Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Ecdysone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tribolium: A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Periplaneta: A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1: A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.Placental Hormones: Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Two major insect moulting hormones, alpha ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone, are found in bracken. These cause uncontrollable, ... "Insect Hormones: Alpha Ecdysone and 20-Hydroxyecdysone in Bracken Fern". Science Classic. 157 (3795): 1436-1438. 22 September ... Hydrogen cyanide is released by the young fronds of bracken when eaten by mammals or insects. ... repeated moulting in insects ingesting the fronds, leading to rapid death. Many sites have many archaeological remains dating ...
Salicylates are derivatives of salicylic acid that occur naturally in plants and serve as a natural immune hormone and ... preservative, protecting the plants against diseases, insects, fungi, and harmful bacteria.[citation needed] Salicylates can ... Prostaglandins are local hormones (paracrine) produced in the body and have diverse effects in the body, including but not ... By 1971, Vane identified the chemical (which they called "rabbit-aorta contracting substance," or RCS) as a prostaglandin. In a ...
The best known example of nesting behavior in insects is that of the domestic honey bee. Most bees build nests. In human women ... Hence, the male avian transition from courtship to nest-building is prompted by social cues and not by changes in hormone ... The cessation of the nesting building is correlated with a rise in oxytocin which is the hormone responsible for the ... The initial drive to perform this behaviour is stimulated internally via hormones specifically a rise in prolactin levels. This ...
... some insects). Having a role influencing offspring sex ratios among some insects possessing a haplodiploid sex-determination ... The nervous system may signal for muscular contractions, fluid absorption, and hormone release, all of which aid in moving the ... To combat this effect, female insects appear to be able to sort out the sperm of relatives from the sperm of non-relatives to ... Responses in insects can vary in both genitalia and sperm structures, along with variations in behavior. Spiny male genitalia ...
Insect growth regulators (juvenile hormones, chitin synthesis inhibitors, etc.) are available. For example, the insect growth ... ISBN 0-85546-276-0. Lane, R.P. & Crosskey, R.W. (1993) Medical Insects and Arachnids. Chapman & Hall, London. ISBN 0-412-40000- ... Marshall, A.G. (1981) The Ecology of Ectoparasitic Insects. New York, Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-474080-4. Paterson, S. (2008) ... London, British Museum (Natural History). Lehane, M.J. (1991) The Biology of Blood-sucking Insects. London, Harper Collins, ...
This hormone is a juvenile hormone analogue, which affects hormonal balance and chitin in immature insects, and causes ... This insect growth regulator does not kill adult whiteflies, and has low toxicity to mammals, fish, birds and bumblebees. Traps ... However, the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen has been found successful in reducing whitefly populations on curbit plants ... The ability of the whitefly to adapt to various plants facilitates the spread of dangerous plant viruses, which these insects ...
Many insects, including parasitic insects, use semiochemicals, which are natural chemicals released by an organism that affect ... and hormone (to stimulate). They are also sometimes classified as ecto-hormones. German Biochemist Adolf Butenandt ... Their use among insects has been particularly well documented. In addition, some vertebrates and plants communicate by using ... A notable example of pheromone usage to indicate sexual receptivity in insects can be seen in the female Dawson's Burrowing bee ...
The corpora allata is an endocrine gland that produces JH, a group of hormones that regulate many aspects of insect physiology ... "A rapid partition assay for routine analysis of juvenile hormone released by insect corpora allata". Analytical Biochemistry. ... Bee colony optimization Task allocation and partitioning of social insects International Union for the Study of Social Insects ... For many insects, this irreversibility has changed the anatomy of the worker caste, which is sterile and provides support for ...
... plant germination factors and insect hormones and pheromones". [106] 1981. Raphael, Ralph AlexanderRalph Alexander Raphael. "In ... 1971. Porter, GeorgeGeorge Porter. "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to our understanding of chemical ... Frängsmyr, Tore; Sture Forsén (1993). Chemistry, 1971-1980. [S.l.]: Nobel Foundation. p. 186. ISBN 9810207875. A referência ... of his invention of new synthetic methods applied to the synthesis of complex natural products including those from insects, ...
In insects, the rectal gland also absorbs water, and the insects excrete dry pellets. In birds, along with some other ... The efficiency of their loops of Henle is augmented by the increased antidiuretic hormone in their blood. Desert amphibians can ... Desert insects use a similar method, as their cuticles are waxy to prevent water from escaping; however, at critical ... Reptiles, birds, insects, and some amphibious species excrete nitrogenous waste as uric acid rather than urea. Because uric ...
This hormone is a juvenile hormone analogue, which affects hormonal balance and chitin in immature insects, and causes ... Insect growth regulators[edit]. Insecticides can be costly, and have an increasing risk of resistance by whiteflies. However, ... This tiny insect causes damage to plants through feeding and transmitting plant diseases. The silverleaf whitefly feeds on its ... This insect growth regulator does not kill adult whiteflies, and has low toxicity to mammals, fish, birds and bumblebees. ...
The corpora allata is an endocrine gland that produces JH, a group of hormones that regulate many aspects of insect physiology. ... International Union for the Study of Social Insects. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g Gintis, Herbert (2012). "Clash of the ... Feyereisen, R.; Tobe S. (1981). "A rapid partition assay for routine analysis of juvenile hormone released by insect corpora ... See also: Sexual selection in social insects and Identity in social insects ...
In cats and dogs, these hormones are present in the urine, which they deposit on landmarks serving to mark the perimeter of the ... Their use among insects has been particularly well documented. In addition, some vertebrates, plants and ciliates communicate ... Pheromones of certain pest insect species, such as the Japanese beetle, acrobat ant, and the gypsy moth, can be used to trap ... There have been some reports that the human VNO does function, but only responds to hormones in a "sex-specific manner". There ...
... and insect, spider, bee, and wildlife bites. Because of the physical and psychological effect of low calorie intake over an ... high levels of fight-or-flight stress hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol), along with standard sleep deprivation ... The first students to undergo the Desert Phase were selected from Ranger Class 13-71 (class 13 in 1971). When the bulk of the ... In June 1971, the Ranger Training Brigade conducted Arid Fox II, the first student-led patrol. This was part of the brigade's ...
"Mechanisms of Hormone Action - Gordon Research Conferences". www.grc.org. Retrieved 2017-12-22. "Keystone Symposia , Scientific ... Journal of Insect Physiology. 17 (6): 1139-43. doi:10.1016/0022-1910(71)90016-3. Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Kafatos, Fotis C ( ... She co-chaired the Hormone Action Gordon Research Conference in 1988 and the Keystone Symposium on The Nuclear Receptor ... Wrenn, C. K; Katzenellenbogen, B. S (1993). "Structure-function analysis of the hormone binding domain of the human estrogen ...
Ortho-PCBs may alter hormone regulation through disruption of the thyroid hormone transport by binding to transthyretin. ... However, the overuse of DDT lead to insect tolerance to the chemical. It was also discovered that DDT had a high toxicity to ... Alternatively the ingestion of the contaminated plant by insects may lead to tolerance by the organism. Another route is the ... when plants and vegetation are exposed to the chemical to protect from insects, the plants may absorb it. Then these plants may ...
Both DLMO and the midpoint (in time) of the presence of the hormone in the blood or saliva have been used as circadian markers ... Bruce, Victor G.; Pittendrigh, Colin S. (1957). "Endogenous Rhythms in Insects and Microorganisms". The American Naturalist. 91 ... In response, the pineal secretes the hormone melatonin. Secretion of melatonin peaks at night and ebbs during the day and its ... These may interface with endocrine glands of the brain to result in periodic release of hormones. The receptors for these ...
Elevated thyroid hormones, such as T3 and T4, have been measured in geese just after a big migration. This is believed because ... Canada geese are primarily herbivores, although they sometimes eat small insects and fish. Their diet includes green vegetation ... Also, other studies show levels of stress hormones such as corticosterone rise dramatically in these birds during and after a ... Researchers attributed it to high hormone levels and the brant's inability to leave the nesting area. ...
Lorch, Jacob (1978). "The discovery of nectar and nectaries and its relation to views on flowers and insects". Isis. 69 (4): ... this deduction is correct because the hypothalamus of the brain has long been recognized for its hormone-secreting capacity. ... His study of plants led him to conclude that plants had tubules similar to those he saw in insects like the silk worm (using ... he worked as a physician while continuing to conduct experiments on the plants and insects he found on his estate. There he ...
Invertebrates such as insects and squid use hydroxylated forms of retinal in their visual systems, which derive from conversion ... Retinoic acid, sometimes called vitamin A acid, is an important signaling molecule and hormone in vertebrate animals. Vision ... With the exception of the dipteran suborder Cyclorrhapha, the so-called higher flies, all insects examined use the (R)- ... Barlow, H.B.; Levick, W.R.; Yoon, M. (1971). "Responses to single quanta of light in retinal ganglion cells of the cat". Vision ...
Insect clocks[edit]. In D. melanogaster, the gene cycle (CYC) is the orthologue of BMAL1 in mammals. Thus, CLOCK-CYC dimers ... the SCN signals other hypothalamic nuclei and the pineal gland to modulate body temperature and production of hormones such as ... Konopka RJ, Benzer S (Sep 1971). "Clock mutants of Drosophila melanogaster" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of ... cortisol and melatonin; these hormones enter the circulatory system, and induce clock-driven effects throughout the organism. ...
DES (diethylstilbestrol) is a drug that mimics estrogen, a female hormone. From 1938 until 1971 doctors prescribed this drug to ... It is a organophosphate insecticide which acts on the nervous system of insects by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase but are ... many hormones, thalidomide), and environmental chemicals (e.g. mercury, lead, dioxins, PBDEs, HBCD, tobacco smoke). The first- ...
Most organisms studied to date utilize a reward-punishment mechanism: for instance, worms and insects can alter their behavior ... The pituitary gland secretes hormones into the bloodstream, where they circulate throughout the body and induce changes in ... In spite of the large evolutionary distance between insects and mammals, many aspects of Drosophila neurogenetics have been ... Dougherty, P. "Hypothalamic control of pituitary hormone". Neuroscience Online. Retrieved 2011-10-11. Chiel, HJ; Beer, RD (1997 ...
The topic of the lecture was From the Dalmatian Insect Powder to Sex Hormones. In 1940 he became a foreign member of the Royal ... He investigated the ingredients of the Dalmatian insect powder Pyrethrum (from the herb Tanacetum cinerariifolium), a highly ... After the successful synthesis of sex hormones (androsterone and testosterone), his laboratory became the world center of ...
They are similar in habits to shrikes, hunting insects and other small prey from a perch on a bush. Although similar in build ... Schwabl, Hubert et Sonnenschein, Edith (1992). "Antiphonal duetting and sex hormones in the tropical bush shrike Laniarius ... Bushshrike diets consist mainly of large insects, but occasionally may include wild fruits and berries and sometimes rodents. ... rather than hormone levels, are most important in triggering mating songs. Genus Nilaus - brubru Brubru, Nilaus afer Genus ...
With the exception of the dipteran suborder Cyclorrhapha, the so-called higher flies, all insects examined use the (R)- ... is an important signaling molecule and hormone in vertebrate animals. ... Invertebrates such as insects and squid use hydroxylated forms of retinal in their visual systems, which derive from conversion ... Barlow, H.B.; Levick, W.R.; Yoon, M. (1971). "Responses to single quanta of light in retinal ganglion cells of the cat". Vision ...
Juvenile hormone (JH) is an important regulator of development and physiology in insects. While in many insect species, ... 2012). Recent progress in juvenile hormone analogs (JHA) research. In Advances in Insect Physiology: Insect Growth Disruptors, ... 1976). Discovery of insect antiallatotroplns. In The Juvenile Hormones (ed. Gilbert, L. I.), pp. 394-408. New York, NY: Plenum ... 2000). Insect juvenile hormone: from status quo to high society. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 33, 157-177. ...
The second category of centrally produced hormones in insects is the morphogenesis inhibiting hormone, or juvenile hormone (JH ... theories of insect hormone action in growth and metamorphosis were created more than 50 years ago by the pioneers of insect ... The first is a complex set of neurohormones (neuropeptides) originating in the neurosecretory cells of the insect brain, which ... There are two principal categories of hormones released from the central neuroendocrine system (neurosecretory cells of the ...
Cellular aspects of eclosión hormone action on the CNS of insects, in: Receptors for Neurotransmitters, Hormones, and ... Copenhaver, P. F., and Truman, J. W., 1982, The role of eclosion hormone in the larval ecdysis of Manduca sexta, J. Insect ... Reynolds, S. E., and Truman, J. W., 1983, Eclosion hormone, in: Insect Endocrinology (R. G. H. Downer and H. Laufer, eds.), A. ... Truman J.W., Weeks J.C. (1985) Activation of Neuronal Circuits by Circulating Hormones in Insects. In: Selverston A.I. (eds) ...
Insect Chemistry. Introduction. Some Collaborative Pheromone Investigations. Studies on Insect Hormones. Recent Studies on ... This book discusses the aspects of growth and reproduction by hormones of insects, focusing on ecdysone and juvenile hormone. ... The social behavior of insects that is controlled to a considerable degree by chemistry is also discussed. The effects range ... Ecdysone is closely related to the plant and animal sterols, while juvenile hormone to simple plant terpenes. ...
Two major insect moulting hormones, alpha ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone, are found in bracken. These cause uncontrollable, ... "Insect Hormones: Alpha Ecdysone and 20-Hydroxyecdysone in Bracken Fern". Science Classic. 157 (3795): 1436-1438. 22 September ... Hydrogen cyanide is released by the young fronds of bracken when eaten by mammals or insects. ... repeated moulting in insects ingesting the fronds, leading to rapid death. Many sites have many archaeological remains dating ...
The eating habits of herbivorous insects have long been of more than passing interest to humans, particularly since the ... Insect hormones I. The structure of ponasterone A, an insect-moulting hormone from the leaves of Podocarpus nakaii Hay. Chem ... Screening of insect and plant extracts as insect juvenile hormone mimics. Lloydia 38:455-472.Google Scholar ... Bowers WS, Ohta T, Cleere JS, Marsella PA (1976) Discovery of insect anti- juvenile hormones in plants. Science 1933:542-547. ...
A. Banerji and Chadha, M. S., "Insect moulting hormone from Achyranthes aspera", Phytochemistry, vol. 9, p. 1671, 1970. ... 1343-1344, 1971.[Abstract] The larvicidal principles of garlic, Allium sativum L.,have been isolated and identified as diallyl ... 2225-2226, 1971.[Abstract] Ecdysterone has been isolated from the following plants: Achyranthes aspera, Gomphrena celosioides, ...
Williams, C. M. The juvenile hormone. II. Its role in the endocrine control of molting, pupation, and adult development in the ... Insect emergence cage. Plastic pet cage lined with packing paper or similar padding. Ventilation holes are needed.. ... Clean with 70% alcohol before use on the insect.. Kim-Wipes. Kimberly-Clark Worldwide. 34155. Any size delicate-wipe tissues ... Optional material used for stabilizing the electrodes on the insect.. Magnetic levitation platform. Custom designed frame ...
Natural and synthetic materials with the insect hormone activity. XII. Synthesis of methyl 3,7,11,11-tetramethyl-2-dodecenoate ... Natural and synthetic materials with the insect hormone activity. XVIII. The synthesis of aliphatic juvenoids with tert- ... 1971-1976 [Abstract] *M. Holub, Z. Samek, D. P. Popa and V. Herout. On terpenes. CCXXVIII. The structure of the sesquiterpenic ... 1971, Vol. 36, Issue 6, pp. 2189-2199 [Abstract] *M. Holub, D. P. Popa, Z. Samek, V. Herout and F. Šorm. On terpenes. CCVI. ...
The study on the regulation of social-insect colonies is termed ... The study on the regulation of social-insect colonies is termed ... A colony of social insects is not only an aggregation of individuals but also a functional unit. To achieve adaptive social ... A colony of social insects is not only an aggregation of individuals but also a functional unit. To achieve adaptive social ... Nijhout, H. F., and Wheeler, D. E. (1982). Juvenile hormone and the physiological basis of insect polymorphisms. Q. Rev. Biol. ...
Slama, K., Koudela, K., tenora, J. and Mathova, A. (1996) Insect hormones in vertebrates: anabolic effects of 20- ... Yoshida, T., Otaka, T., Uchiyama, M. and Ogawa, S. (1971) Effect of ecdysteone on hyperglycemia in experimental animals. ...
26) Bhan, P.; Pande, B. S.; Soman, R.; Damodaran, N. P.; Dev, S. Products active on arthropod-5. Insect juvenile hormone mimics ... 1971 , 36, 1977- 1988. (24) Baranska, M.; Schtitze, W.; Schulz, H. Determination of lycopene and β- carotene content in tomato ... 1971 ; pp. 305-348. (32) USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 26. htt ://ndb .nal .usda. gov/, a) ...
Octopamine has been called the fight or flight hormone of insects. We tested this hypothesis by measuring octopamine levels ... 1971. In several cricket species (Gryllus campestris L., Gryllus bimaculatus de Geer, and Acheta domesticus L.) the sound- ...
... which belongs to a class of IGRs called juvenile hormone analogs is pyridine-based insecticide acting against several insect ... Strand M. R. (2008). The insect cellular immune response. Insect Science 15, 1-14. ... Journal of Insect Physiology 47, 325-331.. Zhu Q., He Y., Yao J., Liu Y., Tao L., Huang Q. (2012). Effects of sublethal ... Insects The stock colony of A. ipsilon was originally obtained from the Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural ...
Prospects of exploitation of insect antijuvenile hormones for selective insect control. In: "Approaches to New Leads for ... Effects of three compounds with anti-juvenile hormone activity and a juvenile hormone analogue on endogenous juvenile hormone ... Journal of Insect Physiology 47, 1249-1259.. Khafagi WE, Hegazi EM. 2004. Effects of juvenile hormone I and precocene I & II on ... Insect Physiology. 8th ed., Chapman & Hall, London, 191 p.. Wilson TG. 2004. The molecular site of action of juvenile hormone ...
Deformed insects have been found near nuclear plants. (PubMed). Leukaemia near La Hague nuclear plant. Deformed insects have ... Distribution of Ovary Ecdysteroidogenic Hormone I in the nervous system and gut of mosquitoes (PubMed). in larvae and adults of ... However, for other insects, the ace gene cloned by homology (...) genes in different insect groups, even within the Diptera: ... Deformed insects have been found near nuclear plants. 1554-5 Hesse-Honegger C C eng Comment Letter England BMJ 8900488 0959- ...
... this hormone also involves in the regulation of reproduction maturation [34]. The molting process in insect is initiated by an ... Physiology and biochemistry of insect moulting fluid. Adv Insect Physiol 1996;26:157-232. ... Arthropod molting hormone: Radioimmune assay. Science 1972;178:418-9. *Borovsky D, Thomas BR, Carlson DA, Whilsenton LR, Fuchs ... Insect chitin is found in the exoskeleton, respiratory tracheal system and peritrophic matrix that can be potential target ...
These agents include insecticides, chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone analogues, inert particles, antibiotics, heavy ... The effects of different abiotic agents that may modulate the activity of an insects immune system are reviewed. ... GUPTA A.P. & SUTHERLAND D.J. 1966: In vitro transformation of the insect plasmatocyte in some insects. J. Insect Physiol. 12: ... J. Insect Physiol. 81: 81-86 Go to original source.... *FAYE I., PYE A., RASMUSON I., BOMAN H.G. & BOMAN I.A. 1975: Insect ...
... and insects [ll]),kinase c would be the most likely candidate. Reports of TPA effects in insects systems have been lacking, ... Effects of two hypophyseal gonadotropic hormones on the reproductive system of the male rat. pdf574 Кб ... This insects sequentially arranged oocytes and synchronized ovarioles make it well-suited for a study of the effects of TPA on ... J Insect Physiol22, 1559 (1975). 13. Mirsalis JC, Grosch DS: The effects of three folic acid antagonists on reproduction of ...
2016). The insect prothoracic gland as a model for steroid hormone biosynthesis and regulation. Cell Rep. 16, 247-262. doi: ... Similarly, the insect neuropeptide Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) induces steroidogenesis that drives the juvenile-to-adult ... 2006). The Halloween genes code for cytochrome P450 enzymes mediating synthesis of the insect moulting hormone. Biochem. Soc. ... In Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science (ed. L. I. Gilbert, K. Iatrou and S. S. Gill), pp. 409-431. San Diego, California: ...
Salicylates are derivatives of salicylic acid that occur naturally in plants and serve as a natural immune hormone and ... preservative, protecting the plants against diseases, insects, fungi, and harmful bacteria.[citation needed] Salicylates can ... Prostaglandins are local hormones (paracrine) produced in the body and have diverse effects in the body, including but not ... By 1971, Vane identified the chemical (which they called "rabbit-aorta contracting substance," or RCS) as a prostaglandin. In a ...
1959 The role of hormones in the regeneration of insect organs. (Le role des hormones dans la regeneration des organes des ... the growth and molting hormone and the juvenile hormone. In order to do this Dietrich had to use a different insect. In ... 1942 Hormone controlled processes in insect development. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 10:17-26. ... During this time he not only continued his studies on insect hormones but also collaborated with Victor Twitty in experiments ...
The best known example of nesting behavior in insects is that of the domestic honey bee. Most bees build nests. In human women ... Hence, the male avian transition from courtship to nest-building is prompted by social cues and not by changes in hormone ... The cessation of the nesting building is correlated with a rise in oxytocin which is the hormone responsible for the ... The initial drive to perform this behaviour is stimulated internally via hormones specifically a rise in prolactin levels. This ...
21 September 1971)physiology, pharmacology, medicine.Houssay was one of the most prominent and influential Latin American ... In the latter capacity he studied the action of snake and insect bites on coagulation, and developed a protective serum against ... The endocrine glands are ductless glands secreting hormones into the bloodstream. This mechanism acts on the liver- the organ ... These include pituitary anatomy and physiology, diabetes and the role of insulin, hormone biochemistry, the pancreas, general ...
  • While in many insect species, including bumble bees, JH functions as gonadotropin in adults, in some highly eusocial insects its role has shifted to regulate social behavior including division of labor, dominance and aggression. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, investigating the roles of hormones in social insects, and especially in primitively eusocial species, can not only contribute to our understanding of questions pertaining to the proximate mechanisms underlying reproduction, but also shed light on the ultimate mechanisms leading to the transition from solitary to social life. (biologists.org)
  • The total number of all juvenoids reported active in one or more insects species has been estimated to be more than 4000 compounds. (brillonline.com)
  • BEEGLE C.C., LEWIS L.C., LYNCH R.E. & MARTINEZ A.J. 1981: Interaction of larval age and antibiotic on the susceptibility of three insect species to Bacillus thuringiensis. (eje.cz)
  • Though it has been shown that a majority of female insect species can store sperm, specific examples that have been studied could include field crickets, dung flies and Mediterranean fruit flies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical identity of the volatile compounds varies with the plant species and with the herbivorous insect species. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Such chemicals, which function in communication between and among species, as well as those that serve as messengers between members of the same species, are called semiochemicals (from the Greek "semeion," a mark or signal) ( Law and Regnier, 1971 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • An examination of semiochemicals must take their functions into account, since the same molecule could act as a pheromone for one insect species and as a kairomone or allomone for another. (termirepel.com)
  • Pheromones are odorless chemical compounds that scientists have long known many insects, reptiles, rodents, and other animals use to communicate with members of their own species. (athenainstitute.com)
  • this significant new identify presents entire insurance of significant insect and mite pest species, essentially in Northern Europe. (12dakot.com)
  • With as much as 1 / 4 of all insect species heading in the direction of extinction over the following couple of many years, there's now a urgent have to summarize the thoughts to be had for measuring insect range that allows you to improve powerful conservation innovations. (12dakot.com)
  • The genomes of two bumblebee species characterized by a lower level of sociality than ants and honeybees provide new insights into the origin and evolution of insect societies. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Known to affect reproduction in solitary insects, JH might have been co-opted to regulate the behavior of sterile workers in advanced eusocial species such as the honeybee. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In vertebrates, neuronal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion awakens the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis leading to the production of sex steroids at puberty. (biologists.org)
  • Menstrual cycles are the cycles of physical changes, including blood and cell loss and maturation of a fertilizable egg, and cyclic variation in the secretion of a number of sex hormones, that recur about once a month in women of childbearing age. (athenainstitute.com)
  • In 1971, Huber accepted a chair of structural biology at the Biozentrum from the University of Basel and that of a director of the Structure Research department at the Max-Planck Institute for Biochemistry, a position he served until 2005. (thefamouspeople.com)
  • The first is a complex set of neurohormones (neuropeptides) originating in the neurosecretory cells of the insect brain, which are released from the neurohaemal organs, the corpora cardiaca. (brillonline.com)
  • Afterwards, abdominal distension in addition to blood components and humoral factors trigger the activation of the neuroendocrine system, leading to the release of prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) from the brain neurosecretory cells. (fiocruz.br)
  • Berenbaum M (1978) Toxicity of a furanocoumarin to armyworms: a case of bio- synthetic escape from insect herbivores. (springer.com)
  • Bernays EA (1981) Plant tannins and insect herbivores: an appraisal. (springer.com)
  • These volatiles attract both parasitic and predatory insects that are natural enemies of the herbivores. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Volatile phytochemicals can serve as airborne semiochemicals, promoting or deterring interactions between plants and insect herbivores. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In addition to the bouquet of compounds that render leaves attractive or disagreeable to herbivores, volatile terpenoids and other compounds emitted from leaves in response to insect damage allow insect parasitoids (such as parasitic wasps) and predators to distinguish between infested and noninfested plants, and thus aid in locating hosts or prey (Fig. 1 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Schematic representation indicating an increase of volatile compounds released by plants in response to insect feeding triggered by an interaction of elicitors such as volicitin in the oral secretions of insect herbivores with damaged plant tissue. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The ability of host-seeking insects to recognize and respond to such chemical cues and differentiate them from background odors indicates that insect-damaged plants emit volatile chemicals that are clearly distinguishable from those released in response to other types of damage or those released from undamaged plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Reproductive division of labor is a hallmark of social insects, where only one or a few females reproduce while the others remain sterile, raising both proximate and ultimate questions about the mechanisms regulating reproduction and the origin of sociality. (biologists.org)
  • The site of storage is variable among different animal taxa and ranges from structures that appear to function solely for sperm retention, such as insect spermatheca and bird sperm storage tubules (bird anatomy), to more general regions of the reproductive tract enriched with receptors to which sperm associate before fertilization, such as the caudal portion of the cow oviduct containing sperm-associating annexins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11 unique proteins were homologus to uncharacterized putative proteins within the NR database suggesting the identification of novel genes associated with reproductive functions in other insects (hypothetical conserved). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ovaries are the reproductive organs that produce eggs and sex hormones. (athenainstitute.com)
  • The reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution suggests that reproductive controls of a solitary ancestor have been co-opted during social evolution, facilitating the division of labor among social insect workers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, these chemicals cause several hazardous effects, for example, environmental pollution, negative impacts on beneficial insects, outbreak of secondary pests and development of resistance in the non-target pests (Vattikonda and Sangam, 2017). (aaasjournal.org)
  • insecticides are used to control insect pests, killing them as they feed on the seed or emerging seedling.7 Seed companies often use mixtures of different seed-treatment fungicides or insecticides to control a broader spectrum of seed pests. (getwellstaywellathome.com)
  • BENZ G. & GRAF E. 1971: Antagonism of terramycin on action of Bacillus thuringiensis "exotoxin" in Drosophila melanogaster. (eje.cz)
  • Maternal ecdysteroids regulate a variety of cellular processes during early embryonic development of insects, yet little is known about the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these hormones. (ijbs.com)
  • He cloned the first human hormone genes, and in the process developed sophisticated gene cloning techniques that helped transform the world of biotechnology. (garvan.org.au)
  • In genotypic sex determination, also called genetic or chromosomal sex determination, an organism's genes determine which hormones are produced. (asu.edu)
  • The bumblebee genome contains two genes coding for proteins that bind to juvenile hormone (JH) that do not have orthologs in the honeybee. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The structural uniformity in the chemical emissions from different plants with insect feeding suggests the activation of a common set of biosynthetic pathways shared by a wide range of plant families, and that the products are detectable to a broad spectrum of insect parasitoids and predators (Fig. 2 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Parasitoids are insects that develop on or in a single organism, obtaining nutrients from the host and generally leading to its death ( Eggleton & Gaston, 1990 ). (scielo.br)
  • It has several documented biological functions including: Supporting the sperm by: a.) enabling sperm to undergo biochemical transitions, called capacitation and motility hyperactivation, in which they become physiologically capable of fertilizing an oocyte (e.g. mammals) and b.) maintaining sperm viability until an oocyte is ovulated (e.g. insects and mammals). (wikipedia.org)
  • Enabling mating, ovulation and/or fertilization to occur at different times or in different environments (e.g. many insects and some amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the maturation of the intestine takes place around birth [ 6 - 9 ], a period termed post-embryonic development when plasma thyroid hormone (T3) concentrations are high [ 10 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Rapid scab formation and subsequent tissue regeneration are the common wound-healing processes found not only in mammals but also in insects and other invertebrates. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • From amoebas to insects to mammals, all animals have this ability. (forumotion.com)
  • From there he moved briefly to the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station in New Haven before settling down as an insect physiologist at the Army Chemical Center at Edgewood, Maryland, a position he held from 1945 to 1958. (nap.edu)
  • One important advantage female insects that store sperm gain is increased genetic diversity in their offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • To combat this effect, female insects appear to be able to sort out the sperm of relatives from the sperm of non-relatives to choose the best option to fertilize their eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although their chemistry was not yet understood at that time, people already knew about using female insects to lure males into traps. (termirepel.com)
  • The eating habits of herbivorous insects have long been of more than passing interest to humans, particularly since the domestication of plants some 8000 years ago, but the precise relationship between herbivorous insects and their host plants has persistently defied characterization. (springer.com)
  • Leaves normally release small quantities of volatile chemicals, but when a plant is damaged by herbivorous insects, many more volatiles are released. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These include allelopathy with other plants, insects, and microbes, thereby causing behavioural or developmental modification to these secondary organisms to the benefit of the sesquiterpenoid producer. (mdpi.com)
  • That plant chemicals, rather than nutritive substances, determine at least in part the peculiar likes and dislikes of insects, as they do for humans, is an idea of rather recent origin. (springer.com)
  • Most animals can synthesise vitamin C from D-glucose but humans and other primates, together with guinea pigs, fruit bats, some passeriform birds, some fish and some insects, are exceptions. (nrv.gov.au)
  • They are known to exist in life forms from unicellular cyanobacteria and protozoans to all multicellular organisms, including fungi, plants, insects, rodents and humans. (nobelprize.org)
  • House and Ginsborg, 1985) in insects requires detailed knowledge about the by summarizing recent advances and draw atten- molecular identity of the corresponding receptor tion to some open questions about the aminergic proteins, their pharmacological properties, their tis- control of cockroach salivary glands. (docme.ru)
  • BOMAN H.G. & HULTMARK D. 1987: Cell-free immunity in insects. (eje.cz)
  • Berenbaum M (1981c) Furanocoumarin distribution and insect herbivory in the Umbelliferae: plant chemistry and community structure. (springer.com)
  • A number of studies suggest that the formation/maturation of the adult intestine is conserved in vertebrates and depends on endogenous thyroid hormone (T3). (ijbs.com)
  • The generation of glucose 1-phosphate from glycogen reserves present in the nerve cord of P. americana has been shown to be controlled by an endogenous phenolic amine (octopamine) and the hyperglycemic hormone. (12dakot.com)
  • The importance of insects as selective agents in determining patterns of plant chemistry in the "parallel evolution" (Brues, 1920) of insects and plants was not articulated until Fraenkel (1959) suggested that "reciprocal adaptive evolution" determined patterns of host-plant use by insects. (springer.com)
  • Ehrlich and Raven (1964) coined the term "coevolution" to describe the stepwise process by which plants elaborate chemical defenses and insects evolve mechanisms of resistance or tolerance to those defenses. (springer.com)
  • This study provides an unprecedented case of scab formation and wound healing, which occurs at an animal-plant interface: scab derived from insect body fluid promptly plugs damaged plant tissue and subsequently the insects actively stimulate regeneration of the plant tissue, whereby the compromised plant tissue recovers. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a hormone presenting opposite effects in the two osmoregulatory organs (i.e. midgut and Malpighian tubules) in insects, probably reflecting the importance of a well-tuned diuretic process in hematophagous insects during different moments after the blood meal. (biologists.org)
  • In all plants reported thus far, there are notable similarities in the structure of the volatile compounds that are emitted from insect-damaged leaves and from leaves distal to the site of damage. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The significance of studying immunomodulation in insects treated with abiotic agents in relation to both insect control and insect-borne parasitic diseases and the link between immunomodulation in insects post-treatment with both abiotic and biotic agents are discussed. (eje.cz)