The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
A shift in the balance between production and destruction of STRATOSPHERIC OZONE that results in a decline of the amount of OZONE in the lower stratosphere.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
The motion of air currents.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Ozone in the Earth's stratosphere. It is produced continuously by the action of solar ULTRAVIOLET RAYS on oxygen in the stratosphere. The stratospheric ozone (especially at the ozone layer) blocks much of the solar UV radiation of wavelengths of 320 nanometers or less from being transmitted to lower ATMOSPHERE of the Earth.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
Relating to the size of solids.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Secondary pollutants, such as ozone, are formed when primary pollutants undergo chemical reactions in the atmosphere. ... "Ozone Pollution". Clean Water Action Council of Northeast Wisconsin. "Health Effects of Ozone in the General Population". Ozone ... Therefore, the concentration of ozone keeps increasing throughout the day. This mechanism can escalate the formation of ozone ... nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, which leaves airborne particles and ground-level ozone. ...
... to collect data on the various gases in the atmosphere, including ozone. The data collected on SAGE I and the following ... Ozone research has remained at the forefront of atmospheric science for many years because stratospheric ozone shields the ... Since recent declines in stratospheric ozone have been linked to human activity, accurate long-term measurements of ozone ... SAGE III will also be able to look at the relationship between aerosol, cloud, and chemical processes affecting ozone argue for ...
Burrows' research has contributed to our scientific understanding of air pollution, the ozone layer, the upper atmosphere, ... John Philip Burrows (born 1954) FRS is professor of the Physics of the Ocean and Atmosphere and Director of the Institutes of ... John P. Burrows: Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere". Bremen: Archived from the original on 20 April 2013 ... "The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission Concept and First Scientific Results". Journal of the Atmospheric ...
... was a science satellite used from 1991 to 2005 to study Earth's atmosphere, including the ozone layer. Planned for a three-year ... The Solar Maximum Mission ended on December 2, 1989, when the spacecraft re-entered the atmosphere and burned up. The Infrared ... It reached Saturn's moon Titan on January 14, 2005, when it entered Titan's atmosphere and descended down to the surface. It ... HEAO 1 re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on March 15, 1979. The Solar Maximum Mission satellite (or SolarMax) was designed to ...
The oxygen produced by radiolysis forms tenuous atmospheres around rings and icy moons. The ring atmosphere was detected by ... Its products include ozone, hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The first one has been detected in the surfaces of Rhea and ... 2008). "Production, ionization and redistribution of O2 in Saturn's ring atmosphere" (PDF). Icarus. 180 (2): 393-402. Bibcode: ... 2006). "The Interaction of the Atmosphere of Enceladus with Saturn's Plasma". Science. 311 (5766): 1409-12. Bibcode:2006Sci... ...
"NWS JetStream - Layers of the Atmosphere". "Nasa Ozone Watch: Polar vortex facts". " ... Radicals produced from the homolytically split oxygen molecules combine with molecular oxygen to form ozone. Ozone in turn is ... Ozone (O3) photolysis produces O and O2. The oxygen atom product combines with atmospheric molecular oxygen to reform O3, ... Overall the attenuation of solar UV at wavelengths that damage DNA by the ozone layer allows life to exist on the surface of ...
2010 alone the reduction of ozone and particulate matter in the atmosphere prevented more than 160,000 cases of premature ... See, e.g., W. Koch, Obama, EPA sued for nixing tougher ozone rules (USA Today). Enesta Jones (2011-03-01). "EPA Report ... Air quality laws govern the emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere. A specialized subset of air quality laws regulate ... For example, the "estimates that the benefits of reducing fine particle and ground level ozone pollution under the 1990 Clean ...
Later research related to an approach for diminishing Halon gas emissions into the atmosphere, which became widely used to safe ... ground the ozone layer. The department that Leonard established helped UMIST to gain the Queen's Anniversary Prize (1998), and ... Non-fiction How to Avoid the British Disease (with J.A Chatterton, Northgate Publishing, 1979, ISBN 0-85298-432-4) Technology ...
... and the temperature of the atmosphere (using wavelengths for which the atmosphere is not transparent, or measuring cloud top ... Since 1996 the trend is slightly positive due to ozone recovery juxtaposed to a cooling trend of 0.1K/decade that is consistent ... Satellite temperature measurements are inferences of the temperature of the atmosphere at various altitudes as well as sea and ... The intensity is proportional to the temperature of broad vertical layers of the atmosphere. Upwelling radiance is measured at ...
... ozone concentrations throughout the atmosphere and earth's radiance. POES has been used by the Search and Rescue community ... and pressures within the atmosphere. The data collected from HIRS/4 is collaboratively used with the Advanced Microwave ... NOAA-6 - Launched on 27 June 1979. Deactivated on 31 March 1987. NOAA-B - Launched on 29 May 1980. Deorbited on 31 Mai 1981. ...
In 2011, the spacecraft discovered that Venus has a thin ozone layer at an altitude of 100 km. Venus has an extended ionosphere ... The atmosphere has a mass of 4.8×1020 kg, about 93 times the mass of the Earth's total atmosphere.[citation needed] The density ... The atmosphere is divided into a number of sections depending on altitude. The densest part of the atmosphere, the troposphere ... The troposphere on Venus contains 99% of the atmosphere by mass. Ninety percent of the atmosphere of Venus is within 28 km of ...
For example, temperatures in the atmosphere and Southern Ocean have increased during the period 1979-2004. However, sea ice ... which are a combination of natural variability and forced change from greenhouse gases and the ozone hole. Another possible ... The graph above shows the maximum extent for each September since 1979, in millions of square kilometers. There is variability ... during the period 1979 to 2012. IPCC AR5 also concluded that the lack of data precludes determining the trend in total volume ...
... doctoral studies she also contributed to an improved understanding of why the Antarctic atmosphere was more affected by ozone ... could lead to more ozone depletion. This made her one of the first scientists to make the link between ozone depletion and ... our understanding of the reactions that affect ozone depletion and highlighted the impact human activity has on the atmosphere ... Her work showed that denitrification in the stratosphere was an important factor in ozone loss. She also made additional ...
In 1989, the WMO's BAPMoN program was merged with the Global Ozone Observing System (GO3OS) to form the Global Atmosphere Watch ... "Ozone destruction and photochemical reactions at polar sunrise in the lower Arctic atmosphere". Nature. 334 (6178): 138-141. ... Neil Trivett Global Atmosphere Watch Observatory. In addition to the ongoing flask sample programs, the observatory maintains a ... This was a means by which mercury could be removed from the atmosphere and deposit to the ground that was not previously known ...
This is just the period in which humanmade carbon dioxide has been pouring into the atmosphere and according to the climate ... Scientific integrity and public trust : the science behind federal policies and mandates : case study 1, stratospheric ozone, ... Baliunas, Sallie; Willie Soon (June 1, 2000). "The Trouble with Ozone". Heartland Institute. Retrieved 2007-04-17. "Bok Prize ... promoted the idea that ozone depletion rather than CO2 emissions could explain atmospheric warming. 1977-1979 - Amelia Earhart ...
Typical values of total ozone in the Earth's atmosphere are conveniently represented in millimoles per square metre (mmol/m2). ... "NASA Ozone Watch: Latest status of ozone". Ozone Hole Watch. Retrieved 8 March 2017. "WOUDC - World Ozone and Ultraviolet ... "total ozone", and sometimes "column abundance", is dominated by the high concentrations of ozone in the stratospheric ozone ... NASA uses a baseline value of 220 DU for ozone. This was chosen as the starting point for observations of the Antarctic ozone ...
CFCs, Ozone Depletion and Global Warming Freeview video interview with F.Sherwood Rowland provided by the Vega Science Trust. F ... Rowland performed many measurements of the atmosphere. One experiment included collecting air samples at various cities and ... Rowland's work also showed how the density of the ozone layer varied by season increasing in November and decreasing until ... His best-known work was the discovery that chlorofluorocarbons contribute to ozone depletion. Born in Delaware, Ohio, Rowland ...
... they were destroying the stratospheric ozone layer which prevents harmful ultraviolet light from entering the lower atmosphere ... Woollaston was also on the Nelson Bays United Council and No 11 District Roads Board from 1979 to 1980. Woollaston stood for ...
1987 - The Montreal Protocol is signed to protect the ozone layer from depletion. 1990 - The railroad between the People's ... 1961 - Pakistan establishes its Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission with Abdus Salam as its head. 1963 - Malaysia is ... International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer Malaysian Armed Forces Day (Malaysia) Malaysia Day (Malaysia, ... 1979 - Eight people escape from East Germany to the west in a homemade hot air balloon. 1982 - Lebanon War: The Sabra and ...
Spaceflight portal Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite "SDO 2010-005A". N2YO. 24 January 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015. " ... These measurements specifically addressed long-term climate change, natural variability, atmospheric ozone, and UV-B radiation ... SORCE is projected to re-enter the atmosphere in 2032, with most of the spacecraft expected to burn up during re-entry. ... same stars used by the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) SOLSTICE program). To make the first measurements of the ... "UN Environment Programme - Ozone"] Check ,url= value (help). Retrieved 5 December 2019. Keneth L. Denman; Guy ... A primary concern for management of the global atmosphere is air pollution, the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, ... Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the ... The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. ...
Transnational environmental policies are efforts to confront global environmental issues such as climate change, ozone ... and the World Conference on the Changing Atmosphere in 1988; the latter resulted in the world's first ambitious targets and ... with the first World Climate Conference in 1979, ...
100 parts per million in the atmosphere was sufficient to poison rats in 30 minutes and to kill them in four hours. 1,2- ... "Ozone Protection and Synthetic Greenhouse Gas Management Amendment Regulations 2004 (No 1)". 7 September 2004. Retrieved 7 ... When 1,2-difluoroethane is released to the environment, it will end up in the atmosphere. Here it is degraded by reaction with ... 1,2-Difluoroethane is a greenhouse gas when released to the atmosphere. It has a warming equivalent to 140 times that of carbon ...
The object was to measure proton flux, electron flux density, and energy spectrum in the upper atmosphere. The experiment ... NOAA-6 performed monitoring of ice and snow cover, agriculture, oceanography, volcanism, ozone and the space environment, in ... the 9.7-µm ozone band; channels 10, 11, and 12, the 6-µm water vapor bands (8.3, 7.3, and 6.7 µm); channels 13 and 14, the 4.57 ... It was launched into a Sun-synchronous orbit by NASA aboard of the Atlas F S/N 25F launch vehicle on 27 June 1979 from ...
Edward Teller explained that carbon dioxide "in the atmosphere causes a greenhouse effect" and that burning more fossil fuels ... Researchers have discovered that the petrochemical industry can produce ground-level ozone pollution at higher amounts in ... "High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin". Nature. 514 (7522): 351-354. Bibcode:2014Natur. ... a group of chemicals that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone (smog). The combustion of fossil fuels produces ...
... the beginning of the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean, TAO, array. In 1984, the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere program (TOGA) ... "4 ways the ozone hole is linked to climate, and 1 way it isn't , NOAA". Retrieved 2019-12-13. ... NOAA data is also relevant to the issues of global warming and ozone depletion. The NWS operates NEXRAD, a nationwide network ... NOAA supplies to its customers and partners information pertaining to the state of the oceans and the atmosphere. This is clear ...
Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1995 for investigations on the formation and destruction of ozone in the atmosphere. At the beginning ... Gerald H. Haug and his team explore the climate -ocean-atmosphere system on annual up to geological timescales. Of particular ... Jos Lelieveld focuses on the study of ozone and other atmospheric photo-oxidants, their chemical reactions and global cycles. ... The Graduate School is in close cooperation with the University of Mainz (Institute for Physics of the Atmosphere), the ...
1 Ozone cycle overview. *2 Observations on ozone layer depletion *2.1 Compounds in the atmosphere *2.1.1 CFCs and related ... Ozone hole and its causes[edit]. Ozone hole in North America during 1984 (abnormally warm, reducing ozone depletion) and 1997 ( ... Observations on ozone layer depletion[edit]. The ozone hole is usually measured by reduction in the total column ozone above a ... "Ozone Facts: What is the Ozone Hole?". Ozone Hole Watch. NASA. November 18, 2009. Retrieved April 16, 2011.. ...
... and the chlorofluorocarbons that degrade the ozone layer. Anthropogenic particulates such as sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere ... The remaining freshwater is found in glaciers, lakes, rivers, wetlands, the soil, aquifers, and the atmosphere. Due to the ... Apart from the build-up of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, chemicals of particular concern include: heavy metals, ... The letter mentions severe damage to atmosphere, oceans, ecosystems, soil productivity, and more. It warns humanity that life ...
The alkali metals must be stored under mineral oil or an inert atmosphere. The inert atmosphere used may be argon or nitrogen ... through low-temperature reaction of the powdered anhydrous hydroxide with ozone: the ozonides may be then extracted using ... potassium should not be stored under oil in an oxygen-containing atmosphere for longer than 6 months.[215][216] ... Dye, J. L. (1979). "Compounds of Alkali Metal Anions". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 18 (8): 587-598. doi:10.1002/anie.197905871. ...
Barlow, Nadine G. (2008). Mars: an introduction to its interior, surface and atmosphere. Cambridge planetary science 8. ... 30 ppb ozone[അവലംബം ആവശ്യമാണ്]. 18 ppb hydrogen peroxide[8]. 10 ppb methane[9]. ... 9.0 9.1 Formisano, V.; Atreya, S.; Encrenaz, T.; Ignatiev, N.; Giuranna, M. (2004). "Detection of Methane in the Atmosphere of ... "Mars Express confirms methane in the Martian atmosphere". ESA. March 30, 2004. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2006-03-17. ...
By using B100, these generators were able to essentially eliminate the byproducts that result in smog, ozone, and sulfur ... fuel cells when compared to batteries is their ability to be powered by the constant flow of hydrogen found in the atmosphere. ... was initiated in South Africa in 1979. By 1983, the process for producing fuel-quality, engine-tested biodiesel was completed ...
... to stop ozone-depletion damage to the Earth's atmosphere by phasing out the use of 95% of ozone-depleting chemicals, with a ... "World Bank Historical Chronology: 1970-1979". World Bank Group. Retrieved 31 May 2012.. ... The 1979 energy crisis plunged many countries into economic crisis.[78]:68 The World Bank responded with structural adjustment ...
The damage caused to the ozone layer by the photolysis of CFCs was later discovered by Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina. After ... He has made a study of detecting life on other planets by analysis of their atmosphere and extended this to world pollution ... Lovelock, J. (1972). "Gaia as seen through the atmosphere". Atmospheric Environment. 6 (8): 579-580. Bibcode:1972AtmEn...6.. ... During work on a precursor of this program, Lovelock became interested in the composition of the Martian atmosphere, reasoning ...
See also: Atmosphere of Earth and History of Earth. Earliest atmosphere[edit]. The first atmosphere would have consisted of ... Second atmosphere[edit]. The next atmosphere, consisting largely of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and inert gases, was produced by ... That point was a shift from a reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing atmosphere. O2 showed major variations until reaching a ... Periods with much oxygen in the atmosphere are associated with rapid development of animals. Today's atmosphere contains 21% ...
This may distend like a balloon and acts as a resonator, helping to transfer the sound to the atmosphere, or the water at times ... destruction of the ozone layer (ultraviolet radiation has shown to be especially damaging to the skin, eyes, and eggs of ... 1979 (2): 297-306. doi:10.2307/1443418. JSTOR 1443418.. *^ a b c Gergits, W. F.; Jaeger, R. G. (1990). "Site attachment by the ... 1979 (2): 270-274. doi:10.2307/1443413. JSTOR 1443413.. *^ Brodie, E. D. Jr. (1978). "Biting and vocalisation as antipredator ...
of diatomic nitrogen (N2), the most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere.[9] In the table, the subscripts and superscripts ... About 99% of the Earth's atmosphere is composed of two species of diatomic molecules: nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). The ... Huber, K. P.; Herzberg, G. (1979). Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure IV. Constants of Diatomic Molecules. New York: Van ... Huber, K. P.; Herzberg, G. (1979). Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure IV. Constants of Diatomic Molecules. New York: Van ...
Reduction in ozone and particulate matter[edit]. The reduction in ozone and other particulate matter can benefit human health.[ ... Carbon Sequestration can be further improved by combining other agriculture techniques to increase removal from the atmosphere ... 38] Reducing these particulates and ozone gases could reduce mortality rates in urban areas along with increase the health of ... In Melbourne, the Collingwood Children's Farm was established in 1979 on the Abbotsford Precinct Heritage Farmlands (the APHF ...
... also significant greenhouse gases because of their role in creating ozone and prolonging the life of methane in the atmosphere ... Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs. Ozone (O3) is a key constituent of the troposphere. It is also an important ... Ground level ozone is a prominent example of secondary pollutants. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: they are ... Substances emitted into the atmosphere by human activity include: *Carbon dioxide (CO. 2) - Because of its role as a greenhouse ...
During two months of intense work, NSF researchers learned most of what is known about the ozone hole. In 1998 two independent ... In 1996 NSF-funded research established beyond doubt that the chemistry of the atmosphere above Antarctica was grossly abnormal ... This was in response to findings earlier that year, indicating a steep drop in ozone over a period of several years. The ... In 1985, the NSF delivered ozone sensors, along with balloons and helium, to researchers at the South Pole so they can measure ...
Ozone formationEdit. The amount of ozone (O3) required to shield Earth from biologically lethal UV radiation, wavelengths from ... Earth's earliest atmosphere contained no free oxygen (O2); the oxygen that animals breathe today, both in the air and dissolved ... "Ozone". University at Albany. Retrieved 22 November 2014.. *^ Hoffman, P.F.; Kaufman, A.J.; Halverson, G.P. & ... Oxygen levels in the atmosphere increased substantially afterward.[130] As a general trend, the concentration of oxygen in the ...
Ozone (O3) and molecular oxygen (O2) absorb light with wavelengths under 300 nm, meaning that X-ray and ultraviolet ... In the case of worlds with thick atmospheres or complete cloud cover (such as the gas giants, Venus, and Saturn's satellite ... For objects surrounded by gas, such as comets and planets with atmospheres, further emission and absorption happens at specific ... or due to the elements and molecules present in the atmosphere. To date over 3,500 exoplanets have been discovered. These ...
The solar wind exerts a pressure, and if it could reach Earth's atmosphere it would erode it. However, it is kept away by the ... including the ozone layer that protects the Earth from the harmful ultraviolet radiation. ... Luhmann, J. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Zhang, M. H. G. (1992). "Evolutionary impact of sputtering of the Martian atmosphere by O+ ... indicate that the dissipation of the magnetic field of Mars caused a near total loss of its atmosphere.[6][7] ...
... Express also discovered, in 2011, that an ozone layer exists high in the atmosphere of Venus.[85] On 29 January 2013, ESA ... The atmosphere of Venus was discovered in 1761 by Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov.[154][155] Venus's atmosphere was observed ... Main article: Atmosphere of Venus. Venus has an extremely dense atmosphere composed of 96.5% carbon dioxide, 3.5% nitrogen, and ... determined that the atmosphere was 95% carbon dioxide (CO. 2), and discovered that Venus's atmosphere was considerably denser ...
The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere.[5] Approximately 30% is ... Solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth's land surface, oceans - which cover about 71% of the globe - and atmosphere. Warm air ... The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per ... Mazria (1979), pp. 29-35 *^ Bright, David (18 February 1977). "Passive solar heating simpler for the average owner". Bangor ...
It is found on Earth and exists in very small concentrations and in the atmosphere at about 1 ppm.[8][9][clarification needed] ... Ozone (O3) is now used extensively for sanitizing in wineries due to its efficacy, and because it does not affect the wine or ... The atmosphere of Io, a natural satellite of Jupiter, is 90% sulfur dioxide[12] and trace amounts are thought to also exist in ... 2007). "Io's atmosphere". In Lopes, R. M. C.; Spencer, J. R. (eds.). Io after Galileo. Springer-Praxis. pp. 231-264. ISBN 3-540 ...
Based on a table of the elemental composition of the biosphere, and lithosphere (crust, atmosphere, and seawater) in ... with ozone. The yield is about 40 per cent, at -78 °C; above around -40 °C it decomposes into water and oxygen.[161] ... It can be found in the Earth's atmosphere at a concentration of 1 part per million by volume. ... Iler RK 1979, The chemistry of silica: solubility, polymerization, colloid and surface properties, and biochemistry, John Wiley ...
... and the chlorofluorocarbons that degrade the ozone layer. Anthropogenic particulates such as sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere ... Atmosphere[edit]. At a March 2009 meeting of the Copenhagen Climate Council, 2,500 climate experts from 80 countries issued a ... Other human impacts on the atmosphere include the air pollution in cities, the pollutants including toxic chemicals like ... The remaining freshwater is found in glaciers, lakes, rivers, wetlands, the soil, aquifers and atmosphere. Due to the water ...
Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Without this ... formed a protective ozone layer (O3) in the upper atmosphere.[71] The incorporation of smaller cells within larger ones ... Our Changing Sun: The Role of Solar Nuclear Evolution and Magnetic Activity on Earth's Atmosphere and Climate. ASP Conference ... the formation of the ozone layer due to the subsequent conversion of atmospheric O2 into O3. The ozone layer blocks ultraviolet ...
3: Water in the Atmosphere" (PDF). Crown Copyright. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-14. Retrieved 2011-05-12. ... It can also be the focus of locally heavy precipitation, with thunderstorms possible if the atmosphere along the trowal is ... force broad areas of upward motion within the Earth's atmosphere which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.[ ... or in the lowest levels of the atmosphere, which decreases with height.[116] QPF can be generated on a quantitative, ...
In the standard atmosphere: *T0 is 273.15 K (= 0 °C = 32 °F), giving a theoretical value of 331.3 m/s (= 1086.9 ft/s = 1193 km/ ... due to an increase in temperature from heating within the ozone layer. This produces a positive speed of sound gradient in this ... a b U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976. ... In the Earth's atmosphere, the chief factor affecting the speed of sound is the temperature. For a given ideal gas with ...
... even if no chlorofluorocarbons are released into the atmosphere as a result. The types of chemicals regulated by the act fall ... the threat of stratospheric ozone depletion from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions, and contamination of agricultural products ... "37] From 1979 to 1994 the EPA OPPT's new chemical program received over 24000 PMNs and sought to delay manufacture and require ... TSCA: Currently more than 82,000 chemicals are in the TSCA inventory and 20,000 of them were added after 1979 into the ...
Atmospheres, 119, 9530-9548, doi:10.1002/2014JD021691. *^ "When Lightning Strikes Out of a Blue Sky". DNews. Archived from the ... possibly accompanied by the smell of ozone (O3). ... The atmosphere provides the electrical insulation, or barrier, ... Lightning has been observed within the atmospheres of other planets, such as Jupiter and Saturn. Although in the minority on ... The upward motions within the storm and winds at higher levels in the atmosphere tend to cause the small ice crystals (and ...
1995: Recipient of the Global Ozone Award for "Outstanding Contribution for the Protection of the Ozone Layer" by United ... Crutzen, P.J.; Birks, J.W. (1982). "The atmosphere after a nuclear war: Twilight at noon". AMBIO. 11 (2/3): 114-125. JSTOR ... 24 Will commercial supersonic aircraft damage the ozone layer?".. *^ "Scientific Interest of Prof. Dr. Paul J. Crutzen". Mpch- ... Together with John Birks he wrote the first publication introducing the subject: The atmosphere after a nuclear war: Twilight ...
Most UVA is not blocked by the atmosphere's ozone layer. UVA causes the release of existing melanin from the melanocytes to ... Much of this band is blocked by the Earth's ozone layer, but some penetrates. UVB: triggers the formation of CPD-DNA damage ( ... 1979). "Possible cancer hazard associated with 5-methoxypsoralen in sun tan preparations". BMJ. 2 (6198): 1144. doi:10.1136/bmj ...
Liverman, D.M. (2008). «Conventions of climate change: constructions of danger and the dispossession of the atmosphere» (PDF). ... Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Lacis, Andrew; Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto; Aguilar, Elliot (2006). «Role of tropospheric ozone ... Hartmann, D. L.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.; Rusticucci, M. (2013). «IPCC WGI AR5, kapittel Observations: Atmosphere and Surface» ( ... Evidence for a warming world comes from multiple independent climate indicators, from high up in the atmosphere to the depths ...
Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs. Abnormally high concentrations are brought about by human activities (mostly ... Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere by ... Air pollution occurs when harmful substances are released into the Earth's atmosphere. These pollutants are released through ... As early as 1977, green groups participated in elections to district parliaments.[7] In the European elections of 1979, several ...
The effects of ozone depend on its altitude, or where the gas is located vertically in the atmosphere. Most ozone naturally ... or density of ozone throughout all layers of the Earths atmosphere, which is called total column ozone and measured in Dobson ... In the troposphere-the layer of the atmosphere near ground level-ozone is an air pollutant that is harmful to breathe, a main ... For most years, Figure 5 shows how this ozone is divided between the troposphere (the part of the atmosphere closest to the ...
Concerns about ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere or stratosphere led to ratification of the Montreal Protocol on ... Observations from three NASA satellites have confirmed that the rate of ozone depletion in the Earths upper atmosphere is ... NASA satellite observations have provided the first evidence the rate of ozone depletion in the Earths upper atmosphere is ... Their observations are consistent with the decline of man-made chemicals in the atmosphere which contribute to ozone depletion ...
Aerosol Scale atmosphere climate ozone Authors and affiliations. *A. S. Monin*1 ... In 1979 the World Meteorological Organization and the International Council of Scientific Unions decided to conduct a global ... A. Shishkov and the author (Monin and Shishkov, 1979). Part II of that work gives factual data on climatic changes during the ...
Figure 5: As Figure 3, but for the northern polar ozone (after detrending EESC effects). denotes that the ozone data of NH has ... The Contribution of Geomagnetic Activity to Polar Ozone Changes in the Upper Atmosphere. Cong Huang,1,2 Fuxiang Huang,3 Xiaoxin ... Therefore, it is interesting to compare the contributions of EPP and solar UV to ozone changes in the polar upper atmosphere. ... This work is a preliminary statistical study of the impact of geomagnetic activity on polar ozone in the upper atmosphere. ...
Tropospheric ozone: Concentrations and variabilities in clean remote atmospheres. Atmos. Environ., 12, 2185-2196, 1978. ... Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late ... Short-Lived Trace Gases in the Surface Ocean and the Atmosphere, P.S. Liss and M.T. Johnson (eds.), Ocean-Atmosphere ... Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Pacific during the burning season. J. Geophys. Res ...
... to create a layer of pure ozone 0.01 millimetres thick at a temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 1 atmosphere. ... The blue colours indicate lowest ozone columns, while yellow and red indicate higher ozone columns. Ozone columns are commonly ... One Dobson Unit is the number of molecules of ozone that would be required ... Copernicus analyses of total ozone column over the Antarctic. ... Filed under: ozone, climate change, ozone depleting substances, ...
ii) Concentration of ozone-depleting substances in the atmosphere. - In the mid-latitude areas of the Northern hemisphere, ... i) The current condition of the ozone layer. - The global total ozone has been largely reduced from 1980s to the first half of ... The MOE of Japan has compiled its FY 2010 annual report on ozone layer monitoring, covering the status of (i) ozone layer, (ii ... An area of the ozone hole over Antarctica occurred in 2010 was the third smallest after 1990s. However, the Antarctic ozone ...
The ionosphere [according to the under-standing at that time] that part of the atmosphere between 65 and 80 km and 280- 320 km ... When the polar spring occurs, the sun appears and repels this plasma, contributing to holes in the ozone layer. This military ... Due to a malfunction, the Saturn V Rocket burned unusually high in the atmosphere, above 300 km. This burn produced a large ... Dark beams contribute to the formation of energetic plasma in the atmosphere. This plasma can become visible as smog or fog. ...
Ozone is a damaging pollutant in the lower atmosphere near the ground, but in the stratosphere, it shields the Earth from ... The rate at which ozone is being destroyed in the upper stratosphere is slowing, and the levels of ozone-destroying chlorine in ... "The instruments look at the Sun as it sets or rises, as the sunlight is filtered through the atmosphere. Because ozone and ... The slowing of ozone destruction is seen only in the upper stratosphere, where ozone depletion is due primarily to chlorine ...
"Our study is unique because it measures changes in the ozone layer at all heights in the atmosphere, then compares the data ... Image right: Distribution of ozone measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer in August 2003. Image credit: NASA/Goddard ... The researchers concluded the Earths protective ozone layer outside of the polar regions stopped thinning around 1997. Ozone ... There, ozone is improving faster than we expected, and appears to be due to changes in atmospheric wind patterns, the causes of ...
This may indicate the first stage of ozone layer recovery. ... the rate of ozone depletion in the Earths upper atmosphere is ... Concerns about ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere or stratosphere led to ratification of the Montreal Protocol on ... This may indicate the first stage of ozone layer recovery.. From an analysis of ozone observations from NASAs first and second ... Ozone depletion in the stratosphere also causes the ozone hole that occurs each spring over Antarctica. ...
Secondary pollutants, such as ozone, are formed when primary pollutants undergo chemical reactions in the atmosphere. ... "Ozone Pollution". Clean Water Action Council of Northeast Wisconsin. "Health Effects of Ozone in the General Population". Ozone ... Therefore, the concentration of ozone keeps increasing throughout the day. This mechanism can escalate the formation of ozone ... nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, which leaves airborne particles and ground-level ozone. ...
Ozone Hole The Ozone Hole is a major thinning of the ozone layer in Earths atmosphere. It was first noticed in the late ... Ozone in the Stratosphere. About 90% of the ozone in the Earths atmosphere lies in the region called the stratosphere which is ... Ozone forms a kind of...more. Ozone. Ozone is a special kind of oxygen molecule. Normal oxygen molecules (O2), the kind we need ... The Polar Atmosphere. Phenomena in the Polar Atmosphere There are some unique phenomena that happen in the atmosphere that is ...
Human-produced chemicals in our atmosphere-such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), used for many years as refrigerants and in ... Here, the globes show ozone data on the day that the minimum ozone concentration was reached over Antarctica, each year from ... In the 1980s, governments around the world woke up to the destruction of the ozone layer and in 1987 negotiated the Montreal ... Since the mid-1990s, global ozone levels have become relatively stable. In fact, because of the Montreal Protocol, model ...
Ozone in the atmosphere protects Earths inhabitants, including humans, plants and animals, from harmful radiation from the sun ... Understanding Earths atmosphere health could inform policy, protection The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) ... SAGE III will measure stratospheric ozone, aerosols, and other trace gases by locking onto the sun or moon and scanning a thin ... providing long-term data to help scientists better understand and care for Earths atmosphere. SAGE was first operated in 1979 ...
Evolution of oxygen and ozone in the Earths atmosphere, PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.Google ... prebiotic atmosphere oxygen levels carbon dioxide levels surface temperature This is a preview of subscription content, log in ... Lindzen, R. S. and Will, D. I., 1973, An analytic formula for heating due to ozone absorption,J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 513-515.Google ... Kasting, J. F. and Donahue, T. M., 1980, Evolution of atmospheric ozone,J. Geophys. Res.,85, 3255-3263.Google Scholar ...
... to collect data on the various gases in the atmosphere, including ozone. The data collected on SAGE I and the following ... Ozone research has remained at the forefront of atmospheric science for many years because stratospheric ozone shields the ... Since recent declines in stratospheric ozone have been linked to human activity, accurate long-term measurements of ozone ... SAGE III will also be able to look at the relationship between aerosol, cloud, and chemical processes affecting ozone argue for ...
Member of the International Ozone Commission and of the International Commission of the Upper Atmosphere of IAMAP ( ... Recipient of United Nations Environment Ozone Awards for Outstanding Contribution for the Protection of the Ozone Layer.. ... Member, Commission of the Parliament of the F.R.G. for the "Protection of the Earths Atmosphere" (Enquete-Kommission zum ... 1) Research Scientist in the Upper Atmosphere Project, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, Colorado, USA. ...
Depletion of the ozone layer caused by our release of chlorofluorocarbons has led to cooling of the upper atmosphere. ... The Earth has a natural CO2 cycle that moves massive amounts of CO2 into and out of the atmosphere. The oceans and land ... The term Global Warming refers to the observation that the atmosphere near the Earths surface is warming. This warming is one ... It is reasonable to expect that the Earth should warm as the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increases. It is ...
Antarctic ozone hole since the late 1970s-before and after nations agreed to stop producing chemicals that destroy the ozone ... United Nations Environment Programme, Ozone Secretariat (2012) The 2012 Ozone Day: Protecting Our Atmosphere for Generations to ... Antarctic Ozone Hole 2010. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA’s Aura satellite acquired data for this map of ozone ... "Like two snowflakes, two ozone holes are never alike. ". NASA animation by Robert Simmon, using imagery from the Ozone Hole ...
... changes in the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere, and reductions in the stratospheric ozone layer. ... Atmosphere › Climate & Weather › Earth › Oceans › Space › IPCC Reports AER Research Citations Algorithm Workbench ... Science & Research Atmosphere › Climate & Weather › Earth › Oceans › Space › IPCC Reports AER Research Citations Algorithm ... Contributions to WMO ozone assessment reports in 1979-2007. *Studies of the impact of a fleet of stratospheric aircraft on ...
... decreases in stratospheric ozone concentrations over the same period into a general circulation model of the atmosphere, to ... Schwarzkopf, M D., and V Ramaswamy, 1993: Radiative forcing due to ozone in the 1980s: Dependence on altitude of ozone change. ... The 14 um band of ozone is shown to make a significant contribution to the forcing for changes in stratospheric ozone, although ... Changes in the transport of CO and downwind ozone production clearly exceed the direct export of ozone from each reduction ...
Today with the ozone layer disappearing, with the atmosphere changing, with global warming, all the forests, all the trees are ... RD: John, yesterday I was following a truck and it had a sign on the back saying, I am polluting the atmosphere. I had never ... When you look at the rate of destruction, whether its of the rainforest or the ozone layer, the climate, all of these things ... the atmosphere that was taking place there. We have in the Amazon this huge river, but the hydrological cycle in the Amazon is ...
... as well as to the growing ozone hole in the atmosphere; this biomass, and the oceans themselves, act as "sinks" for carbon, and ... The effects of the ozone hole on marine resources has already begun to be of concern, particularly with respect to the effects ... or via the atmosphere, should be forbidden. The discharge of biodegradable materials should be closely tied to the assimilative ... cit.). This may be an indication of deteriorating conditions such as destruction of the ozone layer with a subsequent increased ...
... was built to continue the legacy of monitoring the global distribution of ozone in the atmosphere. TOMS instruments flown on ... That was followed by deployment of NASAs QuikTOMS ozone monitoring spacecraft about two minutes later. But the energy and ... The two satellites plunged back into the atmosphere where they were destroyed. Impact occurred in the Indian Ocean, Orbital ... several previous satellites have been measuring long-term trends in the ozone and the ozone hole since 1979. The satellite ...
Ozone is a substance that forms in the stratosphere - the region of the atmosphere between about 10 and 50 km altitude, above ... Ozone Hole Modest Despite Optimum Conditions for Ozone Depletion. November 2, 2018: The ozone hole that forms in the upper ... Ozone Depletion: 2018. Ozone Hole Modest Despite Optimum. Conditions for Ozone Depletion. ... Ozone Depletion: 2018. Ozone Hole Modest Despite Optimum. Conditions for Ozone Depletion. ...
Ozone Depletion and Global Pollution: Over the past 50 years, thousands of satellites have been sent into space on... ... the stratospheric ozone column to be subtracted from a BUV- ing by limb or occultation methods in the lower atmosphere. based ... In addition, ozone in the in the stratosphere, where 90 percent of the total ozone free troposphere is a powerful greenhouse ... ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION: OZONE DEPLETION AND GLOBAL POLLUTION 45 TABLE 5.1â Space-Based Studies of Tropospheric Ozone and Other ...
Some say ozone play a particular role, but I dont perceive why it should lead here to a cooling trend in lower layers of the ... alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ... So "puny man" was not responsible for punching a hole in the ozone layer by emitting CFCs (in the tiniest of quantities ... Interestingly, the models that predicted in the 1970s that CFCs would deplete ozone did not predict that the hole would ...
The ozone-depleting potential of 1,1,1-trichloroethane is ten times lower than that of trifluoromethane (CFC-11), and the ... Hum Toxicol Vol 8 pp 277-286 Midgley PM (1989) The production and release to the atmosphere of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl ... Milit Med Vol 139 pp889-890 UNEP (1989) Technical Progress on Protecting the Ozone Layer. Report of the Technology Review Panel ... resulting in ozone depletion. 10.5 Hazard warnings 10.5.1 Aquatic life 10.5.2 Bees 10.5.3 Birds 10.5.4 Mammals 10.5.5 Plants ...
  • This figure shows the average amount of ozone in the Earth's atmosphere each year, based on satellite measurements. (
  • The total represents the "thickness" or density of ozone throughout all layers of the Earth's atmosphere, which is called total column ozone and measured in Dobson units. (
  • Some of these chemicals have been or are currently being phased out of use because they are ozone-depleting substances, meaning they also cause harm to the Earth's protective ozone layer. (
  • Observations from three NASA satellites have confirmed that the rate of ozone depletion in the Earth's upper atmosphere is decreasing. (
  • The ozone layer protects the Earth's surface from sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. (
  • NASA satellite observations have provided the first evidence the rate of ozone depletion in the Earth's upper atmosphere is decreasing. (
  • A new study using NASA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data finds consistent evidence that Earth's ozone layer is on the mend. (
  • A team led by Eun-Su Yang of the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, analyzed 25 years of independent ozone observations at different altitudes in Earth's stratosphere, which lies between six and 31 miles above the surface. (
  • The researchers concluded the Earth's protective ozone layer outside of the polar regions stopped thinning around 1997. (
  • The Ozone Hole is a major 'thinning' of the ozone layer in Earth's atmosphere. (
  • Phenomena in the Polar Atmosphere There are some unique phenomena that happen in the atmosphere that is above the Earth's polar regions. (
  • About 90% of the ozone in the Earth's atmosphere lies in the region called the stratosphere which is found between 16 and 48 kilometers (10 and 30 miles) above the Earth's surface. (
  • Ozone is Earth's natural sunscreen, shielding life from dangerous solar ultraviolet radiation. (
  • Human-produced chemicals in our atmosphere-such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), used for many years as refrigerants and in aerosol spray cans-have depleted the Earth's ozone layer. (
  • Member, Commission of the Parliament of the F.R.G. for the "Protection of the Earth's Atmosphere" (Enquete-Kommission zum Schutz der Erdatmosphäre) (1987-1990). (
  • There are a number of natural mechanisms that can upset this balance, for example fluctuations in the Earth's orbit, variations in ocean circulation and changes in the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. (
  • The average amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere is 300 Dobson Units, equivalent to a layer 3 millimeters (0.12 inches) thick-the height of 2 pennies stacked together. (
  • some remove or reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the atmosphere, while others aim to increase the Earth's albedo (reflectivity) to reduce the amount of sunlight that warms the Earth. (
  • Working with colleagues at ETH, University of Calgary, and Dalhousie University, we're investigating the impact of potential deliberate injection of aerosols into the atmosphere aimed at increasing the Earth's albedo. (
  • The equipment aboard the Dragon includes a major instrument that will survey Earth's upper atmosphere in a continuation of one of NASA's longest-running Earth-observing programs. (
  • 3) The effect of back radiation [water vapour] on Earth's atmosphere is up to 200 times larger than that of CO 2 and works in the opposite direction. (
  • The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet light (UV), especially the range of wavelengths known as UV B, which can damage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the basic building block of all of earth's plant and animal life. (
  • Researchers had been observing stratospheric ozone since early in the 20th century, and they knew that ozone blocks most of the most dangerous types of ultraviolet energy from reaching earth's surface where it could damage all living things. (
  • Earth's atmosphere is a complex chemical mixture whose composition is in a state of flux. (
  • We are especially interested in chemicals and processes that act either to influence the ozone layer or the earth's infrared greenhouse effect. (
  • The Earth maintains a habitable temperature due to the Greenhouse Effect , which allows heat from the sun to penetrate our atmosphere, where it is absorbed by the Earth's surface or radiated out and reflected back to Earth by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. (
  • The recently revised SAGE III will be mounted to the International Space Station where it will use the unique vantage point of ISS to make long-term measurements of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, and other gases in Earth's atmosphere. (
  • The data collected on SAGE I and the following instrument SAGE II, which began taking measurements in October 1984, were critical to the discovery of the Earth's ozone hole and the creation of 1987 Montreal Protocol, which banned ozone-depleting substances, such as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). (
  • Ozone research has remained at the forefront of atmospheric science for many years because stratospheric ozone shields the Earth's surface (and its inhabitants) from harmful ultraviolet radiation. (
  • Ozone is a colorless, gaseous form of oxygen found in the Earth's atmosphere, primarily in the upper region known as the stratosphere, where it is naturally produced and destroyed. (
  • Within the stratosphere is a layer between 20 and 40 kilometers (km) above Earth's surface that is known as the ozone layer . (
  • In the stratosphere, the concentration of ozone is 1,000 times greater than in the lower region of Earth's atmosphere known as the troposphere. (
  • Ozone in the stratosphere is beneficial because it protects Earth's inhabitants from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation . (
  • The $30 million [Pentagon] project, euphemistically named HAARP (High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program), is made to beam more than 1.7 gigawatts (billion watts) of radiated power into the ionosphere - the electrically charged layer above Earth's atmosphere. (
  • The region of Earth 's atmosphere ranging between about 15 and 50 kilometers (9 and 30 miles) above Earth's surface. (
  • The lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, ranging to an altitude of about 15 kilometers (9 miles) above Earth's surface. (
  • Most of the ozone in our atmosphere is concentrated in a region of the stratosphere between 15 and 30 kilometers (9 and 18 miles) above Earth's surface. (
  • Thus, the ozone layer in the stratosphere protects plants and animals on Earth's surface from most of these dangerous effects. (
  • Near the Earth's surface, Ozone damages mucous and respiratory tissue. (
  • Scientists say Earth's normal ozone concentration is 300 DU for that thickness. (
  • However, if global warming is caused by the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, it should be evident not only at the earth's surface, but also in the lower to mid-troposphere. (
  • 90 percent resides in the stratosphere, the layer of the atmosphere that starts about 6 to 9 miles above the Earth's surface at mid-latitudes, and the rest is located in the troposphere, the atmospheric layer that lies between the stratosphere and the Earth's surface. (
  • In the troposphere, ozone poses both health and ecological risks, but the natural layer of ozone in the stratosphere shields and protects the Earth's surface from the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays-radiation that can lead to more cases of skin cancer, cataracts, and other health problems (U.S. EPA, 2006). (
  • It takes about 3 years for emissions of ODS at the Earth's surface to migrate to the stratosphere and cause stratospheric ozone depletion (WMO, 2014). (
  • These instruments measure how thick the ozone layer would be if compressed in the Earth's atmosphere (at sea level and at 0°C), where one Dobson Unit (DU) is defined to be 0.01 mm thickness at standard temperature and pressure. (
  • Researchers have been saying for some years that Earth's ozone layer might recover more slowly if indeed Earth is getting warmer. (
  • The researchers said that in the northern spring of 2011, massive ozone destruction of 80% occurred 18 to 20 kilometers (about 12 miles) above the Arctic ice sheet, in the part of the atmosphere known as Earth's stratosphere. (
  • The Antarctic ozone hole has been seen to open above Earth's southern continent in winter each year since the mid-1980s, when the scientists of the British Antarctic Survey first reported its existence, also in the journal Nature . (
  • We humans need Earth's ozone. (
  • CFCs are difficult to remove from Earth's atmosphere, however, and can stay in the atmosphere for decades before levels begin to minimize. (
  • The ozone layer is located in our stratosphere, which is roughly 15 to 50 kilometers above Earth's surface. (
  • [13] The amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere is relatively small compared to the amount of carbon dioxide, but because the atmosphere is so much thicker than that on Earth, its total nitrogen content is roughly four times higher than Earth's, even though on Earth nitrogen makes up about 78% of the atmosphere. (
  • The optical and microstructure characteristics of the stratospheric aerosol (SA) substantially influence the radiative, dynamical, and chemical processes in the Earth's atmosphere. (
  • The stratosphere is the upper layer of the atmosphere, between approximately 15-50 kilometres above the earth's surface. (
  • Nitrogen is also one of the most plentiful elements on Earth, making up approximately 78 percent of the Earth's atmosphere. (
  • Ozone depletion consists of two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere (the ozone layer ), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions. (
  • The ozone layer prevents most harmful wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) light from passing through the Earth's atmosphere . (
  • Ozone absorbs solar energy, so a lower concentration of this molecule can lead to a cooling of the stratosphere (the layer between six and 30 miles above the Earth's surface) over Antarctica. (
  • Ozone layer , also called ozonosphere , region of the upper atmosphere , between roughly 15 and 35 km (9 and 22 miles) above Earth's surface, containing relatively high concentrations of ozone molecules (O 3 ). (
  • Approximately 90 percent of the atmosphere's ozone occurs in the stratosphere , the region extending from 10-18 km (6-11 miles) to approximately 50 km (about 30 miles) above Earth's surface. (
  • The ozone layer effectively blocks almost all solar radiation of wavelengths less than 290 nanometres from reaching Earth's surface, including certain types of ultraviolet (UV) and other forms of radiation that could injure or kill most living things. (
  • Most of the remaining ozone occurs in the troposphere, the layer of the atmosphere that extends from Earth's surface up to the stratosphere. (
  • Rising atmospheric oxygen concentrations some two billion years ago allowed ozone to build up in Earth's atmosphere, a process that gradually led to the formation of the stratosphere. (
  • As the amount of stratospheric ozone declines, more UV radiation reaches Earth's surface, and scientists worry that such increases could have significant effects on ecosystems and human health . (
  • The concern over exposure to biologically harmful levels of UV radiation has been the main driver of the creation of international treaties such as the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer and its amendments , designed to protect Earth's ozone layer. (
  • In the 1970s, CFCs became the center of one of history's great unintended consequences, as scientists discovered the compounds participate in reactions in the atmosphere that destroys Earth's protective ozone layer. (
  • The atmosphere has a big impact on the transfer of energy between the Sun and the Earth's surface. (
  • Copernicus analyses of total ozone column over the Antarctic. (
  • However, the Antarctic ozone layer has been still in critical condition. (
  • The images above show the Antarctic ozone hole on September 16 (the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer) in the years 1979, 1987, 2006, and 2011. (
  • Scientists found in a 2009 study that without the Montreal Protocol, global ozone depletion (not just Antarctic) would be at least 10 times worse than current levels by 2050. (
  • Changes in the ozone hole now are not significantly driven by changes in CFCs, but instead driven by year-to-year changes in weather in the stratosphere," said Bhartia, who in 1985 was the first researcher to present satellite data showing the Antarctic ozone hole. (
  • NASA satellites have observed the Antarctic ozone hole since the late 1970s-before and after nations agreed to stop producing chemicals that destroy the ozone layer. (
  • November 17, 2009 NOAA- The Antarctic ozone hole, which fluctuates throughout the late winter and spring in the southern hemisphere, reached its 2009 peak circumference in late September, according to measurements by NOAA researchers. (
  • Thus, they were stunned when the British Antarctic Survey announced that year that the amount of ozone over its Rotha Station had thinned dramatically. (
  • In the 1970s a research group with the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) was monitoring the atmosphere above Antarctica when the scientists first noticed a loss of ozone in the lower stratosphere. (
  • A term invented to describe a region of very low ozone concentration above the Antarctic that appears and disappears with each austral (Southern Hemisphere) summer. (
  • In 1984, scientists reported that the ozone layer above the Antarctic appeared to be thinning. (
  • The hole was a circular area above the Antarctic in which ozone had virtually disappeared. (
  • This map shows a large Ozone Hole in the atmosphere over the Antarctic and reaching into S. America. (
  • During the Antarctic winter, the ozone concentration there is about the same as everywhere else on Earth, 300 DU. (
  • Some degree of ozone loss above the northern Arctic - and the formation of an actual ozone hole above the southern Antarctic - have been have been annual events, measured in past decades, during the poles' respective winters. (
  • That recognition came shortly before the announcement of the first Antarctic ozone hole in 1985. (
  • The Antarctic ozone hole was discovered in 1985 by Joe Farman, a scientist working with the British Antarctic Survey. (
  • But sea ice in the Arctic has melted at a much faster rate than it has expanded in the Southern Ocean, as can be seen in this image by comparing the 2012 sea ice levels with the yellow outline, which in the Arctic image represents average sea ice minimum extent from 1979 through 2010 and in the Antarctic image shows the median sea ice extent in September from 1979 to 2000. (
  • The Antarctic minimum extents, which are reached in the midst of the Antarctic summer, in February, have also slightly increased to 1.33 million square miles in 2012, or around 251,000 square miles more than the average minimum extent since 1979. (
  • ozone depletion Antarctic ozone hole, September 17, 2001. (
  • The prediction in the early 1970s that the use of CFCs would cause an "ozone hole" over the Antarctic came true in 1985. (
  • Ozone depletion in the stratosphere also causes the ozone hole that occurs each spring over Antarctica. (
  • The ozone hole over Antarctica rapidly expanded from the 1980s to the 1990s. (
  • An area of the ozone hole over Antarctica occurred in 2010 was the third smallest after 1990s. (
  • Ozone concentrations over Antarctica in October 1979 and October 2008. (
  • Here, the globes show ozone data on the day that the minimum ozone concentration was reached over Antarctica, each year from 1979 and 2016. (
  • In 1979-when scientists were just coming to understand that atmospheric ozone could be depleted-the area of ozone depletion over Antarctica grew to 1.1 million square kilometers, with a minimum ozone concentration of 194 Dobson Units. (
  • Ozone over South Pole Station, Antarctica, also reached its thinnest point of the year on Sept. 26. (
  • The temperature of the ozone layer over Antarctica is now too warm for polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) to form. (
  • In the early 1980s, scientists began to realize that CFCs were creating a thin spot-a hole-in the ozone layer over Antarctica every spring. (
  • But his findings, achieved in laboratory experiments, were supported 11 years later when British scientists discovered that the stratospheric ozone layer, which blocks harmful ultraviolet rays, had developed a hole over Antarctica. (
  • This year's extreme loss of ozone can be explained by the temperatures above Antarctica reaching the lowest recorded in the area since 1979," ESA Atmospheric Engineer Claus Zehner said. (
  • This fall, as the days are growing shorter in the Northern Hemisphere and longer over the southern half of the globe, scientists who focus on the upper atmosphere are turning their attention to the sky over Antarctica, as they have been doing since the late 1970s. (
  • If the reports from Antarctica were accurate and a sign of a global threat to the ozone layer, all life on earth could be affected: scientists had to find out what's going on. (
  • Scientists who focus on the upper atmosphere wondered about the report from Antarctica because satellite measurements showed no ozone loss. (
  • What was destroying great amounts of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica? (
  • As examples, one kind of dynamic theory proposed that as the sun begins rising over Antarctica, it warms lower-level air that contains little ozone, causing this air to rise and dilute stratospheric ozone. (
  • NASA scientists reported that the Ozone Hole over Antarctica in September 2013 is slightly smaller and has slightly more ozone than recent year measurements. (
  • Scientists first observed an ozone hole over Antarctica in the mid-1980s. (
  • It seems Antarctica isn't the only part of Earth to have an ozone hole in our lifetime. (
  • The discovery that CFC production greatly contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer in Antarctica in the 1980s led to the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which has greatly decreased the use of CFCs. (
  • Recent research points at the depleted ozone layer over Antarctica as a possible culprit. (
  • The arctic data does show a trend towards lower amounts of ice since records began in 1979 but antarctica shows, if anything, the opposite trend . (
  • Because ozone and other constituents absorb light at known wavelengths, we can measure how much light at those wavelengths is coming through the atmosphere and calculate from that the amount of ozone and other gases. (
  • Our study is unique because it measures changes in the ozone layer at all heights in the atmosphere, then compares the data with models as well as observations from other instruments that measure variations in the total amount of ozone in the atmosphere," said Ross Salawitch, a senior research scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Results are published in the latest Journal of Geophysical Research. (
  • The amount of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in the atmosphere has stopped rising in recent years, and may actually be decreasing. (
  • Measured in Dobson Units (DU) that indicate the amount of ozone in a vertical column of air, the 2009 low level - 98 DU - is the seventh smallest since 1986. (
  • The unit of measure used to represent the amount of ozone above a particular position on the surface is the Dobson unit (DU), with one unitrepresenting 0.01 mm of ozone compressed to one standard atmosphere. (
  • The total amount of ozone in this band is actually relatively small. (
  • In fact, the amount of ozone dropped to such a low level that the term "hole" was used to describe the condition. (
  • Scientists regularly measure the amount of Ozone in the stratosphere in order to know the concentrations around the Earth. (
  • And, the amount of ozone in the atmosphere is calculated in Dobson Units DU . (
  • The total amount of ozone in the stratosphere is determined by a balance between photochemical production and recombination. (
  • The amount of ozone in the stratosphere varies naturally throughout the year as a result of chemical processes that create and destroy ozone molecules and as a result of winds and other transport processes that move ozone molecules around the planet. (
  • Using data from three NASA satellites and three international ground stations, the team found that ozone depletion in the upper stratosphere -- the layer of the atmosphere between 35 and 45 kilometers [22-28 miles] above the ground -- has slowed since 1997. (
  • NASA/NOAA satellite data showing the rise in stratospheric chlorine and corresponding decline in ozone layer thickness from 1979 to 1997. (
  • For NASA, the 162-kilogram Quick Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer spacecraft, or QuikTOMS, was built to continue the legacy of monitoring the global distribution of ozone in the atmosphere. (
  • It reverted to a more circular circulation as winter progressed and this led to another relatively slow start to the growth of the ozone hole (as measured by NASA/SBUV2), with the "hole" not beginning until mid August. (
  • The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has also launched many scientific studies to investigate ozone. (
  • This was an unsettling discovery because NASA had been monitoring ozone levels globally since 1979 with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite. (
  • Monitoring of the ozone is carried out by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Aura satellite and the Ozone Monitoring and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on the NASA-NOAA Suomi NPP satellite. (
  • [5] In 2019, NASA reported that the ozone hole was the smallest ever since it was first discovered in 1982. (
  • Thompson and Solomon (2002) highlighted the contribution of stratospheric ozone depletion to a positive SAM trend, especially over the SH summertime since the 1960s, based on multiple observed datasets from 1969 to 1998. (
  • While stratospheric ozone depletion has already been shown to be the primary driver of the expansion of the tropics in the Southern Hemisphere, the researchers are the first to report that black carbon and tropospheric ozone are the most likely primary drivers of the tropical expansion observed in the Northern Hemisphere. (
  • The principal reason for the greater stratospheric ozone depletion in the southern hemisphere is that there are more frequent meridional exchanges of air in the north that do not allow temperatures in the lower stratosphere to fall as low as in the south. (
  • We use transient GFDL-CM3 chemistry-climate model simulations over the 2006-2100 period to show how the influence of volcanic aerosols on the extent and timing of ozone recovery varies with a) future greenhouse gas scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and b) halogen loading. (
  • Current understanding is that elevated volcanic aerosols reduce ozone under high halogen loading, but increase ozone under low halogen loading when the chemistry is more NOx dominated. (
  • In contrast, with elevated volcanic aerosols, ozone column recovers more quickly to 1980 levels, with recovery dates ranging from the mid-2040s in RCP8.5 to the mid-2050s to early 2070s in RCP4.5. (
  • The ozone response in both future emission scenarios increases with enhanced volcanic aerosols. (
  • By 2100, the 1980-baseline adjusted global stratospheric ozone column is projected to be 20-40% greater in RCP8.5 and 110-200% greater in RCP4.5 with elevated volcanic aerosols compared to simulations with the extremely low background aerosols. (
  • The weaker ozone enhancement at 2100 in RCP8.5 than in RCP4.5 in response to elevated volcanic aerosols is due to a factor of 2.5 greater methane in RCP8.5 compared with RCP4.5. (
  • This investigation will measure the stratospheric ozone, aerosols, and other trace gases by locking onto the sun or moon and scanning a thin profile of the atmosphere. (
  • Called SAGE III for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment, the instrument examines the levels of ozone, aerosols, nitrogen dioxide and water vapor in the stratosphere and troposphere high above Earth. (
  • These liquids are important industrially and in the atmosphere, where sulfuric acid aerosols play a role in ozone destruction. (
  • Since stratospheric aerosol loading has varied by a factor of 30 since 1979, long-term monitoring of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols is crucial. (
  • Black carbon aerosols and tropospheric ozone, both humanmade pollutants emitted predominantly in the Northern Hemisphere's low- to mid-latitudes, are most likely pushing the boundary of the tropics further poleward in that hemisphere, new research by a team of scientists shows. (
  • CFCs - primarily composed of chlorine, fluorine, carbon, and hydrogen - were commonly found in coolants, refrigerants, and various aerosols until their effect on ozone began to be recognized by scientists. (
  • Scientists first recognized the potential for harmful effects of CFCs on ozone in the early 1970s. (
  • In the 1980s, governments around the world woke up to the destruction of the ozone layer and in 1987 negotiated the Montreal Protocol-an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by banning CFCs and similar ozone-depleting chemicals. (
  • Prompted by scientific observations from the laboratory, the ground, aircraft, and satellites, the Montreal Protocol first reduced and then banned the chlorine- and bromine-based chemicals (particularly chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs) that destroy atmospheric ozone. (
  • The yearly ozone hole should continue for a while, though, as CFCs and other ODSs can last for decades in the air. (
  • In addition, CFCs also threaten the protective ozone shield against harmful solar radiation. (
  • Global ozone dropped a little bit [after CFCs were banned], but the good news is that if we had done nothing, it would have gotten really, really bad. (
  • The thinning of the ozone is caused by the presence of pollutants in the atmosphere such as chlorine, originating from man-made pollutants like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which have still not vanished from the air despite being banned under the Montreal Protocol (1987). (
  • This chemical hypothesis made sense because in 1974, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina of the University of California at Irvine showed that ultraviolet energy in the stratosphere could break apart CFCs in the stratosphere, thus freeing them to attack the ozone layer. (
  • It was believed that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were accumulating in the atmosphere, interacting with sunlight, and releasing large quantities of chlorine. (
  • Chlorofluorocarbons, also known as CFCs, are the direct cause of ozone depletion. (
  • CFCs damage ozone when temperatures are especially cold. (
  • In addition synthetic chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), also cause depletion of the sensitive ozone layer. (
  • The main cause of ozone depletion and the ozone hole is manufactured chemicals, especially manufactured halocarbon refrigerants , solvents , propellants , and foam- blowing agents ( chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), HCFCs, halons ), referred to as ozone-depleting substances ( ODS ). (
  • These concerns led to the adoption of the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which bans the production of CFCs, halons, and other ozone-depleting chemicals. (
  • Those chemicals, once freed by UV radiation from the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other halocarbons (carbon-halogen compounds) that contain them, destroy ozone by stripping away single oxygen atoms from ozone molecules. (
  • If the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer hadn't have banned CFCs in 1987, how bad would the situation had been in 2015? (
  • But by eliminating the use of CFCs, ozone depletion was stopped and it actually started to reverse after 1993. (
  • It contains approximately 90 percent of all atmospheric ozone. (
  • At the current recovery rate, the atmospheric modeling community's best estimates predict the global ozone layer could be restored to 1980 levels-- the time that scientists first noticed the harmful effects human activities were having on atmospheric ozone - some time in the middle of this century. (
  • Before 1979, scientists had not observed any signs that upper atmospheric ozone was decreasing. (
  • G. M. B. Dobson was a British physicist who initiated the first regular monitoring of atmospheric ozone using spectrographic instruments in the 1920s. (
  • Current and future changes in the atmospheric ozone profile will have significant effects on the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere, and hence on atmospheric circulation as well as surface temperatures. (
  • The UV irradiance decreases strongly at wavelengths below 330 nm due to absorption by atmospheric ozone. (
  • This figure shows concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from hundreds of thousands of years ago through 2015, measured in parts per million (ppm). (
  • Human-generated greenhouse gases have kicked nature into high gear, competing with humanity by emitting tons of methane and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, even in the winter in Siberia above the Arctic Circle. (
  • 1981, ICE CAP MELTING FORECAST: Institute for Space Studies, NYC: Rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere could bring a global warming of unprecedented magnitude melting the polar icecaps and flooding lowlands in the next century. (
  • burning coal to generate electricity, burning oil to power vehicles and aircraft (vehicle emissions), or burning wood in fires used for cooking or to provide heat, etc. changes the state of stored organic carbon from a liquid (e.g. oil) or solid (e.g. coal/wood) into a gas (carbon dioxide) which is released into the atmosphere. (
  • vegetation absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis, converting this to carbon which is stored within all plants (i.e it is a carbon sink). (
  • When vegetation is burned, this organic carbon is released into the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide, and in so doing becomes a carbon source rather than a carbon sink. (
  • Although methane has a shorter lifespan, and consequently, is not as abundant in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, in terms of it effect as a greenhouse gas, it is much more potent . (
  • In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide all continued to increase in 2013. (
  • The atmosphere of Venus is composed of 96.5% carbon dioxide , 3.5% nitrogen , and traces of other gases, most notably sulfur dioxide . (
  • Black carbon is known as a short-lived climate forcer, because it has a strong warming effect but does not persist in the atmosphere as long as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), the main focus of emissions-cutting targets until now. (
  • This figure shows concentrations of several halogenated gases (which contain fluorine, chlorine, or bromine) in the atmosphere, measured in parts per trillion (ppt). (
  • The rate at which ozone is being destroyed in the upper stratosphere is slowing, and the levels of ozone-destroying chlorine in that layer of the atmosphere have peaked and are going down -- the first clear evidence that a worldwide reduction in chlorofluorocarbon pollution is having the desired effect, according to a new study. (
  • Almost 30 years ago, scientists Mario Molina, F. Sherwood Rowland, and Paul Crutzen showed that chlorine released into the stratosphere from chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), chemicals used as refrigerants and aerosol propellants, was destroying the protective ozone layer. (
  • And the amount of chlorine in that layer of the stratosphere has not yet peaked, but has slowed down significantly, so we should start to see some ozone improvement in the coming years," he said. (
  • The slowing of ozone destruction is seen only in the upper stratosphere, where ozone depletion is due primarily to chlorine pollution, Newchurch said. (
  • Many factors, including chlorine levels, influence ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, the layer of atmosphere between about 20 and 35 kilometers [16-22 miles] up. (
  • As stratospheric chlorine declined in response to enactment of the Montreal Protocol, the first stage of ozone recovery began. (
  • As the polar spring arrives, the combination of returning sunlight and the presence of polar stratospheric clouds leads to splitting of chlorine compounds into highly ozone-reactive radicals that break ozone down into individual oxygen molecules. (
  • A single molecule of chlorine has the potential to break down thousands of molecules of ozone. (
  • The chlorine reacted with the ozone to decrease it in turn. (
  • Image showing the depletion of the ozone in the Arctic and the correlation with chlorine monoxide. (
  • The constant cold, development of stratospheric clouds, and the development in ozone-destroying chlorine monoxide eventually supported the depletion of the ozone in the Arctic this past winter. (
  • there are long-term declines in ozone content because heterogeneous chemical reactions on the increased surfaces of aerosol particles convert relatively inert forms of chlorine compounds to more reactive ozone-depleting species [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • 2 ). The ClO can react with a second molecule of ozone, releasing the chlorine atom and yielding two molecules of oxygen. (
  • Wexler had been researching the link connecting chlorine and bromine compounds to the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layers , but died of a heart attack while on vacation in Woods Hole, Mass. Wexler had already accepted an invitation to deliver a lecture entitled " The Climate of Earth and Its Modifications " at the University of Maryland Space Research and Technology Institute. (
  • Ozone depletion , the global decrease in stratospheric ozone observed since the 1970s, is most pronounced in polar regions , and it is well correlated with the increase of chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. (
  • This may indicate the first stage of ozone layer recovery. (
  • Concerns about ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere or stratosphere led to ratification of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer by the international community in 1987. (
  • One Dobson Unit is the number of molecules of ozone that would be required to create a layer of pure ozone 0.01 millimetres thick at a temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (
  • Assessment Part What is the current state of the ozone layer? (
  • The concentration of hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs), which does not deplete the ozone layer but has high greenhouse effects, has been rapidly increasing. (
  • This is the beginning of a recovery of the ozone layer," said Professor Michael Newchurch of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), the scientist who led the ozone trend-analysis research team. (
  • We are extremely pleased to have the highly calibrated, long term satellite and ground-based data records necessary to observe these small, but important changes in the ozone layer," said Newchurch. (
  • We don't see compelling evidence that the destruction of ozone is slowing in the lower stratosphere, where 80 percent of the protective ozone layer exists. (
  • The abundance of human-produced ozone-destroying gases such as chlorofluorocarbons peaked at about the same time (1993 in the lowest layer of the atmosphere, 1997 in the stratosphere). (
  • Until the cause of the recent ozone increase in the lowermost stratosphere is better understood, making high-accuracy predictions of how the entire ozone layer will behave in the future will remain an elusive goal. (
  • The ozone layer is sort of like sunscreen for planet Earth. (
  • That's why holes in the ozone layer are bad news . (
  • The destruction of the ozone layer allows more of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation to reach the surface of the planet, increasing the risk of sunburns, skin cancer, and eye damage. (
  • Stratospheric ozone is typically measured in Dobson Units (DU), which is the number of molecules required to create a layer of pure ozone 0.01 millimeters thick at a temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and an air pressure of 1 atmosphere (the pressure at the surface of the Earth). (
  • The results from this computer modeling study have indicated that the Consequences of geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection would include changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns, changes in the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere, and reductions in the stratospheric ozone layer. (
  • Surface layer ozone dynamics and air-snow interactions at Summit, Greenland. (
  • Althouse: The man who got us to believe that aerosol spraying was destroying the ozone layer. (
  • Anyway, I do love the lefty approach to AGW, since there was a hole in the ozone layer found based on a scientists theory, AGW is true too. (
  • A Dobson unit is a unit of measurement that describes the thickness of the ozone layer in a column directly above the location being measured. (
  • Ozone is a protective layer found about 25 kilometres above us mostly in the stratospheric stratum of the atmosphere that acts as a sunlight filter shielding life on Earth from harmful ultraviolet rays. (
  • Scientists had started paying more attention to the ozone layer in the 1970s when the United States and other nations were talking about building fleets of supersonic airplanes that would enable thousands of people to zoom around the world faster than the speed of sound, high in the stratosphere (where ozone does its protective work). (
  • Nevertheless, the possibility that humans could harm it led to more research into the ozone layer and the establishment of more observations from the ground, by balloons that carried measuring devices into the stratosphere, and from satellites. (
  • Some started calling the large, thin spot in the ozone layer "the ozone hole. (
  • Human effects on the ozone layer . (
  • Increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation because of a thinner ozone layer would almost certainly mean higher rates of skin cancer . (
  • At first, scientists disagreed as to the cause of the thinning ozone layer. (
  • If you could get all of the ozone gas molecules to drop to the surface of the Earth at 0˚C and 1 atmosphere of air pressure and form a layer, it would be an average thickness of only 3 millimeters. (
  • 5 The Microwave Sounding Unit senses radiation in a number of different channels, each of which is representative of a different layer of the atmosphere. (
  • The ozone layer protects living things on Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. (
  • If there were not an ozone layer, skin cancers and crop failure would increase. (
  • Clouds in the stratosphere contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer in the Arctic in winter 2011. (
  • The atmosphere of Venus is the layer of gases surrounding Venus . (
  • [3] The upper layer of troposphere exhibits a phenomenon of super-rotation, in which the atmosphere circles the planet in just four Earth days, much faster than the planet's sidereal day of 243 days. (
  • The ozone layer is a thin layer of oxygen-related gases in the part of the atmosphere known as the stratosphere, about 25 kilometres above the earth. (
  • and that a 1 percent decrease in the ozone layer could result in a 4 to 6 percent increase in certain kinds of skin cancer, and contribute to eye damage, skin infections and reduced immunity to disease. (
  • Changes in the ozone layer can also change the climate and the circulation of the atmosphere. (
  • In the stratosphere the temperature of the atmosphere rises with increasing height, a phenomenon created by the absorption of solar radiation by the ozone layer. (
  • Scientists believe that the formation of the ozone layer played an important role in the development of life on Earth by screening out lethal levels of UVB radiation (ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths between 315 and 280 nanometres) and thus facilitating the migration of life-forms from the oceans to land. (
  • Over the course of several decades, however, human activities substantially altered the ozone layer. (
  • The stratospheric ozone layer serves as a sunscreen to prevent the most harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun from reaching us on the surface. (
  • The ozone layer is now healing and might be back to its former level by about 2050. (
  • The Space Shuttle Discovery carried HALOE into space on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite in 1991. (
  • Therefore, it is interesting to compare the contributions of EPP and solar UV to ozone changes in the polar upper atmosphere. (
  • Multiple regression analysis shows that the contributions of geomagnetic activity are not negligible and are of a similar order of magnitude as the solar UV radiation in the polar upper atmosphere (above 10 hPa). (
  • Member of the International Ozone Commission and of the International Commission of the Upper Atmosphere of IAMAP (International Association for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics) (1974-1984). (
  • During Expedition 45, ESA astronaut Andreas Mogensen captured pictures of blue jets, elusive electrical discharges in the upper atmosphere, with the most sensitive camera on the orbiting outpost to look for these brief features. (
  • These indicators include greenhouse gas concentrations, temperature of the lower and upper atmosphere, cloud cover, sea surface temperature, sea level rise, ocean salinity, sea ice extent and snow cover. (
  • Ozone levels in Arctic drop: In the upper atmosphere, temperatures in the tropical stratosphere were higher than average while temperatures in the polar stratosphere were lower than average during the early 2011 winter months. (
  • Furthermore, the convective charging mechanism seems to depend on conduction over thunderclouds to allow charge to move from the upper atmosphere to the cloud. (
  • Chemists who specialize in the upper atmosphere worried that emissions from these jets would damage the ozone level. (
  • Ozone occurs in the lower atmosphere in very low concentrations, but it is present in significantly higher concentrations in the upper atmosphere. (
  • Despite the harsh conditions on the surface, the atmospheric pressure and temperature at about 50 km to 65 km above the surface of the planet is nearly the same as that of the Earth, making its upper atmosphere the most Earth-like area in the Solar System , even more so than the surface of Mars . (
  • Due to the similarity in pressure and temperature and the fact that breathable air (21% oxygen , 78% nitrogen ) is a lifting gas on Venus in the same way that helium is a lifting gas on Earth, the upper atmosphere has been proposed as a location for both exploration and colonization . (
  • So how does changing the concentration of a Greenhouse gas change how much heat escapes from the upper atmosphere? (
  • Commencing October 31, 1977, no person shall sell or offer for sale at wholesale in this state a pressurized container using chlorofluorocarbon propellants unless the container has prominently displayed on the front panel this statement: "Warning: Contains a chlorofluorocarbon that may harm the public health and environment by reducing ozone in the upper atmosphere. (
  • Ozone molecules (O3) have three oxygen atoms. (
  • As SAMPEX scans all local times and geomagnetic cutoffs over the course of its near-polar orbit, PET will characterize precipitating relativistic electron events during periods of declining solar activity, and it will examine whether the production rate of odd nitrogen and hydrogen molecules in the middle atmosphere by precipitating electrons is sufficient to affect O3 depletion. (
  • Fortunately for living things on Earth, ozone molecules absorb radiation in the ultraviolet region. (
  • Ozone is a form of Oxygen with three molecules instead of two with the formula O 3 . (
  • Ozone in the stratosphere is constantly being produced naturally from dissociation of oxygen molecules by highly energetic, solar UV radiation. (
  • Ozone is a gas with molecules composed of three oxygen atom, consequently its chemical designation is O 3 . (
  • Ozone is formed in the stratosphere when oxygen molecules photodissociate after absorbing ultraviolet photons. (
  • Cl and Br atoms destroy ozone molecules through a variety of catalytic cycles. (
  • The production of ozone in the stratosphere results primarily from the breaking of the chemical bonds within oxygen molecules (O 2 ) by high-energy solar photons . (
  • This process, called photodissociation , results in the release of single oxygen atoms, which later join with intact oxygen molecules to form ozone. (
  • For references , please go to or scan the QR code. (
  • The ozone hole is the large purple and blue area in the 2008 image. (
  • Various chemicals that humans release into the atmosphere help cause the hole. (
  • The most prominent and infamous sign of depletion is the annual "ozone hole" that forms around the South Pole. (
  • An animation of the data (high-resolution download below the main image) reveals the formation and dissipation of the ozone hole from July 1 to December 31 in each of the four years. (
  • In 1987, as the Montreal Protocol was being signed, the area of the hole reached 22.4 million square kilometers and ozone concentrations dropped to 109 DU. (
  • The modern world's First Near-Catastrophe, the Ozone Hole (1980s), was luckily avoided 40 years ago, more on this fascinating story later. (
  • In 2009, the ozone hole reached its 10th largest measured size since careful measurements began in 1979.The daily maximum ozone hole area for 2009 was 24.4 million km2 on 17 September. (
  • Slightly smaller than the North American continent, the ozone hole covered 9.2 million square miles, according to NOAA satellite observations. (
  • The 2009 ozone hole is essentially over, with most of the continent experiencing a stratospheric spring warming. (
  • The vortex became more elliptical again in late August, with South Georgia being affected by the fringes of the ozone hole between September 2 and 6. (
  • The tip of South America and South Georgia were affected by the fringes of the ozone hole from September 24 to September 30, from October 3 to October 7 and from November 8 to 25. (
  • This series of satellite images shows the ozone hole on the day of its maximum depth each year from 1979 through 2019. (
  • The ozone hole bullshit was another attempt at using junk science to attack modern, Western civilization. (
  • If I remember right, the ozone hole closes up and opens due to an entirely different set of circumstances than that claimed by the chemophobes. (
  • Oh no, someone doesn't understand the difference between ozone depletion and the so-called 'ozone hole. (
  • Ozone loss is derived by measuring the area and the depth of the ozone hole. (
  • The size of this year's ozone hole is 28 million square km, nearly as large as the record ozone hole extension during 2000, and the depth of the ozone hole is around 100 Dobson Units, rivalling the record low ozone values in 1998. (
  • The ozone hole, first recognised in 1985, typically persists until November or December, when the winds surrounding the South Pole (polar vortex) weaken, and ozone-poor air inside the vortex is mixed with ozone-rich air outside it. (
  • This Website is a project of the The Ozone Hole Inc. (
  • They hope to find that the Antarctic's "ozone hole" is continuing to heal. (
  • The so-called ozone hole sometimes is confused with the problem of global warming . (
  • Even though there is a connection between the two environmental issues, because ozone contributes to the greenhouse effect , the ozone hole is a separate issue. (
  • The Ozone Hole in blue and violet has less ozone concentration in the atmosphere. (
  • Here are snapshots of the Ozone Hole from four different years. (
  • If you want to see a year to year animation of the hole from 1979 to 2013, follow this link . (
  • What formed the Arctic ozone hole? (
  • But in 2011 - for the first time - an ozone hole opened over the northern Arctic. (
  • That makes 2011 the first year - ever - that an ozone hole has been observed in the Arctic. (
  • For the first time, sufficient loss occurred to reasonably be described as an Arctic ozone hole. (
  • There is already speculation that the 2011 Arctic ozone hole might have caused noticeable reductions in Europe's winter wheat crop, for example. (
  • Why did an ozone hole form in the Arctic this year? (
  • Those colder temperatures are the reason for the Arctic ozone hole. (
  • Whatever Happened to the Ozone Hole? (
  • [1] The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole . (
  • Ozone depletion and the ozone hole have generated worldwide concern over increased cancer risks and other negative effects. (
  • [4] Recovery is projected to continue over the next century, and the ozone hole is expected to reach pre-1980 levels by around 2075. (
  • Southern Hemisphere ozone hole Two bar graphs depicting the maximum ozone hole size and the minimum ozone coverage (in Dobson units) of the Southern Hemisphere ozone hole, 1979-2014. (
  • From an analysis of ozone observations from NASA's first and second Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite instruments, scientists have found less ozone depletion in the upper stratosphere (22-28 miles altitude) after 1997. (
  • Scientists are hopeful that ozone holes will disappear sometime in the future if we continue to stop emissions of the problematic chemicals. (
  • Long-term climate forecasts are possible because scientists understand many of the factors that influence climate over such long periods, such as changes in the sun's energy and the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. (
  • This work aims to provide useful information both for scientists engaged in ozone measurements with Brewer spectrophotometers and for stakeholders of the Brewer data products available on Web-based platforms. (
  • Scientists assess ozone by calculating how much there would be if all the ozone over a particular spot on Earth were compressed to a standard atmosphere of pressure - that is, the average pressure of air at sea level . (
  • Since the late 1970s scientists have used satellites, aircraft, and balloons to measure ozone levels from above Earth. (
  • In 1973, scientists suspected a man-made link to the decrease of ozone in the atmosphere. (
  • The observed patterns of surface warming, temperature changes through the atmosphere, increases in ocean heat content, increases in atmospheric moisture, sea level rise, and increased melting of land and sea ice also match the patterns scientists expect to see due to rising levels of CO 2 and other human-induced changes ( see Question 5 ). (
  • One solar activity theory suggested that the sun's increased activity, such as in the early 1980s, had increased stratospheric nitrogen oxides and other ozone destroying substances. (
  • As a result of this research, an international treaty was opened for signature on 16 September 1987 called the Montreal Protocol banning several ozone destroying substances . (
  • Releases of various human-produced chemicals, such as the long-lived chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, bromine-containing halons, and methyl bromide (see the Concentrations of Ozone-Depleting Substances indicator ), provide catalysts to accelerate ozone destruction. (
  • The U.S. has been a major contributor to the global emissions of these halocarbons, accounting for about a quarter of total worldwide emissions before most ozone-depleting substances (ODS) were banned in the 1990s. (
  • Using a nonlinear mechanistic global circulation model we analyze the migrating terdiurnal tide in the middle atmosphere with respect to its possible forcing mechanisms, i.e., the absorption of solar radiation in the water vapor and ozone band, nonlinear tidal interactions, and gravity wave-tide interactions. (
  • They are mainly the result of absorption of solar radiation in the water vapor (troposphere) and ozone (stratosphere) region. (
  • This kind of visible air pollution is composed of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, ozone, smoke and other particulates. (
  • The nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds can undergo a series of chemical reactions with sunlight, heat, ammonia, moisture, and other compounds to form the noxious vapors, ground level ozone, and particles that comprise smog. (
  • Nitrogen oxides act as a key catalyst in the formation of tropospheric ozone ( O 3 ) (Crutzen, 1979). (
  • Human enhanced production of nitrogen oxides has resulted in an accelerated reduction of ozone content. (
  • Near-surface ozone often results from interactions between certain pollutants (such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds), strong sunlight , and hot weather . (
  • Ozone in the stratosphere protects us from ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. (
  • Absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by stratospheric ozone to a large extent determines the temperature, structure and dynamic processes in the stratosphere. (
  • Stratospheric ozone also plays an important ecological role since it filters out most biologically harmful ultraviolet radiation. (
  • Their observations are consistent with the decline of man-made chemicals in the atmosphere which contribute to ozone depletion. (
  • To this end, we conducted a preliminary statistical study using high-latitude ozone observations based on a number of space-weather indices. (
  • But when they included either black carbon or tropospheric ozone or both in CMIP3, the simulations mimicked observations better, suggesting that the pollutants were playing a role in the Northern Hemisphere tropical expansion. (
  • When black carbon and tropospheric ozone were incorporated in these models, however, the simulations showed better agreement with observations, underscoring the pollutants' role in widening the tropical belt in the Northern Hemisphere. (
  • Minimum sea ice extent in the Arctic was the sixth lowest since satellite observations began in 1979. (
  • There are not enough systematic ozone observations from the tropical belt, but 12 years' satellite observations suggest insignificant changes there. (
  • But there's not much ozone up there, and it has a small effect on the total ozone column. (
  • The UV index (UVI), the total ozone column amount (TOCA), and the cloud modification factor (CMF) at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) have been determined in this study by use of multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instruments at the ground in the period 2008-2010. (
  • Using these models allowed the researchers to directly isolate the effects of black carbon and tropospheric ozone on the location of the tropical boundaries. (
  • Both black carbon and tropospheric ozone warm the tropics by absorbing solar radiation," Allen explained. (
  • The expansion of the tropical belt that we attribute to black carbon and tropospheric ozone in our work is consistent with the poleward displacement of precipitation seen in these models. (
  • The same is true of tropospheric ozone, a secondary pollutant that results when volatile organic compounds react with sunlight. (
  • But our work shows that black carbon and tropospheric ozone are the main drivers here. (
  • There are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events in addition to these stratospheric events. (
  • This led to the lowest ozone concentrations in the lower Arctic stratosphere since records began in 1979 with more than 80 percent of the ozone between 11 and 12 miles altitude destroyed by late March, increasing UV radiation levels at the surface. (
  • Ozone columns are commonly measured in Dobson Units. (
  • With extremely low aerosol loadings (designated here as background ), global stratospheric ozone burden is simulated to return to 1980 levels around 2050 in the RCP8.5 scenario, but remains below 1980 levels throughout the 21st century in the RCP4.5 scenario. (
  • Our results demonstrate the substantial uncertainties in stratospheric ozone projections and expected recovery dates induced by volcanic aerosol perturbations that need to be considered in future model ozone projections. (
  • Ozone depletion and increasing aerosol concentrations in the lower stratosphere and troposphere have a cooling effect, which may be partially offsetting, and hence masking, the full extent of the enhanced greenhouse effect. (
  • From the 1920s to the 1970s ozone was measured from the ground. (
  • First observed in the late 1970s, this has depleted the levels of protective stratospheric ozone, particularly at medium to high latitudes. (
  • Ozone levels stabilized by the mid-1990s and began to recover in the 2000s, as the shifting of the jet stream in the southern hemisphere towards the south pole has stopped and might even be reversing. (
  • For example, the lower atmosphere and the upper layers of the ocean have also warmed, snow and ice cover are decreasing in the Northern Hemisphere, the Greenland ice sheet is shrinking, and sea level is rising [ Figure 1b ]. (
  • Cooling the stratosphere has both good and bad effects on ozone destruction, Newchurch said. (
  • Cooling the air in the upper stratosphere slows the rate of chemical destruction reactions, thereby increasing the ozone amounts. (
  • Also, the presence of thin cloud near the tropopause may play a significant role in heterogeneous chemical processes that lead to ozone destruction in mid-latitudes. (
  • Eventually, however, the evidence seemed to suggest that chemicals produced and made by humans might be causing the destruction of the ozone. (
  • Persistently low temperatures cause stratospheric clouds to form, with dehydration and denitrification that together favour ozone destruction. (
  • The global total ozone has been largely reduced from 1980s to the first half of 1990s. (
  • By 1985 the BAS was reporting a dramatic decline of 50 percent in springtime ozone levels above Halley Bay Station when compared to the previous decade. (
  • A region of the stratosphere in which the concentration of ozone is relatively high. (
  • At the highest concentration of ozone, for the longest time, the least mortality rate was recorded for one-day-old eggs. (
  • This indicator describes how the levels of major greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have changed over time. (
  • Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles, Springer Earth System Sciences , DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-25643-1, 1-54, 2014. (
  • While these gases warm the lower atmosphere, they cool the stratosphere by radiating heat out to space. (
  • They analyzed satellite measurements of ozone, hydrogen chloride, and greenhouse gases, along with ground-based measurements of ozone and solar activity. (
  • It is reasonable to expect that the Earth should warm as the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increases. (
  • Indeed, I'll happily take on any moron who says adding radiative gases to our atmosphere reduces our radiatively cooled atmosphere's radiative cooling ability. (
  • While all these gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, emissions from human sources has caused their levels to rise to a point that is no longer sustainable. (
  • The first SAGE instrument was launched February 18, 1979, to collect data on the various gases in the atmosphere, including ozone. (
  • It is well known that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in ozone generation. (
  • Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a significant direct and indirect impact on high-latitude ozone through ion chemistry processes and atmospheric transport mechanisms [ 28 , 29 ]. (
  • Thus, it would be interesting to examine how EPP effects that influence annual polar ozone changes compare with the impact of solar UV variations. (
  • Ozone is a damaging pollutant in the lower atmosphere near the ground, but in the stratosphere, it shields the Earth from harmful ultraviolet solar radiation. (
  • Secondly, there is strong solar cycle variability in the multi-MeV electron component (see Figure 2) which will, in turn, impose a strong variability on ionization and chemistry effects upon the middle atmosphere, possibly extending deep into the stratosphere. (
  • Such IOT, that have been shown to be related to the secular cycle of solar activity and excursions of the Maunder minimum type, also seem to be linked to outstanding peaks in geomagnetic activity, maxima in ozone concentration, incidence of blocking type circulation, as well as rainfall over Central Europe, England/Wales, eastern United States, and India. (
  • According to Eddy (1977, 1979, 1982) it is possible that solar connections have been sought in the wrong places or with the wrong index of solar activity. (
  • Its ionosphere separates the atmosphere from outer space and the solar wind . (
  • Decreases in ozone concentrations about 30 km cause surface warming because of increased penetration of solar radiation into the lower atmosphere while decreased ozone in the lower stratosphere and/or the troposphere causes surface cooling. (
  • Warming of the atmosphere due to internal variability, ocean oscillations, cloud cover changes, solar amplification mechanisms, etc. secondarily warm the CO2 in the atmosphere increasing the 15 micron IR radiation observed from increased levels of CO2. (
  • For most years, Figure 5 shows how this ozone is divided between the troposphere (the part of the atmosphere closest to the ground) and the stratosphere. (
  • "On the photochemistry of ozone in the stratosphere and troposphere and pollution of the stratosphere by high-flying aircraft" , Promoters: Prof. Dr. John Houghton, FRS, Oxford, and Dr. R.P. Wayne, Oxford. (
  • From 1958 until 1979, a non-significant trend (0.06 ± 0.06 °C decade−1 for NCEP) and slightly cooling trends (−0.12 ± 0.06 °C decade−1 for RICH) are found in the lower troposphere. (
  • In 1990 it was reported that the satellite record of temperatures in the troposphere (the part of the atmosphere that should warm more or less with the surface) did not show any warming since 1979, the year satellites began measuring temperature. (
  • Model studies imply that dry deposition of ozone in summer may also be a significant sink, while downward fluxes from the stratosphere may be an important source of ozone in the upper troposphere in winter and early spring. (
  • Exhaust emissions from high flying aircraft, a significant portion of which takes place within the lower stratosphere, may contribute substantially to upper troposphere ozone chemistry in mid to high latitudes. (
  • Recent unexpected developments in concentrations of ozone and its precursors within the troposphere suggest that much of the chemistry is not yet understood. (
  • A panel, including James Hansen, wrote in 2000 that global warming was real despite there only being evidence that the surface was warming, not the troposphere (indicating that the atmosphere was not actually warming). (
  • Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 2016 - Status and trends. (
  • This indicator tracks trends in the deviation from pre-1980 levels of total annually averaged ozone values integrated over the 35 to 60 degrees north latitude belt (the latitudes roughly corresponding to North America) from 1964 to 2016. (
  • The daily minimum ozone value area for 2009 was 96 DU on 25 September. (
  • Ozone absorbs ultraviolet rays and acts as a natural blanket that protects the earth from harmful short-wave radiation from the sun. (
  • 1) Robust scientific evidence shows the sun angle controls water vapour content of the atmosphere, the main component of back radiation, as it cycles annually. (
  • The total resistance of the atmosphere in the fair-weather portion of the circuit is only a few hundred ohms, whereas the resistance above the thunderstorm generator can reach 10 6 Q. Therefore Markson stresses that only an increase in ionizing radiation that penetrates sufficiently low into the atmospheric column above thunderstorms is to be expected to modulate the current in the global circuit. (
  • Envisat, the largest Earth observation satellite ever built, can localise ozone depletion and track its changes, enabling the rapid estimation of UV radiation as well as providing forecasting. (
  • Fortunately for life on earth, upper atmospheric oxygen destroys all UV C radiation to start the series of chemical reactions that create stratospheric ozone, as shown in the "ozone and the stratosphere" illustration. (
  • For example, measurements between 1989 and 1993 over Toronto indicated that for every 1 percent decrease in total column ozone, after accounting for seasonal and daily variables not related to ozone, there was a corresponding increase-between 1.1 percent and 1.3 percent-in erythemally active UVB radiation reaching the surface (Kerr and McElroy, 1993). (
  • The atmosphere isn't just absorbing IR Radiation (heat) from the surface. (
  • The molecule of three oxygen atoms is called ozone. (
  • This formula shows that each molecule of ozone consists of three atoms. (
  • [2] Once in the stratosphere, they release halogen atoms through photodissociation , which catalyze the breakdown of ozone (O 3 ) into oxygen (O 2 ). (
  • High-latitude ozone is important for the polar climate because ozone affects the radiative balance, temperature, and dynamics of the middle atmosphere [ 31 , 32 ]. (
  • One-dimensional radiative-convective and photochemical models are used to examine the effects of enhanced CO 2 concentrations on the surface temperature of the early Earth and the composition of the prebiotic atmosphere. (
  • To increase the global temperature of the Earth by 1.7°C, "by injecting a cloud of ice crystals into the polar atmosphere by detonating 10 H-bombs in the Arctic Ocean - the subject of his 1958 article in Science magazine" (Wexler H., 1958, "Modifying Weather on a Large Scale," Science, n.s. 128 (Oct. 31, 1958): 1059-1063). (
  • Earth has cooled, the temperature has stabilized, and the composition of the atmosphere has completely changed. (
  • Only when models include human influences on the composition of the atmosphere are the resulting temperature changes consistent with observed changes. (
  • This ranks as the 10th largest since satellite measurements began in 1979. (
  • Near-continuous, global, total ozone data are available from satellite measurements beginning in 1979. (
  • Neither the 14 British-French Concorde supersonic jets that flew regularly at altitudes up to 60,000 feet between London or Paris and New York City, nor the few flights of the Soviet Union's Tupolev Tu-144 between 1978 and 2003, created enough emissions to harm stratospheric ozone, before airlines retired the planes. (
  • These pollutants react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog. (
  • These NO x dynamics in the snow at UMBS were notably different compared to NWT, and primarily determined by snow-atmosphere interactions rather than by soil NO x emissions. (
  • [3] Both types of ozone depletion were observed to increase as emissions of halocarbons increased. (
  • There are a number of remaining uncertainties such as the effect of climate change on ozone recovery. (
  • In 1979 the World Meteorological Organization and the International Council of Scientific Unions decided to conduct a global program of climate research. (
  • The major components of the climate system that are important for climatic change and its consequences, such as sea level rise, during the next century are: the atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial biosphere, glaciers and ice sheets and land surface. (
  • Previously reported discrepancies between the amount of warming near the surface and higher in the atmosphere have been used to challenge the reliability of climate models and the reality of human induced global warming. (
  • The first MetOp satellite in the series of three is scheduled to be launched in 2006 and will assist climate researchers in monitoring ozone levels and other atmospheric parameters. (
  • To study this expansion, the researchers first compared observational data with simulated data from climate models for 1979-1999. (
  • Carl Sagan reported in his 1980 series "COSMOS" that he considers melting arctic ice as essential to successful terraforming of Mars for restoring an atmosphere for human habitation. (
  • The numbers for the southernmost ocean, however, pale in comparison with the rates at which the Arctic has been losing sea ice - the extent of the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean in September 2012 was 1.32 million square miles below the average September extent from 1979 to 2000. (
  • Longer term records only show the decline in arctic sea ice since about 1979. (
  • 1979. Kinetics and mechanisms of the reactions of the hydroxyl radical with organic compounds in the gas phase. (
  • The protocol restricts the manufacture and use of human-made, ozone-depleting compounds, such as chlorofluorocarbons and halons. (
  • The unrestrained use of rivers and estuaties for the discharge of nuterients and toxic compounds leads to signgificantly adverse impacts on critical marine habitats, but water extraction and, more generally, the regulation of rivers for navigation and flood prevention often have adverse effets on riverine fish (Welcomme, 1979) and diadromous species such as salmon, eels, and shad, if not allowed for. (
  • The atmosphere contains a range of interesting compounds in small quantities, including some based on hydrogen , such as hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). (
  • Critical load estimates and the modelled estimates of pollutant deposition have been used to support the negotiation of the multi-pollutant multi-effect Gothenburg Protocol (1999) to the 1979 Geneva Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution. (
  • Today the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) concluded its thirtieth session, held from 30 April to 4 May 2012 in Geneva, adopting historic amendments to the Convention's 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone (Gothenburg Protocol). (
  • These results confirm the Montreal Protocol and its amendments have succeeded in stopping the loss of ozone in the stratosphere," Yang said. (
  • Normally, there are higher concentrations of ozone at various altitudes in the stratosphere . (
  • The fraction of agricultural crops that is potentially exposed to ambient air concentrations of ozone in excess of the EU target value set for the protection of vegetation is also shown. (
  • In the midlatitudes the peak concentrations of ozone occur at altitudes from 20 to 25 km (about 12 to 16 miles). (
  • The researchers attribute the ozone improvement above 11 miles almost entirely to the Montreal Protocol. (
  • Ground level ozone is seen as one of the most prominent air pollution problems in Europe, mainly due to effects on human health, natural ecosystems and crops. (
  • The environmental and human health implications of ground-level ozone are very different from those of ozone higher in the atmosphere, leading to the maxim: "Good up high, bad nearby" (U.S. EPA, 2003). (
  • Long-term measurements of ozone levels are of key importance for being able to monitor the ozone's predicted recovery, which is currently estimated to take place by around 2060," Zehner said. (
  • Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) has significant impacts on ozone depletion in the polar middle atmosphere during geomagnetic activity. (
  • It is well known that energetic particle precipitation (EPP) during geomagnetic activity has the potential to play an important role in the catalytic process of polar ozone depletion (OD). (
  • Many investigations of EPP-OD effects for different levels of geomagnetic activity have been carried out, and the impact of EPP on polar ozone has been modeled and observed [ 8 - 27 ]. (
  • Ozone values outside the polar vortex have dropped to near 400 DU, and inside the vortex ozone values are rapidly increasing as the atmosphere warms, though the summer circulation is not yet fully established. (
  • MetOp - Europe's first polar-orbiting satellite and a mission dedicated to operational meteorology - will include a next-generation ozone-monitoring instrument called GOME-2, intended to guarantee continuity of observation of this vital environmental factor well into the following decades. (
  • In the lower stratosphere, cooling also changes wind and air mixing patterns in a way that can increase ozone depletion, especially in high latitudes. (
  • This decrease in the rate of ozone depletion is consistent with the decline in the atmospheric abundance of man-made chorine and bromine-containing chemicals that have been documented by satellite, balloon, aircraft and ground based measurements. (
  • Measurements were compared with computer predictions of ozone recovery that considered actual measured variations in human-produced ozone-destroying chemicals. (
  • People from many countries have agreed to stop emitting most of the chemicals that destroy ozone. (
  • The researchers concluded approximately one half the observed ozone change was in the region of the stratosphere above 11 miles and the rest in the lower stratosphere from six to 11 miles. (
  • Ozone in these areas declined steadily from 1979 to 1997. (
  • Ozone is a secondary pollutant formed in the atmosphere. (
  • The devastation of the May 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens and the gradual recovery of the surrounding landscape is documented in this series of satellite images from 1979-2015. (
  • The two satellites plunged back into the atmosphere where they were destroyed. (
  • Without protective ozone, earthly life would be unable to survive. (
  • A comparison between the coupled simulation and the atmosphere-only simulation with climatological sea surface temperatures (SSTs) shows that a substantial amount of tropical precipitation variability is generated without oceanic influence. (
  • Such significant ozone loss requires very low temperatures in the stratosphere combined with sunlight. (
  • The slight cooling to no change of lower tropospheric temperatures from 1958-1979 found by this paper also don't support AGW theory since CO2 levels rose ~7% during that period. (
  • First of all, let's take a look at the average temperatures of the stratosphere since 1979, as shown on the graph below. (