Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
The absence of light.
Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Function of the human eye that is used in dim illumination (scotopic intensities) or at nighttime. Scotopic vision is performed by RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS with high sensitivity to light and peak absorption wavelength at 507 nm near the blue end of the spectrum.
A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
A vacuum tube equipped with an electron emitting CATHODE and a fluorescent screen which emits visible light when excited by the cathode ray. Cathode ray tubes are used as imaging devises for TELEVISIONS; COMPUTER TERMINALS; TEXT TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES; oscilloscopes; and other DATA DISPLAY devices.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.
Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The density of screening pigment granules is so low that migrations upon dark-light adaptation are insignificant. The eye of ... Dark-light adaptational changes, which are confined to the dark eye if one eye is painted black and the other is left untouched ... Dark-light adaptational changes affect the position of the screening pigment granules, the volume of the random and the ... seven hours affects the structural integrity of the rhabdoms and mimicks light-adaptation in animals that are kept in the dark ...
Clump that look like a carpet gaining the heat energy from the dark soil, the. Adaptation to stay warm during the severe ... Bearberry evolved to get the most out of tundra plant adaptations adaptations that plants to... A plant adaptation is its ... Plant adaptations in the tundra As I mentioned, it is the tundra plant adaptations that help it survive where Mother Nature is ... What are adaptations? The bears physical adaptation allows the food eaten during the summer to be store as a layer of fat ...
2020 has a host of great books-to-movies adaptations in store and limited series adaptations of books planned as well. Movies ... Hbo Max 2020 has a decidedly dark undercurrent the only thing that would make 40 palatable was a great for. Bunch of nuns who ... Decades ago a life of torment to this day has a host of great books-to-movies adaptations store... A movie, it has a decidedly ... NT be overstated it has a host of great books-to-movies adaptations in store and series. 40 years later, it is today is ...
An Irish-language version of the beloved 1980s TV series Cheers is in the works. Faith and Begorrah! ... Sideline, a Dublin-based production company is working on an Irish-language (which we assume means Gaeilge) adaptation of the ...
Jack Nicholson plays an increasingly unhinged hotel caretaker who is ensnared, along with his family, by dark spirits that ... Stanley Kubricks 1980 adaptation of Stephen Kings novel boasts some of the finest storytelling and suspense in any genre, and ...
THINGS HEARD & SEEN is a film adaptation of Elizabeth Brundages novel ALL THINGS CEASE TO APPEAR. Without having read the book ... As THINGS SEEN & HEARD opens, a slide projector clicks in a dark, empty classroom, displaying paintings of oceans and ... The last slide takes us into a live-action wintry road in 1980. We see George Claire (James Norton) get out of his car. ...
... but his own karmic duplicate from a dark-matter universe! Kablammikus was finally able to wrestle his dark self under control, ... Kablammakus was shopped around to many publishers, eventually being picked up by the publisher of Golgo 13 for adaptation into ... and dark-eyed women. Amongst his weaponry are such diverse elements as: Fear! Surprise! Ruthless efficiency! An almost ... absorbing him into his own powers, and using their combined energies to stabilize Bludgeons dark-matter homeworld (revealed to ...
"Watership Down" (1978) is a faithful adaptation of Richard Adams classic British dystopian novel about a community of rabbits ... dark-toned allegory about freedom amid political turmoil. ... Jean-Luc Godards "Every Man For Himself" (1980) looks at the ... Fellinis "Satyricon" (1969) is a controversial, extremely loose adaptation of Petroniuss classical Roman satire. An episodic ...
Sin City a Dark Horse Comicsnak (író és rajzoló) *Sin City: A Nehéz Búcsú (1991) (originally trimmed slightly in Dark Horse ... Frank Millers RoboCop (2003) (adaptation of Millers 1990 script to RoboCop 2 by Steven Grant) (art by Juan Jose Ryp) (9 ... "Mercy!" short story in Dark Horse Maverick 2000 (also art). *"The End" short story in Dark Horse Maverick: Happy Endings (also ... The Big Guy and Rusty the Boy Robot (1995) (art by Geoff Darrow) (2 issues) (also trade paperback ISBN 1-56971-201-8) (Dark ...
The first major adaptation was the 1960s camp TV show starring Adam West, after which there have been several animated ... Christopher Nolan revitalized the movies with his Dark Knight trilogy. Batman is currently a part of the DC Extended Universe ( ... The stories about Gotham Citys Dark Knight have been popular for decades now and have created a multimedia franchise ... But is that enough to defeat the Dark Knight? Keep reading to find out! ...
A dark comedy, rich in nuances, the film is an adaptation of Pedro Lenzs award-winning 2010 novel of the same name. The film ... This masterful period film is set in the very restrictive GDR in the 1980s and stars Nina Hoss in a brilliantly nuanced ... The existential film is a dark meditation on many things but Sokurov takes a few jabs at Germany. If youre going to see it, ... The film is set in the 1950s and revisits a dark and nearly forgotten period in the Switzerlands recent history, when the ...
It was the best-selling American novel of 1931 and 1932, the darkest days of the Great Depression. Its sequel novel Sons (1932 ... and silver screen adaptation (1937) were also runaway successes. Moreover, the novel is a testament to the American expatriate ... Finally, The Good Earth calls us to revisit a great American writer who fought for her beliefs in the face of dark ... Much like its eponymous waterway, V.S. Naipauls A Bend in the River meanders steadily through the dark reality of postcolonial ...
I had to go and check in a dark, dusty old wing of the castle and under the cobwebs there is still a vhs copy of Roswell. ... I havent watched this for a while but its one of the better UFO adaptations Ive seen and along with the reconstruction shown ... TV & Movie Adaptations from Real UFO Cases. page: 1 #liveFeed1, #liveFeed2, #liveFeed3 { margin: 40px 2px 50px 4px; width: ... Although I think its only vaguely related to the 1980 Rendlesham Incident.. Its based around a sort of Blair Witch , shaky ...
The Dark Corner (1946) (screenplay). Jo Eisinger (1909-1991). Crime of Passion (1957) (screenplay) (story). Gilda (1946) ( ... Woman in Hiding Roy (1950) Huggins (adaptation), Oscar Saul (screenplay). Dorothy B. Hughes (1904-1993). In a Lonely Place ( ... Dark Passage (1946) (writer). The Unfaithful (1947) (screenplay). Nightfall (1957) (writer). The Burglar (1953). Shoot the ... Dark Waters (1944) (uncredited). High Sierra (1941) (screenplay). Key Largo (1948) (writer). The Asphalt Jungle (1950) ( ...
After earning a Macarthur Fellowship in 1989, Morris made a brief stab at storytelling with "The Dark Wind" (1991), an ... adaptation of Tony Hillermans mystery novel about Navajo Tribal Police investigating a murder. Produced by Robert Redford, the ... Narrative feature directorial debut, "The Dark Wind"; produced by Robert Redford and released directly on video ... 1980) - to settle a bet that Morris would not complete the film. Despite excellent reviews, the film did not secure a release ...
Adaptation (1) * Adil El Arabi (1) * Adrienne Barbeau (1) * After Dark Action (1) ... the Goblin keyboardist discusses Contaminations dark, progressive rock score and a lifetime of making music for Italian terror ...
I was dark-haired so I got to be Han, Jr., Isaac had kind of dirty blonde hair, so he was Luke, Jr., Susie was a girl, so she ... That Empire storybook and the excellent Marvel comics adaptation helped keep the plot and visuals fresh in my mind once Empire ... I could probably reveal my deepest, darkest secrets right here because nobody would have read this far… ... Shots in the Dark: Blake Edwards Problematic Pink Panther Series (Part 2) ...
He lives in 1980s Manhattan and works on Wall Street. The very image of a yuppie, he is obsessed with his health, c ... 1991 controversial novel American Psycho and its film adaptation. ... 1991 controversial novel American Psycho and its film adaptation. He lives in 1980s Manhattan and works on Wall Street. The ... However, he has a darker side; he is a serial killer, rapist, cannibal and necrophile. ...
The dark markings around the eyes may be the reason for these animals popularity giving them a wide-eyed, juvenile appearance ... This adaptation also allows increased dexterity while handling bamboo. The first successful panda breeding came in 1980 at the ... Giant pandas also have several adaptations to the skull. A notable feature on these animals is an extra, opposable digit on the ... Fortunately no more natural predators exist for pandas today (Ward and Kynaston, 1995). The dark color from their arm bands was ...
He later reprised his role in the sequels The Dark Knight (2008) and The Dark Knight Rises (2012). ... This is an adaptation of Diana Wynne Joness childrens novel of the same name. Its gross in the US was $4,711,096, a fraction ... The Dark Knight trilogy: 2005-2012. In 2004, after completing filming for The Machinist, Bale won the lead role of Batman and ... The Dark Knight was released in the US on 18 July 2008 and stormed through the box office, with a record-breaking $158.4 ...
Hes also controversial about the involvement in to the rock band called dark sabbath. ~$342,47 each hour; He was in lots of ... Hes very well-known for his personality in the adaptation of Jesus Christ Superstar. A handsome and shiny person, he certainly ... Andy Warhol Apparel & Accessories Retailers - NEC Bible Dark Bible Theology University of San Jacinto Bible Theology University ... He was known for his sadistic smile, light dark brown eyes, curly blonde locks and an attractive encounter, although his ...
Dark Streets is only available for rent or buy starting at $3.99. Get notified if it comes to one of your streaming services, ... On: Rent or Buy Only Tags: Adaptation Country: America. .css-1aduz4h{width:100%;max-width:770px;position:relative;margin:0; ... Dark Streets has a less than average IMDb audience rating of 4.4 (379 votes). The movie is not at all popular with Reelgood ... Chaz is the envy of every man.Dark Streets featuring Gabriel Mann and Bijou Phillips is available for rent or purchase on ...
... which includes the 1978 adaptation of Watership Down and an expansion of the Columbia Noir collection from the channels ... So Dark the Night, Joseph H. Lewis, 1946. Dead Reckoning, John Cromwell, 1947. Johnny OClock, Robert Rossen, 1947. The Lady ... The definitive screen adaptation of Frances Hodgson Burnetts classic, oft-filmed rags-to-riches tale follows the fortunes of ... One year ago, the Criterion Channel launched with a journey into the dark side of the Columbia Pictures catalog, and were ...
Student to meet his/her goals and objectives, dark respiration, and the thermal of. In Lake Maarsseveen ( the Netherlands ) ... See more ideas about special needs adaptations, special needs, adaptations. Google Scholar. High-molecular-mass complexes ... Adaptation of Plants and Animals to their Habitat What would happen if a polar bear is brought to a desert? Heat stress: an ... desmid special adaptations Tyler, P. & R. Wickham, 1988. 1, Living Cryptogams. Botanica Acta 106: 78-87. Oxidative Stress in ...
Troyes Constance court poetry Dark Crystal Das Nibelungenlied dragon dream vision epic poetry Erec et Enide faithful adaptation ... The light/dark contrast from dark tunnel to bright open space is also used in Jim Hensons The Dark Crystal (1982) in a similar ... The contrast between dark and light and reality and magic and mystery is just as pronounced in this shot as it is in The Dark ... In Die Nibelungen, the light/dark contrast between the luminous cavern interior and the dark and swampy exterior is remarkable ...
Temna snov, Dark Matter (2007) - Joanna Silver. *Huda mravljica, The Ant Bully (2006) - Kraljica mravlja (glas) ... Prilagajanje, Adaptation (2002) - Susan Orlean. *Glasba mojega srca, Music of the Heart (1999) - Roberta Guaspari ... Leta 1980 je režiser Alan J. Pakula pričel s pripravami na nov film o holokavstu, in sicer po knjižni predlogi Williama Styrona ... 1980, oskar za stransko žensko vlogo, Kramer proti Kramerju, Kramer vs Kramer ...
... which is another adaptation of the 1980s pretty violent comic book series by Peter Laird and Kevin Eastman (the latter who ... Well, if they have the world actually end up being destroyed, of course this kids show not as dark as its previous iteration ... This series served as an amalgamation of all of them, inheriting the sheer goofiness of 1987 while keeping the darker tone of ... following the 1987 animated series that popularized it into being a goofy ids franchise that helped in making a dark but very ...
Wry-faced English actor with dark wavy hair, an expert at fops in regency farce and what he once described as upper-class ... twits. To this end, he was seen in several P G Wodehouse adaptations and later became known for reading the authors books on ... 1980), And the Ship Sails On (1983), the White Rabbit in a TV production of Alice in Wonderland (1986) and several appearances ...
Gondrys adaptation of Boris Vians unfilmable novel is much darker in its original-release version than in the 94-minute cut ...
Their adaptation of Elizabeth brundage novel All things stop appearing(which is a much better title, by the way) has a ... A man walks to a dark wooden farmhouse in the winter of 1980. As he walks into the garage, he notices something dripping onto ... So while the setting may seem familiar - a creaky old house with a dark past where things happen at night - Berman and Pulcini ...
  • Structural adaptations include modifications to dioptric elements, to photoreceptor arrangement, and to presence or absence of tapetal reflectors, while physiological adaptations may be to spectral (wavelength) sensitivity, absolute irradiance sensitivity, and temporal resolution (reviewed in Land and Nilsson, 2002). (
  • Astrangia poculata is a temperate scleractinian coral that provides unique opportunities to understand the roles of phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation in coral physiological tolerance limits. (
  • The modest change of the adaptation correlation shows that naive application of Campbell's theorem to such data is adequate for rough estimation of the model's physiological parameters. (
  • George A. Romero: …film adaptation of King's novel The Dark Half (1993). (
  • The EEA has addressed the consequences of climate change in numerous reports, including Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016, the 2019 report Climate change adaptation in the agriculture sector in Europe and the European environment - state and outlook 2020 report. (
  • Margaret Drabble: …mortality are the themes of The Dark Flood Rises (2016), which focuses on a 70-something woman and her friends. (
  • Over the period 1980-2016, t he total reported economic losses caused by weather and climate-related extremes in the EEA member countries amounted to approximately EUR 436 billion (in 2016 Euro values). (
  • Between 1980 and 2016, natural disasters caused by weather and climate-related extremes accounted for some 83 % of the monetary losses in the EU Member States. (
  • Once the Berlin Wall fell in November 1989, Waters decided to revive The Wall -- Floyd only performed a handful of shows in 1980, due to its expense -- as an all-star tribute concert in Berlin in July 1990. (
  • Average annual economic losses varied between EUR 7.4 billion over the period 1980-1989, EUR 13.3 billion (1990-1999) and EUR 13.9 billion (2000-2009). (
  • The temperature excess gained by basking was larger in dark than in pale individuals, increased with behavioural boldness, and was associated with faster growth. (
  • The discovery of this previously overlooked process has practical implications for aquaculture, offers alternative explanations for behavioural and phenotypic adaptations, will spur future research in fish ecology, and calls for modifications of models concerning climate change impacts on biodiversity in marine and freshwater environments. (
  • Behavioural adaptations are composed of inherited behaviour chains and/or the ability to learn: behaviours may be inherited in detail ( instincts ), or a tendency for learning may be inherited (see neuropsychology ). (
  • Stanley Kubrick's 1980 adaptation of Stephen King's novel is a post-modern waking nightmare interspersed with surrealistic touches, ambiguous subtexts, and jabs of dark humor. (
  • Using UHR-OCT, it is now possible to measure time-dependent changes of photoreceptor-specific structures after light exposure, and then to measure subsequent recovery of the structural changes as an alternative to classical dark adaptometry. (
  • The report is divided into four parts - firstly, a brief overview of dark adaptation and the physiology of the eye. (
  • Given the above physiology of dark adaptation it is clear why initial dark adaptation is reported to occur over 20 minutes. (
  • The physiology also explains the lack of loss of dark adaptation reported by some amateurs following short exposures even to bright light. (
  • Clearly from the physiology and physics any mechanism which hinders the function of nerves, muscles and the protein synthesis will have a detrimental effect on achieving and maintaining dark adaptation As is evident from the discussion above both protein synthesis and neural responses are important in vision and dark adaptation. (
  • Wyszecki, G. & Stiles, W.S. (1980). (
  • 1994) Dark adaptation in patients with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. (
  • Epstein GA and Rabb MF (1980) Adult vitelliform macular degeneration: diagnosis and natural history. (
  • The clinicalpattern was similar to Sorsby's pseudoinflammatory dominant fundusdystrophy, except that the disorder appeared earlier in this Finnishfamily, the members of which show secondary dyschromatopsia, manydeep hyaloid bodies in the retina, disturbed dark adaptation (1 to 4 logunits), subnormal Iight-peak/dark-trough ratios, progressive myopia,and a mode of inheritance which is probably autosomal recessive. (
  • There are two major components of dark adaptation namely dilatation of the pupil and the photochemical alterations of the retina. (
  • The mechanism of dark adaptation involves an interplay between Rhodopsin, Retinene and Vitamin A, all of which are located in the rods of the retina. (
  • Conversely, inhibiting A2aR or activating D4R in daytime dark-adapted retina decreased Cx36 phosphorylation with similar PKA dependence. (
  • 1994). Although the metabolic adaptations of polar and deep-sea crustaceans are often similar (Vetter and Buchholz, 1998), too little is known about the sensory capabilities of polar crustaceans to assess whether the sensory adaptations are also similar. (
  • Åland Island eye disease (AIED), also known as Forsius-Eriksson syndrome, is an X-linked recessive retinal disease characterized by a combination of fundus hypopigmentation, decreased visual acuity, nystagmus, astigmatism, protan color vision defect, progressive myopia, and defective dark adaptation. (
  • Accordingly, a characterization of the visual adaptations in crustaceans from polar habitats would be instructive, both for understanding how neural systems function in extremely cold environments and for further characterizing the ecological role of vision in dim habitats. (
  • Crawford attributed this result to the fact that the intense conditioning flash showed a faster neural response than the threshold responses measured in the dark. (
  • 1995). The adaptation with the moving texture could bias and modify temporal processing. (
  • Participants made a direct estimation of Time to Contact, which showed that classic adaptations were able to bias temporal judgments and modulate the amplitude of the CNV, suggesting a complex feedforward-feedback network between low- and high level cortical mechanisms. (
  • [6] p562 [8] A favourite example used today to study the interplay of adaptation and speciation is the evolution of cichlid fish in African lakes. (
  • R.A. McFarland and H.N. Evans, Alterations in dark adaptation under reduced oxygen tensions, Am. J. Physiol 7:37 (1939). (
  • Waters contributed songs to the 1986 animated adaptation of When the Wind Blows, and in 1987 he released the ambitious concept album Radio K.A.O.S., supporting the album with a world tour. (
  • We conclude that cold adaptation should remain an important consideration when implementing seed transfers designed to mitigate harmful effects of climate change. (
  • and will help to estimate the adaptive genetic variation present in metapopulations that could power rapid adaptation to climate change (i.e. (
  • Here, we study cold adaptation of tree populations in a wide-ranging coniferous species in western North America to inform limits to seed transfer. (
  • Dark Horse Comics, American comic book publisher founded in 1986 by comics retailer Mike Richardson. (
  • Gilden and colleagues (1995) showed that motion adaptation affects TTC judgment showing that real motion detectors are somehow also involved during ME. (
  • The animal subjects do not perceive red lights and thus experience darkness (the active period for nocturnal animals), but the human researchers, who have one kind of cone (the "L cone") that is sensitive to long wavelengths, are able to read instruments or perform procedures that would be impractical even with fully dark adapted (but low acuity) scotopic vision. (
  • Adaptation is the evolutionary process where an organism becomes better suited to its habitat . (
  • By using the term adaptation for the evolutionary process , and adaptive trait for the bodily part or function (the product), the two senses of the word may be distinguished. (
  • page needed] In consequence, reds will appear darker relative to other colors as light levels decrease. (
  • While the effect is often described from the perspective of the human eye, it is well established in a number of animals under the same name to describe the general shifting of spectral sensitivity due to pooling of rod and cone output signals as a part of dark/light adaptation. (
  • The rods are not saturated by the bright red light because they are not sensitive to long-wavelength light, so the crew members remain dark adapted. (
  • Reconstruction of serial sections shows about 12 spinules per terminal in the light but only two in the dark. (
  • When measuring at the mesopic level, special attention must be given to the room luminance, since peripheral light sources may affect the level of dark adaptation. (
  • This instrument relies on technology first developed in the 1980 s [ 19 ] such as 5.25" floppy discs and a 'light-pen' to enter data. (
  • Recently much has appeared in the amateur astronomy literature on the effects of intrusive white light on dark adaptation. (
  • The pupil can alter in size in response to light by constricting and to the dark by dilating. (
  • Although not adequate to achieve full dark and light adaptation, pupil size alters rapidly and gives, within 15 to 20 seconds, an appreciable increase in the ability to see in dim light. (
  • Thus prolonged exposure to light (>7 minutes) is required to significantly alter dark adaptation (Campbell et al. (
  • General morphology, and light and dark adaptation at noon. (
  • Gaten E (1990) The ultrastructure of the compound eye of Munida rugosa (Crustacea: Anomura) and pigment migration during light and dark adaptation. (
  • That struggle gives the story its requisite heft, but what makes this ''Batman'' so enjoyable is how Mr. Nolan balances the story's dark elements with its light, and arranges the familiar genre elements in new, unforeseen ways. (
  • Cone phototransduction and growth of the ERG b-wave during light adaptation: Vision Research Vol 46(22) Oct 2006, 3941-3948. (
  • full field dark-adapted (DA) ERGs are unremarkable but light adapted (LA) cone flicker (30Hz) and single flash cone ERGs are severely abnormal. (
  • Photoreceptor coupling depends on a circadian rhythm and light/dark adaptation. (
  • The bump shape estimated from noise at dim light is in excellent agreement with the average shape of bumps observed directly in the dark. (
  • Understanding the adaptation of plant populations to cold-as well as to heat and drought-is critical for minimizing risks under changing climates and assisted migration 26 . (
  • Both the original movie and the television series are based on author George R.R. Martin 's 1980 novella of the same name, though both take varying liberties on the original story. (
  • The adult collections are where you're likely to find film adaptations, such as The Phantom Menace and Rogue One: A Star Wars Story . (
  • The Purkinje effect (sometimes called the Purkinje shift) is the tendency for the peak luminance sensitivity of the eye to shift toward the blue end of the color spectrum at low illumination levels as part of dark adaptation. (
  • Background illumination, adaptation state, and instruction for the participants will furthermore influence the results. (
  • It's obvious that Mr. Nolan has made a close study of the Batman legacy, but he owes a specific debt to Mr. Miller's 1980's rethink of the character, which resurrected the Dark Knight side of his identity. (
  • Christian Bale: …Batman's cape once again in The Dark Knight Rises (2012) and played a beleaguered welder whose brother becomes entangled in a bare-knuckle fighting operation in Out of the Furnace (2013). (
  • Frank Miller: …alternative take on Batman with The Dark Knight Strikes Again (2001-02), which sold well but failed to garner the critical and commercial acclaim enjoyed by its predecessor. (
  • Batman: The modern era: The 2008 sequel, The Dark Knight, was an even bigger commercial and critical success. (
  • The oscillatory potential of the electroretinogram and the initial 2-min phase of dark-adaptation were studied in seven newly diagnosed Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients before and during initial insulin treatment. (
  • Törnquist P, Ring A (1980) The influence of hyperosmotic stress on the blood-retinal barrier effects on the electroretinogram. (
  • It is shown how the model yields a data reduction procedure that slightly generalizes the familiar use of Campbell's theorem for Poisson shot noise: the correlative effect of adaptation amends Campbell's theorem by a single multiplicative factor, which may be estimated directly from the power spectrum of the noise data. (
  • X seems to be logarithmically related to S-cone threshold, which may result from the logarithmic cone-opponent, second-site response compression after multiplicative first-site adaptation. (
  • These structures, called spinules, disappear almost completely after dark adaptation. (
  • It's not a film adaptation, but I thought it relevant to our interests. (
  • That is, per critics such as Ray, fidelity criticism ultimately boils down to the boring discussion of whether or not the adaptation is better than the original-producing the unproductive question, "how does the film compare to the book" (2)? (
  • In paragraph 14, she notes the (re)launch of a book's popularity with a film adaptation often comes with a fresh new cover with images from the film. (
  • She writes, "if I buy and read the book after seeing the movie, I read it differently than I would have before I had seen the film: in effect the book, not the adaptation, has become the second and even secondary text for me. (
  • Dark Horse Comics: Dark Horse Entertainment, the company's film and television production division, was established in 1992. (
  • At year's end, he was back in business with Edwards, when the producing studio of the film adaptation of the stage farce A Shot in the Dark decided to convert the dry material into a second vehicle for the character of Clouseau. (
  • See also arago phenomenon, dark adaptation, photochromatic interval. (
  • He wrote an article last summer for The Conversation in which he emphasized the possible role of dark DNA in evolution [ Introducing 'dark DNA' - the phenomenon that could change how we think about evolution ]. (
  • Adaptation, then, affects all aspects of the life of an organism. (
  • We hypothesized that adenosine, with its extracellular levels increasing in darkness, may serve as a dark signal to coregulate photoreceptor coupling through modulation of gap junction phosphorylation. (
  • The most exciting puzzle to solve will be working out what effect dark DNA has had on animal evolution. (
  • He was interested in the momentary blinding effect of artillery fire on dark nights. (
  • A step further that I made was to investigate the effect of brief motion priming and adaptation, occurring at the earliest levels of the cortical visual streams, on time-to-contact (TTC) estimation of a target passing behind an occluder. (
  • Ceratioids are best known for their dark, usually globular bodies, huge mouths, often with fang-like depressible teeth, and luminescent angling lures (a modified dorsal-fin spine in females), all adaptations to life in the deep pelagic zones. (
  • Adaptation to distinct thermal environments along a species' range could therefore result in differential responses or susceptibility to temperature variation throughout that range. (
  • Adaptation is one of the two main processes that explain the diverse species we see in biology. (
  • The role of hotspots in evolution is an interesting question but Hargreaves seems to be capitalizing on the sexy term "dark DNA" when, in fact, he's just speculating that hotspots of recombination may play a role in evolution. (
  • To examine outer retinal band changes after flash stimulus and subsequent dark adaptation with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). (
  • All subjects were fully dark adapted before testing and pupils were dilated with 1% tropicamide. (
  • The EZ(IS/OS)-CIZ and EZ(IS/OS)-RIZ time courses were similar to the recovery of rod- and cone-mediated sensitivity, respectively, measured with dark adaptometry. (
  • Observers were dark-adapted and sensitivity was measured before, during, and after a 0.5-s, 68-td pulse. (
  • The test sensitivity for detection was poorer than for hue identification in the dark, but detection and identification were similar during the pulse. (
  • Most of the genome is not genes, but another form of genetic information that has come to be known as the genome's "dark matter. (
  • I study India, where one fifth of global suicides occur and suicide rates have doubled since 1980. (
  • My findings suggest that motion extrapolation might occur at the earliest levels of cortical processing of motion, where these rapid mechanisms of priming and adaptation take place. (
  • GC-rich genes are missing from the chicken genome assembly suggesting that dark DNA may be more common than anyone suspected. (
  • Dark matter of the genome refers to genes that can't be found/sequenced but there is evidence they exist because they leave their 'footprints', so to speak. (
  • in the dark, large multivesicular bodies can also be found. (
  • Modern representatives of Polychelida (Polychelidae) are considered to be entirely blind and have largely reduced eyes, possibly as an adaptation to deep-sea environments. (
  • Smooth-pursuit adaptation (SPA) refers to the fact that pursuit gain in the early, still open-loop response phase of the pursuit eye movement can be adjusted based on experience. (
  • Smooth pursuit adaptation (SPA) refers to the fact that the gain of SPEM initiation can be adjusted by suitable experimental manipulations. (
  • Bazin, who seems to be my go to theorist/thinker, would argue that so long as the spirit is faithful to the original it is still a good adaptation. (
  • Does this mean that the responsibility is to simply create a good adaptation based on less traditional thinking? (
  • Woodpecker adaptations are a good example of how a whole suite of features are needed for a successful way of life. (
  • The first paper is "The dark matter rises: the expanding world of regulatory RNAs" (Clark et al. (
  • The team behind the excellent 9-11 REPORT graphic adaptation now presents us with its tragic sequel. (
  • The authors try to convince us that most of the genome is mysterious "dark matter," not junk. (
  • It is not some mysterious "dark matter. (
  • This difficult-to-sequence DNA was called "dark DNA" in a paper published last summer (July 2017). (
  • One environment in which visual adaptations have received considerable attention is the deep sea. (
  • 1 Affected males show a combination of fundus hypopigmentation, decreased visual acuity due to foveal hypoplasia, nystagmus, astigmatism, protan color vision defect, myopia, and defective dark adaptation. (
  • And so fidelity discourse is important not for determining faithfulness between source and adaptation but between prior text and reader. (
  • Important adaptations do not come singly. (
  • This would have allowed them to colonize deep waters or to move at twilight, an adaptation suggestive of intense competition or predation from other life forms. (
  • in such parasites critical adaptations take place in the life cycle , which is often quite complex. (