Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Image Cytometry: A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Laser Scanning Cytometry: A scanning microscope-based, cytofluorimetry technique for making fluorescence measurements and topographic analysis on individual cells. Lasers are used to excite fluorochromes in labeled cellular specimens. Fluorescence is detected in multiple discrete wavelengths and the locational data is processed to quantitatively assess APOPTOSIS; PLOIDIES; cell proliferation; GENE EXPRESSION; PROTEIN TRANSPORT; and other cellular processes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell SeparationAntibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Inbred C57BLCD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate: Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic: Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell-Derived Microparticles: Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Mass cytometry overcomes the fluorescent labeling limit by utilizing lanthanide isotopes attached to antibodies. This method ... Flow cytometry uses fluorescence as a quantitative tool; the utmost sensitivity of flow cytometry is unmatched by other ... "Microfluidic impedance-based flow cytometry". Cytometry Part A. 77A (7): 648-666. doi:10.1002/cyto.a.20910.. ... Current Protocols in Cytometry, Wiley-Liss Pub. ISSN 1934-9297. *Flow Cytometry in Clinical Diagnosis, v4, (Carey, McCoy, and ...
"Characterization of lymphocytes in the adult rat testis by flow cytometry: effects of activin and transforming growth factor ... Since anti-sperm antibodies can cause infertility, it is important that antibody-producing B-lymphocytes are kept separated ... A monoclonal antibody-based study". Eur Urol. 14 (3): 226-235. PMID 3289938. Tompkins AB, Hutchinson P, de Kretser DM, Hedger ... Antisperm antibodies (ASA) have been considered as infertility cause in around 10-30% of infertile couples. ASA production are ...
... chromosome flow cytometry Philip J. Fialkow (1934-1996), US internist, educator, research in medical genetics and cancer ... antibody-combining sites Henrik Kacser (1918-1995), Romanian-born UK biochemist and geneticist, worked on metabolic control ... Nobel Prize for genetics of antibody diversity Erich von Tschermak (1871-1962) Austrian agronomist and one of the re- ... Nobel Prize for hybridomas making monoclonal antibodies Arthur Kornberg (born 1918), US biochemist, Nobel Prize on DNA ...
King, MA; Wu, QX; Donovan, GR; Baldo, BA (1 August 1998). "Flow cytometric analysis of cell killing by the jumper ant venom ... are capable of inducing IgE antibodies. Due to the vast differentiation of venom produced in each Myrmecia species, and other ... Loss of cell viability in the jack jumper's venom was researched through cytometry, which measures the proportions of cells ... peptide pilosulin 1". Cytometry. 32 (4): 268-73. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0320(19980801)32:4. 3.0.co;2-e. PMID 9701394. Upadhyay ...
... such as that obtained from flow cytometry. These methods typically involve finding populations of cells that are relevant to a ... who pioneered biological sequence analysis in 1970 with his comprehensive volumes of antibody sequences released with Tai Te Wu ... Cytometry, Part A. 49 (2): 43-8. doi:10.1002/cyto.10153. Chaudhari Narendrakumar M., Kumar Gupta Vinod, Dutta Chitra (2016). " ... morphometrics clinical image analysis and visualization determining the real-time air-flow patterns in breathing lungs of ...
The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... Flow cytometry. *Blood bank. *Microbiological culture. *Serology. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ... DNA sequencing, a method developed by Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger in 1977,[5] caused a rapid change the development of ... Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR (1977) DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors" Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Analysis of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 126:265-269. ... resulting in decreased blood flow to the gingiva. This masks the normal early signs of periodontal problems by decreasing ... J Periodont Res 1977; 12:227-234.. *Selby C, Drost E, Brown D, Howie S, Mac Nee W. Inhibition of neutrophil adherence and ...
The most important clinical application of flow cytometry is in hematologic malignancy diagnosis. ... The development of a specialized flow cytometer in the 1970s, triggered by the HIV pandemic, paved the way to a broad range of ... This laboratory technique uses an antibody conjugated with a fluorochrome for cell analysis. ... Flow cytometry is an invaluable tool used to analyze the chemical and physical properties of cells. ...
Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry vegfr2 Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry vegfr2: Monoclonal Antibody - VEGF Receptor 2 ( ... Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry t Cell Differentiation Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry t Cell Differentiation: Monoclonal ... Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry Protein Homodimerization Activity Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry Protein ... Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry Astrocyte Differentiation Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry Astrocyte Differentiation: ...
Murphy et al., "Flow Cytofluorometric Analysis of Insulin Binding and Internalization by Swiss 3T3 Cells," Cytometry 2 402-406 ... 3) Specifically reactive antibodies (Richard F. F. and Lifter J.: Photoaffinity probes in the antibody combining region, Annals ... Where the flow is indeed continuous in this manner, a typical blood flow utilizable in practice of the invention is in range of ... The indicated flow rates are effected by means of a pump 16, which is positioned in the extracorporeal blood flow stream ...
After pulse-labeling nascent DNA with BrdU, cells were retroactively sorted by flow cytometry into populations in different ... and anti-BrdU antibodies (green in b). In parallel, aliquots of the same cells were fixed and stained with anti-BrdU antibody ... and separated by flow cytometry into four S-phase populations with increasing DNA content. (b) DNA was isolated from each ... or anti-HP1β antibodies. The blot used to probe Me3K9H3 was reprobed with anti-histone H3 antibody as a loading control. (c) ...
Hang H, Fox MH (2004) Analysis of the mammalian cell cycle by flow cytometry. Methods Mol Biol 241:23‒35PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Holliger P, Hudson PJ (2005) Engineered antibody fragments and the rise of single domains. Nat Biotechnol 23:1126‒1136PubMed ... Bebbington CR, Renner G, Thomson S, King D, Abrams D, Yarranton GT (1992) High-level expression of a recombinant antibody from ... Dübel S (2007) Handbook of therapeutic antibodies, Kapitel 9. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, S 224‒231Google Scholar ...
The efficient coating of erythrocytes with antibody, protein ligand, or various forms of PS was verified by flow cytometry (Fig ... Efficient coating of Ebab was confirmed by flow cytometry using the appropriate fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody ( ... Anti-PSR antibodies and PS stimulate macropinocytosis. (A) HMDM were stimulated with M-CSF (as a positive control), antibodies ... Anti-PSR antibody stimulates membrane ruffling in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. (A) Anti-PSR antibodies induce membrane ruffling in ...
By monitoring T-cell responses by flow cytometry, we observed a recall response after recent vaccination against smallpox. When ... The appearance of a detectable antibody titer takes place a few days after the induction of a T-cell response (2). Moreover, ... Flow Cytometry and T-Cell Response Monitoring after Smallpox Vaccination. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;9(11):1468-1470. ... Flow Cytometry and T-Cell Response Monitoring after Smallpox Vaccination On This Page ...
Sysmex Flow Cytometry Other European Country!. For ordering please make sure you are in your local shop.. If you are from Other ... The reagent is designed for Flow Cytometry analysis of human blood cells. Recommended usage is 4·µl reagent·/ 100·µl of whole ... To be able to use Sysmex Flow Cytometry Europe in full range, we recommend activating Javascript in your browser. ... We offer a wide range of antibodies frequently used in biomedical research. learn more ...
... multiparameter flow cytometry, imaging, gene expression and multiple animal models of influenza infection and vaccination. To ... methodology and have most recently focused on the role and specificity of CD4 T cells in promoting neutralizing antibody ...
... not be detected in macrophages adhered to plastic for 5 days by using four anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies in flow cytometry or ... Surface Antigen Changes Occurring in Short-Term Cultures of Activated Human T Lymphocytes: Analysis by Flow Cytometry. Cell. ... c ) the specificity of an antibody test must be determined by the use of a gold standard. The only valid gold standard for the ... HTLV-III/LAV Antibody and Immune Status of Household Contacts and Sexual Partners of Persons with Hemophilia. JAMA 255:212-215 ...
epub drug addiction ii of CyTOF Against Flow Cytometry for Immunological Studies and Monitoring of Human Cancer Clinical Trials ... extensive Government behaviors move held within antibodies to complete available network to challenges and promising ... Myb Exacerbates epub drug addiction ii through Regulation of Protective IgM-Producing Antibody-Secreting Cells. Gadalla R, ... US-Single-Charts von 1890 bis 2014. In epub drug addiction ii amphetamine psychotogen and marihuana dependence 1977, some of ...
... to which an antibody or an antigen and a carrier-bound antigen or antibody, respectively, are needed in any desired order. ... Simultaneous human ABO and RH(D) blood typing or antibody screening by flow cytometry ... With weaker antibodies, the pattern is as in FIG. 1(b). Analogous to the above test procedure, the antibody discovered may be ... 1(a). If the reaction is only weakly positive, i.e., if only a few antigen-antibody complexes are formed, the antibody can be ...
Flow cytometric detection of platelet-bound antibody in three horses with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. Journal American of ... Flow cytometry analysis of feline reticulocytes. Veterinary Pathology, Middleton, v.29, n.6, p.503-508, 1992. [ Links ]. RIVAS ... Results of the flow cytometry ACTG quality control program: analysis and findings. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, ... EVANS, G.O.; FAGG, R. Reticulocytes counts in canine and rat blood made by flow cytometry. Journal of Comparative Pathology, ...
Tumor tissue or cells are studied either using immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry. This fluorescence can be measured and ... The adducts thus formed are recognized by a specific fluorescent monoclonal antibody. ... Mechanisms of Blood Flow and Hypoxia Production in Rat 9L Epigastric Tumors. Tumor Microenvironment and Therapy 1(1): 1-13, Jan ... University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine , 1977.. MS (Comparative Medical Sciences) University of Pennsylvania ...
... selection of high-producing subclones during gene amplification of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells by flow cytometry ... Additional file 1: Antibodies and antigens used in this work. Table S1. Anti-H5 hemagglutinin antibodies. Table S2. Recombinant ... Antibody mRNA Sequencing Service. http://​www.​creative-biolabs.​com/​antibody-sequencing-service.​html. ... West Nile virus: characterization and diagnostic applications of monoclonal antibodies. Virol J. 2012;9:81. CrossRefPubMed ...
Anti Non-Human Primate Antibodies * Cell Surface Antigens * Flow Cytometry Reagents * Brilliant Violet 421™ anti-human CD49d ... Each lot of this antibody is quality control tested by immunofluorescent staining with flow cytometric analysis. For flow ...
The binding activity of mAbs to the HAs was examined by flow cytometry. By using this method, we determined the location of ... The binding activity of mAbs to the HAs was examined by flow cytometry. By using this method, we determined the location of ... The binding activity of mAbs to the HAs was examined by flow cytometry. By using this method, we determined the location of ... The binding activity of mAbs to the HAs was examined by flow cytometry. By using this method, we determined the location of ...
Flow Cytometric Analysis. Intracellular cytokines were studied by flow cytometry to identify the cytokine-producing cells. ... and APC conjugated anti-IL-22 monoclonal antibodies after fixation and permeabilization. All the antibodies were from ... A) Lymphocytes were gated by flow cytometry; (B, D, F, and H) Plot in the rectangles represented CD4+ IFNγ− T cells. The number ... A) Lymphocytes were gated by flow cytometry; (B, D, F, and H) Plot in the rectangles represented CD4+ IFNγ− T cells. The number ...
Antibodies for co-stimulatory receptor-ligand pairs CD28, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2), No-azide and Low Endotoxin for use in ... Tonbo Biosciences tests all antibodies by flow cytometry. Citations are provided as a resource for additional applications that ... Flow Cytometry, Functional Assays, IHCF, IP. Citations*. Griffin GK, Newton G, Tarrio ML, Bu D-X, Maganto-Garcia E, Azcutia V, ... Flow cytometry - Sooty Mangabey). Ansari AA, Reimann KA, Mayne AE, Takahashi Y, Stephenson ST, Wang R, Wang X, Li J, Price AA, ...
... flow cytometry) were found to exhibit reactivity with the SLAW-A antibody with an equivalent fluorescence intensity on a ... with the use of the anti-receptor SLAW-A antibody as described elsewhere for a B5 anti-PAR2 antibody used by us previously ( ... A similar removal of the epitope visualized by the SLAW-A antibody was also observed for all mutant PAR2 cell lines (not shown ... assistance with the conduct of some of the experiments described herein and to Laurie Robertson of our Faculty Flow Cytometry ...
Addition of β1 integrin inhibitory antibodies substantially reduced fibronectin endocytosis (Fig. 5A,B). Flow cytometry was ... Flow cytometry to quantify endocytosed fibronectin. After pulse-chase assays, cells were incubated with a mixture of 0.02% EDTA ... C) Cells were processed for flow cytometry to quantify endocytosed fibronectin. The numbers over the peaks in C are the MFI of ... Cells were chased in the absence of fibronectin for 2 hours at 37°C, and then processed for flow cytometry to quantify ...
a, c, e) Flow cytometry of cells labelled with 7AAD and Annexin V. (b, d) Flow cytometry profiles of DNA content. Gates ... ... Antibodies. Antibodies against the following proteins were used: Akt (9272; Cell Signalling Technology), phospo-Akt473 (44-622 ... Flow cytometry identified two sub-populations of cells with distinct levels of Caspatag™ labelling. At time zero there was a ... Primary antibody probed blots were visualized with appropriate horseradish peroxidase-coupled secondary antibodies using ...
It was established in 1977 by Edwin R. Fisher and John D. Paulson. The line was derived from a non-encapsulated primary lung ... Monoclonal antibodies directed against small cell carcinomas define by flow cytometry phenotypic differences among small cell ... Monoclonal antibodies directed against small cell carcinomas define by flow cytometry phenotypic differences among small cell ... 186Rhenium-HNK1 monoclonal antibody targets human small cell lung cancer cells in athymic nude mice: rapid screening model for ...
Polyclonal Antibody Western Blotting smad2, Monoclonal Antibody Immunohistochemistry Paraffin Nucleoside, Bovine Integral to ... Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry Norepinephrine Biosynthetic Process - count 3 Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry ... Polyclonal Antibody Gamete Generation - count 8 Polyclonal Antibody Gamete Generation: Polyclonal Antibody - Smad1 Antibody, ... Polyclonal Antibody Via Spliceosome - count 20 Polyclonal Antibody Via Spliceosome: Polyclonal Antibody - Acinus Antibody, ...
  • Treatment of PML involves addressing the underlying mechanism for impaired cellular immunity, including immune reconstitution with highly active anti-retroviral therapy for HIV patients or plasmapheresis for patients treated with monoclonal antibodies. (brainwaves.me)
  • it was only in 1977 that Sera-Lab, a small British company supplying animal serum reagents to the scientific community, commercialized the technology and moved it into the open market. (nfcr.org)
  • Due to these developments, a considerable market for instrumentation, analysis software, as well as the reagents used in acquisition such as fluorescently labeled antibodies has developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AS03- and Alum-adjuvanted i.m. vaccines induced at least an 8-fold increase over the nonadjuvanted vaccine in functional antibody titers against both the homotypic and heterotypic strains and low IgG2a and high IgG1 levels, suggesting a mixed Th1/Th2 response with a Th2 trend. (asm.org)
  • The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography, and conjugated with APC under optimal conditions. (biolegend.com)
  • 4. The combination according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein one or more of the anti-C5 antibodies bind to C5 with a higher affinity at neutral pH than at acidic pH. (patents.com)
  • The development of monoclonal antibodies against specific phosphoepitopes that can help in detection of protein activation states have enabled the use of flow cytometry to study cellular function. (news-medical.net)
  • Forthal DN, Landucci G and Keenan B (2001) Relationship between antibody‐dependent cellular cytotoxicity, plasma HIV type 1 RNA, and CD4+ lymphocyte count. (els.net)
  • 2006b) An adenovirus‐based HIV subtype B prime/boost vaccine regimen elicits antibodies mediating broad antibody‐dependent cellular cytotoxicity against non‐subtype B HIV strains. (els.net)
  • One of the frequently discussed drawbacks of high-speed flow sorters is cellular sensitivity to decompression which occurs during droplet formation behind the nozzle where a relatively high internal instrument pressure decreases to its atmospheric value. (1library.net)
  • Indeed, the molecular structures of normal RBC membrane, cellular content, and energy machinery enable such extraordinary deformability under the high shear forces of blood flow ( Svetina, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Sera were collected from guinea pigs immunised with three different production batches of enterotoxaemia vaccine and the levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies were determined. (scielo.org.za)
  • To be approved, a vaccine must produce an antibody response of at least 5 U/mL of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies (Rosskopf-Streicher, Volkers & Werner 2003). (scielo.org.za)
  • To combat these viruses, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against H5 hemagglutinin (HA) play a significant role. (springermedizin.de)
  • Through extensive isolation of neutralizing mAbs against H3N2 influenza viruses representing the in vivo repertoire in a human donor, we examined the relationships between antigenic drift of influenza virus and protective antibodies generated in an infected individual. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • A flow cytometer is similar to a microscope, except that, instead of producing an image of the cell, flow cytometry offers high-throughput, large-scale, automated quantification of specified optical parameters on a cell-by-cell basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate a flow spectroscopy technique capable of analyzing hundreds of nanoparticles per second and use this technique for the high throughput analysis of nanoparticle surface-enhanced resonant Raman scattering (SERRS) tags. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Get access to the best antibodies, discovery platforms, and know-how to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic programs. (abcam.com)
  • Despite the importance of these antibodies as diagnostic and prognostic markers, the target structures and the mechanisms of autoantibody production are not well understood. (docme.ru)
  • The cloning and screening procedures resulted in the selection of 7 mouse hybridoma cell lines and their respective antibody clones. (springermedizin.de)
  • The CD28.2 antibody reacts with human CD28, a 44 kDa type I surface glycoprotein which acts as a co-stimulatory receptor in support of the T cell receptor (TCR). (tonbobio.com)
  • In addition, the release of the N-terminal receptor sequence that is cleaved from PAR 2 by trypsin activation was monitored in the above cell lines using a site-targeted anti-receptor antibody. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2002) Sustained antibody‐dependent cell‐mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in SIV‐infected macaques correlates with delayed progression to AIDS. (els.net)
  • 2006a) A simplified method for the rapid fluorometric assessment of antibody‐dependent cell‐mediated cytotoxicity. (els.net)
  • Antibody-mediated blockade of the BAFF receptor or treatment with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine revert the increased splenic B cell numbers induced by castration. (nature.com)
  • In addition, the method can be further simplified by density-adjusted cell sorting which uses cell type-specific binding agents such as antibodies and lectins linked to carrier particles to impart a different density to the undesired populations in a more convenient manner. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • While routine laboratory surveillance revealed normal white blood cell and absolute lymphocyte counts during the preceding decade, serum studies were notable for a negative HIV antibody, elevated JCV antibody, and CD4+ count of 260/uL. (brainwaves.me)
  • Levy R, Warnke R, Dorfman RF, Haimovich J (1977): The monoclonality of human B-cell lymphomas. (quartett.com)
  • Mack Fulwyler was the inventor of the forerunner to today's flow cytometers - particularly the cell sorter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soon after, flow cytometry instruments were developed, including the Cytofluorograph (1971) from Bio/Physics Systems Inc. (later: Ortho Diagnostics), the PAS 8000 (1973) from Partec, the first FACS (Fluorescence-activated cell sorting) instrument from Becton Dickinson (1974), the ICP 22 (1975) from Partec/Phywe and the Epics from Coulter (1977/78). (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern flow cytometers are able to analyze many thousand particles per second, in "real time," and, if configured as cell sorters, can actively separate and isolate particles at similar rates having specified optical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • A flow cytometer has five main components: a flow cell, a measuring system, a detector, an amplification system, and a computer for analysis of the signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediation of cytotoxic functions by classes and subclasses of sheep antibody reactive with cell surface immunoglobulin idiotypic and constant region determinants. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • The morphological characteristics of MDCSs were observed by Wright-Giemsa staining and the characteristic molecules on cell surface identified by flow cytometry. (storysteel.ml)
  • What attracted me to immunology was that the whole thing seemed to revolve around a very simple experiment: take two different antibody molecules and compare their primary sequences," Milstein was quoted as saying. (nfcr.org)
  • Note: Due to operating restrictions related to our COVID-19 response, primary antibody conjugates of R-PE, APC, PerCP, HRP, or AP are temporarily unavailable. (biotium.com)
  • Antibodies to the structural precursor-membrane protein (prM) form a major component of the response. (sciencemag.org)
  • Supplementary Table 1-Immunophenotype comparison of MSCs (P3-P5) derived from amniotic membrane (A-MSC), chorionic membrane (C-MSC), placental decidua (D-MSC) and umbilical cord (UC-MSC) using different protocols, analyzed by flow cytometry. (springer.com)
  • The present invention provides a combination of two or more isolated or purified anti-C5 antibodies, wherein the isolated or purified anti-C5 antibodies bind to an epitope within the beta chain or alpha chain of C5 and wherein the isolated or purified anti-C5 antibodies to be combined do not compete with each other for binding to the epitope. (patents.com)
  • 5. The combination according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein one or more of the isolated or purified anti-C5 antibodies bind to the same epitope as any one of reference antibodies described in Table 2. (patents.com)