Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission: A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Microscopy, Energy-Filtering Transmission Electron: An analytical transmission electron microscopy method using an electron microscope fitted with an energy filtering lens. The method is based on the principle that some of the ELECTRONS passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The amount of energy loss is dependent upon the element. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum (ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY) reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. It is used analytically and quantitatively to determine which, how much of, and where specific ELEMENTS are in a sample. For example, it is used for elemental mapping of PHOSPHORUS to trace the strands of NUCLEIC ACIDS in nucleoprotein complexes.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Negative Staining: The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Freeze Substitution: A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tissue Embedding: The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Osmium Tetroxide: (T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.3,3'-DiaminobenzidineKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Spectroscopy, Electron Energy-Loss: A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Gold Colloid: A suspension of metallic gold particles.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Mice, Inbred C57BLMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Descemet Membrane: A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Microscopy, Scanning Probe: Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Endoplasmic Reticulum, Smooth: A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Glycocalyx: The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Nanospheres: Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Gold Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Osmium: Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Nanotubes: Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.Shadowing (Histology): The technique of spraying a tissue specimen with a thin coat of a heavy metal such as platinum. The specimen is sprayed from an oblique angle, which results in the uneven deposition of the coating. The varying thicknesses create a shadow effect and give a three-dimensional appearance to the specimen.Acrosome: The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Asbestos, Serpentine: A type of asbestos that occurs in nature as the dihydrate of magnesium silicate. It exists in two forms: antigorite, a plated variety, and chrysotile, a fibrous variety. The latter makes up 95% of all asbestos products. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p.893)Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Carter's research areas of focus include Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic-force microscopy. Carter received his B.A ... Transmission Electron Microscopy: A Textbook for Materials Science. New York: Plenum, 1996. Print. Carter, C. Barry., and M. ... Transmission Electron Microscopy: Diffraction, Imaging, and Spectrometry, edited with Dave Williams, will be available in 2016 ... Carter is the co-author of two textbooks: Transmission Electron Microscopy: A Textbook for Materials Science, written with Dave ...
2016). "Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the antibacterial mechanism of action of the ... Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659. McGregor, S.E. Insect Pollination Of Cultivated Crop Plants ...
... isolated and identified single graphene sheets by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction. In 1986 they ... In 1970 Boehm became professor and director of the Institute for Inorganic Chemistry of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in ...
... in transmission electron microscopy. Born in 1944, Colliex graduated from the École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris in ... He is now CNRS Research Director at the Solid State Physics laboratory in Orsay, head of the Electron Microscopy group. From ... The French physicist Christian Colliex (b. 1944) is known for his pioneering work on the use of electron energy loss ... 2007 to 2010 he served as President of the International Federation of the Societies for Microscopy (IFSM). Recipients of the ...
A scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is a type of transmission electron microscope (TEM). Pronunciation is [stem ... "Progress in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy" (PDF). J. Electron Microsc. 50 (3): 177. doi: ... "Optimizing the environment for sub-0.2 nm scanning transmission electron microscopy". J. Electron. Microsc. 50 (3): 219-226. ... "High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy". Microscopy and Microanalysis. 22 (1): ...
... was an electron microscopist who played an important role in the development of weak-beam transmission electron microscopy (TEM ... He was the president of the International Federation of Societies for Microscopy from 2003 till 2007, then vice-president 2007 ... Electron microscope images of defects in crystal lattices (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. OCLC 863257418. ... Ray, I. L. F.; Crawford, R. C.; Cockayne, D. J. H. (1970). "The weak-beam technique applied to superlattice dislocations in an ...
... is a single-molecule sequencing technology that uses transmission electron ... High capital cost: A transmission electron microscope with sufficient resolution required for transmission electron microscopy ... In theory, transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing could provide extremely long read lengths, but the issue of electron ... Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) produces high magnification, high resolution images by passing a beam of electrons ...
Crystallography Dual basis Reciprocal lattice Miller index Diffraction Electron diffraction Transmission electron microscopy J ... David B. Williams and C. Barry Carter (1996) Transmission electron microscopy: A textbook for materials science (Plenum Press, ... Transmission electron microscopy: Physics of image formation and microanalysis (Springer, Berlin) preview. ... in electron microscopy if you want your electron beam to be directed down wide (hence easily visible) tunnels between columns ...
"Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the antibacterial mechanism of action of the medicinal plant ... Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.. ...
... is an extension of traditional transmission electron microscopy and uses a transmission electron microscope ... In the field of biology, bright-field transmission electron microscopy (BF-TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) are the primary ... However, the technique of annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM), which is typically used on ... 2016). "Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy". Scientific Data. 3: 160041. ...
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM): PEEM differs from these two microscopies by ... Low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and mirror electron microscopy (MEM):These two electron emission microscopy use electron ... Historical perspective and current trends in emission microscopy, mirror electron microscopy and low-energy electron microscopy ... transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In 1933, Ernst Brüche reported images of ...
... scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA), and X-ray ... Dante Lauretta (born 1970) is a Professor of planetary science and cosmochemistry at the University of Arizona's Lunar and ...
This standard was based on information gathered from 14 sites whose samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy ( ... came much later when their structure could be analyzed by electron microscopy. The first electron microscopy observations of ... Field electron emission sources Field electron emission (also known as field emission (FE) and electron field emission) is ... Composite materials Scanning probe microscopy tips Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images ...
... scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy). He has studied spermatogenesis and spermatogenic cycles in amphibians ... Trauth is the director of the Arkansas State University Electron Microscopy Facility, although his work in these areas includes ... He earned his BS (1970) and MS (1974) in Zoology from the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, where he worked on Collared ...
When examined with transmission electron microscopy, pyrenoids appear as electron dense structures. The pyrenoid matrix, ... visible using light microscopy. By contrast, in diatoms and dinoflagellates, there can be multiple pyrenoids. ... Goodenough, U.W. and Levine, R.P. (1970). Chloroplast structure and function in AC-20, a mutant strain of Chlamydomonas ...
He modified a 400 kV transmission electron microscope (JEOL 4000EX) so that it operated in a scanning mode and produced a ... Broers, A. N.; Panessa, B. J.; Gennaro Jr, J. F. (1975). "High-resolution scanning electron microscopy of bacteriophages 3C and ... "Resolution Limits of PMMA Resist for Electron Beam Exposure", 9th Int. Conf. on Electron & Ion Beam Sci. & Technol., Ed. R. ... Broers, A. N. (1973). "High-resolution thermionic cathode scanning transmission electron microscope". Applied Physics Letters. ...
... optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Tensile tests were performed at 700-900 °C under a strain rate range ... Superplasticity:Dr R H Johnson Metallurgical Review No 146 Sept 1970. Institute of Metals London, UK. ...
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies (e.g.) suggest that endophragm and periphragm are not morphologically separable ... Takano, Y.; Horiguchi, T. (2006). "Acquiring scanning electron microscopical, light microscopical and multiple gene sequence ... As chimney-sweeps, come to dust': a history of palynology to 1970. pp. 273-327 In: Oldroyd, D. R. The earth inside and out: ...
... can be easily distinguished from micelles and hexagonal lipid phases by negative staining transmission electron microscopy. ... "Lamellar dispersion and phase separation of chloroplast membrane lipids by negative staining electron microscopy" (PDF). ... They were discovered when Bangham and R. W. Horne were testing the institute's new electron microscope by adding negative stain ... "Negative Staining of Phospholipids and Their Structural Modification by Surface-Active Agents As Observed in the Electron ...
Two tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, transmission electron microscopy. Many of the apicomplexan parasites are important ... Hypnozoites are found in Karyolysus lacerate and most species of Plasmodium; transovarial transmission of parasites occurs in ... Additional slender electron-dense secretory bodies (micronemes) surrounded by one or two polar rings may also be present. This ... Similar strategies to increase the likelihood of transmission have evolved in multiple genera. Polyenergid oocysts and tissue ...
... than by transmission electron microscopy (which does not "see" the layer due to poor contrast). In most cases, samples are ... Courier Dover Publications (2000) ISBN 0-486-41155-9 Chu, B. (1 January 1970). "Laser Light Scattering". Annual Review of ... light scattering Light scattering Diffusing-wave spectroscopy Protein-protein interactions Differential dynamic microscopy ...
Using conventional electron microscopy, the structure of the capsid surface can be visualized. The virus particles contain a ... Transmission routes are fecal-oral. The viruses in this genus have single-stranded, linear non-segmented, positive-sense RNA ... Emerg Infect Dis 14:1968-1970 Reuter, G. et al (2009) Complete nucleotide and amino acid sequences and genetic organization of ...
Transmission electron microscopy can be used to observe dislocations within the microstructure of the material.[22] Thin foils ... Williams, David B.; Carter, C. Barry (2008). Transmission electron microscopy : a textbook for materials science. Springer. ... Eyre, B. L. (February 1973). "Transmission electron microscope studies of point defect clusters in fcc and bcc metals". Journal ... "g dot b") analysis.[23] When performing dark field microscopy with the TEM, a diffracted spot is selected to form the image (as ...
... focused ion and electron beams and their applications for micromachining, surface analysis and microscopy and Instrumentation ... The interest Orloff developed in electron optics led him to pursue a Ph.D. at OGC in 1974, under the aegis of Prof. Lynwood W. ... P. Sudraud, J. Orloff, and G. Benassayag, The Effect of Carbon Bearing Gases and Secondary Electron Bombardment on a Liquid ... Advisory Committee of the Electron, Ion Photon Beam and Nanotechnology Conference, of which he was previously Conference Chair ...
The first images of viruses were obtained upon the invention of electron microscopy in 1931 by the German engineers Ernst Ruska ... Transmission electron micrograph of multiple bacteriophages attached to a bacterial cell wall ... Long GW, Nobel J, Murphy FA, Herrmann KL, Lourie B. Experience with electron microscopy in the differential diagnosis of ... Horizontal transmission is the most common mechanism of spread of viruses in populations. Transmission can occur when: body ...
An intercellular cleft is a channel between two cells through which molecules may travel and gap junctions and tight junctions may be present. Most notably, intercellular clefts are found between epithelial cells and the endothelium of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, also helping to form the blood-nerve barrier surrounding nerves. Intercellular clefts are important for allowing the transportation of fluids and small solute matter through the endothelium. The dimensions of intercellular clefts vary throughout the body, however cleft lengths have been determined for a series of capillaries. The average cleft length for capillaries is about 20m/cm2. The depths of the intercellular clefts, measured from the luminal to the abluminal openings, vary among different types of capillaries, but the average is about 0.7 μm. The width of the intercellular clefts is about 20 nm outside the junctional region (i.e. in the larger part of the clefts). In intercellular clefts of capillaries, it has been ...
... is a group of related computerized image processing techniques used to analyze images from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These methods were developed to improve and extend the information obtainable from TEM images of particulate samples, typically proteins or other large biological entities such as viruses. Individual images of stained or unstained particles are very noisy, and so hard to interpret. Combining several digitized images of similar particles together gives an image with stronger and more easily interpretable features. An extension of this technique uses single particle methods to build up a three-dimensional reconstruction of the particle. Using cryo-electron microscopy it has become possible to generate reconstructions with sub-nanometer resolution and near-atomic resolution first in the case of highly symmetric viruses, and now ...
The active zone is present in all chemical synapses examined so far and is present in all animal species. The active zones examined so far have at least two features in common, they all have protein dense material that project from the membrane and tethers synaptic vesicles close to the membrane and they have long filamentous projections originating at the membrane and terminating at vesicles slightly farther from the presynaptic membrane. The protein dense projections vary in size and shape depending on the type of synapse examined. One striking example of the dense projection is the ribbon synapse (see below) which contains a "ribbon" of protein dense material that is surrounded by a halo of synaptic vesicles and extends perpendicular to the presynaptic membrane and can be as long as 500 nm.[3] The glutamate synapse contains smaller pyramid like structures that extend about 50 nm from the membrane.[4] The neuromuscular synapse contains two rows of vesicles with a long proteinaceous band ...
... s are cellular organs, or organelles, possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. They are surrounded by a typical unit membrane. On electron microscopy they have an electron-dense matrix due to the high protein content. They are specialized secretory organelles important for gliding motility and host cell invasion. These organelles secrete several proteins such as the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1, or PfAMA1, and Erythrocyte family antigen, or EBA, family proteins. These proteins specialize in binding to erythrocyte surface receptors and facilitating erythrocyte entry. Only by this initial chemical exchange can the parasite enter into the erythrocyte via actin-myosin motor complex. It has been posited that this organelle works cooperatively with its counterpart organelle, the rhoptry, which also is a secretory organelle. It is ...
... s also exist in the structure of solid metals. Metallic structure consists of aligned positive ions (cations) in a "sea" of delocalized electrons. This means that the electrons are free to move throughout the structure, and gives rise to properties such as conductivity. In diamond all four outer electrons of each carbon atom are 'localized' between the atoms in covalent bonding. The movement of electrons is restricted and diamond does not conduct an electric current. In graphite, each carbon atom uses only 3 of its 4 outer energy level electrons in covalently bonding to three other carbon atoms in a plane. Each carbon atom contributes one electron to a delocalized system of electrons that is also a part of the chemical bonding. The delocalized ...
... is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae. Isolate Description Location: Germany. Host of Isolate and Habitat Details Source of isolate: Asparagus officinalis. Natural host and symptoms Asparagus officinalis - symptomless. Reference to Isolation Report Hein (1960). Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid/nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is filamentous, flexuous with a clear modal length with a length of 740 nm and a width of 13 nm. Axial canal is indistinct. Basic helix is obscure. Electron microscopic preparation and references: Virus preparation contains few virions. Reference for electron microscopic methods: Fujisawa et al. (1983, Howell and Mink (1985). There are 1 sedimenting component(s) found in purified preparations. The sedimentation coefficient is 146 S20w. A260/A280 ratio is 1.24. The thermal inactivation point (TIP) is at 50-55°C. The longevity in vitro (LIV) ...
Electron crystallographic studies on inorganic crystals using high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images were first performed by Aaron Klug in 1978[9] and by Sven Hovmöller and coworkers in 1984.[10] HREM images were used because they allow to select (by computer software) only the very thin regions close to the edge of the crystal for structure analysis (see also crystallographic image processing). This is of crucial importance since in the thicker parts of the crystal the exit-wave function (which carries the information about the intensity and position of the projected atom columns) is no longer linearly related to the projected crystal structure. Moreover, not only do the HREM images change their appearance with increasing crystal thickness, they are also very sensitive to the chosen setting of the defocus Δf of the objective lens (see the HREM images of GaN for example). To cope with this ...
The centriole is a cytoplasmic structure in most eukaryote cells. It is involved in cell division and in the formation of cilia and flagella. Centrioles are not found in vascular plants and in most fungi.[1] Most centrioles are nine sets of microtubule triplets, arranged in a cylinder. A pair of centrioles, arranged perpendicularly and surrounded by a mass of dense material makes up the centrosome.[2] ...
The Gleason grading system is used to help evaluate the prognosis of men with prostate cancer using samples from a prostate biopsy. Together with other parameters, it is incorporated into a strategy of prostate cancer staging which predicts prognosis and helps guide therapy. A Gleason score is given to prostate cancer based upon its microscopic appearance. Cancers with a higher Gleason score are more aggressive and have a worse prognosis. Pathological scores range from 2 through 10, with higher number indicating greater risks and higher mortality. A total score is calculated based on how cells look under a microscope, with the first half of the score based on the dominant, or most common cell morphology (scored 1-5), and the second half based off the non-dominant cell pattern with the highest grade (scored 1-5). These two numbers are then combined to produce a total score for the cancer. Most often, a urologist or radiologist will remove a cylindrical sample (biopsy) of prostate tissue through ...
... is one of cell membrane classes, occurring as set of parallel elemernts with duble same dimensional membranes, as the nuclear envelope. These lamella have pore complexes which are identical to those of the nuclear cover. It is arranged in highly ordered structure with a regular specing between themselves. These lamella are characteristic for the oocytes, spermatocytes, some somatic and cancer cels. They are characteristic of actively growing cells, including many functions in genetic information transfer and storage. They are probably formed from the nuclear envelope. Similar membranes are found in both the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. In the nucleoplasm, they are small, irrrgular, as well as short-living. It have been established that, in some condition, ribosomes being directly connected to the annulate lamellar membrane, supposing a role in the process of protein synthesis. Cell membranes Nuclear envelope Rieger R. Michaelis A.; Green M. M. (1976). Glossary of genetics and ...
... , or karyopyknosis, is the irreversible condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell undergoing necrosis[1] or apoptosis.[2] It is followed by karyorrhexis, or fragmentation of the nucleus. Pyknosis (from Greek pyknono meaning "to thicken up, to close or to condense") is also observed in the maturation of erythrocytes (a red blood cell) and the neutrophil (a type of white blood cell). The maturing metarubricyte (a stage in RBC maturation) will condense its nucleus before expelling it to become a reticulocyte. The maturing neutrophil will condense its nucleus into several connected lobes that stay in the cell until the end of its cell life. Pyknotic nuclei are often found in the zona reticularis of the adrenal gland. They are also found in the keratinocytes of the outermost layer in parakeratinised epithelium. ...
The particle-size distribution (PSD) of a powder, or granular material, or particles dispersed in fluid, is a list of values or a mathematical function that defines the relative amount, typically by mass, of particles present according to size. Significant energy is usually required to disintegrate soil, etc. particles into the PSD that is then called a grain size distribution. The PSD of a material can be important in understanding its physical and chemical properties. It affects the strength and load-bearing properties of rocks and soils. It affects the reactivity of solids participating in chemical reactions, and needs to be tightly controlled in many industrial products such as the manufacture of printer toner, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. Particle size distribution can greatly affect the efficiency of any collection device. Settling chambers will normally only collect very large particles, those that can be separated using sieve trays. Centrifugal collectors will normally collect ...
Michael Elmhirst Cates FRS FRSE (born 5 May 1961) is a British physicist. He is the 19th Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge and has held this position since 1 July 2015. He was previously Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, and has held a Royal Society Research Professorship since 2007. His scientific work is varied, but focuses on the theory of soft matter, such as polymers, colloids, gels, liquid crystals, and granular material. A frequent goal is to create a mathematical model that predicts the stress in a flowing material as a functional of the flow history of that material. Such a mathematical model is called a constitutive equation. Recently he has worked on theories of active matter, particularly dense suspensions of self-propelled particles which can include motile bacteria. He is increasingly interested in fundamental field theories of active systems in which time-reversal symmetry (T-symmetry, and more generally CPT symmetry) is ...
Electron beam induced deposition Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM ... High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) Scanning electron ... A scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is a type of transmission electron microscope (TEM). Pronunciation is [stem ... "Optimizing the environment for sub-0.2 nm scanning transmission electron microscopy". J. Electron. Microsc. 50 (3): 219-226. ...
Transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing is a single-molecule sequencing technology that uses transmission electron ... High capital cost: A transmission electron microscope with sufficient resolution required for transmission electron microscopy ... In theory, transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing could provide extremely long read lengths, but the issue of electron ... Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) produces high magnification, high resolution images by passing a beam of electrons ...
Transmission electron microscopy. An electron micrograph of lung tissue from a joey at birth demonstrates ATII cells in situ ( ... Transmission electron microscopy. The appearance of the ATII cells in the wallaby is similar to that in other marsupials such ... Transmission electron microscopy. Tissue was prepared using the methods of Hayat (Hayat, 1970). The lungs were removed from the ... Dr Marilyn Henderson and Lyn Waterhouse at the Centre for Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis (CEMMSA) for their training and ...
A. Hara, T. Nishikava and T. Nishimoto, Transmission electron microscopy of WC-Co alloys. J. Jap. Soc. Powder and Powder Met., ... The analysis of dislocation structures in WC by electron microscopy Phys. Stat. Sol. 16A:615 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Ion beam thinning applied to electron microscopy of hardmetals Metall. Mater. Technol. 5:184 (1973).Google Scholar ... R. K. Viswanadham and T. S. Sun, Determination of fracture modes in cemented carbides by Auger electron spectroscopy, Scripta ...
A transmission electron microscopy study. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1983;158(4):1145-1159. [PMC free article] [ ... Electron microscopy of the leprosy bacillus: a study of submicroscopical structure. Tubercle. 1956;37(3):195-206. [PubMed] ... An electron microscopic study. Archives of Pathology. 1970;89(3):195-207. [PubMed] ... In contrast to M. tuberculosis, lipid inclusions (lipid bodies) seem to be rather exceptional in M. leprae [47]. The electron- ...
... with the help of transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry via CD34 antibody staining and light microscopy (H&E ... Human anterior cruciate ligament Collagen fibril thickness Transmission electron microscopy Blood vessel density CD34 antibody ... a transmission electron microscopy and immunochemistry-based observational study. ... A transmission electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study in 55 cases. Acta Orthop Scand 65(1):71-76CrossRefGoogle ...
Virus was detected in pustule swabs by transmission electron microscopy and PCR and confirmed by immunofluorescence assay, ... Transmission electron microscopy and cell culture-based diagnosis of monkeypox in patient in Israel, 2018. Virus particles were ... Transmission electron microscopy and cell culture-based diagnosis of monkeypox in patient in Israel, 2018. Virus particles were ... The virus was detected in pustule swab specimens by transmission electron microscopy and PCR within 3 hours of sample arrival ...
G. J. London and V. V. Damian, Texture, Bend and Electron Transmission Microscopy Studies on Rockly Flats Ingot Sheet Beryllium ... D. V. Miley, Bending Fatigue of Ingot-Source Sheet Beryllium, Dow Chemical Report No..RFP-1534 (October 1970).Google Scholar ... prior to 1970) are often obsolete. Block formerly showed about 1% elongation; it is now 3.0% minimum, usually about 4%. Sheet ...
63] H.P. Stevenson, et al., Use of transmission electron microscopy to identify. [26] E.F. Garman, R.L. Owen, Cryocooling and ... SLAC pixel array detector; FID, free interface diffusion; LCP, lipidic cubic phase; facility was built in the early 1970s and ... TEM, transmission electron microscopy; NTA, nanoparticle tracking analysis; GDVN, mand from both the scientic community and ... membrane proteins in LCP, puried protein at high concentration Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is another reliable. ( ...
Mandai AK, Sklar AH, Hudson JB: Transmission electron microscopy of urinary sediment in human acute renal failure. Kidney Int ... Read Online or Download Assessment of Urinary Sediment by Electron Microscopy: Applications in Renal Disease PDF ... Additional info for Assessment of Urinary Sediment by Electron Microscopy: Applications in Renal Disease ... Mandai AK: Electron Microscopy of the Kidney, ed. I. New York, Plenum Publishing Corp, 1979, pp 59-90. II. Leeson TS, Leeson CR ...
His research interests have always included using high resolution microscopy, both transmission electron microscopy and ... D. P. Allison, (1983). "Preparation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) for Electron Microscopy," Electron Microscopy, B. R. Jones, ... "The Construction and Operation of a Simple Inexpensive Slam Freezing Device for Electron Microscopy," J. Microscopy 147, 103-8. ... R. S. Stafford, D. P. Allison, and R. O. Rahn, (1975). "Detection by Electron Microscopy of Photo-Induced Denaturation in DNA ...
... with electron microscopy and received finally his diploma and doctoral degree on topics of electron microscopy and electron- ... Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy. Book Subtitle. An Introduction for Operators. Authors. * Jürgen Thomas ... Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy. An Introduction for Operators. Authors: Thomas, Jürgen, Gemming, Thomas ... He received his doctoral degree on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy in the group of Prof. Manfred Rühle at the ...
Using transmission electron microscopy, nuclear fusion in angiosperm zygotes was first observed in the pollinated ovaries of ... The progression of karyogamy was observed by fluorescence microscopy as mentioned above, and the zygotes, at appropriate ... 7C). To observe the initial connection between nuclear membranes, termed internuclear bridge, electron microscopic analysis is ... microscopy. K contains the merged images of I and J. L to N, A pollen grain expressing SUN2-GFP releasing its content in ...
... psittaci-infected L929 cells as viewed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (Matsumoto and Manire, 1970). They found that ... Additionally, confocal microscopy and cell fractionation analyses demonstrated that the secreted chlamydial T3S effectors, CopN ... Bragina, E. Y., Gomberg, M. A., and Dmitriev, G. A. (2001). Electron microscopic evidence of persistent chlamydial infection ... Electron microscopic observations on the effects of penicillin on the morphology of Chlamydia psittaci. J. Bacteriol. 101, 278- ...
Morphological analysis by transmission electron microscopy, demonstrated that in the presence of penicillin, C. psittaci ... For instance, by means of immunogold electron microscopy, aRBs have been observed for C. pneumoniae in atherosclerotic tissue ... suis by immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy in the gut of naturally infected pigs (Pospischil et al., 2009 ... Electron microscopic observations on the effects of penicillin on the morphology of Chlamydia psittaci. J. Bacteriol. 101, 278- ...
The first window and the second window are separated by a distance that is sufficiently small such that an electron beam that ... Both the first window and the second window are transparent to electrons of certain energies. The second window is positioned ... The present disclosure relates generally to transmission electron microscopy, more particularly to transmission electron ... Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of samples in liquid has a history stretching back as far as the earliest electron ...
Wilborn and Schneyer 1970; Hand and Ho 1981; Scott et al. 1990; Scott and Gunn 1991). To clarify whether apoptosis and ... Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Parotid Gland / cytology*, ultrastructure. Rats. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U ... Parotid glands were removed at 3, 7, 14 or 21 days, weighed, and examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ... Wilborn and Schneyer 1970; Hand and Ho 1981; Scott et al. 1990; Scott and Gunn 1991). To clarify whether apoptosis and ...
... scanning electron microscopy; TEM, transmission electron microscopy; VSV, vesicular stomatitis virus. ... To directly examine the membrane topology of viruses associated with filopodia, we performed transmission electron microscopy ( ... Electron microscopy. Cells were rinsed with serum-free buffer and then quick-fixed with 1% osmium tetroxide for 10 s, ... S2 C). Video microscopy revealed that clathrin-recruitment to surfing viruses was initiated as soon as the virus reached the ...
Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry - Routine transmission electron microscopy analysis was carried out to control the ... 2: transmission electron microscopy showing the general aspect of the 35,000 g pellet. It is possible to observe vesicles of ... All fractions were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and the serine protease activity was measured during the cell ... The fractionation methodology was also controlled by transmission electron microscopy. Nuclei and mitochondria in the resulting ...
In the case of non-equiaxed particles appearing in transmission electron microscopy in the form of small rods of width 1 and ... possible method of evaluating their diameter is by examination of thin blades of the alloy by transmission electron microscopy ... All the visible particles corresponding to the E phase have been previously checked by electron microdiffraction.. In order to ...
In transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin sections, a normal spherical pyrenoid is often encountered at a chance of 35% ... Electron microscopy revealed that the pyrenoid of cia6 mutant cells is highly disorganized. Complementation of the mutant ... E, Light microscopy of cia6 cells showing multiple pyrenoid or pyrenoid-like structure (asterisks). F, Electron micrograph ... The data shown are averages of 25 C. reinhardtii electron microscopy thin sections and a total of 300 particles counted. ...
... the pooled pallet to get the optical picture and then either fixed in Trumps solution for transmission electron microscopy (TEM ...
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a standard method for observing tissue ultrastructure,1,2 but installation of the ... Platinum blue as an alternative to uranyl acetate for staining in transmission electron microscopy. Arch Histol Cytol. 2007; 70 ... Methods: Injured cornea was observed under immunohistochemistry, LV-SEM, and transmission electron microscopy. In LV-SEM, ... Low vacuum scanning electron microscopy for paraffin sections utilizing the differential stainability of cells and tissues with ...
The tools I use in my research include transmission and scanning electron microscopy as well as light microscopy. I also ... B.A., Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 1970. Friday Hall 3013 , (910) 962-7264 , 601 South College Road, ...
Dynamics of Scan and Transmission Electron Microscopy, 1st ed. New York, John Wiley amp; Sons, 1974.Google Scholar ... Ghidoni, J. J. Light and electron microscopic study of primate liver 36 to 48 hours after high doses of 32 million electron ...
  • Time-resolved confocal microscopy aims to image protein distributions and functions in living cells , leading to conclusions about the functioning of proteins inside live cells. (justia.com)
  • Targeting of GluR1 and GluR5 at the dendritic tips of OFF-BCs in nob6 retinas was assessed by immunostaining and confocal microscopy. (arvojournals.org)
  • Electron tomography of single particles had been proposed by Hoppe and his co-workers , however, due to the radiation-sensitivity of biological macromolecules to electrons, it is not feasible to expose a biological molecule to the dose required to reveal the 3D structure from one hundred different projection images of the same molecule. (scirp.org)
  • 1970), Bogitsh (1975) and Clarkson and Erasmus (1984) have shown that either in vitro or in vivo administration of the drugs Astiban, Hycanthone, Lucanthone and Niridizole can precipitate morphological changes in the gastrodermis of schistosomes similar to changes resulting from starvation (Bogitsh, 1975). (scialert.net)
  • Coincidentally, 1908, the year in which Thomson was knighted, also saw the birth of Ellis Cosslett (FRS 1972), the physicist who came to the Cavendish 38 years later and was to become a pre-eminent figure in the promotion of electron microscopy in the twentieth century, and for its use in the biological sciences in particular. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Liu Y, Chen S, Zühlke L, Black GC, Choy MK, Li N and Keavney BD: Global birth prevalence of congenital heart defects 1970-2017: Updated systematic review and meta-analysis of 260 studies. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In 1925, Louis de Broglie first theorized the wave-like properties of an electron, with a wavelength substantially smaller than visible light. (wikipedia.org)
  • the wave nature of electrons was not fully realized until the publication of the De Broglie hypothesis in 1927. (readtiger.com)
  • The research group was unaware of this publication until 1932, when they quickly realized that the De Broglie wavelength of electrons was many orders of magnitude smaller than that for light, theoretically allowing for imaging at atomic scales. (readtiger.com)
  • When in 1924 the mathematician Louis de Broglie (ForMemRS 1953) demonstrated the wave-like properties of electrons, Cosslett, then a postgraduate student in Bristol, was intrigued, but the practical applications of the work had not yet been envisaged. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Directly interpretable Z-contrast imaging makes STEM imaging with a high-angle detector an appealing technique in contrast to conventional high resolution electron microscopy, in which phase-contrast effects mean that atomic resolution images must be compared to simulations to aid interpretation. (wikipedia.org)
  • At lower magnifications TEM image contrast is due to differential absorption of electrons by the material due to differences in composition or thickness of the material. (readtiger.com)
  • Electron microscopy opens a unique window into structures and processes in the liquid phase, as it provides a combination of temporal and spatial resolution that is not achievable with other techniques. (justia.com)
  • As it turns out, according to the Electrogenetics site, the "communication structures" and their "transmission cables" are not only liquid crystal substances but they also work electrically. (thunderbolts.info)
  • Around 1970, in a number of ground-breaking publications, the idea was introduced by the group of Aaron Klug in Cambridge of using images of highly symmetric protein assemblies such as helical assemblies or icosahedral viral capsids to actually calculate the three-dimensional (3D) structures of these assemblies. (scirp.org)
  • ETC) A series of biochemical reactions that couple a chemical reaction between an electron donor and an electron acceptor to the transfer of protons across a membrane. (citizendium.org)
  • In the 1970's, electron microscopy of focal adhesions revealed the close (~15 nm) association of the plasma membrane with the underlying substrate, and multiple filaments, mostly actin microfilaments, running along the cytoplasmic faces of the ventral membrane (Figure 1). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • 7 PAM and Pt staining are performed to enhance the backscattered electron signal of biological materials. (arvojournals.org)
  • The early development and blossoming of electron microscopy in the twentieth century are outlined with particular reference to biological applications, and the establishment and demise of facilities for the Faculty of Science in a London college are charted in relation to funding, staffing, and economic pressures. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Significant developments in micro-electrical-mechanical systems-based devices for use in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample holders have recently led to the commercialization of windowed gas cells that now enable the atomic-resolution visualization of phenomena occurring during gas-solid interactions at atmospheric pressure. (cambridge.org)
  • In 1858 Plücker observed the deflection of "cathode rays" ( electrons ) with the use of magnetic fields. (readtiger.com)
  • Poor agreement with measured consolute solution temperature and solvus is attributed to neglect of: (1) ordering of magnetic moments of cations in the tetrahedral sublattice antiparallel to the moments of those in the octahedral sublattice and (2) pair-wise electron hopping between octahedral site Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} ions. (unt.edu)
  • Synapsins (Syns) are synaptic vesicle (SV)-associated proteins involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity, which display a highly conserved ATP binding site in the central C-domain, whose functional role is unknown. (jneurosci.org)