Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.PolysaccharidesPhotosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cellvibrio: A genus of aerobic, gram-negative, motile, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.GlucuronidaseCotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Glycoside HydrolasesLight: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Chara: A genus of green plants in the family CHARACEAE, phylum STREPTOPHYTA. They have a strong garlic-like odor and are an important food source for waterfowl.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Plasmodesmata: Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Xanthomonas campestris: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is pathogenic for plants.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Plant Tumor-Inducing Plasmids: Plasmids coding for proteins which induce PLANT TUMORS. The most notable example of a plant tumor inducing plasmid is the Ti plasmid found associated with AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Vicia faba: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Rubia: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. The root is a source of red dyes (madder color and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione) and ANTHRAQUINONES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Lilium: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Geminiviridae: A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Pectobacterium chrysanthemi: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.Taxus: Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).Chenopodiaceae: The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.Pollen Tube: A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Magnaporthe: A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.Tylenchoidea: A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.Piromyces: A genus of fungi in the family Neocallimasticaceae, order NEOCALLIMASTICALES, containing uniflagellate zoospores.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Journal of Cell Biology. 27 (2): 1A-149A. JSTOR 1604673.. *^ Kiernan, J. A. (2000). "Formaldehyde, formalin, paraformaldehyde ... "Plant Cell. 20 (6): 1504-18. doi:10.1105/tpc.107.056903. PMC 2483367. PMID 18667640.. ... "Journal of Cell Biology. 30 (2): 424-432. doi:10.1083/jcb.30.2.424. PMC 2106998. PMID 4165523.. ... Epidermal cells from the inner surface of an onion flake. Beneath the shagreen-like cell walls one can see nuclei and small ...
The Molecular Biology of Plant Cells. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03465-1. LCCN 77-73503. Park, Roderic B. ( ... Allaby, Michael (1998). "quantasome". A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198608912. OCLC ... Sauer, Kenneth (May 1965). "Molecular Orientation in Quantasomes". Biophysical Journal. 5 (3): 337-348. doi:10.1016/s0006-3495( ...
Hormones, Signals and Target Cells in Plant Development (Developmental and Cell Biology Series no. 41) (Cambridge University ... Annals of Botany 101: 267-276 (pdf) Osborne, D. J. (1984). "Concepts of target cells in plant differentiation". Cell ... Her research focused on plant hormones, seed biology and plant DNA repair. She is best known for her work on the gas ethylene, ... This work led her to develop the idea of the target cell as a model for how a small number of plant hormones can exert many ...
Plant Cell. 7: 773-783. doi:10.1105/tpc.7.6.773. PMC 160831 . PMID 12242384. Kues, U.; Casselton, LA. (1992). "Fungal mating ... 1998). "Molecular genetics of mating recognition in basidiomycete fungi". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 62: 55-70 ... "Plant Sciences Staff Professor Lorna A. Casselton". Archived from the original on 28 February 2012. Staff. "Honorary Graduates ... She was Professor Emeritus of Fungal Genetics in the Department of Plant Science at the University of Oxford, and was known for ...
... is the expansion of fungal, algal or higher plant cells or organs leading to a twisted (i.e. helical) cell or ... Helical growth typically results in the breaking of (usually radial) symmetry (biology). Resulting shapes may be left-handed or ... Helical growth is the expansion of fungal, algal or higher plant cells or organs that leads to twisted growth of plants Goriely ... Most twining plants show right-handed helices regardless of the hemisphere the plant is growing in. A missense mutation in the ...
The plant shows glandular trichomes. They are unicellular, without a specialized basal cell. They have a cutinized cell wall ... Plant Biology. doi:10.1111/plb.12328. Webb, D.A., Parnell, J. and Doogue, D. 1996. An Irish Flora. Dundalgan Press (W.Tempest) ... "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 20 November 2014. "Non-native Freshwater Plants: Hairy Willow- ... It is a tall, perennial plant, reaching up to 2 metres in height. The robust stems are profusely hairy with soft spreading ...
"Sex Determination in Flowering Plants". The Plant Cell. American Society of Plant Biologists. 5 (10): 1241-1251. doi:10.1105/ ... Molecular Cell Biology (Fourth ed.). WH Freeman and Co. ISBN 0-7167-4366-3. 14.1. Cell-Type Specification and Mating-Type ... Tanurdzic, M.; Banks, J. A. (2004). "Sex-Determining Mechanisms in Land Plants". The Plant Cell. 16 (Suppl): S61-S71. doi: ... Because plants are immobile, they depend upon passive methods for transporting pollen grains to other plants. Many plants, ...
Hold water in plant cells. *Keep the internal hydrostatic pressure or turgor steady in a cell. In land plants, this holds the ... In Discoveries in Plant Biology: v. 1. World Scientific Publishing. *↑ Jezbera Jan, Karel Hornak, Karel Simek (2005). "Food ... They are much more important in plant and fungus cells than in animal cells. Some common jobs of a vacuole are to: *Hold waste ... The central vacuole is a cellular organelle found in plant cells. It is often the largest organelle in the cell. It is ...
Plant morphology Plant physiology Raven, P. H.; Evert, R. F. and Eichhorn, S. E. (2005) Biology of Plants (7th edition) W. H. ... "the lower plants all consist of one cell, while the higher plants are composed of (many) individual cells" thus confirming and ... Evert, Ray Franklin and Esau, Katherine (2006) Esau's Plant anatomy: meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body - their ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants. Originally it included plant ...
"Soviet Biology". Chouard, P (1960). "Vernalization and its relations to dormancy". Annual Review of Plant ... Amasino, R. (2004). "Vernalization, competence, and the epigenetic memory of winter". The Plant Cell. 16 (10): 2553-59. doi: ... Another area Lysenko found himself interested in was the effect of heat on plant growth. He believed that every plant needed a ... For example, he claimed that plants are self-sacrificing − they do not die to a lack of sunlight or moisture, but instead die ...
"Mitochondria, Cell Energy, ATP Synthase". Retrieved 2017-11-12. "ATP Synthesis". Plants in Action. Retrieved ... Biology Chromosome Gene Genetics Nucleic acid sequence Nucleobase "Nucleotides and Bases - Genetics Generation". Genetics ... In the cell, this reaction is often coupled with unfavourable reactions to provide the energy for them to proceed. GTP is ... TTP is not a substrate for nucleic acid synthesis, so it is not synthesized in the cell. Instead, dTTP is made indirectly from ...
Significance for plant molecular biologyEdit. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome formation is initiated by the ... Hairs on plants growing in areas subject to frost keep the frost away from the living surface cells. In windy locations, hairs ... Plant trichomesEdit. Sticky trichomes of a carnivorous plant, Drosera capensis with a trapped insect, contain proteolytic ... Root hairs form from trichoblasts, the hair-forming cells on the epidermis of a plant root. Root hairs vary between 5 and 17 ...
Four compartments within the plant cell have reported interactions with Mg2+. Initially, Mg2+ will enter the cell into the ... "Cell Biology by the Numbers: What are the concentrations of different ions in cells?". Retrieved 23 March ... the total Mg2+ content of animal cells is 30 mmol/L and in plants the content of leaf endodermal cells has been measured at ... Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 37: 335-361. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.37.1.335. Gregory, R. P ...
Radwanski ER, Last RL (July 1995). "Tryptophan biosynthesis and metabolism: biochemical and molecular genetics". The Plant Cell ... Becker J, Wittmann C (August 2012). "Bio-based production of chemicals, materials and fuels -Corynebacterium glutamicum as ... Palme K, Nagy F (April 2008). "A new gene for auxin synthesis". Cell. 133 (1): 31-2. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.03.014. PMID ... Plants and microorganisms commonly synthesize tryptophan from shikimic acid or anthranilate: anthranilate condenses with ...
Cell. 29 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2007.12.010. PMID 18206964. Matzke MA; Matzke AJM (2004). "Planting the seeds of a new ... Dahm R (2005). "Friedrich Miescher and the discovery of DNA". Developmental Biology. 278 (2): 274-88. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio. ... February 2009). "Origins and Mechanisms of miRNAs and siRNAs". Cell. 136 (4): 642-55. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.035. PMC ... Plant Cell. 2 (4): 279-89. doi:10.1105/tpc.2.4.279. PMC 159885 . PMID 12354959. Dafny-Yelin M; Chung SM; Frankman EL; Tzfira T ...
"Microbodies." Molecular Biology of Plant Cells. Ed. H. Smith. N.p.: University of California, 1978. 136-54. Print. de Duve C ... Wayne, Randy O. "Chapter 5 Peroxisomes." Plant Cell Biology: From Astronomy to Zoology. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 75-84. Print.. ... A microbody is a type of organelle that is found in the cells of plants, protozoa, and animals. Organelles in the microbody ... Microbodies are found in the cytoplasm of a cell, but they are only visible with the use of an electron microscope. They are ...
molecular and cell engineering; bioengineering oncogenomics, oncodiagnostics, oncoprognosis, oncovirology mobile and repeating ... the design of new biologically active compounds genetic enzymology signal transfer at molecular and cellular level plant ... The Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology (EIMB) is a research institute located in Moscow, Russia. The Institute is ... Until 1965 it was known as the Institute of Radiation and Physicochemical Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. On May 12 ...
Gibbs, Sarah P. (2006). "Looking at Life: From Binoculars to the Electron Microscope". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 57: 1-17 ... Gibbs, Sarah P. (1962). "Nuclear envelope-chloroplast relationships in algae" (PDF). Journal of Cell Biology. 14 (3): 433-444. ... Sarah P. Gibbs (born May 25, 1930) is Emeritus Professor of Biology at McGill University in Canada, where she was initially ... in a paper published by Ben Bouck in 1965. Gibbs, Sarah P. (1995). Our Own Agendas: Autobiographical Essays by Women Associated ...
... a commonly used buffer solution in molecular biology Ilex cookii, a plant commonly called "Te" Terminologia Embryologica, an ... the efficiency by which cells can take up extracellular DNA and express genes encoded by it Transposable element, a sequence of ... from 1965 to 1990) FlyLal (IATA airline code TE) Tasman Empire Airways Limited (former IATA airline code TE, from 1939 to 1965 ...
"The Plant Cell. 15 (10): 2236-2239. doi:10.1105/tpc.151030. PMC 540269. PMID 14523245.. ... "The Behavioural Biology of Dogs". 2007. p. 179 *^ Hawks, John (2013). Significance of Neandertal and Denisovan Genomes in Human ... more robust plant for agriculture. Such a plant may yield better on a farm, but would likely struggle to survive in the wild, ... Plants[edit]. Crosses between inbreds from different heterotic groups result in vigorous F1 hybrids with significantly more ...
Transgenic Plants Student research laboratories - Molecular Biotechnology - Applied Plant Cell Biology and Biotechnology - ... General Ecology and Biology Teaching - Human and Animal Physiology - Microbiology - Molecular Biology - Plant Physiology and ... Teacher of Biology Specialisations: - Botany - Genetics - Human and Animal Physiology - Physiology of Plants - Molecular ... The physiology and biotechnology of plant cell, tissue and organ cultures. Neuronal and biochemical mechanisms of homeostasis ...
Hülskamp, Martin (June 2004). "Plant Trichomes: A Model for Cell Differentiation". Molecular Cell Biology. 5: 471-480 - via ... Significance for plant molecular biology[edit]. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome formation is initiated by the ... Plant Cell. 12 (4): 465-477. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.4.465.. *^ Hahn, Florian; Mantegazza, Otho; Greiner, André; Hegemann, Peter; ... Plant trichomes[edit]. Sticky trichomes of a carnivorous plant, Drosera capensis with a trapped insect, contain proteolytic ...
... muscle cells, endocrine cells, and in some plant cells. In neurons, action potentials play a central role in cell-to-cell ... 1980). Plant Membrane Transport: Current Conceptual Issues. Developments in Plant Biology. 4. Amsterdam: Elsevier Biomedical ... Several types of cells support an action potential, such as plant cells, muscle cells, and the specialized cells of the heart ( ... In muscle cells, a typical action potential lasts about a fifth of a second. In some other types of cells, and also in plants, ...
Riverside hosts an annual lecture named for Keen focusing on plant biology and pathology. The lecture series is endowed by the ... "UC Riverside's new state-of-the-art technology to accelerate stem cell research". February 2, 2010. "UCR Loses ... "Former Bio-Agricultural Library to be Named "Noel T. Keen Hall"". University of California, Riverside. April 18, 2003. " ... American Society of Plant Physiologists. 24 (3): 3. May-June 1997. Staskawicz, Collmer & Cooksey 2014, p. 10. Collmer, Alan; ...
Plant Cell Biology: From Astronomy to Zoology. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press, p. 133. ... Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function, and Development. 3rd.ed. John ... In: Kozlowski, T. T. (ed.), Water deficits and plant growth. Vol. III. Plant responses and control of water balance. Academic ... "The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 287A (2): 1184-1204. PMID 16265625. ...
The formation of the ascospores occurs through the conjugation of the haploid cells preceding the formation of the ascus.[8] ... Fungal Biology Reviews. 24 (1-2): 17-26. doi:10.1016/j.fbr.2010.01.001.. ... It is also a naturally occurring colonist of plants, including corn.[8] ... the yeast cells appear globose, ellipsoidal or cylindrical, 2-6 x 3-11 μm in size.[6] In a glucose-yeast extract broth, K. ...
Journal of Cell Biology. 27 (2): 1A-149A. JSTOR 1604673.. *^ Kiernan, J. A. (2000). "Formaldehyde, formalin, paraformaldehyde ... "Plant Cell. 20 (6): 1504-18. doi:10.1105/tpc.107.056903. PMC 2483367. PMID 18667640.. ... "Journal of Cell Biology. 30 (2): 424-432. doi:10.1083/jcb.30.2.424. PMC 2106998. PMID 4165523.. ... Epidermal cells from the inner surface of an onion flake. Beneath the shagreen-like cell walls one can see nuclei and small ...
The nuclear pathway for auxin perception is responsible for the rapid auxin-induced cell wall acidification and growth of ... controversies and given how important the auxin-induced growth is as experimental topic in plant hormone biology - we find this ... the cell wall (Höfte, 2014). This has several crucial consequences for plant multicellularity: (vascular) plant cells do not ... At least a notable fraction of the mature PM H+-ATPases in the plant cell might be hetero-oligomers of AHA1 and AHA2 subunits ( ...
Journal of Cell Biology, v.27, p.137-138, 1965. [ Links ] MACEK, T. et al. Diethylpyrocarbonate - an effective agent for the ... Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, v.43, p.1985-190, 1995. [ Links ] ... Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, v ... The Cerrado is the second biggest Brazilian biome with 4,400 endemic plant species. This biome has been lost large area and so ...
... it is necessary to develop a detailed understanding of plant cell wall characteristics, pre ... Linking Plant Biology and Pretreatment: Understanding the Structure and Organization of the Plant Cell Wall and Interactions ... Linking Plant Biology and Pretreatment: Understanding the Structure and Organization of the Plant Cell Wall and Interactions ... Cosgrove DJ (2005) Growth of the plant cell wall. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:850-861PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
CELL BIOLOGY. *. You have accessRestricted Access. Sorting Motifs Involved in the Trafficking and Localization of the PIN1 ... ROS Regulation of Polar Growth in Plant Cells Silvina Mangano, Silvina Paola Denita Juárez, José M. Estevez ... Recent Progress in Understanding the Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Plant Cell Signaling Karl-Josef Dietz, Ron Mittler, ... RNA-Seq Links the Transcription Factors AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 to Cell Wall Remodeling and Plant Defense Pathways ...
Studies on exponential cultures of plant cells. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. http://resolver. ... Kim, Jocelyn Tammy (2016) The Innate Immune System in Dendritic Cell-Targeted Lentiviral Vector Immunization and Cell-to-Cell ... Ghosh, Srimoyee (2015) Establishing the C. elegans Uterine Seam Cell (utse) as a Novel Model for Studying Cell Behavior. ... Stemple, Derek Lyle (1993) Isolation of a mammalian neural crest stem cell and environmental control of cell fate choices. ...
RNA-seq analysis of sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas cells reveals aspects of acclimation critical for cell survival. Plant Cell ... 2009) Transcript length bias in RNA-seq data confounds systems biology. Biol Direct 4: 14. ... Cells grown in N-replete medium showed a higher degree of labeling in Ser and Gly than did N-deprived cells (Fig. 4). The fully ... The harvested cells (approximately 25 mg cell dry weight) were centrifuged at 3,000g for 1 min, and the supernatant was removed ...
The Molecular Biology of Plant Cells. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03465-1. LCCN 77-73503. Park, Roderic B. ( ... Allaby, Michael (1998). "quantasome". A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198608912. OCLC ... Sauer, Kenneth (May 1965). "Molecular Orientation in Quantasomes". Biophysical Journal. 5 (3): 337-348. doi:10.1016/s0006-3495( ...
... which is followed by programmed cell death in the vicinity of damaged tissue and a burst in proliferation of progenitor cells. ... Sustained proliferation and localization of progenitor cells to site of injury give rise to an assembly of differentiating ... Finally, preexisting tissue rearranges and integrates with newly differentiated cells to restore proportionality and function. ... which prime large changes in gene expression required for differentiation and/or dedifferentiation of progenitor cells. This ...
Unlike traditional extraction from agricultural grown plants, the... ... Plant cell and tissue cultures represent a suitable alternative as production systems for valuable plant secondary metabolites ... In: Nick P, Zdenek O (eds) Applied plant cell biology. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar ... Taticek RA, Moo-Young M, Legge RL (1991) The scale-up of plant cell culture: engineering considerations. Plant Cell Tissue ...
Plant Cell and Tissue Types. PARENCHYMA. Parenchyma cells, the progenitor of all other cell types, are composed of thin walled ... Biology of Plants., third edition. Worth, New York. Basic Organization. Compared with animals, plants have a relatively simple ... outer layer extends outside the cell. This S-type cell (Figure 1.4) is typical of early land plants like Rhynia. G-type cells ... Parenchyma cells comprise many soft tissues of plants (e.g., pith, cortex, leaf mesophyll, etc.). These cells also compose the ...
Developmental Biology - Plant is the only journal devoted solely to worldwide coverage of in vitro biology in plants. Its ... ... molecular and developmental biology research using in vitro grown or maintained organs, tissues or cells derived from plants. ... Developmental Biology - Plant is the only journal devoted solely to worldwide coverage of in vitro biology in plants. Its high- ... Published on behalf of the Society for In Vitro Biology (SIVB) and in association with the International Association for Plant ...
Hormones, Signals and Target Cells in Plant Development (Developmental and Cell Biology Series no. 41) (Cambridge University ... Annals of Botany 101: 267-276 (pdf) Osborne, D. J. (1984). "Concepts of target cells in plant differentiation". Cell ... Her research focused on plant hormones, seed biology and plant DNA repair. She is best known for her work on the gas ethylene, ... This work led her to develop the idea of the target cell as a model for how a small number of plant hormones can exert many ...
The recruitment of cells to substitute the apoptatic and necrotic cells could also add to protection provided by TCE. In this ... Advances in Radiation Biology. 1999;2:1-10.. 30. Chaudhary R, Jahan S, Gupta U, Goyal PK. Radioprotective potential of ... Many studies around the world proved that the selection of a particular food plant, plant tissue, or herb for its potential ... seminiferous tubules that were associated with depletion in total germ cells population and breakdown of Sertoli cell-germ cell ...
The next year, Monsanto became the first to genetically modify a plant cell. Over the next few years, it developed genetically ... In 1981 the company created a molecular-biology group for research in plant genetics. ... This is "a chemical that strips trees and plants of their leaves and is sometimes used in warfare to deny cover to enemy forces ... On April 25, 2009 Monsanto announced in India a special fellowship program for research on rice and wheat plant breeding. Under ...
... also confirmed that DNA was present in the chloroplasts of higher plants. The eukaryotic cell had now officially become a more ... The fibers were evident only after the use of a staining procedure designed for bacterial cells, and this parallel gave the ... "With the demonstration of ultrastructural similarity of a cell organelle and free living organisms," stated Ris and Plaut, " ... The idea of endosymbiosis, in which bacterial cells are engulfed and modified to become eukaryotic organelles, was first ...
In: Osmond C.B., Pitelka L.F. and Hidy G.M. (eds), Plant Biology of the Basin and Range. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 87-142. ... Plant, Cell, and Environment 22: 407-415.Google Scholar. *. Germino M.J. and Smith W.K. 2000a. Differences in microsite, plant ... Annual Review of Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 45: 633-662.Google Scholar ... Influence of high light intensity on survival of planted Engelmann spruce. Forest Science 16: 331-339.Google Scholar ...
The effect of photoreceptors on plant cell wall degradation also occurs in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. In ... photoreceptors and related signaling pathways for formation of plant cell wall degrading enzymes in T. reesei. Additionally, ... the currently proposed model, T. reesei senses the presence of plant biomass in its environment by detection of building blocks ... Hypocrea jecorina) is the model organism for industrial production of plant cell wall degradating enzymes. The integration of ...
RNA-Seq analysis of sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas cells reveals aspects of acclimation critical for cell survival. Plant Cell ... Scharff, L. B., and Bock, R. (2014). Synthetic biology in plastids. Plant J. 78, 783-798. doi: 10.1111/tpj.12356 ... Nickelsen, J., and Rengstl, B. (2013). Photosystem II assembly: from cyanobacteria to plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 64, 609- ... and the cell density was adjusted to 2 × 106 cells ml-1. ROS stress treatments were done as described (Chen et al., 2016). For ...
... cell and molecular biology, genomics and bioinformatics, aging, cell death, signal transduction, muscle contraction, behavior, ... Evolution of plant parasitism. Plant nematology will benefit from immediate investigation of the evolution of plant parasitism ... Methods in Cell Biology. Vol. 48. Academic Press, NY 659 pp.. 17. Fire, A., Xu, S., Montgomery, M. K., Kostas, S. A., Driver, S ... Methods in Cell Biology. Vol. 48. Academic Press, NY 659 pp.. 29. Nelson, L. S. and Rosoff, M.L., and Li, C. 1998. Disruption ...
Bio-protocol is an online peer-reviewed protocol journal. Its mission is to make life science research more efficient and ... Plant Cell Physiol 54(9): 1491-1503.. * Akita, K., Hasezawa, S. and Higaki, T. (2013). Breaking of plant stomatal one-cell- ... Sucrose transporter NtSUT4 from tobacco BY-2 involved in plant cell shape during miniprotoplast culture. J Plant Res 124(3): ... Roles of cortical actin microfilament patterning in division plane orientation in plants. Plant Cell Physiol 54(9): 1491-1503. ...
The roles played in morphogenesis by these two main cell... ... Biology and radio-biology of anucleate systems II. Plant cells ... Complex Cell Diploid Cell Binucleate Cell Double Cell Haploid Cell These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors ... Comparison to three-lobed actinomycin D treated cells. In: Biology and radiobiology of anucleate systems II. Plant cells (B ... In: Biology and radiobiology of anucleate systems II. Plant cells (Bonotto, S., Goutier, R., Kirchmann, R., Maisin, J.-R., eds ...
... general Environmental issues Adrenocortical hormones Analysis Physiological aspects Research Cells Cells (Biology) Computer ... Computational model of steroidogenesis in human H295R cells to predict biochemical response to endocrine-active chemicals: ... Oskarsson A, Ulleras E, Plant KE, Hinson JP, Goldfarb PS. 2006. Steroidogenic gene expression in H295R cells and the human ... V.sub.cell][d[C.sub.[x, cell]]/dt] = [P.sub.[x, cell]] - [U.sub.[x, cell]] + [I.sub.[x, cell]] - [S.sub.[x, cell]] (5) and [V. ...
But the dividing of a mother cell in two does not necessarily result in an increase in size. For such an increase to occur, ... division must be coupled with cell expansion. Without… ... It should be clear by now that the addition of new cells by ... An analysis of irreversible plant cell elongation. Journal of Theoretical Biology 8:264-275. ↩ ... While such a tremendous pressure would cause most cells to burst, plant cells maintain such high pressures through the ...
Plant Biol. 62 (2011) 365-85. 17. D.W. Ehrhardt and W.B. Frommer, "New Technologies for 21st Century Plant Science," Plant Cell ... This mode has been successfully tested on a wide range of samples, (6) from bio-polymers(7),(8) and live eukaryotic cells(9) to ... In plants, morphogenesis mostly depends on a pool of stem cells localized in specialized plant tissues called meristems, which ... PeakForce QNM on Live Cells. Many phenomena relating to the life cycle and behavior of cells and tissues are related to cell ...
  • Transient expresson of foreign genes in rice, wheat and soybean cells following particle bombardment. (
  • Bryant, John A. Putting genes into plants. (
  • She has spent the last three decades overseeing the implementation of the new technology she developed and further improving it to be used in the introduction of new and novel genes into plants. (
  • Temperature shift analysis revealed that hypD and hypE play general roles in hyphal morphogenesis, since inactivation of these genes resulted in a general widening of apical and subapical cells. (
  • Therefore, changes in a single gene cause a major shift in pollination biology and support the notion that the adaptation of a flowering plant to a new pollinator type may involve a limited number of genes of large effect. (
  • However, it is largely unknown which genes and alleles adjust plant growth in Fe limited environments. (
  • You are suggesting that a slug RANDOMLY incorporated plant genes into its genome. (
  • Which is to say, no ordered biological process involved, no plants involved, just a MUTATION of the DNA sequence that resulted in the slug having plant multiple genes. (
  • The chances of a DNA sequence mutating exactly genes known to us as "plant genes" completely at random is severely astronomically improbable. (
  • La Jolla, CA - Now that high school biology students can recite that genes are made of DNA, which is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA), which is then translated into protein, along comes a new class of molecules, sending students-and many scientists-scrambling for updated textbooks. (
  • Our study shows that the way plants regulate RNAs produced in viruses is also probably the way they regulate their own genes," said Ecker. (
  • There are genes expressed in tumor cells that protect them from being killed by chemotherapy - we might be able to use small RNAs to antagonize the effect of these genes in cancer cells. (
  • We show that these two genes, which are homologues of the LIN54 DNA-binding components of the mammalian DREAM complex, are expressed in a cell cycle dependent manner and regulate cell fate and division properties in the self-renewing early lineage. (
  • For example, structural damage is recognized and wound healing initiated upon injury, which is followed by programmed cell death in the vicinity of damaged tissue and a burst in proliferation of progenitor cells. (
  • Sustained proliferation and localization of progenitor cells to site of injury give rise to an assembly of differentiating cells known as the regeneration blastema, which fosters the development of new tissue. (
  • Finally, preexisting tissue rearranges and integrates with newly differentiated cells to restore proportionality and function. (
  • This lab reviews plant structure, especially cell and tissue types, and the arrangement of the vascular system. (
  • As parenchyma is incorporated into vascular tissue (rays in wood for example), it also helps in the movement of water and solutes throughout the plant body. (
  • Because parenchyma tissue is composed of only one cell type, parenchyma is called a simple tissue . (
  • Sclerenchyma cells can occur as aggregates within ground tissue ( sclereids or stone cells or as elongated fibers . (
  • Plant cell and tissue cultures represent a suitable alternative as production systems for valuable plant secondary metabolites. (
  • However, due to the morphology of plant cell and tissue cultures, many methods for bioprocess monitoring that are used for mammalian and microbial cultures are not applicable. (
  • This chapter covers methods that are appropriate for monitoring of biotechnological processes with plant cell and tissue cultures: The conductivity of the growth medium is a powerful parameter to estimate the growth of complex plant cell aggregates and tissue structures. (
  • The next section describes the application of the RAMOS - a small scale cultivation system - for heterotrophic and phototrophic plant cell and tissue cultures. (
  • Its high-caliber original research and reviews make it required reading for anyone who needs comprehensive coverage of the latest developments and state-of-the-art research in plant cell and tissue culture and biotechnology from around the world. (
  • Without such control, cells would be free to expand in any direction and at any time, which would have clear implications for tissue and organ form in the mature plant. (
  • The maintenance of SAM symmetry and formation of organs require integration and coordination of processes controlling cell growth and cell division in diverse tissue types. (
  • By studying stomatal development, one can explore how cells choose to initiate asymmetric divisions, how cells establish an internal polarity that can be translated into an asymmetric cell division, and how cells interpret external cues to align their divisions relative to the polarity of the whole tissue. (
  • The hormonal control of growth, differentiation and development in plants was Osborne's lifelong interest. (
  • Copper mediates auxin signalling to control cell differentiation in the copper moss Scopelophila cataractae . (
  • Septa may play a variety of roles, such as preventing loss of cytoplasm during hyphal damage ( R ichle and A lexander 1965 ) and partitioning cell growth and differentiation ( G ull 1978 ). (
  • We propose that the initial asymmetric placement of auxin at the leaf tip gives rise to later asymmetries in the internal auxin sources, which subsequently result in asymmetrical cell differentiation and division patterns. (
  • The apoptotic process is of widespread biological significance, and it was reported to be involved in embryogenesis, differentiation, proliferation/ homoeostasis, removal of defect and therefore harmful cells, and especially in the regulation and function of the immune system. (
  • Consequently, these cells experience a sudden increase of auxin concentration and react by elongation. (
  • Turgor pressure exerted by vacuoles is also helpful for cellular elongation: as the cell wall is partially degraded by the action of auxins , the less rigid wall is expanded by the pressure coming from within the vacuole. (
  • With the demonstration of ultrastructural similarity of a cell organelle and free living organisms," stated Ris and Plaut, "endosymbiosis must again be considered as a possible evolutionary step in the origin of complex cell systems. (
  • 1998). Other comparisons of bacterial, yeast, nematode, plant, mouse and human genomes will reveal unique and surprising aspects of the genetic make-up of organisms. (
  • Vacuoles are also important in autophagy , keeping a balance between making and getting rid of many things in cells and organisms. (
  • The cell theory, or cell doctrine, states that all organisms are composed of similar units of organization, called cells. (
  • The cell retains a dual existence as a distinct entity and a building block in the construction of organisms. (
  • It became possible to maintain, grow, and manipulate cells outside of living organisms. (
  • With coauthor Karlene V. Schwartz, then a UMass-Boston biology instructor, she literally rewrote the book on classification, discarding the old plant/animal system that tried to cram hundreds of millions of microscopic beings into the two kingdoms of organisms visible to the naked eye. (
  • Iron (Fe) is a micronutrient essential for living organisms, microorganisms, plants and humans. (
  • How can it be that proteins, describable by the laws of physics, assemble themselves into cellular machines and structures, these into complete living cells, and the latter into whole organisms that require a whole new language for their description? (
  • Organisms such as plants that can thus manufacture complex organic compounds from simple inorganic nutrients are termed autotrophic. (
  • Organisms that must obtain "prefabricated" organic compounds from their environment are heterotrophic, and these include the fungi, some other plants, and animals. (
  • Heterotrophic plants may be saprophytic (obtaining nutrients from dead organisms) or parasitic (obtaining nutrients from living organisms while living on or in them). (
  • This review provides an overview on the importance of light, photoreceptors and related signaling pathways for formation of plant cell wall degrading enzymes in T. reesei . (
  • Pathways to plant genetic manipulation employing agrobacterium. (
  • II Plant Viruses and Silencing Pathways (reviewed by Csorba et al. (
  • What is unknown is the circumstances under which the mutation (more likely, chain of mutations) must have occurred--for obvious reasons, this is likely to remain speculative--and more pertinently, the precise biochemical pathways by means of which the algal DNA is incorporated into the slug's cell nuclei. (
  • Therefore, knowledge of the ploidy level variation within and among taxa is of principal importance for understanding the evolutionary pathways in any plant group and facilitates the interpretation of phylogenetic relationships. (
  • What we learn about RNA silencing pathways in plants could be applied to cancer chemotherapy," Gregory explained. (
  • The fibers were evident only after the use of a staining procedure designed for bacterial cells, and this parallel gave the authors an idea. (
  • The idea of endosymbiosis, in which bacterial cells are engulfed and modified to become eukaryotic organelles, was first suggested for chloroplasts in 1905 and 1907. (
  • The accelerated particles are positioned to impact a preferred target, for example, a plant or animal cell or bacterial culture. (
  • This study evidences the impact of bacterial siderophores on pea iron status and pea ionome composition, and shows that this impact varies with the siderophore and host-plant cultivar, thereby emphasizing the specificity of these plant-microorganisms interactions. (
  • Modern studies of bacterial cell surfaces began half a century ago, with the isolation of cell walls by M. R. J. Salton and others in 1951, the discovery of what later turned out to be the precursors of cell wall peptidoglycan by J. T. Park and M. J. Johnson in 1949, and the isolation of pure lipopolysaccharides (LPS) by O. Westphal and O. Lüderitz in 1952 (see reference 45 ). (
  • For a young scientist who was doing these studies without any sense of perspective, the meeting was an eye opener, and I have stayed in the area of bacterial cell surfaces ever since, joining Kalckar's laboratory at Massachusetts General Hospital in 1962. (
  • Studies on peptidoglycan biosynthesis, begun in 1949 with the isolation of the "Park nucleotide" from penicillin-treated bacterial cells, were developed beautifully, most prominently by J. L. Strominger ( 47 ), first through the identification of the nucleotide as UDP- N -acetylmuramyl-pentapeptide and the realization that it represented starting material for peptidoglycan synthesis and then with the careful characterization of each of the enzymatic steps. (
  • For the DNA to get into the bacterial cell, a selection of the cells containing the plasmid is necessary. (
  • 1965) also confirmed that DNA was present in the chloroplasts of higher plants. (
  • The effect of iron on the circadian clock is dependent on the presence of functional chloroplasts, as plants treated with plastid translation inhibitors, e.g. kanamycine, exhibited no iron-dependent period change of clock gene reporters [ 8 ]. (
  • In filamentous fungi, growth is localized to the tips of hyphae, which are tubular, uni-, or multinucleate cells. (
  • These processes resemble hyphal growth in filamentous fungi in that they involve polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and localized cell wall synthesis. (
  • Generally, turgor pressure is caused by the osmotic flow of water and occurs in plants , fungi , and bacteria . (
  • The force that powers cell expansion is turgor pressure, a positive hydrostatic pressure that builds up within the cell due to the uptake of water. (
  • As turgor pressure drives cell expansion, the volume of the cell increases. (
  • Aside from storage, the main role of the central vacuole is to maintain turgor pressure against the cell wall . (
  • If water loss leads to a significant decline in turgor pressure, the cell will plasmolyse . (
  • Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall . (
  • Turgidity is the point at which the cell's membrane pushes against the cell wall, which is when turgor pressure is high. (
  • When the cell membrane has low turgor pressure, it is flaccid. (
  • The volume and geometry of the cell affects the value of turgor pressure, and how it can have an effect on the cell wall's plasticity. (
  • Turgor pressure also plays a key role in plant cell growth where the cell wall undergoes irreversible expansion due to the force of turgor pressure as well as structural changes in the cell wall that alter its extensibility. (
  • Turgor pressure within cells is regulated by osmosis and this also causes the cell wall to expand during growth. (
  • One mechanism in plants that regulate turgor pressure is its semipermeable membrane, which only allows some solutes to travel in and out of the cell, which can also maintain a minimum amount of pressure. (
  • Turgor pressure is also a large factor for nutrient transport throughout the plant. (
  • In higher plants , turgor pressure is responsible for apical growth of things such as root tips and pollen tubes . (
  • Transport proteins that pump solutes into the cell can be regulated by cell turgor pressure. (
  • This function is important as a plant response when under drought conditions (seeing as turgor pressure is maintained), and for cells which need to accumulate solutes (i.e. developing fruits ). (
  • It has been recorded that the petals of Gentiana kochiana and Kalanchoe blossfeldiana bloom via volatile turgor pressure of cells on the plant's adaxial surface. (
  • These cells grow rather quickly due to increases turgor pressure. (
  • The seminal text Plant Virology is now in its fifth edition. (
  • The fifth edition of Plant Virology updates and revises many details of the previous edition while retaining the important earlier results that constitute the field's conceptual foundation. (
  • For the past century, plant virology and the American Phytopathological Society have a deeply intertwined history. (
  • The revolutionary biotechnology discoveries of these three individuals - each working in separate facilities on two continents - unlocked the key to plant cell transformation using recombinant DNA. (
  • Chilton established one of the world's first industrial agricultural biotechnology programs, leading applied research in areas such as disease and insect resistance, as well as continuing to improve transformation systems in crop plants. (
  • She conducted extensive research into interactions between ethylene and auxin (another key plant hormone) in controlling numerous aspects of plant development. (
  • Several phytoceuticals and plant extracts with innumerable pharmacological properties in recent past years have been reported to act as good radio-protector due to the ability of scavenging the free radicals and modulating antioxidant defense system of the body by up/downregulation of the antioxidant gene expression [ 13 ]. (
  • Direct gene transfer to plant. (
  • Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression , or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. (
  • Changes in GA 20-oxidase gene expression strongly affect stem length, tuber induction and tuber yield of potato plants. (
  • However, their biological roles are largely unknown except for the functions of transacting siRNAs (ta-siRNA) in plant development and hormone signaling ( 4 ) and the roles of some chromatin-associated siRNAs in DNA methylation and transcriptional gene silencing ( 4 ). (
  • And yet Canadians have been essential to developments in stem cell research, gene sequencing and treatments for cancer and brain trauma. (
  • In order to study and compare the phosphate transporter gene codon usage and it's respond to the traits like salt tolerance, day length, Pollination and temperature in different plants, 100 isoform from 10 plants are extracted from NCBI website and then analyzed with Gene Infinity and Minitab 16 software. (
  • ROS such as singlet oxygen can affect vacuolar membrane integrity bringing about cell death that is further modulated by the balance of lytic proteases and their cognate inhibitors. (
  • The plasma membrane aquaporin AtPIP1;4 facilitates the diffusion of pathogen-induced apoplastic H 2 O 2 to activate plant immunity. (
  • Increase in invaginated vacuolar membrane structure cfaused by plant cell expansion by genotoxic stress induced by DNA double-strand breaks. (
  • All cells are surrounded by a lipid bi-layer cell membrane which permits the flow of water in and out of the cell while also limiting the flow of solutes. (
  • Early planting of maize minimizes dead-heart injury because plants tend to reach the tassel stage of development by the time first generation larvae hatch, and fall or spring plowing or discing destroys diapause larvae. (
  • These changes include early planting and fall discing or plowing, and in extreme cases a reduction in maize acreage as farmers have turned to other crops, usually sorghum in Kansas and Oklahoma. (
  • Overseas sequence of Monographs in natural and utilized Biology: Zoology department, quantity 34:The mobilephone and Environmental Temperature files the lawsuits of the overseas Symposium on Cytoecology held in Leningrad, U. S. S. R. , from might 31 to June five, 1965. (
  • The eukaryotic cell had now officially become a more complicated genetic entity. (
  • Suslton and Coulson provided much of the fundamental biological and genetic data to interpret the biology of the emerging genome (Pennisi, 1998). (
  • Stable genetic transformation of intact Nicotiana cells by the particle bombardment process. (
  • v. 3.Plant regeneration and genetic variability. (
  • A risk assessment study of plant genetic transformation using Agrobacterium and implications for analysis of transgenic plants. (
  • plants personal in the research details and attainable courses can have reference of the University's comprehensive part FY genetic information known in Cheadle Hall. (
  • The main proponents of this view are Australian researcher Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos and her colleagues, who argue that HIV has never been isolated according to the Pasteur Institute criteria of 1973, and therefore it's probably what's called an 'endogenous retrovirus' -- a creation of the body's own genetic material that looks and functions partly like a virus, but is not an infection because it comes from the body's own cells. (
  • Ecker, a professor in the Plant Biology Laboratory and director of the Salk Institute Genomic Analysis Laboratory, started by posing a simple genetic question. (
  • Founded in 1965, In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant is the only journal devoted solely to worldwide coverage of in vitro biology in plants. (
  • Kalckar's hypothesis was that cell surface glycans (often containing galactose) must be involved in cellular recognition processes in both microbial and animal cells ( 20 ). (
  • Asymmetric cell division, in which one cell divides to create daughter cells that differ in size, location, cellular components or fate, is extensively used in the development of animals. (
  • Some protists and macrophages use food vacuoles as a stage in phagocytosis -the intake of large molecules, particles, or even other cells, by the cell for digestion . (
  • The Symposium was intended as a forum for economists, engineers, ecologists and toxicologists to present and exchange their ideas for improving the product Biodiesel and to discuss these views with expert plant bioscientists. (
  • Her first postgraduate position was in the Department of Biology of the California Institute of Technology, USA, as a Fulbright Scholar, where she worked with botanist Fritz Went, among others. (
  • Roger Kornberg , PhD, who was just 12 when he accompanied his father to the Nobel Prize ceremony in Stockholm, went on to study the enzymes that create RNA as a professor of structural biology at Stanford. (
  • Davies, DR, A Plaskitt(1971) Genetical and structural analyses of cell-wall formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (
  • The search for new anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents from the huge array of medicinal plant resources is intensifying. (
  • Unlike traditional extraction from agricultural grown plants, the active ingredient production in biotechnological processes with in vitro cultures takes place in closed bioreactors under controlled conditions. (
  • However, the development of biotechnological processes with plant in vitro cultures is often time-consuming and requires parallelized screening systems. (
  • During processes like anther dehiscence , it has been observed that drying endothecium cells cause an outward bending force which led to the release of pollen. (
  • In order to more economically process cellulosic feedstocks using a biochemical pathway for fuel production, it is necessary to develop a detailed understanding of plant cell wall characteristics, pretreatment reaction chemistry, and their complex interactions. (
  • Competition and facilitation: A synthetic approach to interactions in plant communities. (
  • Many of these interactions with the external world must take place through the microbial cell surface. (