Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The contamination of indoor air.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Relating to the size of solids.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The motion of air currents.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The status of health in urban populations.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavonols.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Living facilities for humans.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.
A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The climate of a very small area.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.
Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
A widely used industrial solvent.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
Barriers used to separate and remove PARTICULATE MATTER from air.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.
The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
The dispersion models are used to estimate the downwind ambient concentration of air pollutants or toxins emitted from sources ... there was an immense growth in the use of air pollutant plume dispersion calculations between the late 1960s and today. A great ... Radioactive Releases in the Environment (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-89924-0. European Process Safety Centre (1999 ... Cold jet plumes in calm ambient air conditions Cold jet plumes in windy ambient air conditions Hot, buoyant plumes in calm ...
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) State Implementation Plans (SIPs) New Source Performance Standards National ... In 1970, Louisiana deployed the Comprehensive Toxic Air Pollutant Emission Control Program to satisfy the Federal Act. This ... Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human ... Radioactive Waste Management Emergency Preparedness and Response Programs Protective Action Guides And Planning Guidance for ...
Newly developed cement types from Novacem and Eco-cement can absorb carbon dioxide from ambient air during hardening. As of ... These ancient deposits were investigated in the 1960s and 1970s. Cement, chemically speaking, is a product that includes lime ... Glasser F. (2011). Application of inorganic cements to the conditioning and immobilisation of radioactive wastes. In: Ojovan M. ... the production and release of damaging pollutants and greenhouse gasses, particularly CO2. Growing environmental concerns and ...
Air Products and Chemicals (2004). "Safetygram #39 Chlorine Trifluoride" (PDF). Air Products and Chemicals. Archived from the ... Developed in the 1960s, it was initially deployed as fuel cell material in spacecraft and then replaced mercury-based ... Fluorine-18 is often found in radioactive tracers for positron emission tomography, as its half-life of almost two hours is ... Oxygen does not combine with fluorine under ambient conditions, but can be made to react using electric discharge at low ...
Direct discharges are pollutants that are discharged directly to a surface water body. To legally discharge pollutants directly ... However, there were several pollution enforcement cases in the 1960s and 1970s where the law was cited for broader pollution ... However, the reason this has not occurred yet comes down to a fundamental difference between water pollution and air pollution ... WQBELs are based on ambient water quality standards. Permit components All NPDES permits must contain the following five ...
The National Ambient Air Quality Standards are part of the Clean Air Act and provide mandated guidelines for pollutant levels ... since those sites had never been completely cleaned up from radioactive remains. The western US has seen an increase in both ... photography using instant cameras were used in the 1950s until infrared scanning was developed for fire detection in the 1960s ... through the National Ambient Air Quality Standards and monitoring of ambient air quality has been mandated. Due to these ...
... of the club's request to issue a supplemental EIS addressing air emissions of particulate matter and hazardous air pollutants ... Law No.4 for protection of ambient air system (2012).[citation needed] Meanwhile, Environmental Protection and Improvement ... Environmental Impact Assessments commenced in the 1960s, as part of increasing environmental awareness. An EIA is prepared to ... Specific pollution threats include acid rain, radioactive contamination, debris in outer space, stratospheric ozone depletion ...
Radioactive elements in the Earth's crust continuously decay, replenishing the heat. The International Energy Agency classifies ... The Columbia River Treaty between The US and Canada required that in the 1960s and 1970s, very large reservoirs were ... Greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution produced by its construction are very tiny and declining. There are no emissions or ... they do not directly produce carbon dioxide or pollutants. While some carbon dioxide is produced during cement manufacture and ...
A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water, or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its ... The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination, which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of ... Maji, Kamal Jyoti; Arora, Mohit; Dikshit, Anil Kumar (2017-04-01). "Burden of disease attributed to ambient PM2.5 and PM10 ... served as a disposal site for the Soviet Union throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Chelyabinsk, Russia, is considered the "Most ...
The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 caused radioactive toxins from the damaged power plant to leak into the air and ... In the late 1950s and early 1960s, there were several controversies about dumping radioactive waste off the coasts of the ... Pollutants enter rivers and the sea directly from urban sewerage and industrial waste discharges, sometimes in the form of ... Between 1950 and 1975, ambient noise at one location in the Pacific Ocean increased by about ten decibels (that is a tenfold ...
... combustion engine obtains energy from the combustion of gasoline's various hydrocarbons with oxygen from the ambient air, ... oxygenate blending is mandated by EPA regulations to reduce smog and other airborne pollutants. For example, in Southern ... emerged in Australia in the late 1960s. Chronic, heavy petrol sniffing appears to occur among remote, impoverished indigenous ... and m-xylene using ion mobility spectrometers with a radioactive and UV ionization source". Analytical Chemistry. 75 (6): 1483- ...
Outdoor air pollutants, especially chemicals released from the burning of fossil fuels, increase the risk of lung cancer. Fine ... "A systematic review of the relation between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and chronic diseases". Reviews on ... From the 1960s, the rates of lung adenocarcinoma started to rise in relation to other kinds of lung cancer, partially due to ... Radioactive iodine brachytherapy at the margins of wedge excision may reduce the risk of recurrence. Rarely, removal of a whole ...
The MFT was then replaced with 30 million tonnes clean sand and then topsoil that had been removed from the site in the 1960s. ... In contrast, oil and gas are sometimes considerably naturally radioactive to begin with and the industry is set up to deal with ... This will include integrated and coordinated monitoring of land, air, water and biodiversity," said a press release from Diana ... This water contains naphthenic acid, trace metals such as mercury and other pollutants. The Athabasca River is the largest ...
Effects of accumulation of air pollutants in forest ecosystems (1st ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: D. Reidel Publishing ... In the 1960s, a different classification system began to emerge which focused on soil morphology instead of parental materials ... "Data collection handbook to support modeling impacts of radioactive material in soil and building structures" (PDF). Argonne ... "Direct inhibition of maintenance respiration in western hemlock roots exposed to ambient soil carbon dioxide concentrations". ...
The MFT was then replaced with 30 million tonnes clean sand and then topsoil that had been removed from the site in the 1960s. ... While social scientist, Benjamin Sovacool contends that the main problem was that the produced oil and gas was radioactive, ... This water contains naphthenic acid, trace metals such as mercury and other pollutants. The Athabasca River is the largest ... This will include integrated and coordinated monitoring of land, air, water and biodiversity," said a press release from Diana ...
Pollutant ceiling concentration[edit]. The term "pollutant" is defined as part of the EPA 503 rule. The components of sludge ... Since the 1960s there has been cooperative activity with industry to reduce the inputs of persistent substances from factories ... The findings of a 20-year field study of air, land, and water in Arizona, concluded that use of biosolids is sustainable and ... Both classes of sludge may still contain radioactive or pharmaceutical wastes.[31][32] ...
"UK notification to the European Commission to extend the compliance deadline for meeting PM10 limit values in ambient air to ... Earlier demolitions had taken place in the mid-1960s and in 1982 when the old core of Sulukule was torn down. As a central area ... The settlement is isolated from the city, yet located between a steel production facility which emits hazardous pollutants and ... This site is reportedly known to have formerly interned "radioactive substances dangerous to human health". In addition to ...
Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) Program[94]. *Radiation Standards for Air and ... "National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. EPA. August 20, 2018.. *^ Clean Water Act section 402(p); 33 U.S.C. § 1342(p). ... Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human ... National Ambient Air Quality Standards. *National Priorities List. *New Source Performance Standard ...
Ecotoxicology as a subject area came into prominence in the 1960s after the publication of Rachel Carsons book on the impact ... The rise of public and scientific concern for the effects of chemical pollutants on the environment in the 1960s and 1970s led ... CYTOGENETIC EFFECT OF RADIOACTIVE OR CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION ON SPRING BARLEY INTERCALARY MERISTEM CELLS ... AMBIENT OZONE PHYTODETECTION WITH SENSITIVE CLOVER (TRIFOLIUM SUBTERRANEUM L. CV. GERALDTON) IN UKRAINE ...
The dispersion models are used to estimate the downwind ambient concentration of air pollutants or toxins emitted from sources ... there was an immense growth in the use of air pollutant plume dispersion calculations between the late 1960s and today. A great ... Radioactive Releases in the Environment (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-89924-0. European Process Safety Centre (1999 ... Cold jet plumes in calm ambient air conditions Cold jet plumes in windy ambient air conditions Hot, buoyant plumes in calm ...
... air, solvents in ambient air, special solid and liquid wastes, waste in general, dust in ambient air, wastewater, noise and ... Exposure to benzene had occurred up to the beginning of the 1960s. Compared with regional rates, total mortality did not ... although it does help in the understanding of how production rates affect in-plant emissions of pollutants.. American ... radioactive sources, x-ray equipment, particle accelerators, etc.).. Izdatelstvo "Medicina", Petroverigskij per. 6/8, 101000 ...
mass of air that ideally could be drawn into cylinder) where air. is at ambient = P. ambient. /RT. ambient. and R - 287 J/kgK ... Room for improvement - infinite in pollutants Pollutants are a non-equilibrium effect Burn: Fuel + O. 2. + N. 2. H. 2. O + CO. ... Radioactive decay much less, but still much higher than hydrocarbon fuel Part 2: The nitty gritty 32 Power and torque Engine ... 1960s - Emissions regulations Detroit wont believe it Initial stop-gap measures - lean mixture, EGR, retard spark Poor ...
... that are regulated under the US Safe Drinking Water Act or are listed as hazardous air pollutants under the US Clean Air Act. ... It produced 90% of its jet fuel and 50% of its diesel through CTL [11,12]. South Africa developed CTL in the 1960s and this has ... The mining and cleaning of coal at local processing sites create large quantities of ambient particulate matter as well as ... wastewater containing radioactive and other materials that sewage treatment plants are incapable of treating, ...
Air Products and Chemicals (2004). "Safetygram #39 Chlorine Trifluoride" (PDF). Air Products and Chemicals. Archived from the ... Developed in the 1960s, it was initially deployed as fuel cell material in spacecraft and then replaced mercury-based ... Fluorine-18 is often found in radioactive tracers for positron emission tomography, as its half-life of almost two hours is ... Oxygen does not combine with fluorine under ambient conditions, but can be made to react using electric discharge at low ...
... recent frog extinctions in the southern Sierra Nevada corresponds with the pattern of highest concentration of air pollutants ... Ambient ultraviolet-b (UV-B) radiation (280 to 320 nanometers (11.0 to 12.6 microinches)) has increased at north temperate ... Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its residues were found in frogs throughout the Sierra Nevada during the late 1960s ( ... collected data on Yosemite toad movements by implanting them with radioactive tags, and collection for museum specimens ( ...
... "criteria pollutants" laid out in the 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards.[12] Those pollutants included: ozone, ... The roadway air dispersion model was developed starting in the late 1950s and early 1960s in response to requirements of the ... Radioactive pollutants produced by nuclear explosions and war explosives, and natural processes such as radon. ... Minor air pollutants include:. *A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the ...
About half are created by radioactive gases. Radioactive substances in the soil, cosmic rays, ultraviolet rays, air flow ... During the 1960s, ion collectors drew air through an electrostatic field between parallel plates or concentric cylinders; the ... He recorded the responses of medical patients and normal people to changes in the electrical state of the ambient air. More ... These ions, in turn, react with dust and pollutants to form larger ions. Small neg-ions -usually no more than 12 gaseous ...
Thus, a chapter on air and water pollution control links with chapters on, for instance, diarrheal diseases (chapter 19), ... Exposure to Air Pollutants. The extent of the health effects of air pollution depends on actual exposure. Total daily exposure ... Other effects of ambient air pollution are postneonatal mortality and mortality caused by acute respiratory infections, as well ... Another type of air pollution that can have disastrous consequences is radioactive pollution from a malfunctioning nuclear ...
11.3.4.1 Lung and Smoking Hazards 11.3.4.2 Cancer and Air Quality 11.3.4.3 Cancer and Water Quality 11.3.4.4 Cancer and ... Nafstad et al3 and Nyberg et al6 used ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide as surrogates for air ... We found that lung cancer was associated with open-air coal mining. ► We used information from the European Pollutant Release ... As radioactive steam began pouring out of the plant, word of the incident leaked to the outside world. The plants parent ...
... combustion engine obtains energy from the combustion of gasolines various hydrocarbons with oxygen from the ambient air, ... emerged in Australia in the late 1960s.[citation needed] Chronic, heavy petrol sniffing appears to occur among remote, ... and m-xylene using ion mobility spectrometers with a radioactive and UV ionization source". Analytical Chemistry. 75 (6): 1483- ... oxygenate blending is mandated by EPA regulations to reduce smog and other airborne pollutants. For example, in Southern ...
Rajesh R. Naik, 711th Human Performance Wing of the Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, and a co- ... By working at ambient temperature, the new material has the potential to save energy, make reprocessing cleaner and less ... If scientists had been able to determine those structures in the 1960s, he notes, the development of MOF materials "might have ... Although these gases can come in radioactive varieties, they are part of a group of chemically inert elements called "noble ...
... which almost never faulted ETS as a major pollutant, were routinely doctored to reduce the measured level of ambient smoke and ... In the 1960s and early 1970s Sterling received about $4 million to conduct research for the industry, mainly on indoor air ... radioactive radon naturally present in some water sources, and other volatile contaminants that have worked their way into ... Because all that fresh air requires heating in winter, those who have high air-exchange rates (the rates at which outside air ...
An occupational limit for mercury in air concentration of 0.05 mg/m3 would be equivalent to an ambient air level for the ... air, water, food, work, home), was not considered. The inadequacy of this approach is obvious for pollutants that may reach man ... Five volunteers inhaled radioactive mercury vapour for 10-15 minutes and were subjected to whole body counting for up to 43 ... in the 1950s and in the 1960s. Other related methods using dithizone for measuring mercury in environmental samples have been ...
Air pollution[edit]. Outdoor air pollutants, especially chemicals released from the burning of fossil fuels, increase the risk ... "A systematic review of the relation between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and chronic diseases". Reviews on ... From the 1960s, the rates of lung adenocarcinoma started to rise relative to other types of lung cancer. This is partly due to ... Radioactive iodine brachytherapy at the margins of wedge excision may reduce the risk of recurrence. Rarely, removal of a whole ...
Radioactive wastes X. 24. Women in sustainable development X. 25. Children and youth X. 26. Indigenous people 27. Non- ... RATING OF ACTIVITIES IN THE AIR AND MARITIME TRANSPORT SECTORS IN THE SMALL ISLANDS DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS). AIR TRANSPORT. ... Whatever is found tends to be outdated, having mostly been collected in the 1960s.. Several problems plague the land resources ... MoE also enacted emission and ambient quality standards, in 1996, which were not based on existing pollution levels in Lebanon ...
DEFRA • Environmental Protection Agency • Global Atmosphere Watch • Greenpeace • National Ambient Air Quality Standards. ... By the late 1960s they were standard in many applications where water and dry-powder extinguishers posed a threat of damage to ... Radioactive contamination. Actinides in the environment • Environmental radioactivity • Fission product • Nuclear fallout • ... most attractive features-their unreactivity-has been instrumental in making them one of the most significant pollutants. CFCs ...
the outside air before it enters the air conditioning device. When the "Three Rs" logical thinking elements are exhausted, the ... If the ambient light is too high or the projector is too dim, a satisfactory image cannot be achieved. Definitive pass/fail ... Pools built in the 1960s and 1970s have out-dated technology and product; a time when sustainability was not considered. 60s ... They live in soil; water; acidic springs; radioactive waste; deep in the earths crust, and in the bodies of animals, insects, ...
We all require food, air, and water to survive - which are contaminated to some extent by man-made pollutants. Two studies, one ... In the 1960s and 1970s, federal authority to regulate threats to health, safety, and the environment expanded dramatically with ... Figure 7. Exposure pathways for radioactive chemicals and materials from a nuclear waste storage facility. Source: Courtesy ... 2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particle Pollution, October 6, 2006, p. 5-5, http://www.epa.gov/ttn/ecas/ria. ...
... then used the ensuing publicity to found the Community of Interests Against the Dangers From Air Pollution. In the early 1960s ... The Alliance also made much of the potential damage to water by radioactive fallout from distant nuclear weapons testing. In ... The author denied there were any tolerable levels of pollutants. His "synergistic" approach recognized the needs of fish and ... Their fears reactors would raise ambient water temperatures were assuaged with expensive cooling towers. The first NIMBY ...
For reliable pollutants, we appreciate blended Temperature margins of an fair case of the threat. We currently nt be the ... The Red Army Air Force, animal of extended but natural Arrangements and rains, are into series against them. Some dealerships ... radioactive innovative investigation These items became Prompted from the past prior degree farmers, and back re especially ... 23071518 - 23 j relevant The general request were the lead of Description ME on the product of ambient kinetics and debit ...
The MFT was then replaced with 30 million tonnes clean sand and then topsoil that had been removed from the site in the 1960s. ... While social scientist, Benjamin Sovacool contends that the main problem was that the produced oil and gas was radioactive, ... This water contains naphthenic acid, trace metals such as mercury and other pollutants. The Athabasca River is the largest ... This will include integrated and coordinated monitoring of land, air, water and biodiversity," said a press release from Diana ...
Since the 1960s, substantial efforts have been made to adapt fuel cells to large-scale applications because of the obvious ... The system is designed to have nuclear fuels, natural gas, and air as inputs and to have electricity, hydrogen, and CO2 as ... The consequent release of CO2 is fundamentally different from many traditional pollutant releases in which a low grade (e.g., ... Since Steinberg (1983) demonstrated that it is not feasible to extract CO2 from the ambient atmosphere, and because it does not ...
In 2002, the Air Force Research Laboratory patented precisely such a technology: Nonleghal weapon which includes (1) a neuro- ... It is quite easy to monitor ambient 60 Hz radiation being absorbed by your body. Simply touch the probe of any oscilloscope and ... At the Nevada site in the 1950s and 1960s, detonations affected over 200,000 "atomic vets," thousands more downwind also in ... Electromagnetic radiation may be the most harmful pollutant in our society. There is mounting statistical evidence that cancer ...
... "criteria pollutants" laid out in the 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards.[23] Those pollutants included: ozone, ... Radioactive pollutants produced by nuclear explosions, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of ... In the 1960s, 70s, and 90s, the United States Congress enacted a series of Clean Air Acts which significantly strengthened ... Minor air pollutants include:. *A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the ...
aerosols; air pollutants; air pollution; air temperature; ammonium nitrate; atmospheric chemistry; canopy; dry deposition; ... 1. Activity size distribution of radioactive nuclide 7Be at different locations and under different meteorological conditions ... Static enclosure techniques were used for past BVOC emission measurement studies, especially in the 1960s-1980s, but are no ... ... Differing toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) in global cities Author:. Li, Jing; Chen, Haoxuan; Li, Xinyue; Wang, ...
Air Force Javascript, NASA obstructive eBooks and British order, Air Force artificial microwave, bronchiolitis alignment, and ... 1960s 136 to 220 re historically taken in this Y. We would select it if you would sustain us what to be better in our ... For Bergson, the toll takes a ambient Stock of strong and nondestructive. 8217;, is what he is the new. When I have an ... learn: one of the most prevalent contours for patterns to Enter with each radioactive. optimal to this, additional degrees are ...
  • During the late 1960s, the Air Pollution Control Office of the U.S. EPA initiated research projects that would lead to the development of models for the use by urban and transportation planners. (wikipedia.org)
  • The atmospheric dispersion models are also known as atmospheric diffusion models, air dispersion models, air quality models, and air pollution dispersion models. (wikipedia.org)
  • From PHS, EPA absorbed the entire National Air Pollution Control Administration, as well as the Environmental Control Administration's Bureau of Solid Waste Management, Bureau of Water Hygiene, and part of its Bureau of Radiological Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the environment. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • [1] Air pollution causes deaths and respiratory disease. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • [2] Air pollution is often identified with major stationary sources, but the greatest source of emissions is mobile sources, mainly automobiles . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Thus, a chapter on air and water pollution control links with chapters on, for instance, diarrheal diseases ( chapter 19 ), respiratory diseases in children and adults ( chapters 25 and 35 ), cancers ( chapter 29 ), neurological disorders ( chapter 32 ), and cardiovascular disease ( chapter 33 ), as well as with a number of chapters dealing with health care issues. (nih.gov)
  • Nevertheless, public health practitioners and decision makers in developing countries need to be aware of the potential health risks caused by air and water pollution and to know where to find the more detailed information required to handle a specific situation. (nih.gov)
  • This chapter will not repeat the discussion about indoor air pollution caused by biomass burning ( chapter 42 ) and water pollution caused by poor sanitation at the household level ( chapter 41 ), but it will focus on the problems caused by air and water pollution at the community, country, and global levels. (nih.gov)
  • As the World Health Organization (WHO) points out, outdoor air pollution contributes as much as 0.6 to 1.4 percent of the burden of disease in developing regions, and other pollution, such as lead in water, air, and soil, may contribute 0.9 percent ( WHO 2002 ). (nih.gov)
  • Because of space limitations, this chapter can give only selected examples of air and water pollution health concerns. (nih.gov)
  • Selected Industrial Sectors and Their Contribution to Air and Water Pollution and to Workplace Hazards. (nih.gov)
  • And, to be more specific, it would be the millions of young children and women who are sickened or who die prematurely every year from indoor air pollution caused by the burning of biomass. (edwardbetts.co.uk)
  • In 2007, the World Health Organization estimated that indoor air pollution was killing about 500,000 people in India every year, most of them women and children. (edwardbetts.co.uk)
  • The agency also found that air pollution levels in some kitchens in rural India were thirty times higher than recommended and that the pollution was six times as bad as that found in New Delhi. (edwardbetts.co.uk)
  • 17 Kounteya Sinha, "' Indoor' Air Pollution Is the Biggest Killer," Times of India, March 22, 2007, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1790711.cms. (edwardbetts.co.uk)
  • 23 Robert Bryce, "An Interview with Kirk R. Smith on Indoor Air Pollution and Why the Rural Poor Need Propane and Butane," July 23, 2009, http://www.energytribune.com/articles.cfm? (edwardbetts.co.uk)
  • Today, considering all countries, high-, middle- and low-income, the major diseases affecting people are similar - so-called non-communicable diseases: heart disease, lung disease - note the importance of indoor air pollution , a cause of chronic lung disease in low-income countries - cancers, diabetes. (edwardbetts.co.uk)
  • and environmental exposures: air pollution, lead. (edwardbetts.co.uk)
  • Diet, indoor air pollution and high blood pressure are potent causes of disease globally. (edwardbetts.co.uk)
  • [13] These cases are often caused by a combination of genetic factors and exposure to radon gas, asbestos , second-hand smoke , or other forms of air pollution . (wikipedia.org)
  • Avoidance of risk factors, including smoking and air pollution, is the primary method of prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allergens such as pollens, dust mites, cockroaches, and air pollution from cigarettes, gas stoves, and traffic make asthmatics' airways swell so that only limited amounts of air can pass through and respiration becomes a struggle akin to breathing through a tiny straw. (learner.org)
  • Environmental Protection Agency( EPA) sells shared pollutants, from describing benefits on manufactured practice patients to using revolutionary professional pollution and ambient Quality producers. (holiday-reisezentrum.de)
  • We need to remember that mercury and radioactive pollution are invisible and so is the lead in your bread. (cassiopaea.org)
  • BEIJING - Researchers in China have found a significant link between air pollution and the risk of miscarriage, according to a new scientific paper released Monday. (blogspot.com)
  • While air pollution is connected to a greater risk of respiratory diseases, strokes, and heart attacks, the new findings could add more urgency to Beijing's efforts to curb the problem, which has long plagued Chinese cities. (blogspot.com)
  • Using the clinical records of 255,668 pregnant women from 2009 to 2017 in Beijing, the study assessed their exposure at home and at work to air pollution that comes from industries, households, cars, and trucks. (blogspot.com)
  • In the paper, the authors of the study, which was supported by grants from three Chinese government-backed research foundations, also acknowledged that data limitations made it difficult to account for other possible contributing factors, like levels of indoor air pollution from stoves, construction materials, and tobacco smoke. (blogspot.com)
  • Nevertheless, outside specialists agreed that the findings add to the growing body of evidence about the negative effect of air pollution on the health of pregnant women and their fetuses. (blogspot.com)
  • However, little is known about how missed abortion in the first trimester (MAFT) is related to maternal air pollution exposure. (blogspot.com)
  • We quantify the link between air pollution exposure and MAFT in Beijing, China, a region with severe MAFT and air quality problems. (blogspot.com)
  • The IPCC's projections assume no decarbonization of world power sources from new technology (solar, wind, and perhaps fusion) or regulations (to reduce not just climate change but also air pollution and toxic waste produced by mining and burning this dirtiest of major energy sources). (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Primary pollutants are substances directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Much of the secondary pollutants PM 2.5 consists of created by the condensation of gaseous pollutants-for example, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ). (nih.gov)
  • The researchers looked at four types of air pollutants: a deadly fine particulate matter known as PM2.5, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and carbon monoxide. (blogspot.com)
  • The rise of public and scientific concern for the effects of chemical pollutants on the environment in the 1960s and 1970s led to the development of the discipline of ecotoxicology, a science that takes into account the effects of chemicals in the context of ecology. (springer.com)
  • Grassroots environmental organizations made a booming appearance on the political scene in the 1960s and 1970s, raising public awareness of what many considered to be the "environmental crisis," and working to influence environmental policy decisions. (wordpress.com)
  • Discussion of the layers in the Earth's atmosphere is needed to understand where airborne pollutants disperse in the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uranium occurs naturally in the Earth's crust and is mildly radioactive. (blogspot.com)
  • Particulate matter formed from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog, such as nitrogen dioxide. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We analyse the records of 255,668 pregnant women from 2009 to 2017 and contrast them with maternal exposure to air pollutants (particulate matter PM2.5, SO2, O3 and CO). (blogspot.com)
  • The models also serve to assist in the design of effective control strategies to reduce emissions of harmful air pollutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given evidence that current ambient air quality standards remain insufficiently protective for children, ongoing efforts are needed to reduce outdoor air pollutant emissions and their consequences for children's breathing," he states in the study. (blogspot.com)
  • They are most useful for pollutants that are dispersed over large distances and that may react in the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • These ions, in turn, react with dust and pollutants to form larger ions. (mollynncares.com)
  • The results of dispersion modeling, using worst case accidental release source terms and meteorological conditions, can provide an estimate of location impacted areas, ambient concentrations, and be used to determine protective actions appropriate in the event a release occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substances not naturally found in the air or at greater concentrations or in different locations from usual are referred to as pollutants . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We find that, for all four pollutants, an increased risk of MAFT is associated with rises in pollutant concentrations and the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of these associations increase with higher concentrations. (blogspot.com)
  • Exposure was estimated by measurements of toluene and styrene in breathing zone air, hippuric acid in urine in the group exposed to toluene, and urinary mandelic acid in the group exposed to styrene. (ilo.org)
  • High priority was given to drinking water quality (1), food additives (2), and pesticide residues (3), to occupational exposure (4), air quality in urban areas (5), and, more recently, to the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man (6). (inchem.org)
  • DEFINITIONS, TERMINOLOGY, AND UNITS Terminology In the framework of the WHO Environmental Health Criteria Programme, it is understood that the term "criteria" designates the relationship between exposure to a pollutant or other factor and the risk or magnitude of undesirable effects under specified circumstances defined by environmental and target variables (9). (inchem.org)
  • NEW YORK, New York, May 4, 2011 (ENS) - It cost a "staggering" $76.6 billion to cover the health expenses of American children who were sick because of exposure to toxic chemicals and air pollutants in 2008, according to new research by senior scientists at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. (blogspot.com)
  • Taking into consideration different ages, occupations, and air temperature, the researchers found that "in all groups, maternal exposure to each air pollutant was associated with the risk. (blogspot.com)
  • ENVIRONMENTAL LEVELS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE A5.1 Environmental levels A5.1.1 Air A5.1.2 Water A5.1.2.1 Surface water A5.1.2.2 Drinking-water A5.1.2.3 Effluents A5.1.2.4 Leachates A5.2 Sediment A5.3 Biota and food A5.3.1 Biota A5.3.2 Food A6. (inchem.org)
  • [3] Gases such as carbon dioxide , which contribute to global warming, have recently been labeled as pollutants by climate scientists, while they also recognize that carbon dioxide is essential for plant life through photosynthesis . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • About half are created by radioactive gases. (mollynncares.com)
  • There are many substances in the air which may impair the health of plants and animals (including humans), or reduce visibility. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Radioactive substances in the soil, cosmic rays, ultraviolet rays, air flow friction, falling water and plants all produce the other half. (mollynncares.com)
  • The dispersion models are used to estimate the downwind ambient concentration of air pollutants or toxins emitted from sources such as industrial plants, vehicular traffic or accidental chemical releases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Nature Sustainability paper, the researchers said that since 2013, the risk of missed miscarriages in the first trimester had declined along with the decrease in air pollutant concentration - further evidence, they said, of the link between the two. (blogspot.com)
  • Radioactive pollutants produced by nuclear explosions and war explosives, and natural processes such as radon . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Environmental health hazards include traditional hazards of poor sanitation and shelter, as well as agricultural and industrial contamination of air, water, food and land. (cloudaccess.net)
  • The dispersion models vary depending on the mathematics used to develop the model, but all require the input of data that may include: Meteorological conditions such as wind speed and direction, the amount of atmospheric turbulence (as characterized by what is called the "stability class"), the ambient air temperature, the height to the bottom of any inversion aloft that may be present, cloud cover and solar radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For reliable pollutants, we appreciate blended Temperature margins of an fair case of the threat. (mildenberger.name)
  • We adjust for confounding factors such as sociodemographic characteristics, spatial autocorrelation and ambient temperature. (blogspot.com)
  • Canadians can be exposed to cadmium through its presence in food, water, consumer products, soil and air. (canada.ca)
  • Advocates claim it's the only way to meet global climate goals, while opponents dig in their heels over safety, national security, and radioactive waste concerns. (skepticalscience.com)
  • Until the early 1980s, in spite of public concern and interest among scientists, the assessment of ecological risks associated with natural or synthetic pollutants was not considered a priority issue by most government. (springer.com)
  • Published in the May issue of the journal "Health Affairs," three new studies by Mount Sinai scientists reveal the economic impact of toxic chemicals and air pollutants in the environment, and propose new legislation to require testing of new chemicals as well as those already on the market. (blogspot.com)
  • Atmospheric dispersion modeling is the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse in the ambient atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next time you read a report from the medical media or establishment suggesting you stay away from this or that vitamin or mineral because of toxic properties remember that the bread you eat, the air we breathe and the water we drink is toxic to one degree or another. (cassiopaea.org)
  • In the early 1960s, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) became aware that some studies on the safety of new chemicals performed by TFs for regulatory purposes were basically unreliable. (drdarrinlew.us)
  • There is little doubt that Beijing air contains an exotic cocktail of chemicals that would not be mirrored in the West. (blogspot.com)
  • Therefore, they are the dominant type of model used in air quality policy making. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dispersion models are important to governmental agencies tasked with protecting and managing the ambient air quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The models are typically employed to determine whether existing or proposed new industrial facilities are or will be in compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in the United States and other nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this is not feasible, comments may be sent by mail to the Water and Air Quality Bureau, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue West, A.L. 4903D, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9. (canada.ca)
  • Air Quality in Your book 社交改变生活 2014 The schedulability you are can provide a vital cookie on your j, and crucial diversity can up find more other than new industry. (dmeaccreditation.com)
  • Likewise, Radiological Health), was summarized by although chlorofluorocarbons (Freon) were environmental media (such as surface water, used in significant quantities at each of the sediment, air, drinking water, groundwater, ORR facilities, they were judged unlikely to and food items). (cdc.gov)
  • Meanwhile, over a billion people in the world lack access to safe drinking water (WHO 1992b) and over 600 million are exposed to ambient levels of sulphur dioxide that well exceed recommended levels. (cloudaccess.net)
  • iii) to identify gaps in knowledge concerning the health effects of recognized or potential pollutants or other environmental factors, to stimulate and promote research in areas where information is inadequate, and (iv) to promote the harmonization of toxicological and epidemiological methods in order to obtain research results that are internationally comparable. (inchem.org)
  • Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air dispersion models are also used by public safety responders and emergency management personnel for emergency planning of accidental chemical releases. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the uninitiated ions are charged particles in the air, formed when enough energy acts on a molecule- such as carbon dioxide , oxygen, water, or nitrogen- to eject an electron. (mollynncares.com)
  • Research has shown that falling water creates thousands of negative ions by splitting otherwise neutral particles of air, freeing electrons to manifest their vitalizing function. (mollynncares.com)
  • These electrons join up with smaller air particles, thus giving them a predominantly negative charge. (mollynncares.com)
  • In each case also, mould growth was determined to be caused by moisture accumulation in the drywall, primarily from the uncontrolled flow of outside air into the building envelope. (aivc.org)
  • The general population in Canada is exposed to 1,3-butadiene primarily through ambient air. (arctichealth.org)
  • Airflow measurements at these points alone cannot properly assess the performance of the HVAC system or its impact on the characteristics of a building because they fail to fully consider air distribution. (aivc.org)
  • Improved catalysts, and process methods such as hydrocracking and reforming, were developed throughout the 1960s to increase gasoline yields and improve anti-knock characteristics. (iloencyclopaedia.org)
  • Since the 1960s, a smoker's risk of developing lung cancer or COPD has actually increased compared with nonsmokers, even though the number of cigarettes consumed per smoker has decreased ( 1 ). (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • A growing body of evidence indicates that the most problematic of these climatic moisture sources in hot, humid climates is the uncontrolled flow of outdoor air within the building envelopes. (aivc.org)
  • At industrial facilities, this type of consequence assessment or emergency planning is required under the Clean Air Act (United States) (CAA) codified in Part 68 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecotoxicology as a subject area came into prominence in the 1960s after the publication of Rachel Carson's book on the impact of pesticides on the environment. (springer.com)
  • Construction details used to reduce energy consumption and moisture damage to the building structure in modern houses greatly reduce natural air leakage. (aivc.org)
  • Each pollutant has its own health risk profile, which makes summarizing all relevant information into a short chapter difficult. (nih.gov)
  • Zhang said that more research was needed to ascertain the exact link between the different pollutants and the risk of missed miscarriages. (blogspot.com)
  • A modest оказание первой помощи при несчастных случаях методические рекомендации of public, Cold-induced media recognized moved, which could NO do 1960s if they were minor nothing from leadership business. (system-b.com)
  • The inadequacy of this approach is obvious for pollutants that may reach man by several pathways, as is the case with lead, cadmium, and some other metals, and certain persistent organic compounds. (inchem.org)
  • ii) to identify new or potential pollutants by preparing preliminary reviews on the health effects of agents likely to be increasingly used in industry, agriculture, in the home or elsewhere. (inchem.org)
  • Also air -transported moisture is invisible and can travel long distances through interstitial cavities in buildings before accumulating and manifesting in such problems as mould, mildew or corrosion. (aivc.org)
  • It is performed with computer programs that include algorithms to solve the mathematical equations that govern the pollutant dispersion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the modern, advanced dispersion modeling programs include a pre-processor module for the input of meteorological and other data, and many also include a post-processor module for graphing the output data and/or plotting the area impacted by the air pollutants on maps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pollutants can be classified as either primary or secondary. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Note that some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A primary cause of air leakage is depressurisation of the building by the HVAC system, although many HVAC designs have the opposite intent - to pressurise the building. (aivc.org)
  • South Africa developed CTL in the 1960s and this has remained an important part of its liquid fuel supply ever since. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In addition, people living near polluted air, water, and land often report high levels of stress, citing concerns about family health and economic ties to the affected resources (Gill, Picou, & Ritchie, 2011 ). (oxfordre.com)
  • Regarding the #6 scale thing, according to the INES User's Manual (2008 edition) that means that there has been a significant release of radioactive material likely to require the implementation of planned countermeasures. (theregister.co.uk)
  • The levels were calculated based on historic data gathered by the network of air monitoring systems around the Chinese capital, which is notorious for its gray, soupy skies. (blogspot.com)
  • For pollutants that have a very high spatio-temporal variability (i.e. have very steep distance to source decay such as black carbon) and for epidemiological studies statistical land-use regression models are also used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its radioactive decay provides the main source of heat inside the Earth, causing convection and continental drift. (blogspot.com)
  • Some of these are regulated in USA under the Clean Air Act and in Europe under the Air Framework Directive. (newworldencyclopedia.org)