A species of gram-negative bacteria strongly implicated in oral infection, PERIODONTAL DISEASES, eye and ear disorders, and SEPTIC ARTHRITIS.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 (A/H5N1) is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other ... A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is ... responsible agency for avian influenza in humans in US - Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) ...
This H2N2 virus was composed of three different genes from an H2N2 virus that originated from an avian influenza A virus, ... "The Influenza H5N1 Report". Pliva.com. April 2, 1998. Archived from the original on 24 October 2004.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link ... Influenza A virus subtype H2N2 (A/H2N2) is a subtype of Influenza A virus. H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the ... biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses Influenza Research Database Database of influenza sequences and ...
"Influenza A virus"; one of its subtypes is H5N1. H5N1 (like the other avian flu viruses) has strains called "highly pathogenic ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza ... H5N1 genetic structure is the molecular structure of the H5N1 virus's RNA. H5N1 is an Influenza A virus subtype. Experts ... Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine. As of ...
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic flu strains contained genes from avian influenza viruses. The new subtypes arose in pigs ... either a Fujian human flu strain of the H3N2 subtype or a Fujian bird flu strain of the H5N1 subtype of the Influenza A virus. ... Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... and 84 novel influenza A (H1N1) viruses. All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) ...
Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a glutamic acid at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a ... Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. A vaccine ... H2N2 The Asian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of H2N2 avian influenza that originated in China in 1957, spread worldwide that same ... "Key Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus". CDC. Archived from the original on 16 March ...
... subtype H1N1 Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 Influenza A virus subtype H2N2 Influenza A virus subtype H2N3 ... Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine. HA: ( ... Influenza A virus subtype H3N1 Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 Influenza A virus subtype H3N8 Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N2 Influenza A virus subtype H5N3 Influenza A virus subtype H5N6 Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 ...
Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine.. HA: ( ... H2N2. Main article: H2N2. The Asian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of H2N2 avian influenza that originated in China in 1957, ... Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain.[16] A vaccine ... CDC Key Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus ...
... and culling may be necessary to prevent the virus from becoming endemic. Vaccines exist for avian H5, H7, and H9 subtypes that ... After the pandemic, H2N2 was the IAV subtype responsible for seasonal influenza. The first antiviral drug against influenza, ... Notable HPAI viruses include HPAI H5N1 and HPAI H7N9. HPAI viruses have been a major disease burden in the 21st century, ... Influenza B virus (IBV) and Influenza C virus (ICV) primarily infect humans, and Influenza D virus (IDV) is found in cattle and ...
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ... has suggested that the 1918 virus, like H5N1, could have arisen directly from an avian influenza virus. However, researchers at ... a subtype of avian strain H1N1, had been reconstructed using historic tissue samples and a small part of the RNA from a modern ... of the 1918 virus and subsequent human viruses differ by only 10 amino acids from the avian influenza viruses. Viruses with 7 ...
Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine. ... Influenza pandemics from its genetic offspring may include influenza A virus subtypes other than H5N1. While genetic analysis ... WHO (August 18, 2006). "Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for ... influenza/country/en/ Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR) Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) A strain ...
... of flu viruses to H5N1 vaccination effectiveness to adjuvants to wild bird migration patterns to wild bird avian flu subtype ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ... H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the ' ... February 2006). "Protection of mice and poultry from lethal H5N1 avian influenza virus through adenovirus-based immunization". ...
A combination of these two subtypes of the species known as the avian influenza virus in a country like China is a worst-case ... with H5N1, passing genes and mutating into a form which can pass easily among humans. H3N2 evolved from H2N2 by antigenic shift ... "Human Infection with Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus". CDC. Retrieved January 21, 2014. "First N America H5N1 bird flu death ... and it is in this region that multiple clades of H5N1 influenza virus have already emerged. The Asian H5N1 virus was first ...
"H5N1 avian influenza: timeline" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 27, 2011. "Indonesian pigs have avian flu virus ... Swine influenza is caused by influenza A subtypes H1N1, H1N2, H2N3, H3N1, and H3N2. In pigs, four influenza A virus subtypes ( ... Lindstrom SE, Cox NJ, Klimov A (October 2004). "Genetic analysis of human H2N2 and early H3N2 influenza viruses, 1957-1972: ... Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is ...
H5N1), for "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") causes H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian ... H2N2 strain) and the 1968 Hong Kong Flu (type A, H3N2 strain), but even these smaller outbreaks killed millions of people. In ... "Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus , Avian Influenza (Flu)". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 24 February 2017.. ... for H5N1 article Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for ...
The first three genera contain viruses that cause influenza in vertebrates, including birds (see also avian influenza), humans ... Subtype involved Asiatic (Russian) Flu 1889-90. 1. possibly H2N2 Spanish Flu 1918-20. 40. H1N1 ... H5N1 is a pandemic threat in 2006-7 flu season.. *H7N7 has unusual zoonotic potential.[10] ... Influenza A virus, Influenza B virus, and Influenza C virus, respectively. Influenza A and C infect multiple species, while ...
North American avian influenza, human influenza A virus subtype H1N1, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and ... H3N2 evolved from H2N2 by antigenic shift.[12] In August 2004, researchers in China found H5N1 in pigs.[13] ... "H5N1 avian influenza: timeline" (PDF).. *↑ "Indonesian pigs have avian flu virus; bird cases double in China". CIDRAP. 27 May ... Swine influenza virus is a virus that is common in pigs. This type of influenza virus can also infect humans and birds. Swine ...
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ... passing the virus to humans sometime between 1913 and 1918. An effort to recreate the Spanish flu strain (a subtype of avian ... Sir Mark Sykes was exhumed to study the RNA of the flu virus in efforts to understand the genetic structure of modern H5N1 bird ... H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the 'Spanish flu ...
Serotypes or Subtypes Hosts Influenza virus A Influenza A virus* H1N1, H1N2, H2N2, H3N1, H3N2, H3N8, H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N8, ... Mammalian influenza viruses tend to be labile, but can survive several hours in mucus.[55] Avian influenza virus can survive ... Avian influenza viruses can survive indefinitely when frozen.[55] Influenza viruses are susceptible to bleach, 70% ethanol, ... It includes seven genera: Influenzavirus A, Influenzavirus B, Influenzavirus C, Influenzavirus D, Isavirus, Thogotovirus, and ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 and Transmission and infection of H5N1. The highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 is ... Further information: Influenza A virus subtype H7N9. Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza, see Influenza A virus subtype H5N1. ... Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a Lys.[15]. HA ...
It is feared that if the avian influenza virus combines with a human influenza virus (in a bird or a human), the new subtype ... The H3N8 and H2N2 subtypes of the Influenza A virus have each been identified as possible causes. It had a very high attack and ... "We have received now confirmation that the virus found in Turkey is an avian flu H5N1 virus. There is a direct relationship ... Regular influenza viruses establish infection by attaching to receptors in the throat and lungs, but the avian influenza virus ...
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause ... H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is the highly pathogenic causative agent of H5N1 ... responsible agency for avian influenza in humans in US - Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) ...
Influenza A virus. subtypes. *H1N1. *H1N2. *H2N2. *H2N3. *H3N1. *H3N2. *H3N8. *H5N1 ... Bird Flu: Threat or Menace? Why avian sniffles need not ruffle our feathers... too much Archived 2006-10-26 at the Wayback ... Main article: Influenza. Three virus families, Influenzavirus A, B, and C are the main infective agents that cause influenza. ... Each annual flu season is normally associated with a major influenzavirus subtype. The associated subtype changes each year, ...
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ... An effort to recreate the 1918 flu strain (a subtype of avian strain H1N1) was a collaboration among the Armed Forces Institute ... Sir Mark Sykes was exhumed to study the RNA of the flu virus in efforts to understand the genetic structure of modern H5N1 bird ... H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the ' ...
H5N1), singkatan dari "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") menimbulkan flu H5N1, yang umumnya ... Virus influenza A subtipe H2N2, yang menimbulkan Flu Asia pada tahun 1957 ... Virus influenza A subtipe H10N7. Virus influenza BSunting. Genus ini memiliki satu spesies, yaitu virus influenza B. influenza ... Virus influenza C. Virus-virus tersebut memiliki kekerabatan yang jauh dengan virus parainfluenza manusia, yang merupakan virus ...
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 (A/H5N1) is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other ... A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is ... responsible agency for avian influenza in humans in US - Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) ...
This H2N2 virus was composed of three different genes from an H2N2 virus that originated from an avian influenza A virus, ... "The Influenza H5N1 Report". Pliva.com. April 2, 1998. Archived from the original on 24 October 2004.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link ... Influenza A virus subtype H2N2 (A/H2N2) is a subtype of Influenza A virus. H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the ... biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses Influenza Research Database Database of influenza sequences and ...
Influenza A viruses of subtype H5N1 also caused severe respiratory disease in humans in Hong Kong in 1997 and 2003, including ... H2N2), and 1968 (H3N2) were caused by influenza viruses harboring HA and NA genes of avian or swine origin (1, 2). Because of ... A highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus of subtype H7N7, closely related to low pathogenic virus isolates obtained from ... Comparative Analysis of Avian Influenza Virus Diversity in Poultry and Humans during a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A ( ...
Information about influenza (flu) disease, vaccines and recommendations for vaccination from the Australian Immunisation ... More recently, various avian influenza A virus subtypes have caused human infections. Examples are H5N1, H7N9 and H9N2. ... H2N2). *1968 (H3N2). *2009 (H1N1). Each of these pandemic strains replaced the previously circulating influenza A subtype and ... Inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) contain 4 influenza virus strains - 2 influenza A subtypes and 2 influenza B ...
H5 avian and H9 swine influenza virus haemagglutinin structures: possible origin of influenza subtypes. EMBO J.21:865-875. ... Combinatorial antibody libraries from survivors of the Turkish H5N1 avian influenza outbreak reveal virus neutralization ... H2N2), 1968 (H3N2), and 2009 (H1N1). In recent years, viruses of other HA subtypes (H5, H7, and H9) of avian origin have ... Transmission of Eurasian avian H2 influenza virus to shorebirds in North America. J. Gen. Virol.80:3167-3171. ...
Disclosed are recombinant chimeric influenza virus vaccines and live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines expressing ... In addition to the circulating human influenza subtypes, other avian origin influenza viruses including H5N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7 ... wherein the influenza virus is an A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2), A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), or A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2), influenza virus ... avian influenza H5N1 viruses in domestic poultry and the increasing numbers of direct transmission of avian viruses to humans ...
... including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1), could threaten blood safety. We analyzed 10,272 blood donor samples ... Analytical sensitivity of the method was 804 geq/mL and 444 geq/mL for generic influenza primers and influenza (H5N1) subtype- ... This study demonstrates that such screening for influenza viruses is feasible. ... which are now known to represent 3 different antigenic subtypes of the influenza A virus: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2. Major influenza ...
As a large number of point mutations are thought to be required for an avian influenza virus such as A/H5N1 to evolve sustained ... On the origin of the human influenza virus subtypes H2N2 and H3N2. Virology87:13-20. ... avian influenza virus from wild bird rectal swabs, and swine influenza virus from nasal lavage samples. More than 3,000 full ... One likely scenario for an avian influenza virus, such as A/H5N1, to evolve to one capable of human-to-human transmission is ...
If one or both of these change, a new influenza A virus subtype can result. Influenza viruses have an H figure and an N figure ... while avian flu has the subtype H5N1.. If a flu subtype gains the ability to spread rapidly between people, a pandemic may ... H2N2). *1968-1969: Hong Kong flu. *2009-2010: Swine flu (H1N1) ... A new virus strain or subtype that easily transmits between ... A pandemic can occur when a type of influenza virus, known as the influenza A virus, mutates suddenly. ...
... avian influenza A (H5N1), 2009 influenza A (H1N1), seasonal influenza A (H1N1), and seasonal influenza A (H3N2). Influenza A ... cultivated influenza virus strains showed that the microarray was able to distinguish the subtypes of these influenza viruses ... Influenza A virus can infect various host species. In 2013, human-infectious avian influenza A (H7N9) was first reported in ... Human influenza A and B viruses can cause seasonal epidemics, but influenza C causes only a mild respiratory illness. ...
... were all of avian origin (Lipatov et al., 2004). [0003] Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1, causing what ... H2N2) and Hong Kong flu pandemic in 1968 (H3N2), ... of influenza virus, specifically H5N1 avian influenza virus, ... 20. The virus as claimed in claim 19, wherein the influenza virus is avian influenza virus. 21. A vaccine comprising the virus ... wherein the avian influenza virus is H5N1. 5. A virus as claimed in the claim 4, wherein the avian influenza virus is A/Vietnam ...
In the spring of 2006, migrating birds spread the virus from Asia to Europe and Africa. Preparing for a new influenza pandemic ... Although H5N1 is not yet capable of efficient human-to-human transmission, the protean nature of its genome could transform it ... Endemic in waterfowl and highly virulent in poultry, H5N1 is capable of incidentally infecting humans and other mammals. ... H5N1) first emerged as a global public health threat in 1997 when it caused a major human outbreak in Hong Kong. ...
... virus sub-types being generated by genetic re-assortment during mixed infections with human and avian influenza viruses. We now ... The combinations H1N1, H2N2 and H3N2 account for the three major human pandemics seen since the influenza virus was first ... Bird influenza has the combination H5N1 and, while highly lethal in man, has not yet evolved to be readily transmissible from ... for the two types of antigenic variation seen in influenza virus: antigenic drift which occurs within influenza virus subtypes ...
Influenza viruses of the H2N2 subtype have not circulated among humans in over 40 years. The occasional isolation of avian H2 ... H5N1 influenza viruses are capable of causing severe disease and death in humans, and represent a potential pandemic subtype ... Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus Humans Influenza Influenza A Virus Microarray Analysis Mutant Proteins Mutation, ... influenza H2 viruses have continued to circulate in the natural avian reservoir. The isolation of this virus subtype from ...
In contrast to human H2N2 virus, which served as a control and largely caused mild pneumonia similar to seasonal influenza A ... Adaptation, in the H2 hemagglutinin derived from an avian virus, includes the ability to bind to the mammalian receptor, a ... viruses, the swine H2N3 virus was more pathogenic causing severe pneumonia in nonhuman primates. Both viruses replicated in the ... Swine H2N3 virus was also detected to significantly higher titers in nasal and oral swabs indicating the potential for animal- ...
An outline of the emergence of the influenza A(H1N1)v strain and background information on previous flu pandemics from the last ... viruses from goose and duck reservoirs in Asia led to the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtype H5N1. ... This pandemic was caused by a new strain of the influenza A subtype H2N2, containing a combination of genes from human and ... All subtypes of influenza A viruses can be found in birds; those that occur mainly in birds are referred to as avian influenza ...
Avian-to-human transmission of H9N2 subtype influenza A viruses: relationship between H9N2 and H5N1 human isolates. Proc Natl ... Receptor specificity and transmission of H2N2 subtype viruses isolated from the pandemic of 1957. PLoS One. 2010;5:e11158. [PMC ... Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Lancet. 1998;351:472-477. [PubMed] ... Avian influenza viruses, including avian H5N1, H7, and H9N2 viruses, can occasionally cross the species barrier and infect ...
Viruses and Influenza: An Overview. *Avian Flu. *Avian Flu H5N1. *A Global Flu Pandemic ... Multiple subtypes exist within those types, and multiple strains exist within each subtype. Like many viruses, influenza can ... H2N2: The Asian flu that caused a pandemic from 1957 to 1958 ... Influenza A Subtypes. Subtypes of influenza A are named for ... so these viruses can be especially deadly. In the next section, well look at avian flu H5N1, the high pathogenic virus that ...
H5N1 Avian Flu. *Avian Flu Virus (H5N1). H5N1 is an Influenza A virus subtype. Experts believe it might mutate into a form that ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... If a reassortment in H5N1 occurs, it might remain an H5N1 subtype, or it could shift subtypes, as H2N2 did when it evolved into ...
... and H6 subtypes of avian influenza virus, and H1 and H3 subtypes of swine influenza virus. Thirty-five percent of the serum ... but not the H5N1 avian influenza virus. Their research, published online ahead of print in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology ... Those viruses resembled, but were not identical to the H2N2 human pandemic virus of 1957. ... Further reports about: , ASM , Medicine , avian influenza virus , influenza A virus , influenza virus , microbiology , pigs ...
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic flu strains contained genes from avian influenza viruses. The new subtypes arose in pigs ... either a Fujian human flu strain of the H3N2 subtype or a Fujian bird flu strain of the H5N1 subtype of the Influenza A virus. ... Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... and 84 novel influenza A (H1N1) viruses. All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) ...
H5N1, H6N1, H11N9, an avian H3N8, and a human seasonal H3N2 subtype. Using mass spectrometry, we determined the glycan ... in which an H2 virus reassorted with the circulating H1N1 to create a novel H2N2 genotype. Lung surfactant protein D (SP-D), a ... Little is known about HA head glycosylation of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) subtypes. These can pose a ... Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins H2, H5, H6, and H11 Are Not Targets of Pulmonary Surfactant Protein D: N-Glycan Subtypes in Host ...
The emergence of the avian influenza virus H5N1 that is currently devastating chicken flocks in many countries and threatening ... proteins and 9 subtypes of NA (N) proteins, which are used to name the viruses, such as H5N1. The virus uses the HA protein to ... a human H1N1 and avian H2N2 infected the same animal and swapped some genes--a process called reassortment. The resulting viral ... Influenza A viruses infect a wide range of animals and cause influenza outbreaks among humans. Scientists categorize influenza ...
Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine.. HA: ( ... H2N2. Main article: H2N2. The Asian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of H2N2 avian influenza that originated in China in 1957, ... Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain.[16] A vaccine ... CDC Key Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus ...
All known influenza pandemics in human history have been caused by different subtypes of the influenza A virus (the other virus ... influenza A , spanish flu , swine flu , h1n1 , avian influenza , H7N9 , H5N1 , flu near you ... The influenza A subtypes that have historically caused human disease are three HA subtypes (H1, H2, and H3) and two NA subtypes ... Although the H7N9 and H5N1 avian influenza strains have not caused pandemics or infected significant numbers of people during ...
Antonyms for Asian influenza. 1 synonym for Asian influenza: Asiatic flu. What are synonyms for Asian influenza? ... The panzootic subtype H5N1 virus strains circulating among poultry and wild birds are derived from the Asian influenza (H5N1) ... Avian influenza virus A (H5N1), detected through routine surveillance, in child, Bangladesh ... which are now known to represent 3 different antigenic subtypes of the influenza A virus: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2.. Blood ...
Comparison revealed that the response varied with each subtype. PB1-F2 protein from highly pathogenic H5N1 virus induced least ... and IL-6 was noted in A549 cells transfected with PB1-F2 gene construct of 2008 West Bengal H5N1 virus (H5N1-WB). On the ... In this study we have investigated the apoptotic and inflammatory responses of PB1-F2 protein from influenza viruses of diverse ... This data demonstrates that PB1-F2 protein of influenza A virus, when expressed independently is minimally apoptotic and ...
... from monitoring the spread of a virus, to using the most effective vaccines and medicines. Offers a national public health ... approach to preparing for an influenza pandemic in Canada. ... Some novel subtypes, like the avian A (H5N1) virus, have caused ... H2N2 "Asian flu" 1968-1969:. H3N2 "Hong Kong flu" 2009: H1N1 "Influenza A(H1N1) 2009". ... 2.1.1 Influenza and the Origin of Pandemics While there are four types of influenza virus (A, B, C and D), only influenza A and ...
... the H2N2 was a product of re-assortment between avian and human viruses, with a change in the PB1, HA and NA segments [16]. The ... Fig 6. Map of transmission zones across world in 2009 in various influenza A and B subtypes.[6] ... The H5N1 strain is the most well known avian strain, known as the "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus" (HPAI) [4]. It has ... Evolution of the Influenza A virus. Fig 7. Evolution of the Influenza A virus and the re-assortment of different serotypes ...
  • the pandemics of 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), and 1968 (H3N2) were caused by influenza viruses harboring HA and NA genes of avian or swine origin ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • In April 2009, a novel strain of influenza A virus H1N1 (S-OIV) with swine origin emerged in North America and has become the first influenza pandemic in 4 decades. (asm.org)
  • In the 20th century, 3 influenza-related pandemics occurred (1918 Spanish influenza, 1957 Asian influenza, and 1968 Hong Kong influenza) ( 1 ), which are now known to represent 3 different antigenic subtypes of the influenza A virus: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2. (cdc.gov)
  • One likely scenario for an avian influenza virus, such as A/H5N1, to evolve to one capable of human-to-human transmission is through the acquisition of genetic material from the A/H1N1 or A/H3N2 subtypes already circulating in human populations. (asm.org)
  • Swine flu, for example, is also known as H1N1, while avian flu has the subtype H5N1 . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this assay, a cost-effective chemiluminescence (CL) detection oligonucleotide microarray was developed to genotype and detect avian influenza A (H7N9), avian influenza A (H5N1), 2009 influenza A (H1N1), seasonal influenza A (H1N1), and seasonal influenza A (H3N2). (springeropen.com)
  • 2011 ). There have been several influenza A pandemics during the past 100 years: influenza A (H1N1) caused Spanish flu in 1918, causing 50 million deaths (Taubenberger and Morens 2006 ). (springeropen.com)
  • The clinical manifestations, severity, and mortality rates of human-infectious avian influenza A (H7N9) were similar to those of avian influenza A (H5N1) and 2009 influenza A (H1N1) but quite different from seasonal influenza (Gao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • The Asian influenza viruses which circulated in man from 1957 to 1968 were H2N2 and the viruses preceding Asian influenza (including the lethal Spanish influenza of 1918) were H1N1, as was the swine influenza pandemic of 2009. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • This new strain appears to be a result of reassortment of human influenza and swine influenza viruses, in all four different strains of subtype H1N1. (lazerzap.com)
  • H1N1 type of influenza virus. (lazerzap.com)
  • Viruses with the HA subtypes H1, H2, and H3, and the NA subtypes N1 and N2 are known to have adapted to humans in the past century, and only two subtypes, H1N1 and H3N2, have been circulating in humans for several decades. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • for example, only three subtypes are known to have circulated in the human population (H1N1, H2N2 and H3N2) and only three subtypes of influenza A viruses (H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2) are consistently isolated from pigs worldwide. (plos.org)
  • Thirty-five percent of the serum samples were positive for H1N1, and 19.7 percent were positive for H3N2 swine flu virus, and 0.93 percent, 1.6 percent, and 1.8 percent were positive, respectively, for the H3, H4, and H6 subtypes of avian influenza A virus. (innovations-report.com)
  • Flu vaccines are based on predicting which "mutants" of H1N1 , H3N2, H1N2 , and influenza B will proliferate in the next season. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past ten years, H3N2 has tended to dominate in prevalence over H1N1, H1N2, and influenza B. Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in H3N2 has increased from 1% in 1994 to 12% in 2003 to 91% in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2007 study reported: "In swine , three influenza A virus subtypes ( H1N1 , H3N2, and H1N2 ) are circulating throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results also demonstrate that glycan subtype can be predicted at some glycosites based on sequence comparisons and three-dimensional structural analysis.IMPORTANCE Low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) subtypes can reassort with circulating human strains and pandemic viruses can emerge in human populations, as was seen in the 1957 pandemic, in which an H2 virus reassorted with the circulating H1N1 to create a novel H2N2 genotype. (bvsalud.org)
  • In 1957, a human H1N1 and avian H2N2 infected the same animal and swapped some genes--a process called reassortment. (rxpgnews.com)
  • For example , the Spanish flu of 1918 was H1N1, the Asian flu of 1957 was H2N2, and the Hong Kong flu of 1968 was H3N2. (healthmap.org)
  • On 11 June 2009, a new strain of H1N1 influenza was declared to be a global pandemic (Stage 6) by the WHO after evidence of spreading in the southern hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the beginning of 20th century, there have been four pandemics: Spanish influenza (H1N1) in 1918/1919, Asian influenza (H2N2) in 1957, Hong Kong influenza (H3N2) in 1968, and H1N1 influenza in 2009 [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In 2009, Canada's pandemic preparedness planning efforts were tested for the first time, with the emergence of the H1N1 influenza pandemic. (canada.ca)
  • The 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic (subsequently referred to as the 2009 pandemic) provided the first real test of Canada's pandemic preparedness planning efforts. (canada.ca)
  • There are four main types of viruses that cause seasonal influenza epidemics, namely the IAV subtype H1N1 and H3N2 and two IVB subtypes. (selfgrowth.com)
  • So far, 5 influenza pandemics have been recorded, which are Spain H1N1 influenza in 1918, Asia H2N2 influenza in 1957, Hong Kong H3N2 influenza in 1968, H1N1 avian influenza in 2005, and H1N1 influenza in 2009. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The emergence of new reassortant variants between human viruses such as A (H1N1)pdm09 and H5N1 HPAI virus, potentially generating reassortants with the transmissibility of the 2009 H1N1 virus and the virulence of the HPAI H5N1 viruses, would pose a threat to public health ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • We address unresolved questions of why the 1918 influenza H1N1 virus was more virulent than other influenza pandemics and why some people survived the 1918 pandemic and others succumbed to the infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lack of pre-existing virus-specific and/or cross-reactive antibodies and cellular immunity in children and young adults likely contributed to the high attack rate and rapid spread of the 1918 H1N1 virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Co-infections with bacterial pathogens, and possibly measles and malaria, co-morbidities, malnutrition or obesity are also known to affect the severity of influenza disease, and likely influenced 1918 H1N1 disease severity and outcomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • One thousand one hundred and seventy-four influenza isolates from Australia were antigenically analysed: 689 were A(H3N2), 210 were A(H1N1) strains and 275 were influenza B viruses. (health.gov.au)
  • This happened in 1918 (the 'Spanish flu', caused by a H1N1 subtype), in 1957 (the 'Asian flu' caused by a H2N2 subtype) and in 1968 (the 'Hong Kong flu', caused by a H3N2 subtype). (influenzareport.com)
  • Scientists have since been able to classify the virus responsible for the 1918-19 pandemic as an H1N1 influenza. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • 1957 Asian Flu pandemic (influenza A/H2N2), 1968 Hong Kong flu pandemic (influenza A/H3N2) and the 2009 (influenza A[H1N1]pdm09) resulting in far fewer deaths. (who.int)
  • 2009 novel H1N1 contains genes from a combination of human, swine, and avian reassortment. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The 1918 H1N1 flu was originally from an avian strain that adapted to be able to infect people. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Such shifts or adaptation of avian viruses for human transmission were associated with large human pandemics caused by H1N1 in 1918, H2N2 in 1957, H3N2 in 1968, and a new H1N1 in 2009. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our current influenza vaccine strategy is to make educated guesses about the likely dominant drifted strains based on molecular epidemiology studies and then to manufacture trivalent (with H1N1, H3N2, and B Ags) or quadrivalent (adding a second type B strain Ag) vaccines starting ∼6 mo before the season. (jimmunol.org)
  • This is caused due to H1N1 virus which contains eight strands, one of them is derived from the strains of human flu and 2 are from the strains of avian and the other 5 strands are derived from swine strains. (rroij.com)
  • Swine flu has been one of the emerging pandemic disease that is caused by different variants of H1N1 influenza viruses. (rroij.com)
  • Till 2009, the known SIV strains comprised of influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A which are known as H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2 and H2N3. (rroij.com)
  • In the year 2009, the cases of influenza swine fever [H1N1] in humans were initiated from California and Texas then reported in other states such as Mexico. (rroij.com)
  • 1 ] For the following 60 years, swine influenza strains were almost exclusively considered as H1N1. (rroij.com)
  • During the period of 1997-2002, new strains of three different subtypes and five different genotypes of H1N1 emerged as the origins of influenza among the pigs in North America. (rroij.com)
  • Around 1918, the familial virus of avian origin, crossed the species boundaries and diseased humans as human H1N1.The same phenomenon was happened shortly in America, where the human virus was infecting pigs. (rroij.com)
  • The new human H1N1 flu strain of bird origin, was kept conveying, among human populations until around 1957, when there was a co-infection amongst this strain and the bird H1N1 in humans. (rroij.com)
  • New events of re-assortment were not testified until 1968, when the avian strain H1N1 infected humans again. (rroij.com)
  • Cause of overall malady scenes PANDEMICS Subtype 1918 Spanish flu H1N1 1933 Influenza infection found 1957 Asian flu H2N2 1968 Hong Kong flu H3N2 1977 Russian (swine) flu H1N1 1997 Avian flu? (presentica.com)
  • According to Stuart-Harris C. (1979), they are now identified to represent three various antigenic subtypes of influenza Type A virus: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2, respectively. (machoideas.com)
  • Everybody remembers the scare we had a few years back, in 2009, regarding an airborne avian flu virus en route from China by the name of H1N1. (devtome.com)
  • Well, I've been doing some reading on this lately to see what the latest news is and I was shocked to find out that there are now 2 new viruses, both originating in China and both considered, like the H1N1 virus, a flu virus which somehow crossed over from animals to people and are amongst the deadliest of all time with a greater than 50% kill ratio (CFR). (devtome.com)
  • As I mentioned earlier, most of us have probably heard of the H1N1 virus that took quite some lives outside the US and to a certain degree was also deadly here in the US. (devtome.com)
  • This was back in 2009 and most people don't know that this H1N1 virus is still out there and still impacts the world's population, and continues to be a constant threat during flu season. (devtome.com)
  • This subtype appeared around 1997 in China, and although it appeared before the widespread H1N1, H5N1 has not had the same global effect because it has been a very slow acting virus, slow at adapting for Human to Human (H2H) infections . (devtome.com)
  • One of the remarkable findings over the summer regarding the novel H1N1 Swine flu virus has been that, in a very small subset of patients, it can produce absolutely devastating symptoms. (thegoldenthread.info)
  • Oct 15, 2009 (CIDRAP News) - In response to questions from citizens at a meeting yesterday, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) official said the agency would make a decision 'fairly soon' about permitting emergency use of the experimental antiviral drug peramivir to help patients severely ill with pandemic H1N1 influenza. (thegoldenthread.info)
  • ScienceDaily (Oct. 18, 2009) - University of Michigan researchers have found that patients with severe cases of the H1N1 virus are at risk for developing severe complications, including pulmonary emboli, according to a study published today in the American Journal of Roentgenology. (thegoldenthread.info)
  • With the upcoming annual influenza season in the United States, knowledge of the radiologic features of H1N1 is important, as well as the virus's potential complications. (thegoldenthread.info)
  • CT scans proved valuable in identifying those patients at risk of developing more serious complications as a possible result of the H1N1 virus," says Agarwal. (thegoldenthread.info)
  • Two subtypes of influenza A found in humans are A (H1N1) and A (H3N2). (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • In 1918-1919 the Spanish flu was caused by influenza A (H1N1). (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • In this review, we examine genetic, molecular, and pathogenicity and transmissibility data from a panel of contemporary North American H1 subtype swine-origin viruses isolated from humans, as compared to H1N1 seasonal and pandemic viruses, including the reconstructed 1918 virus. (mdpi.com)
  • The subsequent emergence of quadruple reassortant 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses containing two genes derived from Eurasian swine viruses further supported the role of swine in the generation of new strains with pandemic potential. (mdpi.com)
  • H1N1 virus. (scirp.org)
  • [5] To date, widespread disease in humans has been caused by three influenza A virus subtypes: H1N1, H2N2 and H3N2. (bioedonline.org)
  • Unlike typical seasonal influenza epidemics, however, where the majority of deaths occur in people age 65 and older, 80 percent of the deaths during the 2009 H1N1 epidemic occurred in people younger than 65, including pregnant women, highlighting a different type of impact many were not expecting. (nas.edu)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ), the subtypes of influenza circulating among people worldwide in 2016 include A H1N1, A H3N2, and B strains. (nas.edu)
  • For the 2009 human virus, see Pandemic H1N1/09 virus . (academic.ru)
  • Electron microscope image of the reassorted H1N1 influenza virus photographed at the CDC Influenza Laboratory. (academic.ru)
  • [ 9 ] In pigs, three influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2) are the most common strains worldwide. (academic.ru)
  • [ 18 ] For the following 60 years, swine influenza strains were almost exclusively H1N1. (academic.ru)
  • METHODS: The complete genomes of influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B viruses that caused mild infections among outpatients and severe infections among inpatients in Singapore during 2012-2015 were sequenced and characterized. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, we observed a trend in which the HA proteins of influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 exhibited enhanced ability to bind both avian and human host cell receptors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Observational studies indicate that oseltamivir treatment reduces the likelihood of pneumonia, hospitalization and mortality, and the duration of hospitalization in those hospitalized with seasonal or pandemic 2009 H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09) virus infection. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Seo, Sang 2011-05-01 00:00:00 A 2009 H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, which had its origin in swine, caused severe illness and mortality in humans. (deepdyve.com)
  • To better understand the pathogenic mechanism, clinical signs and inflammatory responses in ferrets infected with the pandemic H1N1 were compared with those caused by seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. (deepdyve.com)
  • Ferrets infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus displayed higher body temperatures, greater reduction in body weight, and higher viral titers in the tracheae and lungs. (deepdyve.com)
  • The data support the idea that increased pathogenesis caused by the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus may have been partially mediated by a higher induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs of affected humans or animals. (deepdyve.com)
  • seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. (deepdyve.com)
  • The most recent (April 2009 through August 2010) influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic declared by the World Health Organization occurred secondary to antigenic shift creating a strain which was efficiently transmitted in a sustained manner in the setting of poor preexisting immunity. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Last week another expedited-review paper appeared in the high profile journal Science , this one summarizing the genetics of the novel H1N1 influenza A virus causing the current outbreak cum pandemic. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The subtype of swine influenza from 1918 on, H1N1, was the same as the subtype that circulated in people until 1957. (scienceblogs.com)
  • During that period the pig virus remained relatively stable while the antigenic (immunologic) character of the human H1N1 drifted so that by the 1950s the human and pig H1N1s differed substantially. (scienceblogs.com)
  • While several new subtypes displaced H1N1 in people -- H2N2 in 1957, H3N2 replacing H2N2 in 1968 and H1N1 returned to co-circulate with H3N2 in 1977 -- the pig H1N1 continued to be stable and unlike any H1N1 circulating in people, sufficiently so that the only people infected by classical H1N1 swine flu were people in close contact with pigs and even then documented infection was very rare. (scienceblogs.com)
  • During this period the human flu virus was changing frequently, sometimes substituting entirely new subtypes and from 1977 to 2009 there were eight H1N1 vaccine updates because of antigenic drift caused by viral mutation. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Thus began a period of instability for the swine virus, with the appearance of H3N2, H1N1 and H1N2 reassortants, each again a triple reassortant containing a human HA or NA segment and two internal gene segments derived from one or more North American birds (so far not identified as to donor host or viral subtype). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Several scenarios exist, including reassortment in Asia or the Americas, for the events that have led to the genesis of the 2009 A(H1N1) virus. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Influenza B viruses fall in two antigenically distinct lineages (B/Victoria/2/1987 and B/Yamagata/16/1988 lineage) that co-circulate with influenza A viruses of the H3N2 and H1N1 subtypes during seasonal epidemics. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Retrospective time-dependent directional changes of mono- and oligonucleotide compositions, which were visualized for human strains on BLSOMs, could provide predictive information about sequence changes in newly invaded viruses from other animal hosts (e.g. the swine-derived pandemic H1N1/09). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Spanish flu , also known as the 1918 flu pandemic , was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 influenza A virus . (bingj.com)
  • 2010. Structural basis of preexisting immunity to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. (asmscience.org)
  • In recent studies, researchers have engineered viruses similar to the 1918 pandemic strain, H1N1, and exposed mice to them in an effort to learn what made the virus so deadly. (gyzxx.com)
  • Why some influenza viruses - like seasonal H1N1, H3N2, H2N2 , and others through the years - have successfully adapted to humans, while others like H5N1, H7N9, H5N6, H10N8 haven't remains a mystery, although researchers are making progress in figuring it out. (blogspot.com)
  • An influenza A (H1N1) virus, closely related to swine influenza virus, responsible for a fatal case of human influenza. (semanticscholar.org)
  • H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the "Asian flu" strain (now extinct in the wild), H3N2, and various strains found in birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples are the Hong Kong virus strain A/England/102/72 (H3N2). (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • The dominant strain of annual flu virus in January 2006 was H3N2, which is now resistant to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine. (lazerzap.com)
  • The possibility of H5N1 and H3N2 exchanging genes through reassortment is a major concern. (lazerzap.com)
  • If a reassortment in H5N1 occurs, it might remain an H5N1 subtype, or it could shift subtypes, as H2N2 did when it evolved into the Hong Kong Flu strain of H3N2. (lazerzap.com)
  • Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 ( A/H3N2 ) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). (wikipedia.org)
  • H3N2 viruses can infect birds and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • H3N2 is increasingly abundant in seasonal influenza . (wikipedia.org)
  • H3N2 is a subtype of the viral genus Influenzavirus A , which is an important cause of human influenza . (wikipedia.org)
  • Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its coat, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). By reassortment , H3N2 exchanges genes for internal proteins with other influenza subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • An analysis of 13,000 samples of influenza A/H3N2 virus that were collected across six continents from 2002 to 2007 by the WHO's Global Influenza Surveillance Network showed the newly emerging strains of H3N2 appeared in East and Southeast Asian countries about six to 9 months earlier than anywhere else. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, since late August 1998, H3N2 subtypes have been isolated from pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus and the epidemic virus, the presence of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests current commercial vaccines might not effectively protect pigs from infection with a majority of H3N2 viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian influenza virus H3N2 is endemic in pigs in China , and has been detected in pigs in Vietnam, contributing to the emergence of new variant strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • H3N2 evolved from H2N2 by antigenic shift and caused the Hong Kong Flu pandemic of 1968 and 1969 that killed up to 750,000 humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hong Kong Flu was a category 2 flu pandemic caused by a strain of H3N2 descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift , in which genes from multiple subtypes reassorted to form a new virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we investigate the activities of two recombinant human SP-D forms against representative LPAIV strains, including H2N1, H5N1, H6N1, H11N9, an avian H3N8, and a human seasonal H3N2 subtype. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sequence alignment and molecular structure analysis of the HAs were performed for LPAIV strains in comparison to seasonal H3N2 and avian H3N8. (bvsalud.org)
  • H3N2 was the cause of the Hong Kong flu in 1968 and H5N1 which produced the Bird flu more recently in 2004 [4]. (kenyon.edu)
  • While pandemic preparedness attention is divided among the A (H5N1), A (H2N2), A (H9N2), A (H7Nx), and A (H3N2)v subtypes in various continents, the endemicity of H5N1 viruses in poultry in parts of Asia and Africa ( 5 , 6 ) poses a challenging threat to public health. (asm.org)
  • Continued antigenic drift was seen with the A(H3N2) viruses from the previous reference strains with approximately one quarter of isolates being distinguishable from A/Wellington/1/2004-like viruses and more closely matched to A/California/7/2004-like viruses. (health.gov.au)
  • During that time, the virus met the strain H2N2, and the re-assortment originated the strain H3N2. (rroij.com)
  • In 1968-1969 about 46,000 people died from the Hong Kong Influenza A (H3N2) pandemic. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • These viruses were dominant in swine until the emergence of H3N2 viruses in pigs in the late 1990s. (mdpi.com)
  • This flu was caused by H3N2, which arose when the human H2N2 subtype re-assorted with genes from bird viruses containing the H3 subtype. (bioedonline.org)
  • J. S. M. Peiris, Y. Guan, D. Markwell, P. Ghose, R. G. Webster, and K. F. Shortridge, "Cocirculation of avian H9N2 and contemporary "human" H3N2 influenza A viruses in pigs in southeastern China: potential for genetic reassortment? (hindawi.com)
  • For example, seasons with influenza A (H3N2) as the predominant circulating strain have demonstrated mortality rates 2.7 times higher than average mortality rates in seasons with different predominant strains. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • It was recently shown that the use of an experimental subunit vaccine protected mice against infection with a human A/H3N2 influenza virus, but consequently affected the induction of heterosubtypic immunity to a highly pathogenic A/H5N1 influenza virus, which was otherwise induced by the A/H3N2 infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • As whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are widely used to protect against seasonal influenza and also contain inner viral proteins such as the nucleoprotein (NP), the potential of a WIV vaccine to induce protective immunity against infection was tested with a homologous A/H3N2 (A/Hong Kong/2/68) and a heterosubtypic A/H5N1 influenza virus (A/Indonesia/5/05). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • As expected, the vaccine afforded protection against infection with the A/H3N2 virus only. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In addition, it was demonstrated that the use of WIV vaccine for protection against A/H3N2 infection affected the induction of heterosubtypic immunity that was otherwise afforded by A/H3N2 influenza virus infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In unvaccinated mice that experienced infection with the A/H3N2 influenza virus, the magnitude of the CD8 + T-cell response to both peptides was similar on secondary infection with A/H5N1 influenza virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here we show that mutation ​PB2-K526R is present in some human H7N9 influenza isolates, in nearly 80% of H5N1 human isolates from Indonesia and, in conjunction with E627K, in almost all seasonal H3N2 viruses since 1970. (blogspot.com)
  • Polymerase complexes containing ​PB2-526R derived from H7N9, H5N1 or H3N2 viruses exhibit increased polymerase activity. (blogspot.com)
  • The bird flu virus H3N2 is endemic in pigs in China . (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] H3N2 evolved from H2N2 by antigenic shift . (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA sequence encoding the Influenza A virus (A/Switzerland/9715293/2013(H3N2)) hemagglutinin (translated amino acids of EPI541659) (Met1-Ile566), termed as HA0, was expressed. (sinobiological.com)
  • The recombinant hemagglutinin of Influenza A virus (A/Switzerland/9715293/2013(H3N2)) consists of 550 amino acids and predicts a molecular mass of 61.8 kDa. (sinobiological.com)
  • The 1957 H2N2 subtype (Asian flu) was one of the three great influenza pandemics of the last century and caused 1 million deaths globally from 1957 to 1968. (asm.org)
  • antigenic drift which occurs within influenza virus subtypes and antigenic shift to new subtypes such as the emergence of Asian influenza in 1957 and Hong Kong influenza in 1968. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • So far four such influenza pandemics have been reported in 1918, 1957, 1968 and 2009 in the past 100 years [2] . (plos.org)
  • Although widespread influenza pandemics did not erupt again until 1957 and 1968, there is evidence that a virus resembling the 1957 strain was circulating among humans as far back as 1888. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Pandemic human flu viruses have emerged twice since 1918-in 1957 and 1968. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This paper also addressed influenza history which occurred in the years 1918, 1957 and 1968. (machoideas.com)
  • By Stuart-Harris C. (1979), three worldwide outbreaks of influenza occurred in the 20th century: in 1918, 1957, and 1968. (machoideas.com)
  • This paper also discussed the history of Influenza happened in the year 1918, 1957, and 1968. (studentshare.net)
  • Hong Kong influenza pandemic of 1968 were in Southeast Asia, and it is in this region that multiple clades of H5N1 influenza virus have already emerged. (mcgill.ca)
  • The last influenza pandemic, the Hong Kong flu of 1968-1969, also killed about 1 million people, including 40,000 in the United States. (managedcaremag.com)
  • The virus has not circulated since 1968, which means that most people now would have little or no immunity to it. (gyzxx.com)
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 are the causative agents of fowl plague in poultry. (pnas.org)
  • A highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus of subtype H7N7, closely related to low pathogenic virus isolates obtained from wild ducks, was isolated from chickens. (pnas.org)
  • Viruses belonging to the antigenic subtypes H5 and H7, in contrast to viruses possessing other HA subtypes, may become highly pathogenic when transmitted from wild birds to poultry and, thus, cause fowl plagues ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, in Hong Kong in 1997 and 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of subtype H5N1 was transmitted from birds to humans, of whom at least seven died ( 8 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1), could threaten blood safety. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to the avian influenza virus A H5N1, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A H5N2 (Yang et al. (springeropen.com)
  • The triple reassortant H2N3 virus isolated from diseased pigs in the United States in 2006 is pathogenic for certain mammals without prior adaptation and transmits among swine and ferrets. (plos.org)
  • Here we investigated the pathogenic potential of swine H2N3 in Cynomolgus macaques, a surrogate model for human influenza infection. (plos.org)
  • In contrast to human H2N2 virus, which served as a control and largely caused mild pneumonia similar to seasonal influenza A viruses, the swine H2N3 virus was more pathogenic causing severe pneumonia in nonhuman primates. (plos.org)
  • Avian flu is either low pathogenic or high pathogenic. (howstuffworks.com)
  • However, an increase in infections since October 2013 may indicate a seasonal pattern similar to that of highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1), in which cases are most common in winter months. (healthmap.org)
  • One strain of virus that may produce a pandemic in the future is a highly pathogenic variation of the H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus . (wikipedia.org)
  • PB1-F2 protein from highly pathogenic H5N1 virus induced least apoptosis but maximum inflammatory response. (hindawi.com)
  • On the contrary, PB1-F2 construct from 2007 highly pathogenic H5N1 isolate (H5N1-M) with truncated N-terminal region did not evoke as exuberant inflammatory response as the other H5N1-WB with full length PB1-F2, signifying the importance of N-terminal region of PB1-F2. (hindawi.com)
  • Influenza is pathogenic viral disease, causing the emergence of newer epidemics and pandemics in mammals [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Among all three genera, influenza A is known to cause the most severe symptoms and be the most pathogenic to humans [4]. (kenyon.edu)
  • The H5N1 strain is the most well known avian strain, known as the "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus" (HPAI) [4]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Influenza B is most often known to be pathogenic among humans, seals and ferrets but is much less common than influenza A [5]. (kenyon.edu)
  • In 2003, highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza virus, including the H5N1 and H7N7 subtypes, again crossed from birds to humans and caused fatal disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • A highly pathogenic H7N7 avian influenza outbreak had recently erupted in the poultry industry of the Netherlands ( 2 ), and workers involved in the slaughter of infected flocks contracted viral conjunctivitis. (sciencemag.org)
  • These animals remained healthy after challenge inoculation with a lethal dose with homologous or heterologous wt H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. (asm.org)
  • The A (H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus reemerged in 2003 in Asia and subsequently spread to Africa, Europe, and the Middle East, becoming endemic in some countries. (asm.org)
  • The virus is also highly pathogenic for poultry as defined by the World Organization for Animal Health ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • H5N1 has mutated through antigenic drift into dozens of highly pathogenic varieties, but all currently belonging to genotype Z of avian influenza virus H5N1. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Genotype Z emerged through reassortment in 2002 from earlier highly pathogenic genotypes of H5N1 that first appeared in China in 1996 in birds and in Hong Kong in 1997 in humans. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in the number of severe influenza virus strains entering the human population from animal reservoirs (including highly pathogenic H7N9 and H5N1 viruses). (frontiersin.org)
  • The intriguing similarity in a number of changes in the polymerase proteins of both the 1918 strain and in the recently circulating, highly pathogenic strains of H5N1 avian viruses that have caused fatalities in humans (Taubenberger 2005), is reason for concern. (influenzareport.com)
  • Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Avian influenza can also infect humans and the first cases of human infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (A/H5N1) were reported in 1997 in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. (who.int)
  • Seo, Sang 2015-01-01 00:00:00 Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus continues to infect animals and humans. (deepdyve.com)
  • This flu caused by the current Asian-linage HPAI [High Pathogenic Avian Influenza] H5N1 strain that is still widespread in many wild bird species in several states. (rroij.com)
  • Unless otherwise indicated, 'H5N1' in this article refers to the recent highly pathogenic strain of H5N1. (mcgill.ca)
  • H5N1 has a highly pathogenic variety that is endemic in dozens of species of birds throughout south Asia and is threatening to become endemic in birds in west Asia and Africa . (mcgill.ca)
  • Highly pathogenic Asian avian influenza A(H5N1) and low pathogenic Asian A(H7N9) viruses account for the majority of human infections with avian influenza A viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Among H5 avian influenza A viruses, Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) viruses have caused the most human infections. (cdc.gov)
  • In late 2016, some low pathogenicity Asian H7N9 viruses developed mutations that made them highly pathogenic in poultry. (cdc.gov)
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A viruses can cause asymptomatic infection to fatal disease in wild birds and domestic poultry. (bmj.com)
  • Update on human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection, 2010. (bmj.com)
  • Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus," The Lancet , vol. 351, no. 9101, pp. 472-477, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza, or, as it was termed originally, ' fowl plague ' , was initially recognised as an infectious disease of birds in chickens in Italy, 1878 (Perroncito 1878). (influenzareport.com)
  • When low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) strains are transmitted from avian reservoir hosts to highly susceptible poultry species such as chickens and turkeys (i.e., a transspecies transmission step! (influenzareport.com)
  • Influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7 not only run through a host adaptation phase but may have the capability to saltatorily switch by insertional mutations into a highly pathogenic form (highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, HPAIV) inducing overwhelming systemic and rapidly fatal disease. (influenzareport.com)
  • Recently, however, avian influenza acquired world-wide attention when a highly pathogenic strain of the subtype H5N1, which probably arose before 1997 in Southern China, gained enzootic status in poultry throughout South East Asia and unexpectedly 'traversed interclass barriers ' (Perkins and Swayne 2003) when transmitted from birds to mammals (cats, swine, humans). (influenzareport.com)
  • There are several further lines of evidence - which will be discussed below - suggesting that the H5N1 virus has acquired increased pathogenic potency for several mammal species. (influenzareport.com)
  • Avian grippe, particularly the high pathogenic H5N1, is the infective agent that is most likely to do the recent pandemic, taking to monolithic human deaths worldwide and therefore considered one of the major menaces to both public wellness and domestic fowl industry ( J.S. Malik Peiris et al. (pilotmountainchristmas.com)
  • This study could be conducted with high performance PCs rather than supercomputers and showed the wide applicability of BLSOM to genome studies of pathogenic microbes including viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tripartite interactions among insect vectors, midgut bacteria, and viruses may determine the ability of insects to transmit pathogenic arboviruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Precisely how and when the influenza virus will develop into an extremely pathogenic form is beyond our current ability to predict. (carleton.ca)
  • A similar recommendation was made for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and for reverse-genetics research on the 1918 pandemic flu virus.Starting last fall, samples of the H2N2 virus were sent to labs in 18 countries for routine testing that usually involves more benign flu strains. (gyzxx.com)
  • This H2N2 virus was composed of three different genes from an H2N2 virus that originated from an avian influenza A virus, including the H2 hemagglutinin and the N2 neuraminidase genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asian Flu was of the H2N2 subtype (a notation that refers to the configuration of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins in the virus) of type A influenza, and an influenza vaccine was developed in 1957 to contain its outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, influenza A viruses representing 15 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes have been described in wild birds and poultry throughout the world ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein of influenza viruses mediates essential viral functions, including receptor binding and membrane fusion, and is the major viral antigen for antibody neutralization. (asm.org)
  • Hemagglutinin (HA) is the major surface envelope glycoprotein on influenza virus, and responsible for essential viral functions, such as binding to host receptors, viral entry, and membrane fusion ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • 1. A recombinant influenza virus comprising a chimeric hemagglutinin (HA) fusion protein, wherein the HA fusion protein comprises a HA protein or fragment thereof, and one or more tandem repeats of three or more heterologous influenza virus matrix protein 2 extracellular (M2e) domains, or a neutralizing polypeptide domain of attachment (G) or fusion (F) proteins derived from human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (patents.com)
  • Evidence suggests that true pandemics involving changes in hemagglutinin subtypes are caused by genetic reassortment in animal influenza A viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the 13.5-kb genome of influenza A virus is composed of eight segments coding for 11 known proteins, these viruses are typically categorized by their two surface antigens, hemagglutinin (HA), of which there are 16 subtypes (H1 to H16), and neuraminidase (NA), of which there are 9 (N1 to N9) ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • The NA is important for mobility of the virions by cleaving the sialic acid residues from the viral hemagglutinin, which facilitates both entry of the virus into the cell and release of the viruses during budding ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Influenza A viruses are further divided into various subtypes based on hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (springeropen.com)
  • Currently, seventeen serotypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H17) and ten serotypes of neuraminidase (N1-N10) of influenza A virus have been identified in mammalian and avian species (Fouchier et al. (springeropen.com)
  • 6. The virus as claimed in the claim 2, wherein the genes from the influenza virus are selected from the group comprising of Hemagglutinin (HA), Neuraminidase (NA), Matrix proteins (M1 and M2), Polymerases (PB1, PB2 and PA), Nucleoprotein (NP) and Non structural proteins (NS and NEP). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 7. The virus as claimed in the claim 6, wherein the genes from the avian influenza virus are Hemagglutinin (HA), Neuraminidase (NA), Polymerase PB2 and extracellular part of the Matrix (M) protein (M2e). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 15. A novel plasmid comprising Hemagglutinin (HA), Neuraminidase (NA), Polymerase PB2 and extracellular part of the Matrix (M) protein (M2e) from an influenza virus. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Influenza A virus infection begins with the binding of the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein to sialic acid-containing receptors on the surface of the target cell. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Adaptation, in the H2 hemagglutinin derived from an avian virus, includes the ability to bind to the mammalian receptor, a significant prerequisite for infection of mammals, in particular humans, which poses a big concern for public health. (plos.org)
  • Aquatic birds and shorebirds are considered natural reservoirs of influenza A viruses and 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes have been isolated from these avian hosts [3] - [5] . (plos.org)
  • Seasonal influenza carrying key hemagglutinin (HA) head region glycosylation sites can be removed from the lung by pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D). Little is known about HA head glycosylation of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) subtypes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Lung surfactant protein D (SP-D), a key factor in first-line innate immunity defense, removes influenza type A virus (IAV) through interaction with hemagglutinin (HA) head region high-mannose glycan(s). (bvsalud.org)
  • Hemagglutinin inhibition assay and neutralization assay displayed differential antigenic characteristics of the viruses isolated in central China in two periods (2004 and 2006-2007). (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to the molecular characteristics of Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) on the virus surface, so far, 18 HA subtypes (H1~H18) and 11 NA subtypes (N1~N11) have been identified. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The name H5N1 refers to the subtypes of surface antigens present on the virus: hemagglutinin type 5 and neuraminidase type 1. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The different strains of influenza A are named for surface proteins, HA (hemagglutinin) and NA (neuraminidase). (scientificamerican.com)
  • Genetic reassortment of the segments mixed during coinfection with avian, swine, and human viruses allows complete changing of the surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) to subtypes never seen by humans, resulting in antigenic shifts. (jimmunol.org)
  • Influenza Type infections are divided into subtypes based on differences in the surface glycoprotein antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (machoideas.com)
  • Evidence suggests that real pandemics involving changes in subtypes of hemagglutinin arise through genetic reassortment with Type A viruses of animal influenza. (machoideas.com)
  • On the surface of the influenza A virus, there are two proteins called protein H (hemagglutinin) and protein N (neuraminidase). (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes, based on two proteins, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N), located on the surface of the virus. (bioedonline.org)
  • Hemagglutinin helps the virus attach to cells in the respiratory system, while neuraminidase is involved in the release of new virus particles from host cells. (bioedonline.org)
  • Influenza virus hemagglutinin with multibasic cleavage site is activated by furin, a subtilisin-like endoprotease," EMBO Journal , vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 2407-2414, 1992. (hindawi.com)
  • The hemagglutinin (HA) stem is a promising target for universal influenza vaccine as stem-specific antibodies have the potential to be broadly cross-reactive towards different HA subtypes. (nature.com)
  • Hemagglutinin permits virus particles to gain access to the cell's interior and neuraminidase helps newly produced copies of the virus break free of the cell in quest of other cells to invade. (nas.edu)
  • Among influenza type A viruses, there are 18 known subtypes of hemagglutinin and 9 of neuraminidase. (nas.edu)
  • Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes by their surface glycoproteins with 17 hemagglutinin (HA) and 10 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes currently recognized. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Influenza type A is subcategorized by the presence of 2 surface antigens, hemagglutinin antigen (HA) and neuraminidase antigen (NA). (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Influenza A viruses are further classified, based on the viral surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA or H) and neuraminidase (NA or N). Eighteen H subtypes (or serotypes) and eleven N subtypes of influenza A virus have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The globular head of the trimeric influenza hemagglutinin (HA) contains the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and is the target of potently neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with high in vivo activity. (asmscience.org)
  • The influenza viral Hemagglutinin (HA) protein is a homotrimer with a receptor binding pocket on the globular head of each monomer.HA has at least 18 different antigens. (sinobiological.com)
  • The influenza virus Hemagglutinin (HA) protein is translated in cells as a single protein, HA, or hemagglutinin precursor protein. (sinobiological.com)
  • Survey of the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site sequence of H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses: amino acid sequence at the HA cleavage site as a marker of pathogenicity potential. (sinobiological.com)
  • Major influenza epidemics show neither periodicity nor a predictable pattern, and all differ from one another. (cdc.gov)
  • Seasonal influenza (flu) epidemics generally occur as a result of subtypes of a virus that is already circulating among people. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Influenza viruses are divided into three types, A, B, and C. Human influenza A and B viruses can cause seasonal epidemics, but influenza C causes only a mild respiratory illness. (springeropen.com)
  • The ease with which influenza A can recombine causes viral epidemics to spread across different species (dos Reis et al. (springeropen.com)
  • It is characterised by an ability to constantly change its two surface proteins - haemagglutinin and neuraminidase - allowing the virus to cause successive epidemics every one or two years or more serious pandemics at irregular intervals. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • Their data showed conclusively that the emergence of new influenza virus epidemics was associated with the accumulation of point mutations in the virus coat proteins. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • Seasonal influenza viruses flow out of overlapping epidemics in East Asia and Southeast Asia , then trickle around the globe before dying off. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly - there have been about 9 influenza pandemics during the last 300 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the scale, influenza epidemics can be divided into influenza pandemics and seasonal influenza epidemics. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The annual seasonal influenza epidemics cause 3 million to 5 million severe cases and 290,000 to 650,000 respiratory disease related deaths worldwide, posing a serious threat to public health security. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The seasonal activity of influenza virus varies from year to year with some years marked by larger epidemics with higher morbidity and mortality. (health.gov.au)
  • Mutations cause a gradual change in these proteins called 'antigenic drift', which results in annual epidemics of influenza. (health.gov.au)
  • Periodically, these 'shifts' result in the emergence of a novel influenza virus that spreads rapidly through susceptible populations, resulting in pandemics (worldwide epidemics). (health.gov.au)
  • 4 Unlike the seasonal epidemics of influenza, where attack rates depend on age, reflecting immunity conferred from previous infection, in pandemic influenza all age groups are susceptible. (health.gov.au)
  • Three influenza pandemics (worldwide epidemics) are known to have occurred, all caused by influenza A viruses. (influenzareport.com)
  • Influenza viruses can spread rapidly around the world causing seasonal epidemics that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. (who.int)
  • Not classified as actual pandemics are three prominent epidemics: a pseudo outbreak in 1947 with low death rates, an explosion in 1977 that was a pandemic in children, and A 1976 abortive swine influenza outbreak that had been believed to have a pandemic potential. (machoideas.com)
  • Large influenza epidemics do not show any predetermined periodicity or sequence, and they all vary. (machoideas.com)
  • Not classified as true pandemics are 3 prominent epidemics: a pseudo pandemic in 1947 with low death rates, an epidemic in 1977 that was a pandemic in children, and an abortive epidemic of swine influenza in 1976 that was feared to have pandemic potential. (studentshare.net)
  • In the case of influenza , seasonal outbreaks - or epidemics - are generally caused by subtypes of a virus that is already circulating among people. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Then, the virus subtype can circulate among humans for several years, causing occasional flu epidemics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • During the past five annual epidemics of Asian H7N9 virus infections in people, the mortality rate in hospitalized patients has averaged about 40 percent. (cdc.gov)
  • A vaccine against influenza virus has been available for over 70 years, yet influenza still causes epidemics or pandemic with substantial morbidity and mortality. (nature.com)
  • Influenza type C infections cause mild respiratory illnesses but usually do not cause epidemics. (nas.edu)
  • Epidemics break out every year because of slight genetic mutations in a virus subtype's surface proteins that result in a new strain of the virus-a process known as antigenic drift. (nas.edu)
  • Seasonal human influenza epidemics are responsible for over 250,000 deaths worldwide and over 3 million cases of severe illness each year [ 1 - 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Either way, the mortality rate was about 2.5 percent, compared with less than 0.1 percent during the routine influenza epidemics to which we have become accustomed. (managedcaremag.com)
  • That's close to the average number of excess deaths (the difference between the number of deaths observed in a group and the number of deaths that would have occurred if the group had the same death rate as a comparison population) attributed to influenza in recent years from U.S. epidemics, though. (managedcaremag.com)
  • Seasonal influenza epidemics have been responsible for notable morbidity and mortality, with the severity of systemic symptoms from this acute viral infection ranging from fever and fatigue to respiratory failure and death. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Seasonal epidemics occur secondary to unremitting antigenic drift, or continuous minor antigenic variations within a particular type A subtype. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The influenza C virus infects humans and pigs , and can cause severe illness and local epidemics . (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza pandemics from its genetic offspring may include influenza A virus subtypes other than H5N1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian influenza A viruses (AIV) pose the threat of initiating new pandemics in humans because the human population is serologically naive toward most HA and NA subtypes. (pnas.org)
  • Influenza pandemics in humans are generally associated with nonhuman viruses of novel antigenicity acquiring specificity for human receptors. (asm.org)
  • Although future influenza pandemics seem inevitable, predicting the potential HA subtypes that will emerge remains a daunting task ( 41 ). (asm.org)
  • Novel subtypes, on the other hand, generally cause pandemics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In fact, scientists believe that the two most recent flu pandemics occurred after human strains of influenza acquired genes from an avian flu virus. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Influenza A virus is responsible both for pandemics that have killed millions worldwide, and for the much less severe annual outbreaks of influenza. (innovations-report.com)
  • Because pigs can be infected with both human and avian influenza viruses, they are thought to serve as "mixing vessels" for genetic reassortment that could lead to pandemics, and pigs have been infected experimentally by all avian H1-H13 subtypes. (innovations-report.com)
  • Summer: Time for Influenza Pandemics? (healthmap.org)
  • However, some of the most significant influenza pandemics of the past century have had initial peaks in the summer. (healthmap.org)
  • Among them is the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918-1919 (the "mother of all" influenza pandemics), which emerged in the U.S. in March 1918 and spread across Europe in May and June. (healthmap.org)
  • Because these influenza pandemics did not emerge during the typical "flu season," they highlight the importance of maintaining flu surveillance during the off-season. (healthmap.org)
  • The difference between a regular flu season and a pandemic is that influenza pandemics exhibit explosive transmission and high morbidity but low mortality (meaning that although many people may die, the deaths only represent a small proportion of the much larger total who fall ill). (healthmap.org)
  • All known influenza pandemics in human history have been caused by different subtypes of the influenza A virus (the other virus types are influenza B and C). The influenza A subtypes that have historically caused human disease are three HA subtypes (H1, H2, and H3) and two NA subtypes (N1 and N2). (healthmap.org)
  • Although the H7N9 and H5N1 avian influenza strains have not caused pandemics or infected significant numbers of people during the summer, the risk of a new influenza strain emerging and causing a summertime pandemic is not too far-fetched-just look at the history. (healthmap.org)
  • There have been about three influenza pandemics in each century for the last 300 years, the most recent one being the 2009 flu pandemic . (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza pandemics occur when a new strain of the influenza virus is transmitted to humans from another animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza A viruses can occasionally be transmitted from wild birds to other species causing outbreaks in domestic poultry and may give rise to human influenza pandemics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three influenza pandemics occurred in the 20th century and killed tens of millions of people, with each of these pandemics being caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza pandemics (subsequently referred to as pandemics) are unpredictable but recurring events that occur when a novel influenza virus strain emerges, spreads widely and causes a worldwide epidemic. (canada.ca)
  • Three influenza pandemics outbroke in the last century accompanied the viral antigen shift and drift, resulting in the change of antigenic property and the low cross protective ability of the existed antibody to the newly emerged pandemic virus, and eventually the death of millions of people. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An understanding of past influenza virus pandemics and the lessons that we have learnt from them has therefore never been more pertinent. (frontiersin.org)
  • Three pandemics occurred in the 20th century, all of them caused by antigenic shift in influenza A strains. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • Influenza causes periodic human pandemics because the segmented viral genome allows the creation of new viruses during coinfection of cells with viruses of two different antigenic subtypes. (jimmunol.org)
  • The phylogenetic origin of the flu virus was initiated the 2009 pandemics can be sketched before 1918. (rroij.com)
  • [14] [15] Since then, the virus has caused numerous pandemics. (bionity.com)
  • Evidence implies that true pandemics with changes in hem agglutinin subtypes take place from genetic reassortment with animal influenza Type A viruses. (studentshare.net)
  • [5] Type B flu viruses normally infect only humans, but have not caused pandemics (global outbreaks of disease). (bioedonline.org)
  • [ 7 ] Because of its limited host range and the lack of genetic diversity in influenza C, this form of influenza does not cause pandemics in humans. (academic.ru)
  • Reassorted strains of the virus pose the greatest risk to both human and animal health and have been associated with all pandemics of the past century, with the possible exception of the 1918 pandemic, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of the four influenza pandemics of the past century [ 9 ], at least three have been shown to be associated with reassorted strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The rapid identification of reassorted strains of the virus is therefore an important requirement to mitigate the impact of influenza pandemics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It's speculated that older people had acquired some immunity from two suspected pandemics in the 19th century, while younger people's immune systems hadn't matured to the point to trigger a fatal immune response to this particular virus. (managedcaremag.com)
  • Influenza pandemics may occur secondary to antigenic shift, or abrupt, major changes in the influenza A virus, which include the creation of new hemaglglutinin antigen (HA) or neuroaminidase antigen (NA) components of thisvirus. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • There now have been four influenza pandemics caused by antigenic shift in the 20th and 21st centuries. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • [14] This reduced rate of antigenic change, combined with its limited host range (inhibiting cross species antigenic shift ), ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, wild aquatic birds such as ducks and shore birds perpetuate the influenza viruses that cause human pandemics. (carleton.ca)
  • Eleven outbreaks of H5N1 were reported worldwide in June 2008, in five countries (China, Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan and Vietnam) compared to 65 outbreaks in June 2006, and 55 in June 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preparing for a new influenza pandemic involves increasing global influenza surveillance and developing practical strategies for containing outbreaks at the source. (aafp.org)
  • Influenza A virus infections in humans are typically associated with limited seasonal outbreaks of commonly circulating influenza virus strains. (plos.org)
  • Influenza A viruses infect a wide range of animals and cause influenza outbreaks among humans. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Influenza outbreaks are unpredictable, and two or more influenza strains can combine to form a new strain at any time, whether it's the flu season or the off-season. (healthmap.org)
  • The OIE proposed to refer to this new virus as 'North American influenza', using the same approach to nomenclature as used with the Asian influenza and Spanish influenza outbreaks that have occurred in the past. (freethesaurus.com)
  • When transmitted from one species to another or from reservoir to another host, for example, from birds to humans, influenza outbreaks can be dangerous [4]. (kenyon.edu)
  • The disease was also unusually severe, with death rates of 2.5 to 5 percent-up to 50 times the mortality seen in other influenza outbreaks. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In general, both IAV and IBV can cause influenza, and IAV is a more critical factor leading to seasonal and epidemic outbreaks. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The outbreaks in Japan, Malaysia, and the Republic of Korea were successfully controlled, but the virus seems to have become endemic in several of the affected countries. (influenzareport.com)
  • Most of the seasonal flu outbreaks each year are from influenza A. Influenza B strikes every 2-4 years, and is a less serious problem. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Influenza outbreaks have occurred in the past, and by analyzing their development we can anticipate the progression of today s bird flu threat. (drdalepeterson.com)
  • For example, viruses were responsible for the three largest global outbreaks of disease in the 20th Century. (bioedonline.org)
  • Serious flu outbreaks in human populations have involved only Type A influenza, the most common of the three forms of influenza virus (A, B and C). Type A influenza can infect people, birds, pigs, horses, and other animals. (bioedonline.org)
  • Most human HPAI H5N1 cases are sporadic and associated with direct contact (e.g., touching) or very close exposure with sick or dead backyard poultry (usually chickens), and a seasonal variation observed in human cases parallels that of outbreaks in birds. (bmj.com)
  • [ 6 ] For example, influenza C caused small outbreaks of a mild form of influenza amongst children in Japan [ 7 ] and California. (academic.ru)
  • Most influenza outbreaks disproportionately kill the very young and the very old, with a higher survival rate for those in between, but the Spanish flu pandemic resulted in a higher than expected mortality rate for young adults. (bingj.com)
  • Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 (A/H5N1) is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • A risk factor for contracting the virus is handling of infected poultry, but transmission of the virus from infected birds to humans has been characterized as inefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Still, around 60% of humans known to have been infected with the Asian strain of HPAI A(H5N1) have died from it, and H5N1 may mutate or reassort into a strain capable of efficient human-to-human transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • H5N1 may cause more than one influenza pandemic, as it is expected to continue mutating in birds regardless of whether humans develop herd immunity to a future pandemic strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza A viruses of subtype H5N1 also caused severe respiratory disease in humans in Hong Kong in 1997 and 2003, including at least seven fatal cases, posing a serious human pandemic threat. (pnas.org)
  • The same virus was detected subsequently in 86 humans who handled affected poultry and in three of their family members. (pnas.org)
  • Most virus isolates obtained from humans, including probable secondary cases, had not accumulated significant mutations. (pnas.org)
  • Because H7N7 viruses have caused disease in mammals, including horses, seals, and humans, on several occasions in the past, they may be unusual in their zoonotic potential and, thus, form a pandemic threat to humans. (pnas.org)
  • The only other reports on natural infections of humans by HPAI viruses were cases of conjunctivitis associated with avian H7N7 viruses, transmitted either directly from birds to humans or by seals ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we describe the characterization of virus isolates obtained from poultry and humans during an outbreak of HPAI that started in February 2003 in The Netherlands and spread subsequently to poultry in Germany and Belgium ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in birds and pigs and, therefore, remain a substantial threat for transmission to humans. (asm.org)
  • HAs in avian viruses are specific for sialic acids with an α2,3-linkage, whereas in humans, the specificity is for sialic acids with an α2,6-linkage (Fig. 1a ). (asm.org)
  • A new virus strain or subtype that easily transmits between humans can cause a pandemic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Humans may have little or no immunity against a new virus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These subtypes will not previously have circulated among humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Endemic in waterfowl and highly virulent in poultry, H5N1 is capable of incidentally infecting humans and other mammals. (aafp.org)
  • Although pigs were thought to be a necessary "bridge" species for avian viruses to infect humans, it now seems likely that the avian influenza virus is mutable enough to make the interspecies leap on its own. (aafp.org)
  • This new virus is called a swine flu, though it contains genetic segments from humans and birds viruses as well as from pigs from North America, Europe and Asia. (lazerzap.com)
  • The HAs of avian influenza viruses must adapt to receptors in humans to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Influenza is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by influenza A viruses, which infect various species, including humans, lower mammals, and birds [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Avian influenza viruses generally do not infect and replicate efficiently in humans. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, in some situations, several avian influenza virus subtypes (such as H5N1, H7, or H9N2) have broken through the species barrier and acquired the ability to infect humans [ 6 - 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When a virus with a new HA subtype is introduced from avian species to humans, the resulting virus may cause widespread infection in the immunologically naïve human population, leading to a pandemic. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In conclusion, the swine H2N3 virus represents a threat to humans with the potential for causing a larger outbreak in a non-immune or partially immune population. (plos.org)
  • Occasionally however, new virus strains or subtypes appear that infect millions of individuals causing severe illness and high case fatality rates in humans [1] . (plos.org)
  • Influenza A viruses can infect birds and a large variety of mammalian species including humans, horses, pigs, dogs, cats and sea mammals. (plos.org)
  • In general, avian influenza viruses grow poorly in mammals including humans, cause little disease and are not easily transmitted between mammalian hosts [1] . (plos.org)
  • Pigs have been suggested to play an important role in transmission between birds and humans by acting as a "mixing vessel" for influenza viruses allowing for major genetic changes through reassortment of gene segments during co-infection [6] , [7] . (plos.org)
  • Although the virus doesn't infect humans easily, more than half of the people who have contracted it have died. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Given the recent transmission of avian influenzas into swine, "We recommend strongly that the pork industry worldwide should monitor the prevalence of influenza in pigs, considering their important role in transmitting this virus to humans," says Zhang. (innovations-report.com)
  • In birds, humans, and pigs , the virus has mutated into many strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pigs can harbor influenza viruses adapted to humans and others that are adapted to birds, allowing the viruses to exchange genes and create a pandemic strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pigs can carry human influenza viruses, which can combine (i.e. exchange homologous genome subunits by genetic reassortment ) with H5N1 , passing genes and mutating into a form which can pass easily among humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emergence of the avian influenza virus H5N1 that is currently devastating chicken flocks in many countries and threatening to unleash a worldwide epidemic among humans has triggered a renewed interest among scientists in studying influenza A viruses, according to investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The current resurgence of interest in influenza immunology reflects the threat that H5N1 could evolve into a virus that spreads easily among humans. (rxpgnews.com)
  • It killed some 40 million people--many more than the number killed in World War I. This pandemic arose from a bird flu virus that adapted to humans, an event that scientists fear could happen with H5N1. (rxpgnews.com)
  • According to the paper's authors, even in the absence of a quick reassortment, the right antigenic drift could give influenza A viruses the ability to spread to new species, including humans. (rxpgnews.com)
  • H5N1 has infected 665 people including 392 deaths since its emergence in humans in 2003. (healthmap.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has produced a six-stage classification that describes the process by which a novel influenza virus moves from the first few infections in humans through to a pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza A virus (IAV) causes acute respiratory inflammation in humans and symptoms include high fever, body aches, and fatigue [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Symptoms of IAV infection is mostly mild in humans but may progress to fatal viral pneumonia if the virus spreads from the upper airways to the alveolar space in the lower respiratory tract [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Immune systems are therefore able to combat and produce effective defenses against type B, such as antibodies, from an early age that withstand throughout lifetime.Influenza C virus infects humans, dogs, and pigs [6]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Nearby herds of swine (which are often implicated in the adaptation of influenza viruses to humans) also showed serologic evidence of exposure ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The document advocates the development of methods and reagents that can be used to rapidly identify all influenza virus subtypes, thereby allowing integrated influenza surveillance in humans and in other animals. (sciencemag.org)
  • As an example, within a brief period, the H7N7 virus events occurred in European poultry and humans, H5N1 viruses infected Asian poultry and humans, and novel, rapidly spreading reassortant viruses were isolated in swine in the United States ( 8 , 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • And flu strains that usually infect only animals have also periodically caused disease in humans, as seen in the recent outbreak of avian influenza in Asia. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To date, human-to-human transmission of H5N1 HPAI viruses has been very limited, and most cases of infection in humans have occurred through close contact with infected live or dead poultry ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • This infection of humans coincided with an epizootic (an epidemic in nonhumans) of H5N1 influenza in Hong Kong's poultry population. (medicalxpress.com)
  • There are three types of influenza viruses, A, B and C. The ancestral hosts for influenza A viruses are aquatic birds, however, certain subtypes have become established in various mammals, including humans and pigs. (health.gov.au)
  • Both influenza B and C are restricted to humans, although influenza C has been isolated from pigs. (health.gov.au)
  • BLSOM has shown that influenza viruses isolated from humans and birds clearly differ in oligonucleotide composition. (mdpi.com)
  • Based on this host-dependent oligonucleotide composition, we have proposed strategies for predicting directional changes of virus sequences and for surveilling potentially hazardous strains when introduced into humans from non-human sources. (mdpi.com)
  • If the virus also achieves efficient human-to-human transmission and has the ability to replicate in humans causing serious illness, a pandemic can occur. (influenzareport.com)
  • Human infection is still very rare, but the virus that causes the infection in birds might change, or mutate, to more easily infect humans. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Occasionally, a major change in a virus produces a strain so different from the others before it that humans have little or no preexisting immunity. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • Human influenza is caused by the influenza viruses which are classified into three main types: influenza A, B and C. Influenza A and B viruses can cause epidemic disease in humans and type C viruses usually cause a mild, cold-like illness. (who.int)
  • In addition to A/H5N1 an increasing number of other avian influenza A viruses are being recognised as causing sporadic infections in humans. (who.int)
  • Influenza or The Flu is caused by a " Influenza virus " which is a RNA virus that is seen in humans, birds, and some mammals. (iahealth.net)
  • Greg received his BS in Microbiology from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst and his Ph.D. in Immunology from Tufts University, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences where he developed the model for Epstein Barr virus long-term latency in humans. (visterrainc.com)
  • An influenza pandemic occurs when a new subtype develops that has not formerly circulated in humans. (machoideas.com)
  • An influenza pandemic is a global epidemic of flu disease that happens when a new form of influenza virus emerges that humans were not previously exposed to (Kilbourne ED. 1975). (machoideas.com)
  • 1975) that pandemic flu is a worldwide outbreak of disease that takes place as soon as a new influenza virus appears in humans, causes severe illness and then spreads effortlessly from person to person worldwide. (machoideas.com)
  • Influenza A, B and C viruses are known to cause disease in humans. (machoideas.com)
  • These two new viruses are the H5N1, a slower to progress sub-type virus and an even newer H7N9 sub-type which has been much faster than the H5N1 in its ability to adapt and mutate to be able to infect humans. (devtome.com)
  • 3) Like all similar subtypes, this strain has been known to infect birds, but it hasn't been up until very recently, 2013, that this strain has mutated and now effectively and fatally attacks humans. (devtome.com)
  • Often, these new strains result from the spread of an existing flu virus to humans from other animal species. (bionity.com)
  • A deadly avian strain named H5N1 has posed the greatest risk for a new influenza pandemic since it first killed humans in Asia in the 1990s. (bionity.com)
  • According to Kilbourne ED. (1975) that pandemic flu is a worldwide outbreak of disease that takes place as soon as a new influenza virus appears in humans, causes serious illness and then spreads effortlessly from person to person worldwide. (studentshare.net)
  • A pandemic is usually caused by a new virus strain or subtype that becomes easily transmissable between humans, or by bacteria that become resistant to antibiotic treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The title came to mind because of the outbreak of avian influenza (bird flu), which has spread from birds to humans. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Influenza B and influenza C viruses are found only in humans. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • But in 1997, bird flu caused by avian influenza A (H5N1) infected humans. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • This was the first documented case of transmission of avian influenza from birds to humans. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • This first case of direct transmission of influenza from avian to humans was alarming to health authorities worldwide. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Then laboratory tests confirmed the presence of avian influenza A (H4N1) in humans in Viet Nam. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Surveillance of H5N1 in humans, poultry, wild birds, cats and other animals remains very weak in many parts of Asia and Africa. (mcgill.ca)
  • So far, it is very difficult for humans to become infected with H5N1. (mcgill.ca)
  • The intermittent spread to humans will continue, and the virus will continue to evolve. (mcgill.ca)
  • Collectively, we find that despite strain-specific heterogeneity among swine-origin H1 viruses, contemporary swine viruses isolated from humans possess many attributes shared by prior pandemic strains, warranting heightened surveillance and evaluation of these zoonotic viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Several mammalian hosts including, but not limited to, humans, pigs, horses, and dogs maintain genetically and antigenically distinct lineages of influenza viruses [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Avian influenza A viruses do not normally infect humans, but sporadic human infections have occurred. (cdc.gov)
  • Illness in humans caused by avian influenza A virus infections has ranged from mild to severe (e.g. pneumonia). (cdc.gov)
  • [1] According to Nature News , mutations of the H7N9 virus may allow it to jump from birds to humans more easily than H5N1 did. (bioedonline.org)
  • Type C influenza viruses cause only mild illness in humans. (bioedonline.org)
  • Most avian influenza A viruses do not infect humans. (bioedonline.org)
  • [10] Since the influenza virus is shed through feces, nasal secretions, and the saliva of birds, direct contact with infected or uncooked poultry, or contaminated surfaces appears to be the primary means of transmission from birds to humans. (bioedonline.org)
  • Investigation of avian influenza (H5N1) outbreak in humans: Thailand, 2004. (bmj.com)
  • Update on avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in humans. (bmj.com)
  • Key phenotypic traits for the adaptation of avian influenza viruses to replicate efficiently in humans. (elifesciences.org)
  • Filled circles show the measured secondary attack rates (SAR) in ferrets for influenza subtypes that are known to be subcritical (blue) or supercritical (red) in humans. (elifesciences.org)
  • Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human flu , often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. (academic.ru)
  • During the mid-20th century, identification of influenza subtypes became possible, allowing accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans. (academic.ru)
  • Symptoms of zoonotic swine flu in humans are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills , fever , sore throat , muscle pains , severe headache , coughing , weakness and general discomfort . (academic.ru)
  • Within influenza A and influenza C, the strains found in pigs and humans are largely distinct, although because of reassortment there have been transfers of genes among strains crossing swine, avian, and human species boundaries. (academic.ru)
  • Influenza viruses infect both humans and pigs, but do not infect birds. (academic.ru)
  • Humans, including children, occasionally are infected with influenza A viruses of swine or avian origin. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Other influenza subtypes of avian origin, including H7, also are identified occasionally in humans. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • We now believe pigs either got it from humans at the time of the 1918 pandemic or both pigs and humans got it from a common source, probably birds, the natural reservoir for most influenza A viruses. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Immunomic analysis of the repertoire of T-cell specificities for influenza A virus in humans. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Potent CD8 + T-cell immunogenicity in humans of a novel heterosubtypic influenza A vaccine, MVA-NP+M1. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • To characterize sequence changes in influenza virus genomes after invasion into humans from other animal hosts, we applied BLSOMs to analyses of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide compositions in all genome sequences of influenza A and B viruses and found clear host-dependent clustering (self-organization) of the sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viruses isolated from humans and birds differed in mononucleotide composition from each other. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first three genera contain viruses that cause influenza in vertebrates, including birds (see also avian influenza ), humans , and other mammals . (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza A and C infect multiple species, while influenza B almost exclusively infects humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than a decade after it re-emerged in Vietnam, H5N1 continues to circulate widely in Asian and Middle Eastern poultry providing numerous opportunities to infect humans, and yet only a few more than 600 human infections have been identified. (blogspot.com)
  • While both viruses are capable of infecting and causing severe illness in humans, neither has taken off as a human-adapted pathogen. (blogspot.com)
  • Birds run ` hotter ' than mammals, with a normal body temperature several degrees higher ( and avian viruses replicate in the gut, which is warmer than the upper airway of humans ). (blogspot.com)
  • This type of influenza virus can also infect humans and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Every once in a while, the viruses spread from pigs to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through mutation , this would create a form of the virus that can pass easily among humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness which has afflicted humans and animals since ancient times. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Characterization of the surface proteins of influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from humans in 1997-1998. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Influenza virus is a pleomorphic, enveloped virus with two coat proteins on its surface, the haemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • In 2005, WHO established its Southeast Asian Influenza Clinical Research Network to study neuraminidase inhibitor treatment of patients infected with viruses that possess pandemic potential (4). (freethesaurus.com)
  • In terms of drug, neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir are effective treatments for Type A and Type B influenza. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Influenza virus types are further subtyped by the antigenic properties of two surface proteins, haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). Influenza viruses are successful human pathogens because of their ability to vary these two external proteins, thus evading the immune system. (health.gov.au)
  • When a significant change in at least one of the influenza A virus surface proteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase occurs spontaneously, nobody has immunity to this entirely new virus. (influenzareport.com)
  • Antiviral drugs can be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors being particularly effective. (bionity.com)
  • Of the 18 haemagglutinin and 11 neuraminidase subtypes of influenza A viruses identified to date, nearly all (except for H17N10, H18N11 identified in bats) have been identified among birds. (bmj.com)
  • Dos 18 subtipos de hemaglutinina e 11 de neuraminidase do vírus da influenza A identificados até o momento, quase todos (com exceção de H17N10, H18N11 identificados em morcegos) foram identificados em aves. (bmj.com)
  • Neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) therapy may be considered for any previously healthy outpatient with febrile influenza who presents for care within 2 days of illness onset. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The NA cistron encodes neuraminidase protein which is the 2nd major surface protein of avian grippe viruses and about 100 transcripts ( 17 % ) of NA antigen makes up one virion. (pilotmountainchristmas.com)
  • At least 12 companies and 17 governments are developing prepandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza (flu) is an infection of the respiratory tract that affects millions of people every year. (asm.org)
  • This would require that viruses of both subtypes coinfect the same cells, generating a mixed infection, and then reassort. (asm.org)
  • Determining the nature and frequency of mixed infection with influenza virus is therefore central to understanding the emergence of pandemic, antigenic, and drug-resistant strains. (asm.org)
  • It happens when infection due to a bacterium or virus becomes capable of spreading widely and rapidly. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many studies have shown that it is more effective to reduce the severity of the infection when administration of NA inhibitor within 48 h of the onset of influenza symptoms than after 48 h (Hayden et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Pharyngeal swabs are more effective than nasal swabs in diagnosing avian influenza A (H5N1) infection. (aafp.org)
  • This phenomenon of successive infections by the influenza virus is in marked contrast to the situation with viruses like measles, mumps or small pox where exposure to a single infection induces lifelong immunity. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • The reason for this is not a poor immune response, rather it is the fact that the influenza virus continues to change its coat proteins so that the new infecting variants are no longer recognised and destroyed by the immune response generated against the earlier infection. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • Both viruses replicated in the entire respiratory tract, but only swine H2N3 could be isolated from lung tissue on day 6 post infection. (plos.org)
  • We subse- the mechanism of influenza viral infection and replication quently used 15,785 protein sequences from the National in different host species. (cdc.gov)
  • PB1-F2 has been shown to have proapoptotic activity when expressed either independently or during influenza virus infection [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A mouse model of infection was used to determine the infectivity and tissue tropism of the parental wt viruses compared to the ca master donor viruses as well as the H5N1 reassortants. (asm.org)
  • Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. (fpnotebook.com)
  • human H5N1 infection was first recognized in 1997 in Hong Kong. (fpnotebook.com)
  • People's protection from viruses depends on having their having been exposed to the virus before, through infection or from a vaccine for that virus. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • Influenza infection is transmitted through respiratory droplets or contact and is clinically indistinguishable from other respiratory viral diseases without laboratory confirmation. (who.int)
  • Our results suggest that the intensive monitoring of dogs is necessary to prevent human infection by H5N1 influenza virus, since infected dogs may not show clear clinical signs, in contrast to infected cats. (deepdyve.com)
  • These Ab technologies have been especially pointed at understanding the complex issues of immunity to infection and disease caused by influenza virus, one of the most common and vexing medical problems in man. (jimmunol.org)
  • To conquer a viral infection, the body must not only eliminate any circulating viruses, it must kill its own cells that have become infected and are manufacturing new viruses. (drdalepeterson.com)
  • Influenza Vaccines Unique First to offer populace wide assurance against an evolving infection (HIV? (presentica.com)
  • Seasonal Influenza Vaccines Types of Vaccine â Flu Shotâ â inactivated, trivalent â FluMistâ â constricted live-infection Whatâ s in the Vaccine? (presentica.com)
  • Two of these antibodies, bezlotoxumab (Zinplava, for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection) and RAB1 (Rabishield, post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies virus) have been approved for human use globally and in India, respectively. (visterrainc.com)
  • Experts around the world are looking at the H5N1 avian flu infection in Asia very closely. (machoideas.com)
  • The pigs are crucial because pigs are susceptible to infection from both avian and mammalian viruses, including human influenza subtypes. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • The danger with new subtypes is that most people may have little or no protection since they were never exposed to the new subtype, either by natural infection or by vaccination. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • A novel influenza A virus is one that has caused human infection, but is different from current seasonal human influenza A viruses that circulate among people. (cdc.gov)
  • Human infection with a novel influenza A virus is a nationally notifiable condition reportable to CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • On January 8, 2014 , the first case of human infection with Asian HPAI H5N1 virus in the Americas was reported in Canada in a traveler returning from China. (cdc.gov)
  • In January 2015, the Government of Canada and the Ministry of Health in British Columbia reported the first two cases of human infection in North America with Asian H7N9 virus external icon in a husband and wife who had traveled to China. (cdc.gov)
  • Cases of Asian H7N9 virus infection associated with travel to China also have been reported in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Malaysia. (cdc.gov)
  • Risk factors for human infection with avian influenza A H5N1, Vietnam, 2004. (bmj.com)
  • Risk factors for human illness with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in China. (bmj.com)
  • Indications that live poultry markets are a major source of human H5N1 influenza virus infection in China. (bmj.com)
  • https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection/article/what-is-the-evidence-of-a-role-for-host-genetics-in-susceptibility-to-influenza-ah5n1/B63BF1EEC7D345E98B5323FBB373CAC0/core-reader http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20236573?tool=bestpractice.com [40] Human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) in North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan, October-November 2007. (bmj.com)
  • H9N2 subtype influenza A viruses in poultry in Pakistan are closely related to the H9N2 viruses responsible for human infection in Hong Kong," Virology , vol. 278, no. 1, pp. 36-41, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • In the natural reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses, wild water birds, the infection generally runs an entirely asymptomatic course as influenza A virus biotypes of low pathogenicity co-exist in almost perfect balance with these hosts (Webster 1992, Alexander 2000). (influenzareport.com)
  • The human form on the right shows that infection with avian influenza viruses is concentrated in the lungs where their preferred a2,3 linked SA receptor is expressed. (elifesciences.org)
  • Free-floating viruses that enter the human respiratory tract (upper part of figure) encounter mucus and a mildly acidic extracellular environment that act as innate barriers to virus infection. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the continually evolving influenza virus evades herd immunity induced through natural infection and vaccination by means of antigenic drift and shift. (nature.com)
  • Swine influenza , also called pig influenza , swine flu , hog flu and pig flu , is an infection by any one of several types of swine influenza virus . (academic.ru)
  • Inflammatory responses may be responsible for pathogenesis caused by infection with influenza viruses. (deepdyve.com)
  • pathogenesis caused by infection with influenza viruses. (deepdyve.com)
  • Influenza virus infection is commonly marked by an acute onset of fever accompanied by chills, rigors, malaise, headache, diffuse myalgia and nonproductive cough. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Influenza infection generally presents with a greater severity of symptoms (e.g., fever, chills, myalgia) than the more common upper respiratory tract infection (e.g., nasal congestion, rhinorrhea). (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Infection with a novel influenza A virus should be reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a nationally reportable disease. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • In contrast, prior vaccination with WIV affected the immunodominance pattern and skewed the response after infection with influenza virus A/Indonesia/5/05 towards a dominant NP 366-374 -specific response. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and mortality of influenza infection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , and Staphylococcus aureus reported as the most common causes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The M2 is an ion channel transmembrane protein which plays a major function in virus uncoating and thereby let go ofing the viral RNA into the cytol of the host cell at the clip of infection. (pilotmountainchristmas.com)
  • Antibiotic treatment and subsequent changes in gut bacterial communities were associated with a significant, 1.8-fold increased infection rate of C. nubeculosus with Schmallenberg virus, but not for C. sonorensis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Influenza B virus is almost exclusively a human pathogen, and is less common than influenza A. The only other animal known to be susceptible to influenza B infection is the seal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the intermediate hosts can sicken and die from the infection, swine can live long enough to serve as "mixing vessels" for the genes of avian, porcine and human forms of influenza. (carleton.ca)
  • [6] In contrast, a 2007 analysis of medical journals from the period of the pandemic found that the viral infection was no more aggressive than previous influenza strains. (bingj.com)
  • Avian flu viruses are preferentially adapted to birds, where it is primarily a gastrointestinal infection . (blogspot.com)
  • Genetic diversity in influenza virus is the result of a high rate of mutation associated with replication using low-fidelity RNA polymerase and of the reshuffling (or reassortment) of segments among coinfecting strains. (asm.org)
  • At irregular intervals, there are more dramatic changes in the viral proteins, called 'antigenic shift', which are a result of either direct introduction of avian influenza viruses into the human population or a reassortment between human and avian viruses which is postulated to occur in an intermediate host such as pigs. (health.gov.au)
  • Reassortment between an animal influenza virus and a human influenza virus that produces a new virus: a key event would perhaps be a change in the binding specificity of the virus from a receptor in the lower respiratory tract to one in the upper respiratory tract. (machoideas.com)
  • Additionally, if human adaptation resulted from reassortment with a human virus, pathogenicity influences on gene segments not in the subsequent reassortment would be absent, and the population would have a degree of prior immunity to the gene segments originating from the human virus, thus further decreasing human pathogenicity. (machoideas.com)
  • Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the new strains resulted from reassortment among swine, human, and avian viruses and called attention to pigs as a "mixing vessel" for different influenza viruses, potentially due to the presence of both human-like and avian-like sialic acids (SA) on the swine respiratory tract epithelium [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The new FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms can correctly identify the origins of influenza viral proteins and the number of reassortment events required to produce the strains from the high resolution mass spectral data of whole virus proteolytic digestions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When a host is simultaneously infected with two or more strains derived from different animal species, reassortment events can occur producing progeny viruses that contain genes derived from two or more parent strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given the history of reassortment events of swine influenza, it is likely that additional reassortant viruses have emerged but have not been sampled. (scienceblogs.com)
  • High grade of fluctuation in the badness of the virus is frequently associated with the rate of mutant in the genome through familial reassortment ensuing in the outgrowth of a extremely infective avian grippe strains. (pilotmountainchristmas.com)
  • These animals appear to serve as living laboratories where the avian and mammalian influenza viruses can come together and share their genes (a reassortment of RNA segments ) and create new strains of flu. (carleton.ca)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, H5N1 pathogenicity is gradually continuing to rise in endemic areas, but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination, and there is "no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission" of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Migratory birds and waterfowl are thought to be the reservoir for influenza A viruses in nature ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • All known subtypes are present in aquatic birds of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriformes , and a smaller number circulate in some mammalian species. (asm.org)
  • In the spring of 2006, migrating birds spread the virus from Asia to Europe and Africa. (aafp.org)
  • To date, sixteen known HA (H1-H16) and nine NA (N1-N9) subtypes of influenza A viruses have been isolated from aquatic birds, which are the reservoir of influenza A virus in nature [ 4 , 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Learn how avian flu spreads and how farmers can protect birds by following biosecurity practices. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Next, we'll look the strains of influenza that birds carry. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Although avian strains of influenza often infect wild birds, they are often more dangerous to domestic birds. (howstuffworks.com)
  • According to the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), birds carry every known subtype of influenza A. When scientists talk about avian flu , however, they usually mean varieties that exist mostly or entirely in birds -- not in people. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Many wild birds carry avian flu in their intestines and shed the virus in their droppings, but they don't usually get sick from it. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Birds that survive can continue to shed the virus in their droppings for ten days after recovering, which helps the virus continue to spread. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Poultry farmers can protect their birds from avian flu by following biosecurity practices. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Avian influenza A ( H7N9 ) had been found only in birds until March 2013, when human cases were discovered in China. (healthmap.org)
  • Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, and from infected birds through their droppings . (wikipedia.org)
  • The panzootic subtype H5N1 virus strains circulating among poultry and wild birds are derived from the Asian influenza (H5N1) lineage first identified in the People's Republic of China in 1996 (3). (freethesaurus.com)
  • Influenza A originated from the natural hosts wild aquatic birds [4]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bird flu viruses infect birds, including chickens, other poultry, and wild birds such as ducks. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Most bird flu viruses can only infect other birds. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Since then, the bird flu virus has spread to birds in countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The natural reservoir of influenza viruses are aquatic birds and influenza can cause disease in a range of mammalian species including pigs, seals and horses. (who.int)
  • This is why there is concern that H5N1 will similarly make the jump from birds to people. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Influenza type A viruses have always attacked many different species of birds, hence the term, bird-flu. (devtome.com)
  • Type A, type B, and type C. Wild birds are the natural habitat of influenza A virus. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Bird flu (avian influenza) is caused by influenza type A. Bird flu runs a spectrum from mild illness to rapidly fatal disease in birds. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Fifteen subtypes of influenza A infect birds. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Subtypes H5 and H7 are highly contagious among birds, and are rapidly fatal. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • More than 13 million birds died or were destroyed in Italy during the 1999-2001 bird flu epidemic caused by influenza A ( H7N1) epidemic. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • The bird flu viruses more often infect other birds and pigs. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Countries with poultry or wild birds killed by H5N1. (mcgill.ca)
  • Tens of millions of birds have died of H5N1 influenza and hundreds of millions of birds have been slaughtered and disposed of to limit the spread of H5N1. (mcgill.ca)
  • From 1997 to May 2005, H5N1 viruses were largely confined to Southeast Asia, but after they had infected wild birds in Qinghai Lake, China, they rapidly spread westward. (mcgill.ca)
  • While aquatic birds represent the main natural reservoir, they are not the only species in which influenza A viruses have established stable lineages. (mdpi.com)
  • HPAI H5 viruses detected in birds and poultry in the United States are different and have not caused human infections. (cdc.gov)
  • However, several strains of influenza with the H5 and H7 proteins have been shown to cause widespread disease and death in birds, especially domesticated birds. (bioedonline.org)
  • However, since 1997, more than 100 people have been infected with H5N1, a virus subtype usually found only in birds. (bioedonline.org)
  • The natural reservoir for nearly all influenza A viruses is wild aquatic birds (ducks, geese). (bmj.com)
  • However, the progenitor HPAI H5N1 virus to all Asian lineage HPAI H5N1 viruses circulating among birds was identified in 1996 from an infected goose in southern China. (bmj.com)
  • Wild aquatic birds are the primary reservoir for these many subtypes, but certain HA subtypes have adapted to and circulated widely in mammalian hosts (e.g. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Rare but severe infections with influenza A subtype H5N1 viruses have been identified since 1997 in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Middle East, areas where these viruses are present in domestic or wild birds. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Like other triple reassortants it contains segments that have long been part of the North American swine flu make-up (HA, NP, NS), but also two segments (NA, M) from birds that got into Eurasian swine flu viruses at least as far back as 1979. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In summary, this is a version of the genetically labile triple reassortant 1998 swine flu virus that has swapped two North American swine flu segments for two swine flu segments that 30 years ago somehow got into pigs in Europe and Asia from birds. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Avian grippe is a extremely contagious infective disease of birds caused by type A grippe viruses. (pilotmountainchristmas.com)
  • Wild water bird, shore birds and chumps constitute the natural reservoirs of type A grippe viruses ( Slemons et al. (pilotmountainchristmas.com)
  • Although these birds carry the genes for influenza in their intestines, they usually don't become sick from the virus. (carleton.ca)
  • And because they can migrate thousands of miles, the healthy birds can spread the virus across the globe even before the microbe makes contact with the human population. (carleton.ca)
  • As it happens, the form of the virus found in wild birds doesn't replicate well in human beings, and so it must first move to an intermediate host-usually domestic fowl or swine-that drinks water contaminated by the feces of aquatic birds. (carleton.ca)
  • These structures, which represent the highest resolutions yet recorded for a complete ectodomain of a glycosylated viral surface antigen, along with the results of glycan microarray binding analysis, suggest that a hydrophobicity switch at residue 226 and elongation of receptor-binding sites were both critical for avian H2 HA to acquire human receptor specificity. (asm.org)
  • The HA plays a major role in the attachment of the virus to the host cell surface by binding to the sialic acid moiety of host receptors and facilitating the fusion of the viral envelope with host cell membranes. (asm.org)
  • In influenza A viruses there are 8 segments of RNA coding for eight viral proteins and two non-structural proteins. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • This capability may lie in the fact that viral receptors for both mammalian and avian viruses are present on porcine tracheal cells [8] . (plos.org)
  • Over the years, influenza A viruses have been one of the most important models for studying how the immune system responds to viral infections. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Position-specific entropy profiles created from scan- comparison of human versus avian influenza A viruses ning 306 human and 95 avian influenza A viral genomes would show the evolutionary similarities and differences showed that 228 of 4,591 amino acid residues yielded sig- between them and thus provide information for studying nificant differences between these 2 viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Upon approaches for finding specific genetic signatures charac- inspecting 21 human-isolated avian influenza viral teristic of human and avian influenza A viral genomes. (cdc.gov)
  • While there have been no controlled clinical trials of RETICULOSE, the published data for the years 1951 through 1970, largely anecdotal, indicates that RETICULOSE is an anti-viral non-toxic pharmaceutical product which is effective in treating a number of interferon related viruses such as Asian Influenza , Viral Pneumonia, Virus Infectious Hepatitis, Mumps Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex and Herpes Zoster. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Influenza virus is mainly composed of three parts, namely core, matrix protein, and viral envelope. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The profiles of viral replication in respiratory tissues and the immunogenicity and protective efficacy characteristics of the two ca H5N1 candidate LAIV viruses warrant further development into a vaccine for human use. (asm.org)
  • Influenza is an acute self-limiting viral disease of the upper respiratory tract. (health.gov.au)
  • Influenza is an acute viral respiratory disease that is often characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, sore throat and cough. (who.int)
  • The virus has a second genetic mechanism for diversity caused by the error-prone nature of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which frequently introduces missense mutations. (jimmunol.org)
  • Makes You feel Like â ¦ Primarily kids Influenza Virus Viral shedding - 1 dpi Flu-like side effects 1-8 dpi Transient lymphocytopenia Immunosuppression Increased cytokines Inflammatory reaction GI manifestations Croup Otitis media Magically at d4 â viral freedom Recovery and resistance! (presentica.com)
  • [9] The most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine that contains purified and inactivated material from three viral strains. (bionity.com)
  • Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus," The Lancet , vol. 351, no. 9101, pp. 467-471, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • The low pH of the endosomal environment triggers an irreversible conformational change in HA that fuses the viral and endosomal membranes and ultimately results in the release of virus genetic material in the form of the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) into the cell cytoplasm. (elifesciences.org)
  • Inaccuracies in prediction of circulating viral strain genotypes and the possibility of novel reassortants causing a pandemic outbreak necessitate the development of an anti-influenza vaccine with increased breadth of protection and potential for rapid production and deployment. (nature.com)
  • A double-dose regimen of oseltamivir (i.e., 150mg twice daily in adults) has adequate tolerability but has not been shown to be superior to standard doses in RCTs of ambulatory or hospitalized patients with seasonal influenza, although it has not been adequately studied in those with severe viral pneumonia. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The most conventional method to identify reassorted influenza viruses involves the construction of phylogenetic trees based on the alignment of gene sequences for each viral protein [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Influenza was identified as a viral disease in 1930 when it was isolated from a pig by Shope. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA) as production platform for vaccines against influenza and other viral respiratory diseases. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Since the viral surface glycoprotein HA is the antigen against which virus-neutralizing antibodies are directed, it is primarily the antigenic variation of HA that is responsible for the immune escape of influenza viruses. (eswi.org)
  • Full-scale production of a vaccine that could prevent any illness at all from the strain would require at least three months after the virus's emergence to begin, but it is hoped that vaccine production could increase until one billion doses were produced by one year after the initial identification of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • People are recommended to receive influenza vaccine every year. (health.gov.au)
  • Most people should receive 1 dose of influenza vaccine each year. (health.gov.au)
  • 65 years should receive quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV). (health.gov.au)
  • Influenza is the most common vaccine-preventable disease in Australia. (health.gov.au)
  • All people ≥6 months of age are strongly recommended to receive annual influenza vaccine. (health.gov.au)
  • A single annual dose of influenza vaccine is recommended for most people. (health.gov.au)
  • 5 years who are receiving influenza vaccine for the first time are recommended to receive 2 doses of influenza vaccine. (health.gov.au)
  • These children are recommended to receive 1 dose of influenza vaccine every year after that. (health.gov.au)
  • The Therapeutic Goods Administration registers specific brands of influenza vaccine for use in children from 6 months of age. (health.gov.au)
  • The H2 HA structure also reveals a highly conserved epitope that could be harnessed in the design of a broader and more universal influenza A virus vaccine. (asm.org)
  • Disclosed are recombinant chimeric influenza virus vaccines and live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines expressing foreign (RSV) neutralizing epitopes or conserved M2e epitopes that are capable of providing broader cross-protection against influenza virus and/or protecting against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) without vaccine-enhanced RSV disease (ERD). (patents.com)
  • The present invention relates to a novel influenza vaccine, a novel plasmid for preparing the same and a novel dosage form comprising the same. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The invention also provides composition and methods of making the universal influenza vaccine. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The influenza vaccine usually consists of antigens from a couple different serotypes, and are always both from influenza types A and B [8]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Its four main objectives are to strengthen influenza surveillance, improve knowledge of the disease burden, increase vaccine use, and accelerate pandemic preparedness ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Influenza virus is a segmented single-stranded negative sense RNA virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family ( https://www.creative-biolabs.com/vaccine/vaccines-for-virus-from-orthomy... ). (selfgrowth.com)
  • Influenza vaccine is the most effective way of prevention, but the protective efficacy of currently marketed vaccines varies from year to year, depending on the antigenic match between circulating virus and vaccine strain. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In February 2020, the FDA approved Seqirus's Audenz for active immunization of people 6 months and older, which is the first adjuvant, cell-based vaccine ( https://www.creative-biolabs.com/vaccine/cell-based-vaccines.htm ) (monovalent) designed to prevent H5N1 influenza during a pandemic. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In February 2020, the FDA approved the first adjuvant quadrivalent influenza vaccine, Fluad Quadrivalent, to help elderly people aged 65 and above protect against seasonal influenza. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In 1918 influenza had neither treatment nor an effective vaccine. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • And though vaccines existed for several other diseases, and a few useless and possibly harmful anti-flu vaccines were concocted , an effective influenza vaccine was decades away. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • Hilleman jump-started vaccine production by sending virus samples to manufacturers and urging them to develop a vaccine in four months. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • Human repertoire studies suggest that the potential diversity of the human Ab repertoire far exceeds that of the influenza Ag diversity, but the problem for vaccine prevention of new strains is a matter of timing. (jimmunol.org)
  • A flu pandemic happens when a new influenza virus emerges for which people have little to no immunity, and for which no vaccine exists. (machoideas.com)
  • Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. (bionity.com)
  • [10] A vaccine formulated for one year may be ineffective in the following year, since the influenza virus changes rapidly over time and different strains become dominant. (bionity.com)
  • A flu pandemic takes place when a new influenza virus emerges for which people have little or no immunity, and for which there is no vaccine. (studentshare.net)
  • C. Macken, H. Lu, J. Goodman, and C. A. Boyle, "The value of a database in surveillance and vaccine selection," in Options for the Control of Influenza IV , A. D. M. E. Osterhaus, N. Cox, and A. W. Hampson, Eds. (hindawi.com)
  • Characterization of a human H9N2 influenza virus isolated in Hong Kong," Vaccine , vol. 20, no. 1-2, pp. 125-133, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Update: influenza activity-United States and worldwide, 2002-03 season, and composition of the 2003-04 influenza vaccine," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report , vol. 52, no. 22, pp. 516-521, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • The protective responses induced by current human influenza vaccines still primarily depend on vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against the HA head 1 . (nature.com)
  • In addition, a major shortcoming of current influenza vaccines is its long production time because of existing egg-based or cell-based vaccine manufactory pipelines. (nature.com)
  • Thus, structure-guided immunogen design targeting conserved, vulnerable sites in the stem of influenza HA might be a promising approach to 'universal' influenza vaccine development. (nature.com)
  • This has been demonstrated in the case of constructed vaccine strains as well as common human seasonal strains of the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Influenza is vaccine-preventable, so all people 6 months of age and older should receive trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine each year. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • In the past 25 years (since the 1986-1987 influenza season), there have been only 4 seasons in which there was no antigenic drift in at least one of the influenza vaccine strains. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic. (frontiersin.org)
  • After the triple reassortant appeared swine viruses diverged antigenically in a few short years to the point that if they were human viruses, a new vaccine would have been required for some. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Coadministration of seasonal influenza vaccine and MVA-NP+M1 simultaneously achieves potent humoral and cell-mediated responses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The need for quadrivalent vaccine against seasonal influenza. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children against influenza B viruses by lineage and antigenic similarity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Challenge of conducting a placebo-controlled randomized efficacy study for influenza vaccine in a season with low attack rate and a mismatched vaccine B strain: a concrete example. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Increasing the immunogenicity of the RBD of other HA subtypes may be a step toward a universal influenza vaccine. (asmscience.org)
  • In addition, immunity provided by an influenza vaccine begins to fade after a year. (eswi.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated that vaccination with pandemic live-attenuated influenza vaccine (pLAIV) establishes immune memory for HA head-specific Abs. (jci.org)
  • Several H5N1 vaccines have been developed and approved, and stockpiled by a number of countries, including the United States (in its National Stockpile), Britain, France, Canada, and Australia, for use in an emergency. (wikipedia.org)
  • People aged ≥65 years should receive one of the enhanced trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs), but may receive QIV if the enhanced TIVs are unavailable. (health.gov.au)
  • Present vaccination strategies for swine influenza virus (SIV) control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • This renewed interest could lead to new discoveries of immune system response to viruses that could lead to better drugs and vaccines, the researchers write in a review article that appears in the May issue of Nature Immunology. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Until recently, many immunologists were relatively uninterested in studying influenza immunity because there were already effective vaccines," said Peter Doherty, Ph.D., member of the St. Jude Department of Immunology and co-recipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize for Medicine. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Since influenza viruses are prone to mutate during replication, influenza vaccines must be replaced with strains and re-vaccinated every year. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Both are adjuvant seasonal influenza vaccines for adults 65 years and older. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) offer significant advantages over subunit or split inactivated vaccines to mitigate an eventual influenza pandemic, including simpler manufacturing processes and more cross-protective immune responses. (asm.org)
  • Influenza vaccines are produced every year against seasonal influenza and offer protection for vulnerable groups in the community. (who.int)
  • Discovery of canonical features in the subset of the influenza repertoire response that is broadly reactive for diverse influenza strains has spurred the recent optimism for creating universal influenza vaccines. (jimmunol.org)
  • Gradual genetic drift in HA and NA genes causes the antigenic variation that reduces the protective effect of seasonal influenza vaccines. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, there is a need for novel influenza vaccines with increased breadth of protection and potential for rapid production and deployment. (nature.com)
  • Hence, only influenza A and B virus antigens are included in influenza vaccines. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The rationale for quadrivalent influenza vaccines. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • To increase blood safety, we introduced minipool NAT screening in our blood donor service in 1997 for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV-1 and in 2000 for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and parvovirus B19 ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Avian influenza A (H5N1) first emerged as a global public health threat in 1997 when it caused a major human outbreak in Hong Kong. (aafp.org)
  • H5N1 first emerged as a human threat in Hong Kong in 1997. (aafp.org)
  • Direct avian-to-human influenza transmission was unknown before 1997. (sciencemag.org)
  • They also highlighted how far, as a scientific community, we have come since the 1997 event: We are now much better equipped with technologies and reagents to rapidly identify and respond to pandemic influenza threats. (sciencemag.org)
  • The first case of a bird flu virus infecting a person directly, H5N1, was in Hong Kong in 1997. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Case-control study of risk factors for avian influenza A (H5N1) disease, Hong Kong, 1997. (bmj.com)
  • After 1997, frequent and terrible human transmittals were reported in many parts of the universe indicated the possible wellness hazard associated with HPAI viruses. (pilotmountainchristmas.com)
  • The virus started causing infections in Wuhan, China, before spreading internationally. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is noteworthy that the first human avian influenza A H5N6 infections were reported in Sichuan province (Nations and F.a.A.O.o.t.U. 2014 ) and caused 14 laboratory-confirmed human cases (including six deaths) by 9 May 2016 (Organization 2016 ). (springeropen.com)
  • In the early 1970s there was considerable speculation about the way in which the influenza virus escaped immune responses and continued to cause repeated infections year after year. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • Mexico's Health Ministry on Monday confirmed a rise in the country's flu deaths to 83, with more than 4,458 confirmed infections from the virus. (lazerzap.com)
  • Plasma levels of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and IFNγ were significantly increased in swine H2N3 compared to human H2N2 infected animals supporting the previously published notion of increased IL-6 levels being a potential marker for severe influenza infections. (plos.org)
  • This starts with the virus mostly infecting animals, with a few cases where animals infect people, then moves through the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people, and ends with a pandemic when infections from the new virus have spread worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "H5N1 viruses from human infections and the closely related avian viruses isolated in 2004 and 2005 belong to a single genotype, often referred to as genotype Z. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In addition to the role of humoral and cellular immunity, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that individual genetic differences, especially involving single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), contribute to differences in the severity of influenza virus infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • The health and economic impact of influenza largely arise from related complications such as lower respiratory tract infections and exacerbation of cardiopulmonary and other chronic diseases. (health.gov.au)
  • Influenza infections are seasonal in temperate climates (June to September in the Southern Hemisphere and December to April in the Northern Hemisphere), but may occur throughout the year in tropical regions. (health.gov.au)
  • The greater the change in these proteins, the more likely it is that the virus will evade the immunity conferred by earlier infections or vaccinations, and the greater the epidemic potential. (health.gov.au)
  • It is generally caused by one of two types of influenza virus: influenza A or influenza B. (Influenza C causes upper respiratory tract infections in young people but is not as common as the other two types. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • Since 2003, sixteen countries, representing all WHO regions have reported human infections of A/H5N1 with a total of 840 cases and 447 deaths recorded. (who.int)
  • Influenza infections are exceptional among respiratory tract infections experience huge antigenic variety. (presentica.com)
  • The influenza viruses are only one of its kinds amongst the respiratory infections in that they undergo significant antigenic variation (Stuart-Harris C. 1979). (machoideas.com)
  • Human infections with avian influenza A viruses have most often occurred after exposure to infected poultry or their secretions or excretions, such as through direct or close contact, including visiting a live poultry market. (cdc.gov)
  • Asian H5N1 viruses are currently circulating among poultry in Asia and the Middle East and human infections with these viruses have been reported in 17 countries since 2003. (cdc.gov)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) tracks the number of reported, confirmed, human infections with HPAI H5N1 viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • No human infections with Asian H5N1 virus have ever been reported in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Sporadic human infections with HPAI H5N6 viruses also have been reported in China, resulting in severe illness and high mortality. (cdc.gov)
  • The first human infections with H7N9 viruses were reported by WHO on April 1, 2013 external icon and sporadic human infections continue to be reported in China. (cdc.gov)
  • These HPAI H7N9 Asian viruses continue to be associated with human infections in China. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the implementation of a large-scale H5-H7 poultry vaccination program in September 2017, few human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses have been reported. (cdc.gov)
  • Sporadic human infections with some low pathogenicity H9N2 viruses also have been reported in China, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, and Egypt. (cdc.gov)
  • Most H9N2 virus infections in people have occurred in children after poultry exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Factors associated with case fatality of human H5N1 virus infections in Indonesia: a case series. (bmj.com)
  • P. J. Homme and B. C. Easterday, "Avian influenza virus infections. (hindawi.com)
  • BACKGROUND: This study compared the genomes of influenza viruses that caused mild infections among outpatients and severe infections among hospitalized patients in Singapore, and characterized their molecular evolution and receptor-binding specificity. (bvsalud.org)
  • for outpatients with suspected or confirmed influenza who are at higher risk of influenza complications because of age or underlying medical conditions: and in suspected or proven infections due to virulent viruses like avian A(H5N1) or A(H7N9). (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Infections with influenza B viruses contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality in the human population. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Influenza B virus neutralizing antibodies, elicited by natural infections or vaccination, poorly cross-react with viruses of the opposing influenza B lineage. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Similarly, the H7N9 virus which appeared 2 years ago in China appears well distributed in Asia's domesticated poultry population, but only about 450 human infections have been reported. (blogspot.com)
  • The present invention in particular relates to a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus comprising and capable of simultaneously expressing a cassette of at least four foreign genes from influenza virus, specifically an avian influenza virus, wherein the said genes are inserted at a non-essential site, within the MVA genome. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The invention further relates to a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus comprising and capable of simultaneously expressing a cassette of not less than two foreign genes from influenza virus, wherein the said genes are inserted at a non-essential site, within the MVA genome, with the provision that at least one foreign gene is either PB2 or M2e. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 8. The virus as claimed in claim 2, wherein a marker gene is cloned along with the influenza genes. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 10. The virus as claimed in claim 2, wherein the genes from the influenza virus are under the control of single or multiple copies of same or different promoters. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 11. The virus as claimed in the claim 10, wherein the influenza virus is an avian influenza virus and all the genes are under the transcriptional control of one promoter. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 12. The virus as claimed in claim 10, wherein the influenza virus is an avian influenza virus and all the genes under the transcriptional control of a separate promoter. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In contrast, an antigenic shift occurs when different viruses infect the same animal and exchange genes. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Specific mutations on those points molecular evolution of specific genes of influenza viruses, may enable an avian influenza virus to become a human comprehensive comparisons among the nucleotide virus. (cdc.gov)
  • HA genes of the viruses mainly located in two branches in phylogeny analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using an established reverse genetics (rg) system for wild-type ( wt ) A/Leningrad/134/1957 and cold-adapted ( ca ) A/Leningrad/134/17/1957 (Len17) master donor virus (MDV), we produced and characterized three rg H5N1 reassortant viruses carrying modified HA and intact NA genes from either A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1, VN1203, clade 1) or A/Egypt/321/2007 (H5N1, EG321, clade 2) virus. (asm.org)
  • In addition, the H5N1 HA and NA enhanced replication in lungs unless it was restricted by the internal genes of the ca MDV. (asm.org)
  • These strains, which include genes derived by swapping of gene segments of human, swine and avian viruses, known as re-assortment, have become a main cause of swine influenza in North America. (rroij.com)
  • For example, subtypes H3N4 and H5N6 viruses in a pig can swap genes to produce a third virus subtype, H3N6. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Y. Guan, K. F. Shortridge, S. Krauss, and R. G. Webster, "Molecular characterization of H9N2 influenza viruses: were they the donors of the "internal" genes of H5N1 viruses in Hong Kong? (hindawi.com)
  • Molecular evolution of H6 influenza viruses from poultry in southeastern China: prevalence of H6N1 influenza viruses possessing seven A/Hong Kong/156/97 (H5N1)-like genes in poultry," Journal of Virology , vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 507-516, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • These genes have not been seen outside of Europe and Asia before, so they are a new ingredient for a North American swine flu virus (North American genes have been seen in Eurasian viruses but not the other way around). (scienceblogs.com)
  • This means that viruses can mix genes and become a type of flu that could cause a pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses can combine in new ways, and exchange certain genes with H5N1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • On the surface of the virus are HA proteins and NA proteins . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Virus strains are named according to influenza virus type, the place where first isolated, the isolate number and the year of isolation as well as the nature of the two surface proteins. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • Scientists categorize influenza A viruses according to the identity of two specific proteins on their surface, HA and NA. (rxpgnews.com)
  • There are 16 known subtypes of HA (H) proteins and 9 subtypes of NA (N) proteins, which are used to name the viruses, such as H5N1. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Moreover, the HA and NA proteins of these viruses continually mutate, keeping a step ahead of the posse of antibodies that seek to bring them down. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Sequence analysis revealed that PB1-F2 proteins derived from different influenza viruses varied at multiple amino acid positions. (hindawi.com)
  • Influenza immunity is particularly interesting as a model system because the antigenic diversity of influenza strains and proteins is high and constantly evolving. (jimmunol.org)
  • This type of repertoire study is conducted mostly with proteins and viruses, using binding and virus inhibition assays and electron microscopic and crystallographic structural determinations. (jimmunol.org)
  • [6] Furthermore, each subtype, H1 through H15, could theoretically combine with any of the nine "N" surface proteins to create, for example H5N1, H5N2, or H5N3. (bioedonline.org)
  • Inside the nucleus the virus polymerase complex replicates the virus genome in conjunction with co-opted cell proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • These proteins have a role in making it possible for a virus to invade and hijack cells. (nas.edu)
  • There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Only influenza type A viruses are further classified by subtype on the basis of the H and N surface proteins. (nas.edu)
  • Many different combinations of these H and N proteins are possible, each representing a different subtype. (nas.edu)
  • The matrix protein M1 along with the two major surface proteins HA and NA make up the mirid bug of the virus. (pilotmountainchristmas.com)
  • The three genera of Influenzavirus can be told apart by the structure of their proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza viruses are part of the Orthomyxoviridae family and are grouped into types A, B and C according to antigenic characteristics of the core proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To better understand the potential for such events, we explored patterns of intrahost genetic diversity in recently circulating strains of human influenza virus. (asm.org)
  • Since influenza A viruses contain eight separate segments of RNA, genetic re-assortment can occur when cells are infected simultaneously by two or more influenza viruses resulting in progeny viruses that contain some (1, 2, 3 or 4) RNA segments from one parent virus and the remaining (7, 6, 5 or 4) RNA segments from the second virus. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • The current swine influenza virus isolated from patients in the United States was found to be made up of genetic elements from four different flu viruses - North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and Europe. (lazerzap.com)
  • A virus particle -- or virion -- is a microscopic packet that contains genetic material wrapped in a layer of protein. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Previously, novel reassortant H2N3 influenza viruses were isolated from US pigs, which "were infectious and highly transmissible in swine and ferrets without prior adaptation," according to a 2009 paper in the Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine by Wenjun Ma et al. (innovations-report.com)
  • But thanks to incredible foresight by the U.S. Army Medical Museum, the persistence of a pathologist named Johan Hultin, and advances in genetic analysis of old tissue samples, we have been able to retrieve parts of the 1918 virus and study their features. (scientificamerican.com)
  • H5N1 genetic structure is the molecular structure of the H5N1 virus's RNA. (medicalxpress.com)
  • What I've just described is both what a virus does, and pretty much what a virus is: genetic material with instructions inside a protein envelope. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The virus achieves genetic and antigenic D by two principal genetic mechanisms resulting in antigenic shift and antigenic drift. (jimmunol.org)
  • Genetic drift in influenza occurs in a direction over time ( 1 ), such that older individuals possess immunity to older strains, in patterns that can be recognized by the decade of birth. (jimmunol.org)
  • Understanding the genetic and structural basis for broadly protective Abs is a major current goal of the influenza immune repertoire field. (jimmunol.org)
  • A virus consists of a fragment of genetic material, either RNA or DNA, surrounded by a protein coat. (drdalepeterson.com)
  • The origin of viruses is uncertain, but it is believed that they arise from broken pieces of genetic material in their original hosts. (drdalepeterson.com)
  • Once attached, the virus uses enzymes to make a hole in the cell membrane through which it injects its genetic material into the host cell or enters the host cell completely. (drdalepeterson.com)
  • While prior H5N1 strains have been known, they were significantly different from the current H5N1 strain on a genetic level, making the global spread of this new strain unprecedented. (mcgill.ca)
  • Some viruses, such as influenza A, are unable to "proofread" and correct errors that occur while their genetic information is being copied. (bioedonline.org)
  • These pinpoint changes (mutations) contribute to gradual alterations in genetic makeup and may lead to new variants, or strains, of the virus that interact with the immune system differently than have previous strains. (bioedonline.org)
  • Viruses generally swap genetic material easily. (bioedonline.org)
  • Pigs are susceptible to both bird and mammalian viruses, and thus serve as excellent "mixing vessels" for recombining genetic material from related viruses. (bioedonline.org)
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18706688?tool=bestpractice.com Clustering of HPAI H5N1 cases among blood-related family members suggests the potential for increased genetic susceptibility. (bmj.com)
  • The virus uses RNA rather than DNA as its genetic material. (nas.edu)
  • Researchers have determined the ( E627K ) substitution in the ( PB2 ) protein - the swapping out of the amino acid Glutamic acid ( E ) at position 627 for Lysine (K ) - makes the an influenza virus better able to replicate at the lower temperatures ( roughly 33C ) normally found in the upper human respiratory tract (see Eurosurveillance: Genetic Analysis Of Novel H7N9 Virus ). (blogspot.com)
  • Influenza-like illnesses were generally mild, but a fatal case of pneumonia in combination with acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred also. (pnas.org)
  • Influenza is a common disease of the respiratory tract. (health.gov.au)
  • 3. The recombinant influenza virus of claim 1, wherein the chimeric HA fusion protein comprises the RSV G or F neutralizing domains derived from human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (patents.com)
  • For example, common cold viruses attack cells in the respiratory system . (howstuffworks.com)
  • Influenza is a specific type of virus that attacks the respiratory system. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Even before people realize they have been infected, the flu viruses multiply rapidly in the respiratory system and leap to nearby people in the fine droplets of coughs or sneezes. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The three genera include influenza A, B and C. A distant relative of the parainfluenza viruses belonging to the Paramyxovirus family, influenza most commonly affects human respiratory tracts [3]. (kenyon.edu)
  • During the past year, the public has become keenly aware of the threat of emerging infectious diseases with the global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the continuing threat of bioterrorism, the proliferation of West Nile virus, and the discovery of human cases of monkeypoxin the United States. (sciencemag.org)
  • Influenza is a respiratory infectious disease caused by the influenza virus. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The flu (influenza) and the common cold affect the respiratory system. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Many Asian H7N9 virus infected patients have had severe respiratory illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a child with a fatal respiratory illness," Science , vol. 279, no. 5349, pp. 393-396, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • The human form on the left shows the typical distribution of human adapted influenza viruses determined by their receptor binding preference for a2,6, linked SA that is predominantly expressed in the upper respiratory tract but also in the lungs. (elifesciences.org)
  • If NA is able to desialylate decoy receptors on mucus and HA has a sufficiently low pH of activation, then the virus particle may reach the apical surface of the respiratory epithelium intact. (elifesciences.org)
  • Ferret respiratory droplet transmission experiments predict the potential for sustained human-to-human transmission of influenza viruses. (elifesciences.org)
  • Flu viruses may also spread when a person touches respiratory droplets on another person or on an object and then touches his or her own mouth or nose. (nas.edu)
  • Once the flu virus makes contact with mucous membranes in the eyes and nose, it heads to the cells along the upper and lower respiratory tract where it swiftly multiplies. (nas.edu)
  • 2 days after illness onset) in ambulatory patients with febrile influenza illness reduces the duration of illness, time to resume usual activities, and the risk of physician-diagnosed respiratory complications leading to antibiotic use. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • A mortality benefit has been reported in avian A(H5N1)-infected patients treated up to about 1 week after illness onset, but mortality is very high in those treated after onset of respiratory failure. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Influenza is a contagious airborne disease, initially affecting the upper respiratory system. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • When a strain of virus migrates into the human population, it changes into a disease-causing microbe that replicates in the respiratory tract. (carleton.ca)
  • In BSL-3 labs, agents are handled with equipment designed to prevent any airborne contamination and resulting respiratory exposure for lab workers and others.With regard to the 1918 pandemic virus, the recommendations state, "Any research involving reverse genetics of the 1918 influenza strain should proceed with extreme caution. (gyzxx.com)
  • In 2013, human-infectious avian influenza A (H7N9) was first reported in China. (springeropen.com)
  • These are the 2 new viruses which I have found during my research and the one I will focus on the most will be the faster acting one, the H7N9, which has just began, in 2013, to infect and kill quite a few people at an alarming CFR, in China - where it originated. (devtome.com)
  • A quick mention - another very deadly and newer virus which I believe has played a key role in giving birth to the faster H7N9 and some may be familiar with is the H5N1. (devtome.com)
  • Probable, limited, non-sustained human-to-human spread of Asian H7N9 viruses also has been reported in China. (cdc.gov)
  • See Asian H7N9 virus for more information. (cdc.gov)
  • [11] To date, neither the H5N1 or H7N9 virus has evolved an efficient mechanism for human-to-human transmission. (bioedonline.org)
  • Chapter Two : Avian Influenza by Timm C. Harder and Ortrud Werner Archived 2017-08-09 at the Wayback Machine from free on-line Book called Influenza Report 2006 which is a medical textbook that provides a comprehensive overview of epidemic and pandemic influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, surveillance efforts in farmed pig populations need to become an integral part of any epidemic and pandemic influenza preparedness. (plos.org)
  • In this article, we'll review the basics of how viruses and influenza work, and we'll learn the answers to these and other questions about avian flu , including whether it is likely to cause a global flu epidemic. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Influenza has occurred throughout history, but the world became aware of its deadly potential in 1918-19 when a pandemic--a worldwide epidemic--seemed to strike out of nowhere. (rxpgnews.com)
  • An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population . (wikipedia.org)
  • The potential for an epidemic of influenza is dependent on the susceptibility of the population and the ability of the viruses to evolve. (health.gov.au)
  • No other epidemic has claimed as many lives as the Spanish Influenza epidemic in 1918-1919. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • [11] Archaic terms for influenza include epidemic catarrh , grippe (from the French, sometimes spelled "grip" or "gripe"), sweating sickness , and Spanish fever (particularly for the 1918 pandemic strain). (bionity.com)
  • The control of an outbreak of influenza A (H5N2) among the poultry population in USA during a 1983-1984 epidemic cost US$65 million. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Of even greater concern is a flu pandemic-a worldwide epidemic of a new strain of influenza virus from which the human population has no immunity. (nas.edu)
  • They first infect pigs and other animals that can contract both human and avian flu strains. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Researchers report for the first time the seroprevalence of three strains of avian influenza viruses in pigs in southern China, but not the H5N1 avian influenza virus. (innovations-report.com)
  • But natural transmission of avian influenza to pigs has been documented only rarely. (innovations-report.com)
  • Seroepidemiological evidence of avian influenza A virus transmission in pigs in southern China. (innovations-report.com)
  • In August 2004, researchers in China found H5N1 in pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Swine influenza virus [SIV] or S-OIV [swine-origin influenza virus] is one strain of the influenza family of viruses that is prevalent in pigs. (rroij.com)
  • Swine flu was first proposed to be a disease referred to human influenza during the 1918 flu pandemic, when pigs fell ill at the same time as man. (rroij.com)
  • In 1930 the first identification of an influenza virus as a cause of disease in pigs prevailed after a decade. (rroij.com)
  • While influenza B and C are exclusively human pathogens, influenza Type A viruses are readily isolated from avian species, pigs, and other animals. (machoideas.com)
  • Pigs can be infected with two different subtypes of influenza A virus. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Pigs act as "mixing vessels" for the creation of new subtypes. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1003657 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24130481?tool=bestpractice.com Other animal species can also be infected by influenza A viruses, including pigs, marine mammals, horses, dogs, cats, and bats. (bmj.com)
  • This article is about influenza viruses in pigs. (academic.ru)
  • Swine influenza virus ( SIV ) or S-OIV ( swine-origin influenza virus ) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs . (academic.ru)
  • Of the three genera of influenza viruses that cause human flu , two also cause influenza in pigs, with influenza A being common in pigs and influenza C being rare. (academic.ru)
  • [ 4 ] Influenza B has not been reported in pigs. (academic.ru)
  • Although there is no formal national surveillance system in the United States to determine what viruses are circulating in pigs, [ 14 ] there is an informal surveillance network in the United States that is part of a world surveillance network. (academic.ru)
  • [ 17 ] The first identification of an influenza virus as a cause of disease in pigs occurred about ten years later, in 1930. (academic.ru)
  • In April 2009 a new swine flu virus appeared that not only infected people who weren't in close contact with pigs, but transmitted with ease from person to person. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Swine influenza virus is a virus that is common in pigs . (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses became common in pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] There were a small number of isolated (far-apart) cases around the U.S. However, these were in people who were thought to have caught the virus from pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] Pigs can carry human influenza viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • he tested the blood of 10 apparently healthy pigs housed near poultry farms in West Java where avian flu had broken out, Nature reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epidemiology and evolution of influenza viruses in pigs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Most discussions of influenza virus evolution have focused on the process of antigenic drift in which mutations accumulate-most likely by natural selection-in the antigenic sites of the HA and NA, thereby allowing evasion of the host populations' acquired immunity to previously circulating strains. (asm.org)
  • These novel strains are unaffected by any immunity people may have to older strains of human influenza and can therefore spread extremely rapidly and infect very large numbers of people. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can only be used as an emergent treatment for people at high risk of severe influenza who have not been vaccinated or have not gained immunity after vaccination. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Mice inoculated twice 4 weeks apart with the H5N1 reassortant LAIV candidate viruses developed serum hemagglutination inhibition HI and IgA antibody titers to the homologous and heterologous viruses consistent with protective immunity. (asm.org)
  • People who have been exposed to a related strain of that virus will likely have some pre-existing immunity to it in the form of antibodies, and the illness that results may be mild. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • When these viruses cross different species, that creates conditions ripe for another pandemic, as people lack immunity to these new strains. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Because there was no pre-existing immunity, this virus fueled a widespread pandemic and vast number of deaths. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Using new technologies for sequencing Ab repertoires at great depth is helping us to understand the central features of influenza immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Emergence of genetically and antigenically diverse strains of influenza to which the human population has no or limited immunity necessitates continuous risk assessments to determine the likelihood of these viruses acquiring adaptations that facilitate sustained human-to-human transmission. (mdpi.com)
  • [6] As a result of this lack of antigenic diversity, a degree of immunity to influenza B is usually acquired at an early age. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, influenza B mutates enough that lasting immunity is not possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a new influenza virus appears, against which the human population has no immunity, a pandemic may occur. (eswi.org)
  • Subtyping was conducted by avian virus, it is the most avianlike of all mammalian reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with subtype-specific influenza viruses ( 2,3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • As the North American swine H1 virus population has diversified over the last century by means of both antigenic drift and shift, in vivo assessments to study multifactorial traits like mammalian pathogenicity and transmissibility of these emerging influenza viruses are critical. (mdpi.com)
  • Which means mammalian adapted viruses must be adapted to replicate at a lower temperature. (blogspot.com)
  • These are just two examples of species barriers that must be overcome before an avian virus can successfully adapt to human ( or mammalian ) physiology. (blogspot.com)
  • Host-adaptive strategies, such as the E627K substitution in the ​PB2 protein, are critical for replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammalian hosts. (blogspot.com)
  • One strain of HPAI A(H5N1) is spreading globally after first appearing in Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The global HPAI situation significantly improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPAI A(H5N1) is considered an avian disease, although there is some evidence of limited human-to-human transmission of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the high lethality and virulence of HPAI A(H5N1), its endemic presence, its increasingly large host reservoir, and its significant ongoing mutations, in 2006, the H5N1 virus has been regarded to be the world's largest pandemic threat, and billions of dollars are being spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • avian influenza virus (HPAI) found in multiple bird species. (mcgill.ca)
  • HPAI H5N1 virus was first identified in Scotland in 1959. (bmj.com)
  • http://jvi.asm.org/content/85/24/13432.full http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21976646?tool=bestpractice.com and prolonged, unprotected close contact with a human HPAI H5N1 case. (bmj.com)
  • Such HPAI viruses may arise unpredictably de novo in poultry infected with LPAI progenitors of H5 and H7 subtypes. (influenzareport.com)
  • H5N1 no longer is confined to waterfowl and poultry in southeast Asia and China and appears to be expanding its host and geographic ranges. (aafp.org)
  • Avian influenza A virus is shed in the feces of healthy-appearing waterfowl (primarily ducks), which in turn infect chickens and other poultry with which they come in contact. (aafp.org)
  • Human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1), most of which have been linked to direct contact with diseased or dead poultry in rural areas, have been confirmed in six countries: Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia, China, and Turkey (see Table 1). (influenzareport.com)
  • Vaccinations against influenza are usually given to people in industrialized countries with a high risk of contracting the disease, [8] and to farmed poultry. (bionity.com)
  • First, there was an outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1)in the poultry population in Vietnam in December 2003. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • As it was, only six people died-and all of them had contracted the virus from chickens sold in Hong Kong poultry markets. (carleton.ca)
  • Characterization of avian H5N1 influenza viruses from poultry in Hong Kong. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Although various strains of avian influenza have been recognized for decades, the scope, lethality, and mutability of the Asian H5N1 subtype make it a likely source of the next human influenza pandemic-an event that could kill millions. (aafp.org)
  • In an effort to slow the spread of various strains of avian flu, farmers disinfect their clothing and shoes as well as their farm equipment. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Although limited human-to-human transmission of viruses with the H5N1 and H7N7 subtypes has occurred [ 11 - 15 ], these avian influenza viruses do not spread readily from person to person. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The H7N7 virus isolated from these patients had several disquieting features: Not only could it replicate in the human conjunctiva, but there was also evidence of human-to-human spread. (sciencemag.org)
  • Then there was avian influenza A (H7N7) in the Netherlands in 2003 with the death of a veterinarian. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Mild cases of avian influenza A (H9N2) occurred in 2 children in Hong Kong in 1999 and in 1 child in 2003. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Avian-to-human transmission of H9N2 subtype influenza A viruses: relationship between H9N2 and H5N1 human isolates," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 97, no. 17, pp. 9654-9658, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • While sometimes confused with the common cold , influenza is a much more severe disease and is caused by a different type of virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mode of transmission should be taken into account with degree of severity, as the right combination can produce a severe problem for our society today: an easily transmittable (airborne) fatal virus could spontaneously emerge which renders our immune systems and modern medications defenseless. (kenyon.edu)
  • The second, main wave of the global pandemic occurred from September to November 1918, and in many places yet another severe wave of influenza hit in early 1919. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Early application of anti-influenza virus drugs, especially within 48 hours of onset, can significantly reduce the incidence of severe symptoms and death . (selfgrowth.com)
  • 2 Influenza C causes a less severe illness than either influenza A or B, more akin to the common cold. (health.gov.au)
  • When cats and dogs were infected with the H5N1 virus, cats suffered from severe outcomes including death, whereas dogs did not show any mortality. (deepdyve.com)
  • Avian Influenza A (H5N1): Clinical Presentation Diarrhea Shortness of breath Severe Cases Leucopenia Lymphopenia Impaired liver capacity with raised liver catalysts Prolonged coagulating times and renal weakness. (presentica.com)
  • The type A viruses are the most virulent human pathogens among the three influenza types and causes the most severe disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many references to "bird flu" and H5N1 in the popular media refer to this strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to bird flu H5N1 and H5N2. (lazerzap.com)
  • Over the past few years, you've probably seen news stories with dire warnings about avian flu, or bird flu . (howstuffworks.com)
  • Influenzavirus A (bird flu virus). (mcgill.ca)
  • Experts have identified key events (creating new clades, infecting new species, spreading to new areas) marking the progression of an avian flu virus towards becoming pandemic, and many of those key events have occurred more rapidly than expected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza A virus can infect various host species. (springeropen.com)
  • We first constructed oligonucleotide BLSOMs for all available sequences from genomes of known species, and by mapping metagenomic sequences on these large-scale BLSOMs, we can predict phylotypes of individual metagenomic sequences, revealing a microbial community structure of uncultured microorganisms, including viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Influenza (flu) A viruses come from numerous avian species, and for some unknown reason come almost exclusively from China. (devtome.com)
  • Eventually these viruses mutate until they become effective or infective rather, to mammalians which include the human species. (devtome.com)
  • Characterization of the influenza A virus gene pool in avian species in southern China: was H6N1 a derivative or a precursor of H5N1? (hindawi.com)
  • Influenzavirus A , Influenzavirus B and Influenzavirus C . Each genus includes only one species, or type: Influenza A virus, Influenza B virus, and Influenza C virus, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • HA is also the principal antigen of influenza viruses and the main target for neutralizing antibodies. (asm.org)
  • This theory was based on the asymmetric nature of the antigenic cross reactions observed between parent viruses and their mutants selected in the presence of neutralising antibodies. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • Audenz combines the MF59 adjuvant and cell-based antigen manufacturing technology, which can enhance and expand the body's immune response by inducing antibodies against the mutated virus strain. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In either case, the immune system "remembers" the virus and creates virus-specific antibodies that will neutralize the virus when it next enters the body. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • These antibodies attach to viruses throughout the body to signal white blood cells to engulf and destroy the viruses and any cells to which they are attached. (drdalepeterson.com)
  • If a person gets the flu, his body forms antibodies to fight that virus off if it happens again. (wikipedia.org)
  • But since the flu virus changes all the time, a person's antibodies do not recognize the virus the next time it happens, because it is different. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza experts have estimated that in industrialised countries alone, the next influenza pandemic may result in up to 130 million outpatient visits, 2 million hospital admissions and 650,000 deaths over two years. (influenzareport.com)
  • The research explained how the next influenza pandemic might arise and its possible outcome. (machoideas.com)
  • Novel influenza A viruses are of extra concern because of the potential impact they could have on public health if they gain the ability to spread easily from person to person, which might cause the next influenza pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza viruses (family Orthomyxoviridae ) possess a negative-strand segmented RNA genome and enveloped virions. (asm.org)
  • Although H5N1 is not yet capable of efficient human-to-human transmission, the protean nature of its genome could transform it into the source of the next human influenza pandemic. (aafp.org)
  • Influenza A viruses are enveloped viruses that contain a segmented genome of eight different negative-strand RNA molecules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Genome of the Influenza virus and the relative sizes of RNA strands. (kenyon.edu)
  • A team of researchers from the U.K., Australia and the U.S. has mapped the structure of the influenza A virus genome. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Influenza A virus is an enveloped, negative-sense RNA virus containing a segmented genome comprising eight gene segments [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • however, these viruses do not spread efficiently from person to person, perhaps, in part, due to differences in the receptor-binding specificities of human and avian influenza viruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Influenza Virus Resources at the National Center for human and avian influenza viruses, followed by PA and Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (http://www.ncbi.nlm. (cdc.gov)
  • 1918 pandemic virus may not have emerged by a reassort- za A virus was then performed with immunofluorescent ment of avian and human virus as did the 2 other pandem- assay by type-specific monoclonal antibody (Dako, ic strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza remained a yearly occurrence after the 1918 pandemic, but no new, virulent influenza type emerged until early 1957. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • The first swine influenza viruses were isolated in the 1930s [ 4 ], representative of the classical swine H1 lineage derived from the ancestors of the 1918 pandemic virus [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The origin of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus: a continuing enigma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PB1-F2 is a multifunctional protein and contributes to the pathogenicity of influenza A viruses. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, our data substantiate the notion that the contribution of PB1-F2 to influenza pathogenicity is greatly strain specific and involves multiple host factors. (hindawi.com)
  • There is some evidence that the high pathogenicity of the 1918 virus was related to its emergence as a human-adapted avian influenza virus. (influenzareport.com)
  • Comparison of the transmission characteristics of low and high pathogenicity avian influenza A virus (H5N2). (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2 for Asian influenza population 100,000 pandemic, official population report (11), n = 179 (European) deaths Individual mortality 49. (freethesaurus.com)
  • In view of the increasing virulence as well as mortality to the natural host, waterfowls, we try to elucidate whether the changed biological properties are related to the antigenicity of these H5N1 viruses isolated after 2005. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mortality rate was highest among adults under age 50, who were, for unknown reasons, particularly vulnerable to serious disease resulting from this strain of influenza. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • Mice vaccinated with the group 1 HA mini-stems are protected from morbidity and mortality against lethal challenge by both group 1 (H5 and H1) and group 2 (H3) influenza viruses, the first report of cross-group protection. (nature.com)
  • [5] Scientists offer several possible explanations for the high mortality rate of the 1918 influenza pandemic. (bingj.com)
  • The "Asian Flu" was a category 2 flu pandemic outbreak of influenzavirus A that originated in Singapore in early 1957 lasting until 1958. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another influenza A (H2N2), caused Asian flu in 1957, with one million deaths (Xu et al. (springeropen.com)
  • In 1957-1958 the Asian flu by influenza A (H2N2) caused 98,000 deaths. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • When the next pandemic struck, the Asian flu of 1957-1958, more people probably - were sickened than in 1918-1919, but fewer died (about 1 million, including 60,000 Americans), partly owing to the availability of antibiotics by then. (managedcaremag.com)
  • In 1957, an Asian flu pandemic infected about 45 million Americans and killed 70,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these 89 patients, 78 presented with conjunctivitis, 5 presented with conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness, 2 presented with influenza-like illness, and 4 did not fit the case definitions. (pnas.org)
  • Surveillance of influenza in Australia is based on laboratory isolation of influenza viruses, sentinel general-practitioner reports of influenza-like illness, and absenteeism data from a major national employer. (health.gov.au)
  • In 2005, 4,575 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza-like illness were reported, which was 115 per cent higher than in 2004. (health.gov.au)
  • Some novel influenza A viruses are believed to pose a greater pandemic threat than others and are more concerning to public health officials because they have caused serious human illness and death and also have been able to spread in a limited manner from person-to-person . (cdc.gov)
  • But real flu, influenza , is the defined illness that many public health officials dread most. (nas.edu)
  • Influenza viruses are orthomyxoviruses of three types (A, B and C), with type C viruses merely causing sporadic mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in children. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • A pandemic can occur when a type of influenza virus, known as the influenza A virus, mutates suddenly . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The number of cases led him to think that a new type of influenza was emerging and that a pandemic threatened. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • An influenza pandemic is a universal outbreak of flu disease that takes place when a new type of influenza virus appears that people have not been exposed to before (Kilbourne ED. 1975). (studentshare.net)
  • One type of pandemic is that which that can emerge when a type of influenza virus, known as the influenza A virus, changes suddenly , resulting in a virus that is different from any virus that already exists. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • [12] This type of influenza mutates at a rate 2-3 times lower than type A [13] and consequently is less genetically diverse, with only one influenza B serotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it emerged in the spring of 2013, this strain of influenza did not exhibit an initial summertime peak and has not reached pandemic levels. (healthmap.org)
  • An influenza pandemic occurs when a new subtype or strain of influenza virus develops from antigenic shift and spreads globally. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • One way that this can occur is if a common human strain of influenza A virus and an avian influenza virus both infect the same animal. (bioedonline.org)
  • The influenza virus occurs as three types A, B and C which correspond to three genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae . (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • The influenza viruses are RNA viruses which are classified as genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae [3]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Influenza viruses (types A, B, C) are segmented, negative-strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses in the Orthomyxoviridae family. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Index of Viruses - Orthomyxoviridae (2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • Index of Viruses - Orthomyxoviridae (2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • On September 29, 2005, David Nabarro, the newly appointed Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza, warned the world that an outbreak of avian influenza could kill anywhere between 5 million and 150 million people. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alarm bells went off again in 2003 with an outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) in Hong Kong. (myantiguabarbuda.com)
  • Some viruses are more stable than others, but in general they mutate frequently, sometimes making it difficult for doctors to treat them. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Like many viruses, influenza can mutate through antigenic drift (small changes that occur as it reproduces) or antigenic shift (major changes that create a new subtype of the virus). (howstuffworks.com)
  • But influenza viruses can mutate, or change, rapidly. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • Every few years, influenza viruses mutate enough to result in a new strain. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • Influenza viruses have a great capacity to mutate and change. (eswi.org)
  • Scientists fear the swine flu virus might mutate , or change, into a pandemic as deadly as the 1918/1919 pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The poor surveillance for swine influenza viruses and the observation that the closest ancestral gene for each of the eight gene segments is of swine origin suggests that this virus might have been circulating undetected among swine herds somewhere in the world. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Swine influenza viruses a North American perspective. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Still, this particularly virulent and infectious strain of the flu virus is thought to have killed as many as 40 million people around the world between 1918 and 1919. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Our two principal goals are determining what made the 1918 influenza so virulent, to guide development of influenza treatments and preventive measures, and establishing the origin of the pandemic virus, to better target possible sources of future pandemic strains. (scientificamerican.com)
  • and from civilian corpses that preserved in permafrost conditions, the origin of this particular strain of virulent influenza or 'mystery virus' remains elusive. (ouzelgalley.net)
  • In Australia in 2004, influenza and pneumonia were the underlying causes of 3,381 deaths. (health.gov.au)
  • Planning is essential for reducing or slowing transmission of a pandemic influenza strain and for decreasing or at least spreading out the number of cases, hospitalisations and deaths over time. (influenzareport.com)
  • It was a real scare which resulted in quite some deaths globally and some here at home, in the US, with many people getting vaccinated for a virus which ended up being, at least here in the US, more bark than bite. (devtome.com)
  • Although we have not heard about it on the news, since all (except 1 death in Taiwan) deaths have occurred in China, The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have treated this new deadly virus with much attention and caution. (devtome.com)
  • Depending on its severity, an influenza pandemic could result in 200,000 to 2 million deaths in the United States alone. (nas.edu)
  • Influenza and pneumonia together accounted for 66,000 deaths in the United States in 2002 (the most recent year for which data are available), ranking as the seventh leading cause of death but claiming less than one tenth the number of people killed by heart disease. (managedcaremag.com)
  • Influenza and pneumonia are lumped together because it's hard to pinpoint deaths directly attributable to influenza, owing to the lack of virological confirmation of the disease or the listing of influenza on hospital discharge forms or death certificates. (managedcaremag.com)
  • As might be expected, deaths from influenza/pneumonia were distributed unevenly geographically, reflecting countless variables. (managedcaremag.com)
  • Looking at flu seasons, which span calendar years, NIH epidemiologists recently estimated that during the decade ending in 1998-1999, the mean number of influenza-associated deaths in the United States was 51,203. (managedcaremag.com)
  • In general, though, the trend since 1976-1977 has been for influenza-associated deaths to increase, which is attributed in part to the aging of the population. (managedcaremag.com)
  • Influenza virus types or subtypes vary in virulence, affecting influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • There are some interesting observations about this virus, 76 isolates of which have been sequenced in whole or in part (17 from Mexico, 59 from the US). (scienceblogs.com)
  • thus, specific influenza strain isolates are identified by a standard nomenclature specifying virus type, geographical location where first isolated, sequential number of isolation, year of isolation, and HA and NA subtype. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this review, we discuss the receptor binding specificity of influenza A viruses and its role in interspecies transmission. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Molecular insights into evolution, mutations and receptor-binding specificity of influenza A and B viruses from outpatients and hospitalized patients in Singapore. (bvsalud.org)