The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
The deliberate attempt to influence attitudes and beliefs for furthering one's cause or damaging an opponent's cause.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
A mode of communication concerned with inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others.
The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.
A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.
Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.
Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of commercial or industrial enterprises.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.
Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.
Programs in which participation is not required.
Financial support of research activities.
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
Voluntary activity without external compulsion.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.
Organized groups of users of goods and services.
Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.
Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.
Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)
Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.
Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.
The contamination of indoor air.
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
Management control systems for structuring health care delivery strategies around case types, as in DRGs, or specific clinical services.
Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.
Use of TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum L) and TOBACCO PRODUCTS.
Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.
Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.
Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.
Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.
Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
All organized methods of funding.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.
Non-profit organizations concerned with various aspects of health, e.g., education, promotion, treatment, services, etc.
The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.
The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A non-atherosclerotic, inflammatory thrombotic disease that commonly involves small and medium-sized arteries or veins in the extremities. It is characterized by occlusive THROMBOSIS and FIBROSIS in the vascular wall leading to digital and limb ISCHEMIA and ulcerations. Thromboangiitis obliterans is highly associated with tobacco smoking.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Those individuals engaged in research.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Main article: Tobacco advertising. Tobacco advertising of tobacco products by the tobacco industry is through a variety of ... In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1. This strain of tobacco contained an unusually ... exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco ... Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire-cured.. *Flue-cured tobacco was originally strung onto tobacco sticks, which ...
cf Imperial Group Pension Trust Ltd v Imperial Tobacco Ltd [1991] 1 WLR 589 and Equitable Life Assurance Society v Hyman [2000 ... Magnan v. Anaconda Industries, Inc 193 Conn. 558, 479 A.2d 781 (1984) the Connecticut Supreme Court held that good faith was a ... From the 1970s employees and unions sought representation on company boards. This could happen through collective agreements, ... ERISA 1974, 29 USC §1003(a). This could include any Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association, such as for child care cover, ...
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the recession's impact on air quality is estimated to have saved around 1,300 US babies.[49] ... Others argue that adding diversity in the health care industry can help reduce the high IMR because more representation can ... or exhibited voluntary muscle movement) but failed to survive for at least seven days.[95] Although such extremely premature ... avoiding tobacco use, and avoiding excessive alcohol and drug use. If women follow some of the above guidelines, later ...
The 1970s saw the construction of tall office buildings including the 600-foot (183 m), 47-storey Natwest Tower, the first ... The insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyd's building. A secondary financial district ... It is a Voluntary-Aided (VA) Church of England school, maintained by the Education Service of the City of London. ... Tobacco Pipe Makers and Tobacco Blenders. *Furniture Makers. *Scientific Instrument Makers. *Chartered Surveyors ...
... also has significant capacity in the textile and food industries.. Bitola is also home to twelve consulates, which gives ... The Church of Saint Demetrius was built in 1830 with voluntary contributions of local merchants and craftsmen. It is plain on ... Климент Охридски - Битола) was founded in 1979, as a result of dispersed processes that occurred in education in the 1970s, and ... Tobacco institute - Prilep. *Hydro-biological institute - Ohrid. *Slavic cultural institute - Prilep. Gymnasium "Josip Broz- ...
In the late 1970s, the Ghanaian government used market traders as a scapegoat for its own policy failures which involved food ... A voluntary scheme has been set up by The Market People, backed by the National Association of British Market Authorities ( ... By the thirteenth century, counties with important textile industries were investing in purpose built halls for the sale of ... spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World.[32] ...
There is a voluntary program enrollment and registry intake with Patient Assistance Program management. ... "Specialty pharmacies have their roots in the 1970s, when they began delivering temperature-controlled drugs to treat cancer, ... a pharmaceutical industry view". Health Affairs. 31 (10): 2213-2219. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2012.0745. PMID 23048099.. CS1 maint: ... overseen by the Office of Medical Products and Tobacco, within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration which includes the Public ...
... or voluntary. In Canada and the US labeling of GM food is voluntary,[175] while in Europe all food (including processed food) ... Avise JC (2004). The hope, hype & reality of genetic engineering: remarkable stories from agriculture, industry, medicine, and ... The first field trials of genetically engineered plants occurred in France and the US in 1986, tobacco plants were engineered ... Genetic engineering as the direct manipulation of DNA by humans outside breeding and mutations has only existed since the 1970s ...
"Hawaii Papaya Industry Association. Archived from the original on 2015-01-07. Retrieved April 17, 2015.. ... Botha, Gerda M.; Viljoen, Christopher D. (2009). "South Africa: A case study for voluntary GM labelling". Food Chemistry. 112 ( ... The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1983, using an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant.[33] Genetically ... 1 With the discovery of DNA in the early 1900s and various advancements in genetic techniques through the 1970s[32] it became ...
Since the 1970s, agriculture has been declining in importance as trade and the service sector has been increasing. ... Khorat was then repopulated by forced migration of Mekong Valley Lao,[23] with a heavy influx of voluntary Chinese migrants. ... Silk production is an important cottage industry and contributes significantly to the economy.[citation needed] ... Nong Khai Province, which stretches along the Mekong River, is noted for the production of pineapples, tobacco (which is dried ...
In 2006, allegations emerged that many Falun Gong practitioners had been killed to supply China's organ transplant industry.[6] ... Transplantation first began in the early 1970s China, when organs were sourced from executed prisoners. Although other sources ... organ donation from voluntary civilian organ donors has become the only legitimate source of organ transplantations", and ... In 2006, allegations that Falun Gong practitioners had been killed to supply China's organ transplant industry prompted an ...
Marketing and other strategies of the food industry have been compared to those of the tobacco industry at the height of its ... Consolidation of this industry took place in the 1970s and 1980s through a series of mergers and acquisitions.[16] ... the food industry has engaged in some voluntary efforts to improve the nutritional content of their foods. In 2005, General ... As with many industries, the food industry has experienced growth in the capacity to produce food with the use of improved ...
It was the first country in Europe to ban incandescent lightbulbs in 2008 and the first EU country to ban in-store tobacco ... The economic crisis of the late 1970s was fuelled by the Fianna Fáil government's budget, the abolition of the car tax, ... Supported by the Irish Film Board, the Irish film industry grew significantly since the 1990s, with the promotion of indigenous ... Health Insurance Card is entitled to free maintenance and treatment in public beds in Health Service Executive and voluntary ...
which was the rail service that fueled the growth of North Carolinas Textile industry.[52] He also served as Director and first ... She reported that one of her planes sunk when she was conducting flight training in the 1970s. They safely landed the plane, ... Other partnerships are voluntary; Duke Energy, for example, partners with many wildlife organizations to minimize the impact of ... Other artifacts may include tobacco pipes, gun parts, glass beads, and nose bangles. Before the influence of firearms through ...
Many were involved in the labor-intensive cultivation of tobacco, the first cash crop of Virginia. Tobacco exhausted the soil ... Nonetheless, major new industries started developing in cities such as Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; and Dallas, Fort Worth and ... In the 17th century, most voluntary immigrants were of English origins who settled chiefly along the coastal regions of the ... Major resistance to school busing extending into the 1970s.[132] ... Rapid expansion in industries such as autos, telecommunications ...
Standards may be voluntary or legislated. As early as the 1970s private associations certified organic producers. In the 1980s ... In 1921, Albert Howard and his wife Gabrielle Howard, accomplished botanists, founded an Institute of Plant Industry to improve ... For example, geese have been used successfully to weed a range of organic crops including cotton, strawberries, tobacco, and ...
In the 1970s there was a concerted push by town locals to promote Bunyip and many residents could be seen wearing brightly ... Members are voluntary and undergo training procedures on joining and include both male and female. The first female to join the ... The main outlet for the men looking for work was in the timber industry and local splitters were fully employed having orders ... Farmers persisted with growing tobacco but crops were spoilt by mould. A pea factory operated opposite the cemetery for a few ...
The American film industry has had a complex relationship with slavery and until recent decades often avoided the topic. Films ... Some nations in British Columbia continued to segregate and ostracize the descendants of slaves as late as the 1970s. Slavery ... The wounds were treated with "compresses of tobacco leaves, urine and salt." Slavery in Haiti started with the arrival of ... Individuals, then, usually became slaves involuntarily, due to force or coercion, although there was also voluntary slavery to ...
The industry accused Welles of underplaying Mankiewicz's contribution to the script, but Welles countered the attacks by saying ... Orson Welles continued editing the film into the early 1970s. At the time of his death, the film remained largely a collection ... an early penchant for alcohol and tobacco". In 1928, at age 13, Welles was already more than six feet tall (1.83 meters) and ... and the American Women's Voluntary Services. Featuring 21 dance bands and a score of stage and screen and radio stars, the ...
Automobiles and Auto components Industry, spices, mines and minerals, Textiles and apparels, IT industry, Bulk drugs and ... Other important crops are sugarcane, cotton, mango, tobacco, Maize, pulses etc. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, ... Andhra Pradesh has the potential to increase its contribution towards the economy by way of exports There is a voluntary shift ... Pradesh was among the very few states in the country which went in for the Green Revolution in rice cultivation in the 1970s. ...
However, political and economic changes led to a slow decline of the fishing industry after the late 19th century. There was a ... Canada tried to reduce the codfishing around Newfoundland in the 1970s and 1980s, out of fear of seriously damaging the fish ... To the consternation of law enforcement officials, there continues to be smuggling of alcohol and tobacco from Saint Pierre and ... voluntary or forced removal of the island's residents, and upheaval associated with the French Revolution. France finally ...
By the late 1970s, FM had taken off, and competition for channels for new radio stations was intensifying. The National ... The cabinet decision will allow civil society and voluntary organizations, state agriculture universities and institutions, ... and tobacco. Radio Syiar FM, Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Alauddin, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Is a campus (student ... encourage and facilitate communication between member radio stations and links to the commercial radio industry, and lobby for ...
The NRA targeted ten essential industries deemed crucial to an economic recovery, starting with textile industry and next ... They were voluntary, took place after work, and focused on teaching basic literacy to young men who had dropped out before ... The AAA used a system of "domestic allotments", setting the total output of corn, cotton, dairy products, hogs, rice, tobacco, ... Political Coalitions from the New Deal to the 1970s (2nd ed. 1978) are based on voting statistics and polls. McJimsey 2000, pp ...
In the 1970s the Holyoke Transcript-Telegram's publisher, William Dwight Jr., attempted to cover some local news in Spanish. ... However this voluntary compliance in affirmative action did not address the community's needs specifically, nor its lack of ... Many of these workers found work in Connecticut and the Pioneer Valley, particularly working for the Shade Tobacco Growers ... while also praising the tariff situation around the island's sugar industry as ideal. He would also emphasize the sugar growing ...
Helms supported the tobacco industry, which contributed more than 6% of the state's GSP until the 1990s (the highest in the ... An amendment proposed by Helms allowing voluntary prayer was passed by the Senate, but died in the House committee. To that act ... Helms helped organize and fund the conservative resurgence in the 1970s, focusing on Ronald Reagan's quest for the White House ... In September 1997, amid the Senate voting to repeal a 50 billion tax break for the tobacco industry, Helms joined Mitch ...
Growth rates within the Eastern Bloc experienced relative decline after the 1970s. This has also been attributed to the 1970s ... 4. ISBN 978-0-15-512403-5. Almost all industry in the Soviet Union is government owned and all production is directed, in ... While distinguishing between "voluntary and coercive strands", the Austrian and Chicagoan understanding and characterisation of ... and liquor and tobacco operations." Li, He (2015). Political Thought and China's Transformation: Ideas Shaping Reform in Post- ...
The main industries deal with agricultural processing of tobacco, tea and sugar and timber products. The industrial production ... particularly tobacco on estates. However, this apparently successful dual policy faltered in the late 1970s. Banda retained ... Following these riots, the Governor Colby urged that estate land should be acquired through voluntary purchase, and the ... Formation of a Native Tobacco Board in 1926 stimulated production of fire-cured tobacco. By 1935, 70% of the national tobacco ...
The cane was put down and the headmaster began filling his pipe from a tin of tobacco. He also started to lecture the kneeling ... For its first 400 years, the school accepted only boys; girls were admitted from the 1970s, and the school was fully co- ... All pupils are enrolled in CCF for one year; involvement thereafter is voluntary. Pupils can also choose to participate in the ... "Dubai private schools earn over $2bn in tuition revenue". Arabian Business Industries. "British school to open on Reem Island ...
From the late 1970s, Kunming's main industries also came to include food and tobacco processing and the manufacture of ... "Voluntary counseling and testing among injecting drug users in Kunming city, Yunnan Province" Int Conf AIDS. 2004 Jul 11-16; 15 ... Kunming's chief industries are copper, lead and zinc production. Its iron and steel industry has been expanded. Salt and ... biological science and food industry, information industry, software). There are 30 key industrial parks promulgated and ...
The term 'business ethics' came into common use in the United States in the early 1970s. By the mid-1980s at least 500 courses ... The Defense Industry Initiative on Business Ethics and Conduct (DII) was created to support corporate ethical conduct. This era ... In some case, consumers demand products that harm them, such as tobacco products. Production may have environmental impacts, ... voluntary choice beyond normativity. Law is retroactive. Crime precedes law. Law against crime, to be passed, the crime must ...
The tobacco industry has recognised since the 1970s that declining social acceptability of smoking is the most serious problem ... 15 The industry recognised that declining social acceptability also increases voluntary quitting and weakens the industrys ... Tobacco Institute Inc. Minutes of the tobacco industry meeting on Downunder. Tobacco Institute; 2 March 1988. Access date 23 ... Tobacco industry efforts at discrediting scientific knowledge of environmental tobacco smoke: a review of internal industry ...
Timeline of tobacco history The European tobacco growers website The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library UCSF Tobacco Industry ... In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1, a strain containing an unusually high nicotine ... exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco ... Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire-cured. Flue-cured tobacco was originally strung onto tobacco sticks, which ...
Similar to the 1980s, when the voluntary health organizations were slow to enter tobacco control debates, because they saw ... e-cigarette policy debates increasingly resembled comparable tobacco control debates from the 1970s through the 1990s, ... the opposition changed to resemble long-standing industry resistance to tobacco control policies, including campaign ... Keywords: advocacy coalitions, tobacco control policy, public health policy, e-cigarettes, tobacco companies, cigarette ...
... to aggressively dismiss the science and deny any possible risks to human health-just as the tobacco industry did in the 1970s. ... Voluntary reform? Call me a cynic, but the FDA has got to be kidding. Despite decades of mounting evidence and the emergence of ... Far from being the proud industry watchdog working on behalf of U.S. citizens, the sad reality is that the FDA is happy to play ... the FDA continues to show that it has no teeth when it comes to ensuring that the intensive farming industry puts human health ...
Main article: Tobacco advertising. Tobacco advertising of tobacco products by the tobacco industry is through a variety of ... In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1. This strain of tobacco contained an unusually ... exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco ... Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire-cured.. *Flue-cured tobacco was originally strung onto tobacco sticks, which ...
Marketing and other strategies of the food industry have been compared to those of the tobacco industry at the height of its ... Consolidation of this industry took place in the 1970s and 1980s through a series of mergers and acquisitions. "Big food" has ... In response, the food industry has engaged in some voluntary efforts to improve the nutritional content of their foods. In 2005 ... As with many industries, the food industry has experienced growth in the capacity to produce food with the use of improved ...
... voicing not only the health dangers of tobacco use but also rage at the perceived duplicity of the tobacco industry. The site ... Conversely, mass media has been studied since the 1970s as a potential influence of the cultural proliferation of substance ... While limited evidence has resulted in legislation and in voluntary advertising codes to restrict the advertisement of alcohol ... while figures for advertising expenditures for the tobacco industry are often three times that amount. These vast expenditures ...
The tobacco industry could carry on earning huge profits. Kent and Viceroy were two early brands of filter cigarettes Enter the ... In 1960, the industry came to a voluntary agreement not to make health claims about filter cigarettes. The Tar Wars were over. ... Smoking and the 1970s - UK. *60s cigarette culture - UK. *Vintage cigarette packets - UK ... Tobacco growers in the mid-fifties were dismayed that once prized milder grades of tobacco leaf were being spurned by cigarette ...
Major Industries. The major areas of industrial output are textiles; food, beverages, and tobacco; paper, paper products, wood ... Eels, until the 1970s, were closely associated with the food habits of the London poor. Eel pie, and mash (mashed potatoes) ... Access to political leaders is achieved most effectively through voluntary sector interest groups. These organizations work ... The processing of rural products-grain, meat, wool, wood, hides, hops-was central to industry throughout Britain. The cost and ...
Above all, just as the tobacco companies did with smoking, they promote the idea that weight is a question of "personal ... So how about voluntary exercise? Plenty of people argued that, as we drive rather than walk or cycle, are stuck to our screens ... "The UK Government has finally started planning to ensure the health sector and industry are prepared in the short term for a no ... Several pointed out, not without justice, that food was generally disgusting in the 1970s. It was also more expensive. There ...
Outmigration in the 1970s also heightened a sense of national identity, as Niueans arriving in New Zealand felt a need to ... Various voluntary associations include a trade union for government employees, womens groups, sports teams, church choirs, ... Along with food products and alcohol and tobacco, the major imported goods are consumer durables such as outboard motors, ... Earlier attempts to assemble hand-sewn soccer and rugby balls and similar light industries failed largely because of ...
In the early 1970s a group of scientists - none involved in agriculture or food - raised concerns about the hypothetical ... That led to an initial voluntary moratorium on the use of the new recombinant DNA (r-DNA) techniques, and subsequently the ... Early concerns from the food industry about possible food contamination led to onerous USDA restrictions on the once-promising ... sector of "biopharming," which uses genetic engineering techniques to induce crops such as corn, tomatoes, and tobacco to ...
In 1998, the Master Settlement Agreement between that state attorneys general and the tobacco industry put an end to billboard ... The 1970s saw improvements in Federal Reserve data, increased transparency in more frequent reports to Congress, a state-of-the ... When this voluntary agreement ended in late 1996, cable television stations began carrying ads for distilled spirits. The major ... Prior to 1920, consumption of tobacco in the U.S. was mainly in the form of cigars, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff. ...
In 1998, the Master Settlement Agreement between that state attorneys general and the tobacco industry put an end to billboard ... When this voluntary agreement ended in late 1996, cable television stations began carrying ads for distilled spirits. The major ... 3. During the remainder of the 1970s, the FTC concentrated on enforcement of its advertising regulations. It issued consent ... Prior to 1920, consumption of tobacco in the U.S. was mainly in the form of cigars, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff. ...
Many locales license tobacco vendors, obliging them to meet certain conditions. In New York City, for example, tobacco vendors ... In the 1970s, the FDA found that added sugar was generally recognized as safe (GRAS) at the levels being consumed at the time, ... School authorities can also institute a ban on the sale of SSBs on school grounds or contract with industry to remove them from ... In the EU, sugar disclosure is voluntary, unless a nutrient claim is made on packaging or in advertising, in which case it ...
In the 1970s, they approved 7; in the 1980s, the total reached 21; and so far 15 have already been approved in the 1990s, with ... Your voluntary contribution helps keep this website paywall-free. You can sign up as a subscriber with a range of benefits, ... Anyone can play this game, though for reasons that should be obvious, the biggest players these days tend to be industry and ... and yet another raising the tobacco tax to fund antismoking campaigns and support research on smoking-related diseases; and ...
The deal covers voluntary agreements with the drinks industry on issues such as promotions and labelling, aimed at tackling ... So it is not quite true to say that people believe light cigarettes are less hazardous purely because of the tobacco industry " ... It is ironic that in the 1970s, cigarette packets contained a little advice slip from HM Government, which included, Take ... and the tobacco industries did their best to comply.... As for addictiveness, have a look in Google Books for A Critique of ...
... just as the tobacco industry did. Class action lawsuits played a vital role in holding the tobacco industry liable for tobacco- ... Rather, it relies on voluntary cooperation and the private ordering of free individuals using modern information technologies. ... based on the agency model of corporate finance first developed in the 1970s, the theory is contrary to corporate law. These ... The tobacco industry was held accountable through the effective use of tort litigation (commonly referred to as "Big Tobacco" ...
The second largest number, 2,400 by 1900, entered the tobacco industry, primarily the cigar trade, many of them in business for ... By the 1970s, a growing number of African Americans felt that the Democratic machine was offering them a raw deal. A ... Community leaders held the opinion that a modicum of Jewish education and voluntary segregation in a high-status residential ... Chicago industries outfitted Union troops during the Civil War, when the grain and farm machinery industries also experienced ...
A 2008 Washington Post investigation revealed the tobacco industry and the flame retardant industry have a lobbyist in common. ... We started using flame retardant chemicals called PBDEs back in the 1970s. Ever since, some people say firefighting has gotten ... Critics of these kinds of agreements point out theyre just voluntary. The Ecology Centers Mike Shriberg says the agreements ... That lobbyist, Peter Sparber, first helped the tobacco industry fight against self-extinguishing cigarettes. Then he lobbied ...
Grade (grading) standards: Voluntary U.S. grade standards for cotton, dairy products, tobacco, fruits and vegetables, livestock ... Represents cooperating state agencies and poultry industry members, and serves as a liaison between the poultry industry and ... Group of 05 (G-5): Established in the mid-1970s to coordinate the economic policies of the five major industrial countries, ... Green tobacco: Tobacco that has not yet been redried or processed.. Green weight: (1) The weight of tobacco prior to redrying ...
The United Kingdom has successfully developed a program of voluntary salt reduction in collaboration with the food industry. In ... A paper in the Lancet assessed the effects and costs of strategies to reduce salt intake and control tobacco use for 23 low- ... For example, Finland initiated a systematic approach to reduce salt intake in the late 1970s through mass media campaigns, ... The food industry in these countries is poorly regulated with very little or no food-content labeling, which makes informed ...
Tobacco: , , , Part of ,a series, on , , , ,... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online ... Tobacco advertising is the advertising of tobacco products by the tobacco industry through a variety of media including ... In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1. This strain of tobacco contained an unusually ... exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco ...
Lead, asbestos, tobacco, and various chemicals were widely used in the first half of the twentieth century partly because ... Industry leaders subsequently denied the asbestos hazard for more than forty years. The result has been a national public ... Hazardous chemicals also took center stage for a number of international organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The ... The American Lung Association (ALA), the oldest voluntary health organization in the United States, created the posters ...
... tobacco, and alcoholic beverage industries. ... to work with the UN on voluntary policies to lower disease ... influence to the broad reforms that Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale made to the second-highest elected office in the late 1970s ... Also prevalently used are pipe tobacco and bidis--hand-rolled tobacco leaf of which 700 billion are smoked (PDF) annually in ... An estimated 700 million children are exposed to tobacco smoke. An estimated 6 million people die from tobacco use each year, ...
Rise of Patent Medicine Industry. The patent medicine industry started its rise. Because there were no restrictions on ... 1970s. The first laws against opium smoking were passed in San Francisco and Virginia City. Opium itself was not outlawed and ... The 2-year, 14-lesson program focuses on the substances that adolescents are most likely to use: alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, ... but our millions of voluntary slaves still clang their chains. The lot of the literal slave, of him whom others have enslaved, ...
... the Smokeless Tobacco Council and the Tobacco and Candy Political Action Campaign. When she was attorney-general, 23 states ... a former pork industry executive; her chief of staff is a former director of the National Cattlemens Beef Association. A ... She planned to make the minimum wage voluntary (in order to provide choice for business and employees), and to increase ... Even if there were those who, irrationally and sentimentally, believed such nonsense in the days of the 1970s feminist movement ...
Interestingly, a few years later in the early 1970s, Hickson became part of the tobacco industrys PR machinery with the Cigar ... "voluntary action indicated" for lesser violations." ... "In 1972, an internal tobacco industry memo on Mr. Hickson noted ... The title of the study is Sugar Industry and Coronary Heart Disease Research: A Historical Analysis of Internal Industry ... The sugar industry paid scientists in the 1960s to play down the link between sugar and heart disease and promote saturated fat ...
In the early 1970s, the total fertility rate was around 5 children per woman, whereas the estimates in the late 1990s indicate ... The creation and development of industry was clearly the first step that had to be taken to achieve a healthy and balanced ... The new law legalized induced abortions (up to the tenth week of pregnancy) on social and economical grounds and voluntary ... The region specializes in growing small-scale, labor-intensive crops like hazelnuts, tobacco and tea. The region receives large ...
  • In the 1960s and 1970s, principled conservatives were committed to a restrained and cautious federal judiciary. (prospect.org)
  • 20 By the late 1980s and early 1990s, the industry realised that it urgently needed to address these issues in a proactive manner, rather than simply reacting to tobacco control initiatives. (bmj.com)
  • Similar to the 1980s, when the voluntary health organizations were slow to enter tobacco control debates, because they saw smoking restrictions as controversial, these organizations were reluctant to enter e-cigarette debates. (milbank.org)
  • From the 1970s to 1980s, tension grew between women's health activists who advance women's reproductive rights as part of a human rights-based approach on the one hand, and population control advocates on the other. (sergiodaniel.es)
  • In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco use as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death. (wikipedia.org)
  • League of Arab States, World Health Organization, Tobacco companies also aim to undermine the value of International Union Against Cancer and national tobacco the policies and practices called for in the WHO FCTC. (who.int)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) would like to acknowledge the contributions provided by Stanton A. Glantz, PhD (Professor of Medicine, American Legacy Foundation Distinguished Professor of Tobacco Control and Director of the Centre for Tobacco Control Research and Education at the University of California at San Francisco, a WHO Collaborating Centre on Tobacco Control), along with Jonathan R. Polansky (Principal, Onbeyond LLC). (who.int)
  • Efforts will largely be on preventing four risk factors (poor diet, inactivity, alcohol abuse, and tobacco use) considered major contributors to NCDs. (cfr.org)
  • The study, called "Closing the Gap" because it focused on what could be done with existing knowledge, singled out six main personal health risks: tobacco, alcohol, injury risks, high blood pressure, over-nutrition (as measured by obesity and high cholesterol), and gaps in primary health care, particularly in prenatal and reproductive health services. (aliciapatterson.org)
  • Commenting on the research findings, author Professor Anna Gilmore , of the Tobacco Control Research Group and UK Centre for Tobacco & Alcohol Studies , said: "The tobacco companies have a diverse repertoire of tactics and arguments they repeat time and time again to prevent policies which protect the public from its deadly products. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Control Studies (UKCTAS), is a strategic partnership comprising 13 University teams working on tobacco and alcohol research. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm face strong resistance from the alcohol industry. (frontiersin.org)
  • Monitoring can enable public health to identify industry positions on alcohol policy issues, stay abreast of current and emerging marketing tactics, and inform the development of possible counter-actions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of this study was to assess industry strategic approaches as communicated in articles published in a leading Australian alcohol trade magazine to provide insights for policy makers and advocacy groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • Three primary themes were evident in the articles: (1) the legitimization of alcohol as an important social and economic product, (2) the portrayal of the industry as trustworthy and benign, and (3) the strategic embedding of alcohol in various facets of everyday life. (frontiersin.org)
  • In Australia, the context of the present study, burden of disease figures show alcohol to be second only to tobacco in terms of fatal and non-fatal burden as measured by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • When combined with alcohol and tobacco costs, they exceed $500 billion including healthcare, criminal justice, and lost productivity. (wordpress.com)
  • In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to allege that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cigarette companies entered the e-cigarette market, e-cigarette policy debates increasingly resembled comparable tobacco control debates from the 1970s through the 1990s, including pushing pro-industry legislation, working through third parties and front groups, mobilizing "grassroots" networks, lobbying and using campaign contributions, and claiming that policy was unnecessary due to "imminent" federal regulation. (milbank.org)
  • Even our most conservative estimate indicates that reductions in lung cancer, resulting from reductions in tobacco smoking over the last half century, account for about 40% of the decrease in overall male cancer death rates … during the period 1991 to 2003 … without reductions in smoking, there would have been virtually no reduction in overall cancer mortality in either men or women since the early 1990s. (theconversation.com)
  • Lead concentrations in inner city soil can be especially high from accumulation that occurred before the elimination of lead from gasoline in the United States (early phase down/phase out efforts starting in the late 1970s with continuation into the 1990s). (cdc.gov)
  • Tobacco contains the highly addictive stimulant alkaloid nicotine as well as harmala alkaloids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco contains the alkaloid nicotine , which is a stimulant , and harmala alkaloids . (wikipedia.org)
  • These early filters were less effective at filtering tar and nicotine than the tobacco they displaced. (retrowow.co.uk)
  • [2] Gottlieb's announcement came nearly eight months after the Agency unveiled its planned tobacco regulatory policy shift to place nicotine, and the issue of addiction, at the center of FDA's tobacco regulatory efforts. (fdli.org)
  • How should potential consumer surplus or utility loss from the removal of nicotine in cigarettes be considered, given the availability of other sources of nicotine such as electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) ( g. , e-cigarettes and vapor products) and the continued availability of combusted tobacco products? (fdli.org)
  • On the topic of ENDS, the Agency refers to such products in the Nicotine ANPRM as "potentially less hazardous" than other tobacco products ( i.e. , combusted tobacco products). (fdli.org)
  • This is a continuation of a theme introduced for the first time in FDA's announcement in July 2017 that within the continuum of risk of tobacco products, nicotine is most harmful when delivered through smoke particles in combusted cigarettes. (fdli.org)
  • Nongovernmental Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. (who.int)
  • all of which are measures stipulated in the WHO control, including the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). (who.int)
  • The research will also help policy-makers in low and middle income countries who are fighting an uphill battle against big tobacco companies to introduce regulations under the World Health Organisation's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). (bath.ac.uk)
  • Study author Emily Savell added: "The WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recognises the significant influence that tobacco industry marketing has on smoking prevalence and initiation, and recommends that countries comprehensively ban tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. (bath.ac.uk)
  • 2.1 Smoke-free movies and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. (who.int)
  • In 2005, Nigeria signed the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control . (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • But this requires it to have comprehensive laws in place that are compliant with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • 8- 15 The industry recognised that declining social acceptability also increases voluntary quitting and weakens the industry's ability to develop allies. (bmj.com)
  • The industry's original defence against restrictions on smoking (creation of non-smoking sections) in the 1970s was to invoke arguments about "courtesy," "choice", and "freedom" as well as to claim that any limitations on smoking would hurt businesses that restricted smoking (without mentioning the fact that tobacco industry sales and profits would suffer). (bmj.com)
  • These situations represent clear conflicts of interest and violate Article 5.3 of the WHO's framework which commits parties to insulate public health policy making process from the tobacco industry's interference. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • member countries, we have set of smoking tobacco products in public places. (who.int)
  • To make matters even worse, the FDA's announcement is actually a (less strict) rehash of proposals that were first announced in 2008, and which were immediately recalled after the usual uproar from the intensive farming industry lobby. (ecowatch.com)
  • By way of background, in July 2013, FDA issued an ANPRM to obtain public input on menthol in cigarettes [6] but the Agency never moved forward with regulatory action on the same, due in large part to a successful industry challenge to the menthol report issued by FDA's Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee (TPSAC). (fdli.org)
  • Historically, people from the Northeast Woodlands cultures have carried tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eastern North American tribes historically carried tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item, as well as smoking it, both socially and ceremonially , such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically dependent on exports of agricultural goods, the Honduran economy has diversified in recent decades and now has a strong export-processing (maquila) industry, primarily focused on assembling textile and apparel goods for re-export to the United States, as well as automobile wiring harnesses and similar products. (traveldocs.com)
  • In India in the 1970s and 80s, "among the historically disadvantaged social groups, those that mobilized themselves politically gained relative to the others. (cgdev.org)
  • Dried tobacco leaves are mainly used for smoking in cigarettes and cigars, as well as pipes and shishas. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Dried tobacco leaves are mainly used for smoking in cigarettes , cigars , pipe tobacco , and flavored shisha tobacco . (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, the Master Settlement Agreement between that state attorneys general and the tobacco industry put an end to billboard advertising of cigarettes. (eh.net)
  • He implicitly assumes that by stopping the industry using colours to show which products are low tar, the myth of safer cigarettes will disappear and this will benefit public health. (blogspot.com)
  • the cooperation network they have established with their allies, innovatively communicating with the media and The tobacco industry sells 6 trillion cigarettes creating links with governmental institutions. (who.int)
  • This study assessed public support in Australia for progressive tobacco control policies in the form of plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking bans in outdoor locations. (bmj.com)
  • Regulated e-cigarettes, and other tobacco products. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • Another problem with these guidelines is that they only cover cigarettes at present, not all tobacco products. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • Banning menthol in cigarettes and flavors in cigars will decrease the appeal of these tobacco products and strengthen health equity. (akdart.com)
  • They can also be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, local and state policymakers began identifying ways to regulate their sale, public usage, taxation, and marketing, often by integrating them into existing tobacco control laws. (milbank.org)
  • Tobacco control policies to date have encompassed various elements including cessation assistance, taxation, restrictions on tobacco advertising and removal of point of sale displays, tobacco packaging regulations and designation of non-smoking areas. (bmj.com)
  • In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the many lawsuits by the U.S. states in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with earlier efforts to restrict tobacco products, health advocates have had the most success at the local rather than the state level. (milbank.org)
  • However, in the mid-1970s this view began to change as the Court invalidated several state regulations affecting advertising of services and products such as abortion providers and pharmaceutical drugs. (eh.net)
  • It represents 6,000 people in tobacco production and distribution, and put out a statement: "Switching to plain packaging will make it easier to sell illicit and unregulated products, especially to young people. (blogspot.com)
  • Historians Gerald Markowitz and David Rosner suggest that disputes over the danger of many products have reflected a broader struggle over the responsibilities of industry and government to protect public health. (nih.gov)
  • Because there were no restrictions on advertising, labeling, or contents of any products the patent medicine industry made up all sorts of concoctions including the opiates, cocaine, and other drugs, and sold them with the most extravagant advertising claims. (raptureready.com)
  • The law also requires the Standards Organisation of Nigeria, a body that regulates products, to issue guidelines for regulating tobacco products. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • There are small fishing and forest products industries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In 1982 roughly four-fifths of the nation's energy requirement for industry, modern agriculture, transportation, government services, and households (in addition to wood fuel, charcoal, and the like) was provided by imported petroleum and petroleum products. (country-studies.com)
  • As a result of these pressures, the tobacco industry has increasingly focused the debate over clean indoor air and smoke-free environments in the hospitality industry (restaurants, bars, and casinos). (bmj.com)
  • Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became increasingly popular as a trade item. (wikipedia.org)
  • Science became increasingly important to owners of industry in the 20th century and proceeded to rapidly expand into the entire corporate world. (socialistviewpoint.org)
  • A key element of this effort has been to commission and release studies claiming that smoking restrictions have major negative economic effects on the hospitality industry, 38, 39 a claim even a PM lobbyists reported was untrue. (bmj.com)
  • Early concerns from the food industry about possible food contamination led to onerous USDA restrictions on the once-promising sector of "biopharming," which uses genetic engineering techniques to induce crops such as corn, tomatoes, and tobacco to produce high concentrations of high-value pharmaceuticals. (aquabounty.com)
  • 5 Government restrictions, however, would likely provoke constitutional challenges from industry, resulting in complex litigation and unclear outcomes. (springer.com)
  • This evidence can be used by public policy makers in their deliberations relating to the introduction of more extensive tobacco control regulations. (bmj.com)
  • But having the tobacco industry on the committee is a serious impediment to developing effective regulations. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • This means that the industry is in a position to mobilise against any new regulations. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco was condemned as a health hazard, and eventually became recognized as a cause of cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lead, asbestos, tobacco, and various chemicals were widely used in the first half of the twentieth century partly because scientific studies could not prove with certainty that these substances caused harm. (nih.gov)
  • Until mid-century, lead industry-sponsored research dominated the scientific literature on the origins of lead poisoning and consistently understated or ignored the threat posed by lead. (nih.gov)
  • The application of scientific knowledge has been embraced by industry as a means of enriching owners for over two-hundred-years. (socialistviewpoint.org)
  • Scientific research since the mid-1970s shows that treatment can help many people change destructive behaviors, avoid relapse, and successfully remove themselves from a life of substance abuse and addiction. (wordpress.com)
  • Lead from exposure to cigarette smoke (including second and third hand tobacco smoke exposures [SHS & THS]) may contribute to increased blood lead levels (BLLs) in children. (cdc.gov)
  • Annex C. Measuring overall adolescent exposures to tobacco imagery in movies. (who.int)
  • More than 70 species of tobacco are known, but the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there are more than 70 species of tobacco, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum . (gutenberg.cc)
  • The alleged benefits of tobacco also contributed to its success. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alleged benefits of tobacco also account for its considerable success. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strong legislation passed at the local level because of the committed efforts of local health departments and leadership from experienced politicians but failed at the state level due to intense cigarette company lobbying without countervailing pressure from the voluntary health organizations. (milbank.org)
  • In its recent announcement the FDA warns that while it has not "ruled out" future regulatory action, it will instead "focus its efforts for now on the potential for voluntary reform and the promotion of the judicious use of antimicrobials in the interest of public health. (ecowatch.com)
  • However, if current efforts to counter and undermine tobacco trends continue, tobacco will kill nearly 8 million people control initiatives and activities. (who.int)
  • 4 ]. Tobacco companies exert tremendous efforts to alternate reality prior to the issuance of stop the adoption of any formal decisions in favour of official and international tobacco tobacco control whether at the governmental, regional or control laws. (who.int)
  • The paper also highlights tobacco industry reliance on third parties, making it difficult for the public and policy-makers to assess the credibility and motivation behind efforts to shape the political agenda. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The results can inform policy makers' efforts to develop and implement new tobacco control policies. (bmj.com)
  • Government efforts began in the 1970s to reduce childhood lead poisoning and to monitor birth defects and cancer. (aappublications.org)
  • Nigeria is a key tobacco industry market in Africa because of its population size and access to other markets in the region. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • Uganda's stock market was set up in 1997 to sell the government's stakes in companies such as British American Tobacco Uganda and development bank DFCU, as liberal economic reforms swept across Africa after the end of the Cold War. (euromoney.com)
  • Later she came to the United States for a second time in 1928 where she lived until her voluntary deportation in 1950. (sandiegohistory.org)
  • 1] Norr was a veteran anti-tobacco campaigner of religious zeal. (retrowow.co.uk)
  • Because of its size, Nigeria has the potential to boost the global anti-tobacco movement. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • This is reserved for "severe" forms of clinical trial violations, including "objectionable conditions or practices" that warrant compulsory regulatory action, as opposed to "voluntary action indicated" for lesser violations. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This is because it has representatives on the regulatory committee as well as through membership of the National Tobacco Control Committee. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • In the early 1970s a group of scientists - none involved in agriculture or food - raised concerns about the hypothetical hazards that might arise from the use of the newly discovered molecular genetic modification techniques (recombinant DNA technology) that could alter the inheritable characteristics of an organism via directed changes in its DNA. (aquabounty.com)
  • When Big Tobacco suppressed their research to protect their interests, the public was protected by academic scientists, who published in sources like the ones I choose. (theenergycollective.com)
  • Over the past 40 years, the work of the company's Agricultural & Environmental Research Division has been instrumental in improving grower efficiency-from collaborating on the development of better harvesting systems in the 1970s, to its role as a facilitator for scientists mapping the cotton genome today. (cottoninc.com)
  • [8] Many Native American tribes have traditionally grown and used tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • examines how marketing, technology, and demand figured in the rise of Bright Flue-Cured Tobacco, a variety first grown in the inland Piedmont region of the Virginia-North Carolina border. (gutenberg.cc)
  • tobacco grown for export is particularly import to the economy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Stop buying cotton, tobacco, tea and coffee so the price of those crops do not tempt farmers to grow them instead of local grains. (envirolink.org)
  • Since it was founded in 1970 through to the present day, the programs of Cotton Incorporated help the cotton industry realize its commitment to sustainable practices. (cottoninc.com)
  • In addition, U.S. cotton growers conscientiously embrace any means to do their job better, from investing a share of their earnings to fund the activities of Cotton Incorporated, to their voluntary participation in studies to develop meaningful measures of environmental performance, which are key to establishing accurate benchmarks for cotton's environmental progress and to directing research where it will be most effective. (cottoninc.com)
  • 3- 7 Smoke-free environments have led to a drop in cigarette consumption and loss of profits for the tobacco industry. (bmj.com)
  • Numerous studies have backed industry claims that GMO foods appear to be safe for human consumption, including an examination of more than 130 research projects conducted in the European Union prior to 2010 and work published by the American Medical Association's Council on Science and Public Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • increase in tobacco consumption among youth. (who.int)
  • To put it in context, per capita sugar consumption is down significantly from its 1970s peak. (blogspot.cz)
  • The systematic review, published in PLOS ONE, from researchers in our Tobacco Control Research Group , looked at evidence from around the world to identify the tactics and arguments tobacco companies use to influence and prevent policy aimed at regulating the marketing of tobacco. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Though initial research in the 1970s suggested possible use, follow-up studies have failed to confirm this potential. (daniplanaslabad.com)
  • Some of those working in the financial industry tell Euromoney that the shares looked expensive given a price-earnings ratio of 20.9 times for the year ending in March 2018 - and particularly for a company that doesn't do its own research and development, according to its prospectus. (euromoney.com)
  • Conclusions The study results demonstrate community support for new tobacco control policies. (bmj.com)
  • The level of denial exhibited shows that additional regulation of the industry and its tactics will need to proceed without industry acceptance. (frontiersin.org)
  • It challenged doctors who reported lead-poisoned children to health departments, distracted the public through advertisements that claimed lead was "safe" to use, and fought regulation of the industry by local government, all in the service of profiting from putting a poison in paint, gasoline, plumbing fixtures, and even toys, baseballs, and fishing gear. (nakedcapitalism.com)
  • This section of the exhibit on environmental health examines the role of public health posters in addressing threats created by voluntary and involuntary exposure to toxic substances. (nih.gov)
  • Gerrit Smith, twice Abolitionist candidate for President, an associate of John Brown, and a crusading prohibitionist, declares: "Our involuntary slaves are set free, but our millions of voluntary slaves still clang their chains. (raptureready.com)
  • Most Their tactics and plans include preparing compelling tobacco-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income arguments against tobacco control policies, building an countries. (who.int)
  • Tobacco companies have altered their tactics, So far, issuing binding laws banning tobacco farming in form and function, in response to the WHO and production has been difficult. (who.int)
  • and made donations to various institutions as a way of Tobacco industry tactics and plans indirectly exerting pressure to undermine tobacco control Influencing decision-makers laws. (who.int)
  • Significantly the paper found that the same tactics and arguments are being used across multiple jurisdictions, showing that the tobacco industry is repeating its activities in high, middle, and low income countries around the world. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Tobacco drying kiln in Myrtleford, Victoria, Australia from 2018. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the Nicotiana genus and the Solanaceae (nightshade) family, and the general term for any product prepared from the cured leaves of the tobacco plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco is a plant within the genus Nicotiana of the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. (gutenberg.cc)
  • After the cigarette companies entered the e-cigarette market, the opposition changed to resemble long-standing industry resistance to tobacco control policies, including campaign contributions, lobbying, and working through third parties and front groups. (milbank.org)
  • Deaths related to tobacco are expected to rise to 7.5 million by 2020, which will Tobacco companies are unrelenting in their account for 10% of deaths worldwide. (who.int)
  • Tobacco companies also officially participated in tobacco control policies to better their image and to "Our objective remains to develop and mobilize the convince governments that they are trying to reduce necessary resources. (who.int)
  • Tobacco companies are relentless in their tobacco control decisions being issued by them [ 4 ]. (who.int)
  • Governments around the world need to wise up to when the industry is lying and protect policy development from the vested interests of the tobacco companies. (bath.ac.uk)
  • One of the largest publicly traded tobacco companies in the world, British American Tobacco, built a state-of-the-art manufacturing plant in the country in 2003 to service West African countries. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • It took decades of massive strikes in textile, mining, steel and other industries including the great 1936-1937 General Motors sit-down strike in Flint, Michigan to win any significant health and safety protection. (socialistviewpoint.org)
  • It is the chief commercial and industrial center of Malawi with cement, food and tobacco processing, and textile industries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Malawi's industry is limited to the processing of tobacco, tea, sugar, and lumber and the manufacture of basic comsumer goods. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In Taíno, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves (according to Bartolomé de las Casas, 1552), or to tabago, a kind of L-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke (according to Oviedo, with the leaves themselves being referred to as cohiba). (wikipedia.org)
  • attempts to undermine complete bans on Philip Morris made a grave statement that confirms its tobacco advertising, target youth, circumvent power and ability to exert pressure in certain countries in health warnings and oppose the prohibition the Region, saying "In. (who.int)
  • Understanding how the tobacco industry attempts to shape, delay or stop these policies is therefore vital. (bath.ac.uk)
  • To reduce population salt intake, the food industry needs to implement a gradual and sustained reduction in the amount of salt added to foods in developed countries. (scielosp.org)
  • But it took until 2015 to pass a law, the National Tobacco Control Act to implement the framework. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • 1, 2 This decline has been accelerated by the evidence, which started accumulating in the 1970s, that second hand smoke endangers non-smokers. (bmj.com)
  • Beginning in the 1970s Industry mobilized and financed a propaganda machine on the basis of misleading evidence about the science of workers' health. (socialistviewpoint.org)
  • As part of this evidence review, Sir Cyril Chantler is currently looking at the likely effect on public health, particularly for children, if standardised tobacco packaging is introduced, with findings expected in mid-March. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Although over half of the evidence studied for this new systematic review focused on activity in North America, Europe and Australasia, the geographic base was far more diverse than some previous reviews of industry activity. (bath.ac.uk)
  • As with many industries, the food industry has experienced growth in the capacity to produce food with the use of improved technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tobacco industry was held accountable through the effective use of tort litigation (commonly referred to as "Big Tobacco" litigation), and the food industry could theoretically be held similarly accountable, but CCAs are preventing the possibility of similar reform. (journaltocs.ac.uk)
  • Part I of this Note discusses why the food industry needs tort reform. (journaltocs.ac.uk)
  • Specifically, it argues that the food industry has engaged in deceitful practices that are directly harming the health of American consumers, just as the tobacco industry did. (journaltocs.ac.uk)
  • If CCAs were removed, class action lawsuits could also make an impact on obesity-related illnesses by holding the food industry accountable. (journaltocs.ac.uk)
  • Part III dives into a variety of foreseeable problems tort reform faces when taking on the powerful food industry, including how litigation against the food industry would differ from the-largely successful litigation against the tobacco industry. (journaltocs.ac.uk)
  • Health Secretary Xavier Becerra said the Food and Drug Administration's decision to kickstart the removal will help "our most marginalized communities" and accelerate the decrease in overall tobacco use. (akdart.com)
  • Individual consumers do not have the resources to determine easily the completeness of any firm's messages, particularly in light of the size of food industry advertising budgets. (mdpi.com)
  • In most developed countries, a reduction in salt intake can be achieved by a gradual and sustained reduction in the amount of salt added to food by the food industry. (nature.com)
  • Sitting alongside a spokesman from the food industry and a spokesman from the retail industry, it was clear that I was part of a token trio of opposition to excessive regulation. (blogspot.cz)
  • Smoking and "Early Modern" Sociability: The Great Tobacco Debate in the Ottoman Middle East (Seventeenth to Eighteenth Centuries). (gutenberg.cc)
  • Data from the health examinations, including occupational titles and smoking habits, were registered in a central database established in the early 1970s, as previously described 21 - 23 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Production of tobacco for smoking, chewing, and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco has been a major cash crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1880 workers organizations such as the Knights of Labor pushed for safety laws in all the major industries. (socialistviewpoint.org)
  • The Resources for Child Health (REACH) has produced an IMMUNIZATION DIRECTORY which describes the immunization-related roles played by the host country governments, the major donors, and the (primarily US-based) private voluntary organizations on a country-by-country basis. (popline.org)
  • A major problem with the organisation is that the tobacco industry dominates its processes. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • And since the tobacco industry is a major threat to comprehensive and effective tobacco control policies, countries should ensure strict compliance with the framework to ensure non-interference - direct or indirect. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • The industry adopted two main approaches to address the problem of declining social acceptability of smoking: attacking the science demonstrating that second hand smoke was dangerous 2, 14, 24- 33 (as it had done with active smoking) and working to change the public's perception of smoking in public. (bmj.com)
  • This increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • That led to an initial voluntary moratorium on the use of the new recombinant DNA (r-DNA) techniques, and subsequently the creation by the National Institutes of Health of guidelines for the application of these techniques for any purpose. (aquabounty.com)
  • 6 We apply the Court's reasoning from other public health contexts (for example, tobacco) to SSBs. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, in order for health reform to be as effective as tobacco reform, CCAs must be repealed in the states where they exist. (journaltocs.ac.uk)
  • Since the 1970s, and the infamous "McGovern Report" on nutrition which condemned saturated fats and blamed them for causing heart disease, the health of Americans has spiraled out of control, with epidemics in obesity , diabetes , cancer , and heart disease, which combined represent most causes of death today in the U.S. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The researchers found that whilst tobacco industry arguments made to oppose or derail policy appear diverse, on closer inspection they point to a common theme: that the benefits of health reform are marginal whilst the costs to society are likely to be significant. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Tobacco control is revered in contemporary public health as the poster child for chronic disease control. (theconversation.com)
  • How did the local Australian branches of Big Tobacco manage to lose every single legislative and policy battle they fought in the nearly 50 years since they first failed in their opposition to the timid little health warnings that appeared on packs in 1973? (theconversation.com)
  • 2017). According to MSA Safety Company, industries, fire departments, and health departments were the first to utilize the Gibbs Breathing Apparatus (WebApps.MSANet.com). (cdc.gov)
  • Tobacco Leaf: Its Culture and Cure, Marketing and Manufacture. (gutenberg.cc)
  • The comprehensive roadmap for tobacco policy reform and increasing public awareness was first set down in 1976 by the International Union Against Cancer in Guidelines for Smoking Control . (theconversation.com)
  • because you trust that when we're reporting on the pandemic or the uprisings against police brutality-or the climate crisis-our coverage is not brought to you by the fossil fuel, insurance or weapons industries or Big Pharma. (democracynow.org)
  • Many Native American tribes traditionally grow and use tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • While state legislation is possible, as with earlier tobacco control policymaking, local governments remain a viable option for overcoming cigarette company interference in the policymaking process. (milbank.org)
  • What the industry needed, and the American public would have loved, was a safe cigarette. (retrowow.co.uk)
  • With regard to the Flavor ANPRM, as some may know, there is already a flavored combusted cigarette ban in place, as established by in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). (fdli.org)
  • Annex A. Movie smoking increases as other tobacco advertising is restricted. (who.int)
  • The large sample (n=2005) and use of random digit dialling provide robust results relating to the likely responses of Western Australians to new tobacco control policies. (bmj.com)
  • Despite the agency's disclaimer, the CDC does receive millions of dollars in industry gifts and funding, both directly and indirectly, and several recent CDC actions and recommendations have raised questions about the science it cites, the clinical guidelines it promotes, and the money it is taking. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • It is important to monitor industry actions over time to assist in developing appropriate responses to this resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Clear resistance to increasing consumer protections also points to the futility of inviting industry members to the policy table. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unless counter measures are taken, tobacco ongoing dialogue with decision-makers, strengthening will kill more than 1 billion people in the 21st century [ 1 ]. (who.int)
  • Objectives Policy makers seeking to introduce new tobacco control measures need to anticipate community support to assist them in planning appropriate implementation strategies. (bmj.com)
  • The tobacco industry in Nigeria is aware of every move the government makes even before new measures are introduced. (medicalbrief.co.za)
  • Their objective is for local authorities to question with national tobacco monopolies and influential entities the effectiveness of such policies. (who.int)
  • At a high-level September meeting, governments agreed to a political declation (PDF) to work with the UN on voluntary policies to lower disease rates. (cfr.org)
  • Resource Industries: contains a chronology of data, events, policies and issues affecting industries such as agriculture, mining, and electricity gas and water. (abs.gov.au)
  • Non-resource Industries: contains a chronology of data, events, policies and issues affecting industries such as manufacturing, transport and storage, 'tourism' and communication services. (abs.gov.au)
  • For those who have fallen for the bluster about sugar being the new tobacco, it is an obvious place to start, but no amount of sophistry can disguise the fact that it would be a patently regressive stealth tax. (blogspot.cz)
  • Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. (wikipedia.org)
  • tobacco is often credited as being the export that saved Virginia from ruin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A coal mine catastrophe in 2010 killed 29 miners in West Virginia and toxic dumping into the environment by industry has shown NO significant reduction over the last forty years. (socialistviewpoint.org)
  • In 1997, the distilled spirits industry reversed a six decade-old policy and began using cable television advertising. (eh.net)
  • This suggests that the tobacco industry believes that what works best to influence policy-makers in developed countries will have a similar effect on policy-makers in developing countries. (bath.ac.uk)
  • This story examines the roots of the Hensley fortune and John McCain's implacable bond to the liquor industry -- how it has enriched him personally and as a politician, and how those ties have dictated his actions on questions of public policy. (phoenixnewtimes.com)
  • Established the National Tobacco Control Committee (a multi-sectorial coordinating mechanism) and a Tobacco Control Fund. (medicalbrief.co.za)