Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.United StatesReference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Weights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Dimensional Measurement Accuracy: The closeness of a determined value of a physical dimension to the actual value.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Great BritainChi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Process Assessment (Health Care): An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Nuchal Translucency Measurement: A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 37, 827-838. Revelle, W. (1979). Hierarchical cluster analysis and the internal ... Psychological Assessment, 8, 350-353. Zinbarg, R., Yovel, I., Revelle, W. & McDonald, R. (2006). Estimating generalizability to ... Thus, whereas the ideal of measurement is for all items of a test to measure the same latent variable, alpha has been ... Journal of Personality Assessment, 80, 99-103 Peters, G.-J. Y (2014) The alpha and the omega of scale reliability and validity ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55, 818-831. Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischhoff, B., & Parker, A. M. (2007). Individual ... Scott, S. G. & Bruce, R. A. (1995). Decision-making style: The development and assessment of a new measure. ... Research with the assessment of career decision making. Character Potential: A Record of Research, 9, 63-69. ...
Glossary of Important Assessment and Measurement Terms. Philadelphia, PA: National Council on Measurement in Education. 2016. ... Dynamic Assessment in Practice: Clinical And Educational Applications. Cambridge University Press, 2006, p.xiii-xiv Kozulin, A ... IQ scores are used for educational placement, assessment of intellectual disability, and evaluating job applicants. Even when ... Haywood, H. Carl; Lidz, Carol S. (2006). Dynamic Assessment in Practice: Clinical and Educational Applications. Cambridge ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement. 64 (3): 391-418. doi:10.1177/0013164404266386. The free web interface and R package ... doi:10.1007/s00038-012-0416-3. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Assessment of Reliability. In: Psychometric Theory (2nd ed.). New York: ... Educational and Psychological Measurement. 37: 827-838. doi:10.1177/001316447703700403. Revelle W (1979). "Hierarchical cluster ... Allen, M.J., & Yen, W. M. (2002). Introduction to Measurement Theory. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. Bland, J.M.; Altman, D.G ...
Thorndike, R. L. (1977). "Causation of Binet IQ decrements". Journal of Educational Measurement. 14: 197-202. Raven, J. (1981 ... In 2004, Harcourt Assessment, Inc. a division of Harcourt Education acquired J C Raven Ltd. Harcourt was later acquired by ... San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment. Raven, J., & Raven, J. (eds.) (2008) Uses and Abuses of Intelligence: Studies Advancing ... or RPM is a nonverbal group test typically used in educational settings. It is usually a 60-item test used in measuring ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 46, 509-522. *^ Hofer, S.M. & Eber, H.W. (2002). Second-order factor structure of ... Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment: Vol. 2 - Personality Measurement and Testing. Los Angeles, CA: ... Schuerger, J. M. (1995). Career assessment and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Journal of Career Assessment, 3(2 ... The Sage Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment: Vol. 2, Personality Measurement and Testing., Los Angeles, CA: Sage. ...
Iowa Tests of Educational Development, Forms A, B, and C (ITED), Iowa Writing Assessment Logramos Nelson-Denny Reading Test (ND ... custom assessments departments, and measurement research departments. The clinical side of Riverside's business focuses on ... They soon established an educational department and quickly expanded the company's educational offerings. Beginning with the ... educational and clinical assessments, quality assurance, information technology, state contract management, publishing ...
Glossary of Important Assessment and Measurement Terms. Philadelphia, PA: National Council on Measurement in Education. 2016. ... Haywood, H. Carl; Lidz, Carol S. (2006). Dynamic Assessment in Practice: Clinical and Educational Applications. Cambridge ... Hopkins, Kenneth D.; Stanley, Julian C. (1981). Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation (sixth ed.). Engelwood ... Dynamic Assessment in Practice: Clinical And Educational Applications. Cambridge University Press, 2006, p.xiii-xiv ...
... in Practice: Clinical And Educational Applications. Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 1 Vygotsky, L.S. ( ... Issues in Education, 7(2), 137-170 Sternberg, R.J. & Grigorenko, E.L. (2002). Dynamic testing: The nature and measurement of ... Dynamic assessment is a kind of interactive assessment used in education and the helping professions. Dynamic assessment is a ... Dynamic assessment is an interactive approach to psychological or psychoeducational assessment that embeds intervention within ...
... an educational assessment company specializing in the development and scoring of large-scale assessments. Potts, Monica (2005, ... including the Journal of Educational Measurement of the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME). In 1979, Page ... Educational Psychologist. Page also served as President of the American Educational Research Association (1979-80) and ... in 1962 as Professor of Educational Psychology and Director, Bureau of Educational Research. It was during his tenure there (in ...
In G. N. Masters & J. P. Keeves (Eds.), Advances in measurement in educational research and assessment (pp. 85-97). New York: ... Journal of Educational Measurement, 14(2), 97-116 [15]. Wright, B. D. (1984). Despair and hope for educational measurement. ... Journal of Educational Measurement, 14(3), 219-225. Wright, B. D. (1977). Solving measurement problems with the Rasch model. ... Educational and Psychological Measurement, 29(1), 23-48. Wright, B. D. (1977). Solving measurement problems with the Rasch ...
French, J.W. (1953): The description of personality measurements in terms of rotated factors, Educational Testing Service ... a b c d Costa, P.T.; McCrae, R.R. (1995): 'Domains and Facets: Hierarchical Personality Assessment Using the Revised NEO ... Kelley, T.L. (1927): Interpretation of Educational Measurements, World Book Company, p. 62-65 ... Structure and Measurement, World Book *↑ a b c Goldberg, L.R. (1992): 'The Development of Markers for the Big-Five Factor ...
Parental reactions to authentic performance assessment. Educational Assessment, 7(1), 61-85. Meisels, S.J., Liaw, F-R, Dorfman ... Meisels, S.J. (1994). Designing meaningful measurements for early childhood. In B.L. Mallory & R.S. New (Eds.), Diversity in ... Meisels, S.J. (1997). Using Work Sampling in authentic performance assessments. Educational Leadership, 54, 60-65. Meisels, S.J ... Meisels is a leader in several areas of early childhood assessment, as well as an outspoken commentator on assessment ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement. 31 (3). Maccallum, R. C. (1990). "The need for alternative measures of fit in ... Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 56, 104-123. Horn, John L. (1 June 1965). "A rationale and test for the number of ... Educational and Psychological Measurement. 20: 141-151. doi:10.1177/001316446002000116. Cattell, R. B. (1966). The scree test ... Educational and Psychological Measurement. 29 (3): 571-578. doi:10.1177/001316446902900303. Warne, R. G., & Larsen, R. (2014). ...
Messick,, S. (1995). "Standards of validity and the validity of standards in performance assessment". Educational Measurement: ... Educational measurement. 4: 17-64. Messick,, S. (1989). "Validity.". In R. L. Linn (Ed.),. Educational Measurement (3rd ed., pp ... Lee Cronbach and Paul Meehl (1955) proposed that the development of a nomological net was essential to measurement of a test's ... Dimitrov D. M.; Rumrill Jr P. D. (2003). "Pretest-posttest designs and measurement of change". Work: A Journal of Prevention, ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69, 50-61. Formann, A. K. (2010). The Newcomb-Benford law in its relation to some ... Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 52, 491-492. Formann, A. K., & Piswanger, K. (1979). Wiener MatrizenTest. Ein Rasch ... Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69, 50-61. Voracek, M. (2010). In memoriam: Anton K. Formann (1949-2010). Biometric ... He is renowned for his contributions to item response theory (Rasch models), latent class analysis, the measurement of change, ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 8, 995-1015. DeGeest, D., & Brown, K. G. (2011). The role of goal orientation in ... Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative "description of personality": The big- ... Educational Psychologist, 34(3), 169-189. Shatz, I. (2015). "The negative impact of goal-oriented instructions". Educational ... Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 544-555. VandeWalle, D. Cron, W. L. Slocum, J. W., (2001), The role of goal orientation ...
"Objective measurement of diverse types of reading material. Los Angeles educational research bulletin 9:8-11. Lewerenz, A. S. ... Qualitative assessment of text difficulty: A practical guide for teachers and writers. Cambridge MA: Brookline Books. Thorndike ... "Measurement of the difficulty of reading materials." Los Angeles educational research bulletin 8:11-16. Lewerenz, A. S. 1929. " ... The measurement of readability. Ames, Iowa: University of Iowa Press. Chall, J. S. 1958. Readability: An appraisal of research ...
Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) IFPUG (2012). The IFPUG Guide to IT and Software Measurement. Auerbach Publication. ... IFPUG maintains the Function Point Counting Practices Manual (CPM), and the SNAP Assessment Practices Manual, the recognized ... and educational events represent some of the membership benefits. FPA allows organizations to understand the functional size of ... The annual International Software Measurement & Analysis (ISMA) conferences, access to standards documents, certification ...
Handbook of Psychological and Educational Assessment: Intelligence, Aptitude, and Achievement, 2, 217-242. Becker, K.A (2003 ... Seventh Mental Measurements Yearbook. Highland Park (NJ): Gryphon Press. pp. 772-773. Gould, Stephen Jay (1981). The Mismeasure ... Current uses for the test include clinical and neuropsychological assessment, educational placement, compensation evaluations, ... Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 23, 87-95. Becker, K. A. (2003). History of the Stanford-Binet intelligence scales: ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53(2), 301-314. Raju, N. S., Burke, M. J., & Maurer, T. J. (1995). A note on direct ... Raju served on a National Academy of Science Committee to evaluate the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Raju ... Journal of Educational Measurement, 43(1), 1-17. Price, L. R., Raju, N., Lurie, A., Wilkins, C., & Zhu, J. (2006). Conditional ... Journal of Educational Measurement, 34(3), 253-272. Raju, N. S., Bilgic, R., Edwards, J. E., & Fleer, P. F. (1997). Methodology ...
Faculty within the department are experts in measurement and assessment. Training educators lies at the heart of our mission. ... Many of CIE's projects involve developing curricula for adults in formal and non-formal educational contexts. CIE focuses on ... The Center for International Education is housed in the Educational Policy, Research and Administration Department of the ... This component is done by Indiana University). The Adult Transitions Longitudinal Study (ATLAS) documents the educational and ...
Masters, G. N., & Keeves, J. P. (Eds.). (1999). Advances in measurement in educational research and assessment. New York: ... Melbourne, Australia: Educational Measurement Solutions. Available free from Educational Measurement Solutions Rasch, G. (1960/ ... National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) Rasch analysis Rasch Measurement Transactions The Standards for Educational ... Wright, B. D. (1977). Solving measurement problems with the Rasch model. Journal of Educational Measurement, 14(2), 97-116. ...
Reynolds, C.R. (1984). Critical measurement issues in assessment of learning disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 18, ... in Psychometrics in 1976, an Ed.S. in School Psychology in 1977, and a Ph.D. in Educational Psychology in 1978 while studying ... Measurement, and Statistics (5). He is editor-in-chief of the APA journal Psychological Assessment with a 6-year term, ... and his 1984 paper describing and resolving many of the critical measurement issues in assessment of learning disabilities ...
... conducted by the erstwhile National Board for Educational Measurement (NBEM), Minna, Niger State, Nigeria (1996-1999). Ndagi's ... Symposium on Arabic Learning Programs and Output Assessment organized in October 2013 by the National Center for Assessment in ... His contributions to Arabic studies at the secondary level of Nigeria's educational system include being the Chief Examiner for ... He was at the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC), Abuja, Nigeria for a 12 months sabbatical leave; ...
Eds.), Work and well-being: Assessments and instruments for occupational mental health (pp. 19-32). Washington, DC: American ... Indirect effects also play a role; for example, impaired educational progress or complications outside of work, such as ... Kasl, S.V., & Jones, B.A. (2011). An epidemiological perspective on research design, measurement, and surveillance strategies. ... Eds.) (1992). Work and well-being: Assessments and instruments for occupational mental health. Washington, DC: American ...
... testing have been a source of intense and recurring social controversy throughout the history of mental measurement. In the ... S. (1976). Towards equalizing educational and employment opportunity. Journal of Educational Measurement, 13, 77-88.Google ... In C. R. Reynolds and R. W. Kamphaus (Eds.), Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children (Vol. 2, pp. 491- ... In R. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement ( 3rd ed. ). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55, 818-831. Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischhoff, B., & Parker, A. M. (2007). Individual ... Scott, S. G. & Bruce, R. A. (1995). Decision-making style: The development and assessment of a new measure. ... Research with the assessment of career decision making. Character Potential: A Record of Research, 9, 63-69. ...
Dynamic Assessment in Practice: Clinical And Educational Applications. Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 1 Vygotsky, L.S. ( ... Issues in Education, 7(2), 137-170 Sternberg, R.J. & Grigorenko, E.L. (2002). Dynamic testing: The nature and measurement of ... Dynamic assessment is a kind of interactive assessment used in education and the helping professions. Dynamic assessment is a ... Dynamic assessment is an interactive approach to psychological or psychoeducational assessment that embeds intervention within ...
Validity in performance assessments. In: Linn RL, ed. Educational measurement. New York: American Council on Education and ... American Educational Research Association and National Council on Measurement in Education. Standards for educational and ... 26 The educational measurement literature suggests that competence is best measured through performance/authentic assessment ... Reliability relates to consistency in measurement, i.e., scores from a reliable assessment tool are similar across assessment ...
Journal of Educational Measurement, 12, 187-196.. Gonzalez, R. D. (1990, January). When minority becomes majority: The changing ... In T. Oakland (Ed.), Psychological and educational assessment of minority children (pp. 52-69). New York: Brunner/Mazel. ... New York: Latino Commission on Educational Reform.. Sadker, M., Sadker, D., & Long, L. (1993). Gender and educational equity. ... Sadker, M., Sadker, D., & Steindam, S. (1989). Gender equity and educational reform. Educational Leadership, 46(6), 44-47. ...
Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Rasch Measurement Theory to Assess Measurement Invariance in a High Stakes Reading Assessment ... Journal of Educational Statistics, 4, 207-230.. "The Rasch model and factor analysis: Complementary or mutually exclusive?" - ... Subscribe to Journal of Applied Measurement Go to Institute for Objective Measurement Home Page. The Rasch Measurement SIG ( ... Person measurement:. 1. The measurement of persons must be independent of the particular items that happen to be used for the ...
Glossary of Important Assessment and Measurement Terms. Philadelphia, PA: National Council on Measurement in Education. 2016. ... Haywood, H. Carl; Lidz, Carol S. (2006). Dynamic Assessment in Practice: Clinical and Educational Applications. Cambridge ... Hopkins, Kenneth D.; Stanley, Julian C. (1981). Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation (sixth ed.). Engelwood ... Dynamic Assessment in Practice: Clinical And Educational Applications. Cambridge University Press, 2006, p.xiii-xiv ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 46, 509-522. *^ Hofer, S.M. & Eber, H.W. (2002). Second-order factor structure of ... Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment: Vol. 2 - Personality Measurement and Testing. Los Angeles, CA: ... Schuerger, J. M. (1995). Career assessment and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Journal of Career Assessment, 3(2 ... The Sage Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment: Vol. 2, Personality Measurement and Testing., Los Angeles, CA: Sage. ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement 61, 532-575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar. *. *Curry, G. D., Decker, S. H. & Egley, A. Jr. ( ... Dunford, F. W. (2000). The San Diego Navy Experiment: An assessment of interventions for men who assault their wives. Journal ... Wells, L. E. & Weisheit, R. A. (2001). Gang problems in nonmetropolitan areas: A longitudinal assessment. Justice Quarterly 18 ... Kleck, G. & Chiricos, T. (2002). Unemployment and property crime: A target-specific assessment of opportunity and motivation as ...
Review of Educational Research, 58, 47-77. Horn, J. L. (1988). A basis for research on age differences in cognitive abilities. ... Collis, J. M., & Messick, S. (2001). Intelligence and Personality: Bridging the gap in theory and measurement. NJ: Lawrence ... Procedure Participants were all job applicants tested by Psytech International as part of an assessment center. ... Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 537-552. Hembree, R. (1988). Correlates causes, effects, and treatment of test anxiety. ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement. Journal of Learning Disabilities. D. 25-28. (1983-1989). 159- 167. April). L. M. ( ... M. An assessment of reading attitudes. Strategies for comprehending text and coping with reading difficulties.. G. S. & Dayton ... H.. Assessment and instruction of reading disability: An interactive approach. C. 13. E. C.. D. (1980). Stratton. 626-639. ... Reading problems: Assessment and teaching strategies.. J. San Francisco. N. (1991). 485-493. H. . & Bear. A cultural study.. ...
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1974, 34, 315-319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar. *. Sanford, J. Tolerance of debility in ... Journal of Personality Assessment, 1976, 40, 266-268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Bond, M. Assessment of the psychosocial outcome after severe head injury. In CIBA Foundation Symposium 34: Outcome of severe ...
Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 4, 213-220. Goldman, L. (1982). Assessment in counseling: A better way. Measurement and ... Educational Resources. Elementary Art Lessons. Elementary Lesson Plans. Writing Curriculum. Elementary School Curriculum. ... Doing pupil assessment includes: types of assessment; assessment systems and programs; test administration and scoring; test ... Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 15, 9-14. Zytowski, D. G. (1982). Assessment in the counseling process for the 1980s. ...
... he has concentrated his efforts on psychological theory and measurement. His areas of research includes fair assessment, cross- ... With Nancy Mather, Ph.D., he has completed 3 texts for teachers and parents concerning behavioral and educational issues. With ... Devereux Early Childhood Assessments (1997; 2003), Devereux Elementary Student Strength Assessment (DESSA; 2011), DESSA-mini ( ... Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (Goldstein, Naglieri, & Ozonoff, 2008) and Essentials of WNV Assessment (Brunnert, ...
Griffin, P. (2007). The comfort of competence and the uncertainty of assessment.Studies in Educational Evaluation, 33, 87-99. ... Masters, G. N. (1988). The analysis of partial credit scoring.Applied Measurement in Education.1(4), 279-298.CrossRefGoogle ... Brookhart, S. M. (1994). Teachers grading: Practice and theory.Applied Measurement in Education, 7, 279-301.CrossRefGoogle ... Kloosterman, P. (1988). Self-confidence and motivation in mathematics.Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 345-351.CrossRef ...
French, J.W. (1953): The description of personality measurements in terms of rotated factors, Educational Testing Service ... a b c d Costa, P.T.; McCrae, R.R. (1995): Domains and Facets: Hierarchical Personality Assessment Using the Revised NEO ... Kelley, T.L. (1927): Interpretation of Educational Measurements, World Book Company, p. 62-65 ... Structure and Measurement, World Book *↑ a b c Goldberg, L.R. (1992): The Development of Markers for the Big-Five Factor ...
Journal of Educational Measurement, 32(1):19-36.. Bennett, R.E., and D.A. Rock. (1998). Examining the Validity of a Computer- ... Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59(2):197-210.. von Stumm, S., B. Hell, and T. Chamorro-Premuzic. (2011). The hungry ... Educational and Psychological Measurement, 71(3):460-502.. Brown, A., and A. Maydeu-Olivares. (2013). How IRT can solve ... 1992). Personality-intelligence relations: Assessment of typical intellectual engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84 ...
This chapter discusses the concept of reliability of measurement as used in social sciences (but not in industrial statistics ... The assessment of scale reliability is based on the correlations between the individual items or measurements that make up the ... In educational and psychological testing, it is common to use yes/no type items, that is, to prompt the respondent to answer ... repeated measurements, different measurement devices, etc.). You can compute numerous statistics that allows you to build and ...
1745-3992 : 0731-1745 : Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice. 1469-5790 : 0952-3987 : Educational Media International. ... 1573-2967 : 1420-2026 : Environmental Modeling and Assessment. 1573-2959 : 0167-6369 : Environmental Monitoring and Assessment ... 1748-9547 : 1748-9539 : Evidence-Based Communication Assessment and Intervention. 1741-4288 : 1741-427X : Evidence-Based ... 1696-2095 : 1699-5880 : Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology. 1097-4067 : 1068-9613 : Electronic ...
Journal of Educational Measurement, 34(2):123-139. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3984.1997.tb00510.x [ Links ]. Carey S 2009. The origin ... Journal of Educational Measurement, 36(3):185-198. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3984.1999.tb00553.x [ Links ]. Andrich D 1988. Rasch ... Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 17(1):31-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3992.1998.tb00619.x [ Links ]. Dampier GA & ... With more scientific instruments of measurement and assessment we will be able to identify whether performance in our system is ...
Educational Assessment. 2008 - Present: Member of the Editorial Board for the journal of Educational Measurement: Issues and ... Educational Significance and Assessment Requirements. Educational Assessment. Vol. 13, ISS 2-3. ... Educational Assessment. 14:195-211, 2009. Abedi, J. (2009). Validity of Assessments for English Language Learning Students in a ... Educational Assessment, 10(3).. Abedi, J. (2004). The No Child Left Behind Act and English language learners: Assessment and ...
Brahm, N. (1981). "The assessment of self-concepts of educational achievement by a criterion-referenced approach." (ERIC ... measurement, development, and behavior." London: Longman. ... Students with special educational needs in the inclusive ... and social skills among students with mild mental retardation in different educational settings. Journal of Special Education, ... Burns, R. B. (1979). "The self-concept in theory, ...
"Structured Observation Techniques." In Educational Research, Methodology and Measurement: An International Handbook, ed. John P ... See also: Assessment, subentry on Classroom Assessment; Teacher Evaluation, subentries on Methods, Overview; Teaching, subentry ... "Observational Research … Grounding Theory in Classrooms." Educational Psychologist 25:375-379.. Good, Tom L., and Brophy, Jere ... "What You See Is What You Get: Consistency, Persistency, and Mediocrity in Classrooms." Harvard Educational Review 53:16-31. ...
Measurement Types of Instruments Measurement Types of Instruments Y520 Strategies for Educational Inquiry Robert S Michael ... AN ASSESSMENT OF SERVICE QUALTIY IN INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES AN ASSESSMENT OF SERVICE QUALTIY IN INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES Seo, Hwa ... Educational and Psychological Measurement, 35, 319±324. Shaw, M. E., & Wright, J. M. (1967). Scales for the measurement of ... Educational and Psychological Measurement, 31, 657±674. McKelvie, S. J. (1978). Graphic rating scales: How many categories? ...
SLD) Descriptors: *Classroom Techniques; *Cognitive Measurement; Cognitive Processes; Cognitive Tests; Educational Assessment; ... There is considerable agreement in the educational measurement literature about how essay tests can be improved. Topics ... A basic assessment planning chart is suggested. Examples of completed and partially-completed assessment charts are given for ... SLD) Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Achievement Tests; Computer Assisted Testing; *Educational Assessment; Elementary ...
  • Eric Gaynor Butterfield (Congreso de Desarrollo Organizacional, Argentina - 1999) hace mención a dos intervenciones de consultoría donde encuentra sustento al hecho que algunas personas tienen "en sus cabezas" una forma de liderar diferencial, y que la misma está relacionada con "la visión que tienen respecto de cómo opera una empresa" (más estructurada o menos estructurada). (gestiopolis.com)
  • Study director for the Office of Educational Research and Improvement grant to the UCLA National Center for Student Testing, Evaluation and Standards, Validity of Measures of Progress , University of California, Los Angeles, January 1996 - December 1999. (statmodel.com)
  • They found a natural division of the job role expectations of school counselors into six areas: counseling (individual and group), pupil assessment, consultation, information officer, school program facilitator, and research and evaluation. (ericae.net)
  • Studies in Educational Evaluation, 33 , 87-99. (springer.com)
  • Specifically, Reliability & Item Analysis will aid in the design and evaluation of sum scales , that is, scales that are made up of multiple individual measurements (e.g., different items, repeated measurements, different measurement devices, etc. (statsoft.com)
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  • Survey findings indicate that five traditional mainstays of student performance evaluation-multiple-choice testing, lab practicals, daily grades, clinical competency exams, and procedural requirements-still comprise the primary assessment tools in dental education. (jdentaled.org)
  • In 1962, Dr Wolf was a graduate student in the Measurement, Evaluation and Statistical Analysis (MESA) program at the University of Chicago, studying under Dr Benjamin Bloom, one of the founding fathers of the IEA. (iea.nl)
  • He served as chair of the Department of Measurement, Evaluation and Statistics for 12 years and retired in 1998. (iea.nl)
  • In 1977, Dr Wolf wrote a national report Achievement in America , and, in 1979, he authored the textbook Evaluation in Education , considered a classic in the field. (iea.nl)
  • In addition to his extensive publication record, he has also helped national and international organizations in the areas of nursing, medical education, and accounting, and was a consultant to business and industry on a variety of measurement, evaluation, and data analytic matters. (iea.nl)
  • According to Minor and Minor (1981), that debate arose, in part, from the adoption of a humanistic perspective by many counselors and counselor educators, leading to a de-emphasis of models of counseling that entail quantitative assessment. (ericae.net)
  • The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the validity and reliability of portfolio assessment in two U.S. dental schools using a unified framework for validity. (jdentaled.org)
  • Studying the validity of the Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning (DIAL), 53 kindergartners took the DIAL before school entrance and then had their Slosson Intelligence Test scores and Metropolitan Readiness Tests monitored for the school year. (ed.gov)
  • In his extensive essay on test validity, Messick (1989) defined validity as "an integrated evaluative judgment of the degree to which empirical evidence and theoretical rationales support the adequacy and appropriateness of inferences and actions based on test scores and other modes of assessment" (p. 13). (osepideasthatwork.org)
  • Four essential components of assessment systems need to be considered in making a validity argument: content coverage, response processes, internal structure, and relations to external variables. (osepideasthatwork.org)
  • Examples for each source of validity evidence are provided using illustrations from some large-scale assessment programs' technical documentation. (osepideasthatwork.org)
  • In this sense, developing a preparatory assessment that adheres to promoting resident readiness for the RCPSC, while demonstrating sufficient validity would be useful and beneficial for trainees in postgraduate training. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the most widely used written item type in assessment of basic and clinical sciences 1 , 2 and, if well designed, assesses reasoning as well as factual recall. (mja.com.au)
  • After obtaining her Bachelor in Pharmacy degree in 1979, she worked as a clinical hospital pharmacist in medicine and geriatrics. (ualberta.ca)
  • Her clinical and research interests revolve around supporting patients and families through end of life transitions, including understanding the multidimensional aspects of pain, patient-centered symptom assessment, and the experience of hope in palliative and end of life care. (ualberta.ca)
  • Effects in the same direction and of similar magnitude were found in meta-analyses of undergraduate assessments only, postgraduate assessments only, machine marked written assessments only, practical clinical assessments only, assessments with pass/fail outcomes only, assessments with continuous outcomes only, and in a meta-analysis of white v Asian candidates only. (bmj.com)
  • The Institute of Medicine report on dental education in the mid-1990s called specific attention to the need for authentic assessment of student progress and outcomes. (jdentaled.org)
  • De- formalizing assessment, another change, included increased use of one-item measures, informed self estimates, and card sorts or inventories in which quantified outcomes are less important than is the process the client engages in. (ericae.net)
  • This study used meta-analysis to examine the differences in employment outcomes for clients based on the educational level of the counselor. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In this article, the Task Force on Student Outcomes Assessment of the American Dental Education Association's Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education describes the current status of student outcomes assessment in U.S. dental education. (jdentaled.org)
  • Exclusions were non-UK assessments, only non-UK trained candidates, only self reported assessment data, only dropouts or another non-academic variable, obvious sampling bias, or insufficient details of ethnicity or outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • There were books and reports, such as Stephen Jay Gould's The Mismeasure of Man, James Crouse and Dale Trusheim's The Case Against the SAT, and the 1980 Ralph Nader report, The Reign of ETS, about the Educational Testing Service, the company known famously as the maker of the SAT college admission test. (fairtest.org)
  • The Rasch literature is vague about this requirement and about recommendations as to its assessment (Smith, 1996). (rasch.org)
  • Most notably, they were developed under the banner of dynamic assessment that focuses on the testing of learning and developmental potential (for instance, in the work of Reuven Feuerstein and his associates, who has criticized standard IQ testing for its putative assumption or acceptance of "fixed and immutable" characteristics of intelligence or cognitive functioning). (wikipedia.org)
  • Grounded in developmental theories of Vygotsky and Feuerstein, who recognized that human beings are not static entities but are always in states of transition and transactional relationships with the world, dynamic assessment also received considerable support in the recent revisions of cognitive developmental theory by Joseph Campione, Ann Brown, and John D. Bransford and in theories of multiple intelligences by Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measurement of normal personality trait constructs is an integral part of Cattell's comprehensive theory of intrapersonal psychological variables covering individual differences in cognitive abilities, normal personality traits, abnormal (psychopathological) personality traits, dynamic motivational traits, mood states, and transitory emotional states which are all taken into account in his behavioral specification/prediction equation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cognitive referencing in language assessment. (asha.org)
  • This movement toward a broader spectrum of teaching and learning methods in predoctoral dental education underscores the importance of utilizing appropriate assessment strategies that are consistent with the level of cognitive skills that can be developed with these new techniques. (jdentaled.org)
  • Across all assessments, VP/VLBW individuals had significantly lower IQ scores than term-born controls, even when individuals with severe cognitive impairment ( n = 69) were excluded. (aappublications.org)
  • Study selection The included quantitative reports measured the performance of medical students or UK trained doctors from different ethnic groups in undergraduate or postgraduate assessments. (bmj.com)
  • The 16PF instrument provides clinicians with a normal-range measurement of anxiety , adjustment, emotional stability and behavioral problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The instrument, thus far, appears to adhere to the central tenets of fundamental measurement, which hold that a test should be invariant across different groups of people and that it should measure a single variable to a level of precision that is useful practically and theoretically. (scielo.org.za)
  • ACCA - Association of Chartered Certified Accountants: Development of a new instrument for fostering ethical sensitivity in accountant students and measurement of developmental progress during study (with Dr. Marcia Schillinger) (2007). (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Limit to Assessment Instrument. (consortiumlibrary.org)
  • Hodgkinson advocates educational programs that, like Head Start, take into account not only academic needs but conceive of children as whole persons with social, emotional, and physical needs and strengths, in a family context (2003). (ascd.org)
  • Subspecialty training programs administer locally-developed assessments to prepare learners toward certification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS )-The Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) has been the pre-eminent force for promoting standards in student affairs, student services, and student development programs since its inception in 1979. (tarleton.edu)
  • Dynamic assessment is a kind of interactive assessment used in education and the helping professions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps the most controversial area within counselor education is that of assessment. (ericae.net)
  • Applied Measurement in Education, 7 , 279-301. (springer.com)
  • Even though we cannot conclude at this stage that the Marko-D satisfies the requirements of invariance and unidimensionality completely, this study provides an elucidation of the need for invariant assessments in South African education. (scielo.org.za)
  • In N. H. Hornberger (Ed), Encyclopedia of Language and Education: Language Testing and Assessment (2nd ed). (ucdavis.edu)
  • The educator manual for Massachusetts' portfolio-based alternate assessment, an example with less standardized tasks or items, instructs teachers to include portfolio evidence that relates to specific grade-level standards within the state's curriculum framework (Massachusetts Department of Education, 2004). (osepideasthatwork.org)
  • Women who are younger, primiparous, or have lower education are more likely to misreport LMP [ 3 , 5 ] and in low- and middle-income settings, where educational attainment tends to be lower [ 6 ], it is possible that recall errors seriously influence the accuracy of reported LMP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The efforts undertaken by researchers worldwide to find the ways to improve the quality and effectiveness of educational processes have focused on modelling the education production function. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • UNESCO / International Bureau of Education, Geneva: The assessment of moral & democratic competencies (2003). (uni-konstanz.de)
  • The Educational Testing Service conducted an International Assessment for Education Progress in science and mathematics in 1990. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The survey of assessment practices in predoctoral education was completed by 931 course directors, representing 45 percent of course directors nationwide, from fifty-three of the fifty-six U.S. dental schools. (jdentaled.org)
  • The survey revealed that a group of newer assessment techniques, although frequently identified as best practices in the literature and commonly used in other areas of health professions education, are rarely employed in predoctoral dental education. (jdentaled.org)
  • Virtually all commentaries and expert opinion on performance assessment in health professions education indicate that we must evaluate not only the recall and recognition of specific facts and the demonstration of technical skills, but also students' capacity to synthesize information within a given context and apply it in unique situations that require critical thinking and problem-solving. (jdentaled.org)
  • 2 Yet the literature on assessment methodologies for these purposes in dental education is relatively sparse. (jdentaled.org)
  • Triennial National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) Award for Application of Educational Measurement Technology. (utwente.nl)
  • Accreditation - Accreditation in higher education is defined as a collegial process based on self- and peer assessment for public accountability and improvement of academic quality. (tarleton.edu)
  • Curriculum Design and Educational Technology is a course offered by the University of Washington Tacoma Education Program. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Consequently, it is necessary to maintain a critical analysis of the issues and ensure a lively dialectic regarding the use of normal personality assessments in corporate and other applied settings. (docplayer.net)
  • This topic discusses the concept of reliability of measurement as used in social sciences (but not in industrial statistics or biomedical research). (statsoft.com)
  • This multivariate generalizability theory study found that the greatest source of variance was attributable to faculty raters, suggesting that portfolio assessment would benefit from two raters' evaluating each portfolio independently. (jdentaled.org)
  • The definition used in this current measurement study draws on the aforementioned definition and focuses on participation as a function of social networks and social integration, rather than focusing on perceptions. (healio.com)
  • For most purposes, a more useful index than reliability is the standard error of measurement , which is related to the un reliability of a test. (nap.edu)
  • Table 1 provides an example of a South Carolina test blueprint for fifth-grade mathematics on a fixed format (pencil and paper) given with or without accommodations for the regular assessment. (osepideasthatwork.org)
  • What might test blueprints look like for alternate assessments? (osepideasthatwork.org)
  • For example, administration manuals for Texas's State-Developed Alternate Assessment II , a pencil and paper test, include test blueprints for reading, writing and math by instructional level (grade or grade band). (osepideasthatwork.org)
  • The effect on performance of multiple assessments compared with the test items as part of a single end-of-year examination was negligible. (mja.com.au)
  • The results of the test affect the individuals who are tested, the corporations who use those test results, and our profession to the extent that we endorse specific measurement practices and inferences from test scores. (docplayer.net)
  • 5) Consequences: post-assessment survey revealed that none of the test takers felt "poorly prepared" for the upcoming summative examination and that their studying would increase in duration and be adapted in terms of content focus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ASN ITE is a 150 multiple-choice question assessment covering the test blueprint and assessment format of the American Board of Internal Medicine's nephrology certification examination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anything else would be considered noise, hazardous to the accuracy of measurement, and ultimately unscientific (Linacre, 2002). (scielo.org.za)
  • These include aural immittance measurements, otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), and auditory evoked responses such as auditory brainstem response (ABR), auditory steady state response (ASSR), electrocochleography (ECochG), and cortical auditory evoked responses like the auditory middle latency response (AMLR), the auditory late response (ALR), and the P300 response. (oae.it)
  • This article reviews current application of four objective auditory assessment applied most often in the diagnosis of hearing loss in infants and young children, specially: 1) aural immittance measures, 2) OAEs, 3), ABR, and 4) ASSR. (oae.it)
  • He was chairman of the Educational Institute of the Medical Informatics Bachelor and Master Programme at the AMC-University of Amsterdam. (amc.nl)
  • and Dr. Brennan is E.F. Lindquist Chair in Measurement and Testing and Director, Center for Advanced Studies in Measurement and Assessment, University of Iowa. (jdentaled.org)
  • The expert panel for this piece includes Karl Bang Christensen from the Department of Biostatistics at the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), George Engelhard, Jr. from the Department of Educational Studies at Emory University (USA), and Thomas Salzberger from the Department of Marketing at WU Wien (Austria). (rasch.org)
  • Post-Doctoral 1978-1979, University of California, Los Angeles. (ucdavis.edu)
  • En dicho Taller se exploraban los distintos estilos de Liderazgo mostrando los descubrimientos de "Ohio State University" al encontrar evidencia que el Liderazgo se relaciona con dos dimensiones. (gestiopolis.com)
  • Revisiting strategies employed to determine dental students' readiness to graduate and begin providing health care services to the public, or to progress to a higher level of training, is particularly critical in light of recent developments at the national level that are likely to have a dramatic effect on curriculum content and, accordingly, methods of assessment in the future. (jdentaled.org)
  • This concludes the public health assessment process for this site, unless additional information is obtained by ATSDR which, in the agency's opinion, indicates a need to revise or append the conclusions previously issued. (cdc.gov)
  • The issues of bias in psychological testing have been a source of intense and recurring social controversy throughout the history of mental measurement. (springer.com)
  • With roots in intelligence testing that go back generations, the mental measurement establishment continues to define merit largely in terms of potential ability rather than actual performance. (fairtest.org)
  • Many educators have sung the praises of new, authentic alternatives to standardized testing, such as performance assessment. (fairtest.org)
  • Advocates of performance assessment say schools ought to focus more on what people can do and less on how well kindergarteners, high school students, and prospective teachers take tests. (fairtest.org)