Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Health Care Economics and Organizations: The economic aspects of health care, its planning, and delivery. It includes government agencies and organizations in the private sector.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Economics, Nursing: Economic aspects of the nursing profession.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Decision Theory: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.United StatesAnimal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Ethics, Institutional: The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Housing, AnimalEmbryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Aid to Families with Dependent Children: Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Urological Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of urogenital conditions and diseases such as URINARY INCONTINENCE; PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA; and ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Great BritainFoster Home Care: Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Uncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.Cost Allocation: The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Animals, LaboratoryBehavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Direct Service Costs: Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Animal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Handling (Psychology): Physical manipulation of animals and humans to induce a behavioral or other psychological reaction. In experimental psychology, the animal is handled to induce a stress situation or to study the effects of "gentling" or "mothering".Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Behavior Control: Manipulation of the behavior of persons or animals by biomedical, physical, psychological, or social means, including for nontherapeutic reasons.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.MarylandDatabases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Child, Abandoned: A child or adolescent who is deserted by parents or parent substitutes without regard for its future care.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.EuropeChild Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Mice, Inbred C57BLMaternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Economics, and Welfare. Dahl, Robert (2006) [1956]. A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN ... Dahl, Robert A. (1957). "The Concept of Power." Systems Research and Behavioral Science 2(3), 201-215. Dahl, Robert A. (1957 ... 1967), which presented pluralistic explanations for political rule in the United States. He was elected president of the ...
Arthur Cecil Pigou The Economics of Welfare, 4th ed. 1932 The Economics of Welfare Description: Pigou was the one of the most ... Description: A new and insightful handbook for advanced experimental and behavioral economics students. Importance: ... Principles of Economics, 8th ed., 1920. Influence: Standard text for generations of economics students. Paul A. Samuelson, 1948 ... Economics: An Introductory Analysis _____ and William D. Nordhaus Economics, 19th ed. McGraw-Hill. Importance:: Influential ...
In psychology and behavioral economics, the endowment effect (also known as divestiture aversion and related to the mere ... particularly in regard to welfare economics. He argues that the presence of an endowment effect indicates that a person has no ... Mere ownership effect Loss aversion Behavioral economics List of cognitive biases Sunk costs Transaction cost IKEA effect ... Economics Letters. 70 (2): 175-181. doi:10.1016/S0165-1765(00)00359-1. Kanngiesser, Patricia; Santos, Laurie R.; Hood, Bruce M ...
Economics and Human Welfare: Essays in Honor of Tibor Scitovsky, Academic Press, 1979 (editor). The Economics of Taxation, with ... Behavioral Simulations of Tax Policy, University of Chicago Press, 1983. "Optimal Tax Treatment of the Family," (with E. ... "Consumer Price Indexes", Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, D. Henderson, ed., Liberty Fund, Inc., Library of Economics and ... Economics and Human Welfare: Essays in Honor of Tibor Scitovsky, Academic Press, 1979. "Economic Factors Behind the Tax Revolt ...
During the year 1960-1961 he studied sociology at the London School of Economics. He has previously held positions at ... the extent to which economic advantages are inherited and the effects of welfare reform. Prior to his university career, he was ... Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, 1997-98 and 2001-02 Member of the National Academy of Education ... DC from 1963 to 1967. He is currently an editor of the American Prospect. Jencks was on the dissertation committee of former ...
Aaron is a graduate of the University of California, Los Angeles and holds a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. From ... From 1996-1997, Aaron was a Guggenheim Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford ... and Welfare and the next year he chaired the Advisory Council on Social Security. Aaron received the 2007 Robert M. Ball Award ... He has been vice-president and member of the executive committee of the American Economics Association and president of the ...
He was one of the most influential people in Israel in the creation and development of the Israeli welfare state over several ... Szold National Institute for Research in the Behavioral Sciences. Retrieved 14 April 2013. Michal, Bar. "Bureaucracy, politics ... Katz became acquainted with the acclaimed Professor Richard Titmuss of the London School of Economics. It was a meeting of ... Katz's consistent struggles for a welfare state were most often against the tide in Israeli politics, both in the days of the ...
She has published reports focusing on equity derivatives, index investing, exchange-traded funds, behavioral economics, ... Garnick is supportive of charities that advance the welfare of children, especially direct support to children who are ... Diane Garnick (born January 19, 1967) is an American investment manager. Diane is the Chief Income Strategist at TIAA and ...
... welfares, or votes. Much early work had aspects of both, and both fields use the tools of economics and game theory. Since ... it does not imply that all individuals act in accordance with the behavioral assumption made or that any one individual acts in ... a term akin to market failure from earlier theoretical welfare economics. A field that is closely related to public choice is ... The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Abstract. James M. Buchanan, 1990. "The Domain of Constitutional Economics," ...
Allan M. Feldman (3008). "welfare economics", The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract. • Mas-Colell, ... Noncooperative game theory has been adopted as a fundamental aspect of experimental economics, behavioral economics, ... Within economics, "econometrics" has often been used for statistical methods in economics, rather than mathematical economics. ... Robert M. Solow concluded that mathematical economics was the core "infrastructure" of contemporary economics: Economics is no ...
Robin Hahnel and Michael Albert A Quiet Revolution in Welfare Economics [email protected] (2006-11-05). "Workers ... In: International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, ed. Neil Smelser and Paul B. Baltes. Amsterdam: Pergamon ... Anarchist economics is the set of theories and practices of economics and economic activity within the political philosophy of ... Socialist economics has been associated with different schools of economic thought. Marxian economics provided a foundation for ...
Sweden and Britain were among the pioneers of a welfare state and books by Myrdal (Beyond the Welfare State - New Haven, 1958) ... The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty (2nd ed.). Liberty Fund. 2008. Gunnar Myrdal's ... This behavioral approach is narrowly connected to behavioralism and is built on the idea that the logical gulf between "is" and ... Beyond the Welfare State. Yale University Press, 1960. Challenge to Affluence. Random House, 1963. America and Vietnam - ...
His methodological innovations are used extensively in a variety of applied fields including labour economics, health economics ... The Role of Labor and Marriage Markets, Preference Heterogeneity and the Welfare System in the Life-Cycle Decisions of Black, ... "Michael Keane is a distinguished behavioral economist and econometrician and a world leader in choice modeling." "Prestigious ... experimental economics, and development economics. Tulin Erdem (Ph.D. 1993), who is the Leonard Stern Professor of Business at ...
... sociology Ecological Systems Theory Ecosemiotics Family and Consumer Science Green economy Home economics Human behavioral ... capital is the stock of materials or information stored in biodiversity that generates services that can enhance the welfare of ... In A Reconstruction of Economics, Wiley, New York. pp. 3-17. Boulding, K.E. 1966. Economics and Ecology. In Nature Environments ... Ecological economics is an economic science that extends its methods of valuation onto nature in an effort to address the ...
"Information, Economics of," International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp. 7480-7486. • Eric Rasmusen, ... including potential public-policy applications such as mechanism design to elicit information-sharing and otherwise welfare- ... "The Contributions of the Economics of Information to Twentieth Century Economics," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(4) , pp ... "Search, Economics of," International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp. 13760-13768. Abstract. Rothschild, ...
Welfare biology - Yew-Kwang Ng defines animal welfare in terms of welfare economics: "Welfare biology is the study of living ... Dawkins, M.S. (1990). "From an animal's point of view: Motivation, fitness and animal welfare". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. ... Animal welfare and rights in Brazil Animal welfare and rights in China Animal rights in Colombia Animal welfare in Egypt Animal ... welfare and rights in India Animal welfare and rights in Israel Animal welfare and rights in Japan Animal welfare and rights in ...
Gerard Debreu (1921-2004). The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty (2nd ed.). Liberty Fund. ... he worked at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford and devoted most of his time to the complex ... social choice and welfare. Cheltenham, UK Northampton, Massachusetts, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 9781840645699. Debreu ... Handbook of mathematical economics, Handbook of Economics Series, Amsterdam New York, New York: Elsevier North-Holland, pp. 697 ...
ASPE was established in 1966 in the Office of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare as the Office of the Assistant ... The Division of Behavioral Health and Intellectual Disabilities Policy is responsible for analysis, coordination, research and ... economics, demographics) and policies affecting the poor, particularly families with children who are poor or at-risk of being ... "2008 Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Main Page". Aspe.hhs.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-12. "Poverty Guidelines, Research, and ...
According to Edin, for "most welfare-reliant mothers food and shelter alone cost almost as much as these mothers received from ... Duke University Professor of Public Policy and Economics Sandy Darity, Jr. says, "There is no exact way of measuring poverty. ... Inability to afford this necessity can cause a chain reaction, including mental, health, and behavioral problems. Some women ... An analysis of the study by Kevin Drum suggests the American welfare state effectively reduces poverty among the elderly but ...
... and behavioral mathematics as it relates to operations), arms control and disarmament, and urban design. He has written more ... Applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process in Economics, Finance, Politics, Games and Sports, with Luis G. Vargas, ISBN 0- ... "The Possibility Of Group Welfare Functions" coauthored with Professor Luis G. Vargas, published in the International Journal of ... John Wiley 1973 Topics in Behavioral Mathematics, no ISBN, Mathematical Association of America 1981 Thinking with Models: ...
The Chicago School (economics) considers predatory pricing to be unlikely. However, in France Telecom SA v. Commission a ... Bork argued that both the original intention of antitrust laws and economic efficiency was the pursuit only of consumer welfare ... Behavioral Sciences, pp. 553-560. Abstract. Schumpeter, Joseph (1942) The Process of Creative Destruction Smith, Adam (1776) An ... Economics: Principles, Problems, and Policies. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2005. pp. 601-02 Smith (1776) Book I, Chapter 7, para ...
... in the broad sense of welfare, including programs such as Social Security). An embrace of Keynesian economics. By way of ... Part 2: The Changing Concept of Social Reform," Journal of the History of ohe Behavioral Sciences 1970 6(4): 317-34 Byron ... Modern classical liberals oppose the concepts of social democracy and the welfare state. In 1883 Lester Frank Ward (1841-1913) ... Iwan Morgan, "Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, and the new democratic economics." The Historical Journal 47#4 (2004): 1015-39. ...
... rationally pursuing value and utility through their conspicuous consumption are adherents of the school of behavioral economics ... while also having an interest in the general welfare of society at large. Veblen and other American institutionalists were ... in JSTOR "Professor Clark's Economics", QJE, 1906. in JSTOR "The Socialist Economics of Karl Marx and His Followers", (1906, ... With this, Veblen also critiqued the neoclassical beliefs of economics, which stated that economics were passive and ...
In most behavioral research endeavors, persons or patients are units of analysis, whereas in GT the unit of analysis is the ... European journal of economics, finance and administrative sciences (15). Grbich, c. (2007). Qualitative data analysis and ... and education and less so among other social-psychological-oriented disciplines such as social welfare, psychology, sociology, ... and economics to name a few. Grounded theory has gone global among the disciplines of nursing, business, ...
... (1867-1947). The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty (2nd ed.). Liberty Fund. ... He edited the Yale Review from 1896 to 1910 and was active in many learned societies, institutes, and welfare organizations. He ... 1954 A History of Economic Analysis (1954) Thaler, Richard, 1999, "Irving Fisher: Behavioral Economist,[permanent dead link]" ... On the other hand, his monetary economics did and this grew to be the main focus of Fisher's mature work. It was Fisher who ( ...
In this form, drawing on behavioral economics, the nudge is more generally applied to influence behaviour. One of the most frequently cited examples of a nudge is the etching of the image of a housefly into the men's room urinals at Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport, which is intended to "improve the aim".[16]. Nudging techniques aim to use judgmental heuristics to our advantage. In other words, a nudge alters the environment so that when heuristic, or System 1, decision-making is used, the resulting choice will be the most positive or desired outcome.[42] An example of such a nudge is switching the placement of junk food in a store, so that fruit and other healthy options are located next to the cash register, while junk food is relocated to another part of the store.[43]. In 2008, the United States appointed Sunstein, who helped develop the theory, as administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs.[41][44][45]. Notable ...
In psychology, a dual process theory provides an account of how thought can arise in two different ways, or as a result of two different processes. Often, the two processes consist of an implicit (automatic), unconscious process and an explicit (controlled), conscious process. Verbalized explicit processes or attitudes and actions may change with persuasion or education; though implicit process or attitudes usually take a long amount of time to change with the forming of new habits. Dual process theories can be found in social, personality, cognitive, and clinical psychology. It has also been linked with economics via prospect theory and behavioral economics, and increasingly in sociology through cultural analysis. The foundations of dual process theory likely comes from William James. He believed that there were two different kinds of thinking: associative and true reasoning. James theorized that empirical ...
Take 5, amongst other candy bar products often included cocoa butter, a fat derived from the cocoa bean. However, beginning in 2006 the price for cocoa butter began to increase dramatically, by 2008 the price per ton had increased from $4,000 to $8,100.[2] This placed pressure on Hershey and other chocolate manufacturers to reduce costs. Staple products such as the Reese's peanut butter cups and Hershey's Kisses were not affected by the price change, but second and third tier products saw a change in their composition, cocoa butter was substituted with other cheaper products, such as vegetable and sesame seed oil.[3] However, in the end of 2014, The Hershey Company changed the formulation back to "milk chocolate". The new coating meets the FDA definition of milk chocolate that only allows the use of cocoa butter and milk fat. At the beginning of 2016, Hershey partnered with a panel of "diverse millennial-aged students" to design a new wrapper and logo for the candy as part of a comeback ...
The French minister of education appointed a panel headed by Jean-Paul Fitoussi to inquire into economics teaching.[8] In 2000, the panel called for limited reform.[9]. Articles associated with the movement were published in the Post-Autistic Economics Newsletter from September 2000. This electronic newsletter became the post-autistic economics review and, since 2008, has existed as the peer-reviewed journal real-world economics review.[10]. Several responses to the French students' open letter were also published in Le Monde. A counter-petition signed by 15 French economists was published in October 2000.[11] Robert Solow adhered to the "main thesis" of the French students' petition, but criticised the "opaque and almost incomprehensible" debate that followed among academics.[12] Olivier Blanchard also published a response defending mainstream ...
While most research on decision making tends to focus on individuals making choices outside of a social context, it is also important to consider decisions that involve social interactions. The types of situations that decision theorists study are as diverse as altruism, cooperation, punishment, and retribution. One of the most frequently utilized tasks in social decision making is the prisoner's dilemma. In this situation, the payoff for a particular choice is dependent not only on the decision of the individual but also on that of another individual playing the game. An individual can choose to either cooperate with his partner or defect against the partner. Over the course of a typical game, individuals tend to prefer mutual cooperation even though defection would lead to a higher overall payout. This suggests that individuals are motivated not only by monetary gains but also by some reward derived from cooperating in social situations. This idea is supported by neural imaging studies ...
where µ is the mean, ν is the median, and σ is the standard deviation, the skewness is defined in terms of this relationship: positive/right nonparametric skew means the mean is greater than (to the right of) the median, while negative/left nonparametric skew means the mean is less than (to the left of) the median. However, the modern definition of skewness and the traditional nonparametric definition do not in general have the same sign: while they agree for some families of distributions, they differ in general, and conflating them is misleading.. If the distribution is symmetric, then the mean is equal to the median, and the distribution has zero skewness.[2] If, in addition, the distribution is unimodal, then the mean = median = mode. This is the case of a coin toss or the series 1,2,3,4,... Note, however, that the converse is not true in general, i.e. zero skewness does not imply that the mean is equal to the median.. Paul T. von Hippel points out: "Many textbooks, teach a rule of thumb ...
Late in the 19th century, Richards convened a group of contemporaries to discuss the essence of domestic science and how the elements of this discipline would ultimately improve the quality of life for many individuals and families. They met at pristine Lake Placid, New York at the invitation of Melvil Dewey. Over the course of the next 10 years, these educators worked tirelessly to elevate the discipline, which was to become home economics, to a legitimate profession. Richards wanted to call this oekology or the science of right living. Euthenics, the science of controllable environment, was also a name of her choice, but "home economics" was ultimately chosen as the official term in 1899.[4] Richards then founded the American Home Economics Association (now called the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences) in 1909.[4] In the 1910s the AHEA won passage of two crucial pieces of legislation ...
The Open Science Framework (OSF) is an open source software project that facilitates open collaboration in science research. This framework was used to work on a project in the reproducibility of psychology research.[9][10] The current reproducibility project is a crowdsourced empirical investigation of the reproducibility of a variety of studies from psychological literature. The reproducibility project samples from three major journals: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Psychological Science, and Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.[11] Scientists from all over the world volunteer to replicate a study of their choosing from these journals, and follow a structured protocol for designing and conducting a high-powered replication of the key effect. The results were published in 2015.[12] Whilst OSF initially focused on psychology, it has since broadened into any research field.[13] In 2016 the group released three new open source preprint services ...
... refers to the idea that self-control or willpower draws upon a limited pool of mental resources that can be used up. When the energy for mental activity is low, self-control is typically impaired, which would be considered a state of ego depletion. In particular, experiencing a state of ego depletion impairs the ability to control oneself later on. A depleting task requiring self-control can have a hindering effect on a subsequent self-control task, even if the tasks are seemingly unrelated. Self-control plays a valuable role in the functioning of the self on both individualistic and interpersonal levels. Ego depletion is therefore a critical topic in experimental psychology, specifically social psychology, because it is a mechanism that contributes to the understanding of the processes of human self-control. There have both been studies to support and to question the validity of ego-depletion as a theory. The word "ego" in "ego depletion" is used in the "psychological" sense ...
In neoclassical economics, the value of an object or service is often seen as nothing but the price it would bring in an open and competitive market. This is determined primarily by the demand for the object relative to supply in a perfectly competitive market. Many neoclassical economic theories equate the value of a commodity with its price, whether the market is competitive or not. As such, everything is seen as a commodity and if there is no market to set a price then there is no economic value. In classical economics, the value of an object or condition is the amount of discomfort/labor saved through the consumption or use of an object or condition (Labor Theory of Value). Though exchange value is recognized, economic value is not, in theory, dependent on the existence of a market and price and value are not seen as equal. This is complicated, however, by the efforts of classical economists to connect price and labor value. Karl Marx, ...
Within mainstream economics, non-Keynesian economists, particularly neoclassical economists, criticize this theory on three principal grounds. The first criticism is that, following Say's law and the related circle of ideas, if demand slackens, prices will fall (barring government intervention), and the resulting lower price will stimulate demand (though at lower profit or cost - possibly even lower wages). This criticism in turn has been questioned by New Keynesian economists, who reject Say's law and instead point to evidence of sticky prices as a reason why prices do not fall in recession; this remains a debated point. The second criticism is that savings represent loanable funds, particularly at banks, assuming the savings are held at banks, rather than currency itself being held ("stashed under one's mattress"). Thus an accumulation of savings yields an increase in potential lending, which will lower interest rates and stimulate borrowing. So a decline in consumer ...
In 1978, Hall changed the direction of research on consumption by showing that under rational expectations, consumption should be a martingale.[7] Prior to this, influenced by Milton Friedman's permanent income hypothesis under adaptive expectations, economists had expected past income to affect current consumption by altering individuals' expectations about their permanent income.[8] Instead, Hall's theory pointed to a relation between current consumption and expected future income, which implied that consumption should only change when there is surprising news about income. This, in turn, implies that changes in consumption should be unpredictable (which is called the 'martingale' property in statistics). Hall surprised the macroeconomic profession by providing evidence that consumption was, in fact, unpredictable. Subsequent evidence has shown that consumption is more predictable than he claimed,[9] but ever since Hall's paper most empirical research on consumption has taken the martingale ...
... (Urdu: معین الدین احمد قریشی‎; 26 June 1930 - 22 November 2016) (known as Moeen Qureshi) was a Pakistani economist and civil servant who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan in an acting capacity from July to October 1993. Qureshi also served as the senior vice president of World Bank. Moeenuddin Ahmad Qureshi was born in Lahore, Punjab, British India, on 26 June 1930. He hailed from a distinguished family that was originally from Kasur. His father, Mohyeddin Ahmad Qureshi, was a civil servant in the British government and his mother, Khursheed Jabin, was a housewife. He attended the Islamia College in Lahore and made a transfer to the Government College University in Lahore where he gained B.A. (Honors) in Economics and received an M.A. in Economics from the Punjab University. He received the Fulbright scholarship and went to the United States to attend the Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, where he earned a PhD in ...
Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2012). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children affected by sexual abuse or ... Sydney: Adults Surviving Child Abuse & Pegasus Economics.. *Kezelman, C., & Stavropoulos, P. (2012). The last frontier: ... Home » Publications » Trauma-informed care in child/family welfare services » References. Trauma-informed care in child/family ... Jennings, A. (2004). Models for developing trauma-informed behavioral health systems and trauma-specific services. Rockville, ...
He is a graduate of UCLA and holds a PhD in economics from Harvard University. He taught at the University of Maryland from ... During the academic year 1996-97 he was a Guggenheim Fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences at ... Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Chairman, Advisory Council on ... He is a graduate of UCLA and holds a PhD in economics from Harvard University. He taught at the University of Maryland from ...
Economics, and Welfare. Dahl, Robert (2006) [1956]. A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN ... Dahl, Robert A. (1957). "The Concept of Power." Systems Research and Behavioral Science 2(3), 201-215. Dahl, Robert A. (1957 ... 1967), which presented pluralistic explanations for political rule in the United States. He was elected president of the ...
Wise, David A. 1992 Topics in the Economics of Aging. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Wiseman, Michael 1993 Welfare ... American Behavioral Scientist 35(3). . REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 467 Kundu, A., and T.E. Smith 1983 An impossibility theorem ... Report to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare ... Gueron, Judith M. 1987 Reforming Welfare with Work. Occasional Paper 2. Project on Social Welfare and the American Future. New ...
1972-1977: Associate Professor of Economics 1977-1987: Professor of Economics 1987-date: Professor of Economics and History ... "Growth and Welfare in the American South of the Nineteenth Century," with Roger L. Ransom. Explorations in Economic History 16 ... Center for Social and Behavioral Science Research University of California, Riverside 1970-1971: Ford Research Fellow, Ford ... Professor of Economics and History, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley Director, Institute of Business ...
Were the Ordinalists Wrong About Welfare Economics? Journal of Economic Literature 22 (June): 507-530.Google Scholar ... Rational Fools: A Critique of the Behavioral Foundations of Economic Theory. Philosophy and Public Affairs 6 (4) (Summer): 317- ... Pigou, Arthur C. 1946 (1920). The Economics of Welfare, 4th edn. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar ... Economics, Ethics, and Environmental Policy. In Economics, Ethics, and Environmental Policy: Contested Choices, ed. Daniel W. ...
Arthur Cecil Pigou The Economics of Welfare, 4th ed. 1932 The Economics of Welfare Description: Pigou was the one of the most ... Description: A new and insightful handbook for advanced experimental and behavioral economics students. Importance: ... Principles of Economics, 8th ed., 1920. Influence: Standard text for generations of economics students. Paul A. Samuelson, 1948 ... Economics: An Introductory Analysis _____ and William D. Nordhaus Economics, 19th ed. McGraw-Hill. Importance:: Influential ...
SEE ALSO Austrian Economics; Bentham, Jeremy; Capitalism; Competition; Economics, Classical; Free Trade; Government; Hayek, ... Smith believed that individual welfare rather than national power was the correct goal; he thus advocated that trade should be ... or behavioral irrationalities) rely on a variant of these basic criticisms that have been leveled since the beginning of the ... Home Social Sciences and the Law Economics, Business, and Labor Economics: Terms and Concepts laissez-faire ...
This buy Health Economics (Pharmacy Business Administration flies an scan of a Cochrane Review forward posted in 2007 and taken ... 2600: buy Health Economics (Pharmacy Business Administration Series) Sensitization Study, 2003. Ministry of Health and Welfare ... They encode to secure everywhere behavioral and , requiring lost steroids watched by their gene and ensure satellite to ... This buy Health Economics is rigidly the Images that change up the perspective assay. For the IP buy Health Economics (Pharmacy ...
97-108 The Rise of Behavioral Economics in Regulatory Policy: Rational Choice or Cognitive Limitation?. by Timothy J. Brennan * ... 99-119 Economies as an Antitrust Defense Revisited: The Welfare Trade-offs and Safe Harbors. by Kam Hon Chu * 121-138 Do ... 157-162 A Review of Insurance and Behavioral Economics: Improving Decisions in the Most Misunderstood Industry. by Peter ... 109-118 Technology and Competition Economics. by Stephen P. King * 119-129 Economics and Antitrust Enforcement: The Last 25 ...
Single mothers and their children: Evaluating a work-encouraging welfare reform. Journal of Public Economics, VOL 167, NOVEMBER ... Demand for childhood vaccination: Insights from behavioral economics. Forum for Development Studies, 2010, 33(1): 349-364 ... NHH Norwegian School of Economics. Phone. (+47) 55 95 90 00. Address. NHH, Helleveien 30, 5045 Bergen, Norway. ... Social Choice and Welfare, December 2017. , Volume 49, Issue 3-4, pp 709-719 ...
Behavioral and emotional problems in Chinese adolescents: parent and teacher reports. Child and adolescent psychiatry, 2001, 40 ... Therefore, social welfare, healthy family/friendship, and caring for adolescents individuality are important for healthy ... As a result, the interdisciplinary efforts among families, health, industry, education, and economics could be directed towards ... improving the economic conditions and increasing the job opportunities, social welfare services for more recreational ...
See James M. Buchanan, "Positive Economics, Welfare Economics, and Political Economy," Journal of Law and Economics 2 (October ... The analysis is extended to behavioral rigidities in nonhuman species. See Heiners "Uncertainty, Rules, and Behavior: A Theory ... William J. Baumol, Welfare Economics and the Theory of the State (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952). ... See Arnold Harberger, "Three Basic Postulates for Applied Welfare Economics," Journal of Economic Literature 9 (September 1971 ...
In O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (Eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics (pp. 103-204). Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar ... Rindfuss, R. R., Brewster, K. L., & Kavee, A. L. (1996). Women, work, and children: Behavioral and attitudinal change in the ... The life circumstances and development of children in welfare families: A profile based on national survey data. In L. Chase- ... Washington, DC: Center for the Family of the American Home Economics Association.Google Scholar ...
"Positive Economics, Welfare Economics, and Political Economy," Journal of Law and Economics 2 (October 1959): 124-38. In Fiscal ... "Toward Analysis of Closed Behavioral Systems," in Theory of Public Choice: Political Applications of Economics, ed. James M. ... The Economics of Rights, Cooperation, and Welfare, by Robert Sugden (Oxford/New York: Basil Blackwell, 1986). Economics and ... "Economics as a Public Science," in Foundations of Research in Economics: How Do Economists Do Economics? ed. Steven G. Medema ...
Essays on behavioral economics by George Katona( Book ). 7 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 571 WorldCat ... Income and welfare in the United States, a study by University of Michigan( Book ). 20 editions published in 1962 in English ... Economics) Cost and standard of living Discriminant analysis--Computer programs Economics Economics--Psychological aspects ... The economics of personal choice by James N Morgan( Book ). 6 editions published between 1980 and 1993 in English and held by ...
Olson, E. E. (1979) The impact of behavioral and technical information interventions on industrial R. 5 D. projects. Final ... Mann, M. G. and Wilson, T. D. eds. (1974) Forum on social welfare library/information research ... Report of proceedings, ... limited information ... in economics generally means lack of information about the precise value of a given set of variables ... Paisley, W. J. (1965) The flow of (behavioral) science information; a review of the research literature. Stanford: Institute ...
In some in-group behavioral sense, these goods are "free." No problem arises in distributing any given supply among individual ... Welfare, and the Theory of Games," Journal of Political Economy, LXX (June 1962), 241-62]. ... Neoclassical economics provides a theory of the demand for and the supply of private goods. But what does "theory" mean in this ... Marshallian economics is essentially a theory of the demand for and the supply of private goods, and of the institutions ( ...
"Market Efficiency, Long-Term Returns, and Behavioral Finance," Journal of Financial Economics, 49 (September 1998), 283-306. ... "The Effects of a Firms Investment and Financing Decisions on the Welfare of Its Securityholders," American Economic Review ( ... "Market Efficiency, Long-Term Returns, and Behavioral Finance," Journal of Financial Economics, 49 (September 1998), 283-306. ... Research Papers in Economics currently ranks Professor Fama as one of the top 20 most influential economists of all time.[i] ...
Behavioral Economics. ... I - Health, Education, and Welfare , I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, ... Sumner, W. (1996). Welfare, happiness, and ethics. Oxford: Claredon Press.. Urry, H.L., J.B. Nitschke, I. Dolski, D.C. Jackson ... Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2007-44. OECD (2007), Society at a Glance: OECD Social Indicators 2006, ... Ateca-Amestoy, V. , R. Serrano-del-Rosal, and E. Vera-Toscano (2008), The leisure experience, The Journal of Socio-Economics 37 ...
Bell Journal of Economics 10: 92-116.. Griliches, Zvi. 1992. The Search for R&D Spillovers. Scandinavian Journal of Economics ... Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention. In The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity, ed. Richard R ... Until relatively recently at least, research on the social and behavioral aspects of birth control has been regarded as taboo ... The Economics of Technological Change. New York: Norton, 1968.. Moore, Gordon E. "Some Personal Reflections on Research in the ...
257.) See A.C. PIGOU, THE ECONOMICS OF WELFARE 176 (4th ed. 1932) (stating that "[i]t may happen that the expenditures on ... rejecting behavioral economics). (57.) See Robert Pitofsky, Beyond Nader: Consumer Protection and the Regulation of Advertising ... 1, 2 (1978) [hereinafter Dixit & Norman, Advertising and Welfare]; Avinash Dixit & Victor D. Norman, Advertising and Welfare: ... For harm to consumer welfare, rather than total welfare, as the proper standard, see John B. Kirkwood & Robert H. Lande, The ...
endogenous elements, in the sense of partly reflecting behavioral responses of private. agents to various welfare-state ... Economics vol. 3A , Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.. 27. Browning, M., L. P. Hansen, and J. J. Heckman, 1999. "Micro Data ... welfare-state arrangements, it may also to some extent be regarded as an endogenous. adjustment to the welfare state itself. ... the financial sustainability of the modern welfare state.. The modern welfare state was consolidated during a period - ...
  • He has been a member of the visiting committee of the Harvard Medical and Dental Schools and of the Harvard Department of Economics. (brookings.edu)
  • The economic revolution in antitrust that took hold in the Supreme Court in the late 1970s and the 1980s was brought on at least in part by Robert Bork's analysis of the original understanding of the Sherman Act.5 In * Commissioner, Federal Trade Commission, and Professor (on leave), George Mason University School of Law and Department of Economics. (paperity.org)
  • In 1969, Head Start was transferred to the Office of Child Development in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (later the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)) by the Nixon Administration . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, kin altruism can be disrupted if there is local competition over resources because this can lead to competition among nondispersing relatives, reducing or negating the effects of relatedness on promoting altruism ( Boyd, 1982 , Frank, 1998 , Hamilton, 1967 ). (ethology.ru)
  • Influential multi-level, best-selling principles textbook that popularized neoclassical synthesis of Keynesian economics and neoclassical economics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The title, "The Demand and Supply of Public Goods," has been selected to emphasize those features that set the book apart from orthodox public finance and at the same time tie it to neoclassical economics. (econlib.org)
  • Within the framework of orthodox (neoclassical) economics, in particular, this idea has been largely perverted to signify a mere (quantitative) compromise between economic growth and the need of environmental protection [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Online version Description: Elaborates, clarifies and corrects previous theories, and adds important new concepts Importance: Breakthrough, influence (esp on Marx), broadened scientific foundations of economics Karl Marx Das Kapital, 1867 Das Kapital on Wikisource Annotations, Explanations and Clarifications to Capital. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9. Jules Coleman, "The Foundations of Constitutional Economics," in Constitutional Economics: Containing the Economic Powers of Government, ed. (econlib.org)
  • We began by indicating that the second part of the title was inspired by , in which two Nobel laureates in economics, Kenneth Arrow and Daniel McFadden, coauthored with other economists, public health scientists, physicians, hospital administrators, and domain experts from industry and government to delineate in 2009 essential foundations for successful reform of the US health care system. (scirp.org)
  • The behavior expected of sellers of medical care is different from that of business men in general … His behavior is supposed to be governed by a concern for the customer's welfare which would not be expected of a salesman ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Nearly all records contain nonevaluative summaries, and all records from 1967 to the present are indexed using the Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms. (psu.edu)
  • And soon you were working with psychologists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky Long-time collaborators who developed many of the fundamental psychological concepts behind behavioral economics. (minneapolisfed.org)
  • Therefore, social welfare, healthy family/friendship, and caring for adolescents' individuality are important for healthy adolescence. (who.int)
  • *3 The contrast with Samuelson's much more overt (if incomplete) normative treatment, with the independently derived "social welfare function" as an express articulation of the "ethical observer's optimum," is worth noting. (econlib.org)
  • Social preferences are important inputs into broader measures of social welfare and enter many realms of decision-making. (pnas.org)
  • We argue here that these mechanisms include the ability to care about the welfare of others (other-regarding concerns), to "feel into" others (empathy), and to understand, adhere to, and enforce social norms (normativity). (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, the principle of revealed preferences arising in micro-economics theory is used to parse datasets to determine if social sensors are utility maximizers and then determine their utility functions. (aimsciences.org)
  • Par conséquent, la protection sociale, une famille/des amis bien portants et l'attention accordée à l'individualité des adolescents sont essentiels pour garantir une adolescence en bonne santé. (who.int)
  • During the academic year 1996-97 he was a Guggenheim Fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. (brookings.edu)
  • After a review of recent developments in precision medicine, population health sciences and innovative clinical trial designs, and in health economics and policy, we show how innovations in health analytics can capitalize on the advances in biomedicine and health economics towards developing a data-driven and cost-effective 21st century health care system. (scirp.org)
  • Product innovation and tobacco/nicotine bio-behavioral, epidemiological and public health sciences demonstrate that low nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Laissez-faire, Frank Knight (1885 - 1972) declared, " simply means freedom, in the particular case of economic policy: freedom of economic conduct from dictation by government " ([1967] 1999, p. 435). (encyclopedia.com)
  • More recent related discussion is contained in James M. Buchanan, "Sources of Opposition to Constitutional Reform," in Constitutional Economics: Containing the Economic Powers of Government, ed. (econlib.org)
  • Public Finance in Democratic Process: Fiscal Institutions and Individual Choice (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1967). (libertyfund.org)
  • Theory of Public Choice: Political Applications of Economics (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1972). (libertyfund.org)
  • Anarchy, State and Public Choice NEW THINKING IN POLITICAL ECONOMY Series Editor: Peter J. Boettke George Mason University, USA New Thinking in Political Economy aims to encourage scholarship in the intersection of the disciplines of politics, philosophy and economics. (b-ok.org)
  • Our findings provide a relevant contribution to the experimental and theoretical efforts toward the identification of basic behavioral phenotypes in a wider set of contexts without aprioristic assumptions regarding the rules or strategies behind actions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Section 3 reviews some concurrent developments in health economics and ongoing politico-economic debates about health care reform. (scirp.org)
  • The implementation of welfare reform in North Carolina provided an excellent opportunity to explore theories of welfare reform implementation and theories of bureaucratic power. (mellenpress.com)
  • While welfare reform implementation proceeded smoothly in many states, the unique political climate in North Carolina forced a more transparent view of bureaucratic development and growing political independence. (mellenpress.com)
  • The Discovery of Grounded Theory (1967) was published simultaneously in the United States and the United Kingdom, because of which the theory became well known among qualitative researchers and graduate students of those countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • These notions have far-reaching applications in consumer choice theory and impact the welfare of human and animal populations. (pnas.org)
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  • Blanchflower, D.G. and A.J. Oswald (2008b), Hypertension and happiness across nations, Journal of Health Economics 27, 218-233. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We also show that this outreach has the benefit of bringing in new insights and techniques to address the constraints and complexities of the problems and challenges in health economics. (scirp.org)
  • While these two sections touch on the second and third fields "economics" and "medicine" in the title, Section 4 describes recent developments in health analytics, the first field in the title. (scirp.org)
  • Washington] National Clearinghouse on Aging, SCAN: Service Center for Aging Information, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare/Administration on Aging. (upenn.edu)
  • Marc Sprenger, Director of Antimicrobial Resistance Secretariat at the WHO, opened the workshop emphasizing the importance of education, action, behavioral change and political commitment in combating AMR from a global perspective. (wfpha.org)
  • Behavioral studies that aim to evaluate the role of risk attitudes in contexts of this type, therefore, require tools for measuring individual risk tolerance. (philpapers.org)
  • Soon the Court would determine more specifically that the "Congress designed the Sherman Act as a 'consumer welfare prescription,'"8 and that "[a] restraint that has the effect of reducing the importance of consumer preference in setting price and output is not consistent with this fundamental goal of antitrust law. (paperity.org)