which cleaves fibrin, fibrinogen, q.q.v., and other plasma proteins. (drugfuture.com)
- Fibrinogen is an important cardiovascular risk factor and contributes to elevated plasma viscosity and the high risk of fibrin clot formation in atherosclerotic vessels. (ahajournals.org)
- 14 15 Very recently, it has been suggested that vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is the endothelial receptor that recognizes the Bβ15-42 amino terminus in the fibrin monomer. (ahajournals.org)
- Muthard et al 28 recently found that γ′ fibrin(ogen) reduces thrombin-mediated clot growth at venous, but not arterial shear rates, suggesting that the contributions of γ′ fibrinogen are mediated by the vascular bed. (ahajournals.org)
- Structurally, TGFBI contains an amino-terminal signal peptide sequence necessary for secretion into the extracellular environment, a cysteine-rich EMI domain similar to regions found in proteins of the EMILIN family, along with four highly conserved fasciclin I (FAS I) domains and a carboxy-terminal Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid (RGD) motif. (biomedcentral.com)
- The protein have three domains: one 61-residue amino-terminal cytoplasmic region, a 28-residue transmembrane region and a 671-residue extracellular carboxyl-terminus (McClelland et al 1984, Schneider et al 1984). (ifcc.org)
- Using N-terminally FLAG-tagged ORF 3 protein and an antiserum specific to the C-terminus we verified the proposed topology of an extracellular N-terminus and a cytosolic C-terminus. (biomedcentral.com)
- Fibrinogen and its degradation products have several direct effects on the vascular endothelium that may be associated with the development of intimal lesions. (ahajournals.org)
- Fibrinogen and its degradation products stimulate the release of several growth factors and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from endothelial cells 7 8 and can promote an increase the vascular permeability and disorganization of the endothelium. (ahajournals.org)
- Examples of biomarkers for resorption are associated with collagen degradation, such as the carboxy-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, pyridinoline, and deoxypyridinoline. (aaccjnls.org)
- Monoclonal antibodies and fragments thereof, with binding specificity for an epitope on the carboxy terminus of prothrombin activation peptide F1.2, which can be used in immunoassays to predict thrombosis by measuring the extent of activation of prothrombin. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 1. A monoclonal antibody and fragments thereof that specifically bind to an epitope on the carboxy terminus of a prothrombin activation peptide, wherein said epitope comprises the amino acid sequence -Ser-Asp-Arg-Ala-Ile-Glu-Gly-Arg-OH, and wherein said monoclonal antibody is secreted by the hybridoma identified as ATCC No. HB 10291. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Compositions include polypeptides which are identical or homologous to a certain cationic protein (CAP18) obtained from mammalian granulocytes, particularly including a reactive nitrogen inhibiting peptide (RNIP) fragment found at the carboxy-terminus of CAP18. (google.com)
- The fibrinogen-derived peptide Bβ15-42 bound to HSVECs ( K d 0.18 μmol/L). Preincubation of HSVECs with Bβ15-42, a neutralizing antibody to urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), or the F(ab) 1 fragment of a monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial cadherin significantly attenuated the increase in ICAM-1 stimulated by fibrinogen. (ahajournals.org)
- These findings indicate that cleavage of fibrinopeptide B from fibrinogen by endothelial uPA permits the exposed Bβ15-42 sequence of fibrinogen to bind to vascular endothelial cadherin on HSVECs and to upregulate the expression of ICAM-1. (ahajournals.org)
- The demonstration that fibrinogen acts as a bridging ligand for adhesion of THP-1 cells (a monocytic cell line) to cultured HUVECs 12 could signify a potential mechanism for the promotion of monocyte infiltration into the vascular wall. (ahajournals.org)
- In the December issue of Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology , Appiah et al 16 report a large prospective study examining the association of plasma γ′ fibrinogen levels with incident CVD end points. (ahajournals.org)
- The RGD motif present in the carboxy-terminus of TGFBI is necessary, but not sufficient, for SKOV3 cell adhesion and is dispensable for adhesion of ovarian cancer cells lacking β3 integrin expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- Integrin ligands, including fibrinogen, use specific amino acid sequences as recognition motifs for receptor binding. (bmj.com)
- Abstract -It has been reported that fibrinogen may act as a bridging ligand, binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and to Mac-1 on THP-1 cells (a monocytic cell line) to increase adhesion. (ahajournals.org)
- In this study, we investigated whether fibrinogen altered the expression of ICAM-1 and, thus, increased the adhesion of THP-1 cells to cultured human saphenous vein endothelial cells (HSVECs). (ahajournals.org)
- The role of fibrinogen as a bridging ligand was attributed to binding of the γ117-133 sequence of the fibrinogen D domain to ICAM-1 on endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
- 32. The method of claim 1 or 2 wherein said antibody preferentially inhibits fibrinogen binding to α v β 3 compared to fibrinogen binding to α IIb β 3 . (google.com.au)
- In keeping with this hypothesis, fibrinogen has been shown to mediate endothelium-dependent vasoactive effects on the saphenous vein that can be partially inhibited by a neutralizing antibody against ICAM-1. (ahajournals.org)
- In addition to its prothrombotic characteristics, fibrinogen has critical anticoagulant functions by adsorbing thrombin during clotting (known as antithrombin I activity). (ahajournals.org)
- 19 , 20 Notably, repletion of afibrinogenemic plasma with γA/γ′ fibrinogen is more effective than γA/γA fibrinogen at reducing thrombin generation. (ahajournals.org)
- 21 This effect has been attributed to the ability of γ′ fibrinogen to support high-affinity nonsubstrate binding of thrombin. (ahajournals.org)
- Accordingly, in vitro studies show that the presence of γA/γ′ fibrinogen reduces thrombin-mediated activation of cofactors VIII 25 and V, 26 and increases plasma sensitivity to activated protein C. 27 Consequently, the net contribution of γ′ fibrinogen to coagulation in vivo-either pro- or antithrombotic-is difficult to predict. (ahajournals.org)
- Fibrinogen alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGA gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The 4- to 5-fold increase in ICAM-1 protein concentration in HSVECs stimulated by 4 μmol/L fibrinogen for 6 hours was concomitant with a 4- to 5-fold increase in ICAM-1 mRNA. (ahajournals.org)
- By in-vitro translation analysis and subsequent endoglycosidase H digestion we showed that ORF 3 protein is N-glycosylated at the N-terminus. (biomedcentral.com)
- however, fibrinogen is an acute phase protein synthesized in the liver, and its circulating levels can exceed 7 mg/mL during acute inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
- However, adjustment for established CVD risk factors and levels of plasma fibrinogen and C-reactive protein as a biomarker for inflammation abolished the associations with coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke and sharply attenuated the significance of the association with heart failure and peripheral artery disease. (ahajournals.org)
- 17 , 18 Limitations include drift in measurements of γ′ fibrinogen over time and the fact that γ′ fibrinogen and C-reactive protein measurements were made from samples collected at separate visits. (ahajournals.org)
- 1 , 2 Healthy mice infused with unfractionated human fibrinogen and subjected to FeCl 3 -mediated carotid artery injury have a shortened time to vessel occlusion and increased resistance of thrombi to acute thrombolysis, suggesting that elevated fibrinogen independently contributes to thrombosis. (ahajournals.org)
- In contrast to previous studies, Appiah et al 16 conclude that γ′ fibrinogen levels reflect an inflammatory process that accompanies, and may promote, CVD, but that γ′ fibrinogen does not independently contribute to CVD. (ahajournals.org)
- In 1983-1984, three groups independently identified the suspected etiological agent of AIDS. (justia.com)
- Capillary electrophoretic analysis indicated that anti-uPA prevented the release of any fibrinopeptide B (Bβ1-14) in cultures of HSVECs incubated with 4 μmol/L fibrinogen for 6 hours. (ahajournals.org)
- Their unadjusted analysis shows a positive association of γ′ fibrinogen with incident coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, peripheral artery disease, heart failure, and CVD deaths. (ahajournals.org)
- Together with data from in vitro studies demonstrating clots formed from purified γA/γ′ fibrinogen are composed of abnormally structured fibers and are highly resistant to fibrinolysis, 12 - 15 these observations have led to the notion that γA/γ′ fibrinogen is a causal risk factor for CVD. (ahajournals.org)