Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Cognitive Dissonance: Motivational state produced by inconsistencies between simultaneously held cognitions or between a cognition and behavior; e.g., smoking enjoyment and believing smoking is harmful are dissonant.Kv Channel-Interacting Proteins: A family of neuronal calcium-sensor proteins that interact with and regulate potassium channels, type A.Holidays: Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.BooksWriting: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.EnglandVentilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.New Brunswick: A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NOVA SCOTIA; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Fredericton. It was named in honor of King George III, of the House of Hanover, also called Brunswick. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p828 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)New YorkFeminism: The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes and organized activity on behalf of women's rights and interests. (Webster New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)New York CityNorth CarolinaAfrican Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Accounting: System of recording financial transactions.AlabamaBiography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Piebaldism: Autosomal dominant, congenital disorder characterized by localized hypomelanosis of the skin and hair. The most familiar feature is a white forelock presenting in 80 to 90 percent of the patients. The underlying defect is possibly related to the differentiation and migration of melanoblasts, as well as to defective development of the neural crest (neurocristopathy). Piebaldism may be closely related to WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.HumanitiesArchivesSoutheastern United States: The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.EncyclopediasVibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Strikes, Employee: Work-related situations in which the employees as a group refuse to work until certain conditions of employment are granted by the employer.TennesseeSanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Lightning Injuries: Accidental injuries caused by brief high-voltage electrical discharges during thunderstorms. Cardiopulmonary arrest, coma and other neurologic symptoms, myocardial necrosis, and dermal burns are common. Prompt treatment of the acute sequelae, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is indicated for survival.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.ChicagoLiterature: Writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. The body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age. (Webster, 3d ed)Radio Waves: Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Euphausiacea: An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.Radio Frequency Identification Device: Machine readable patient or equipment identification device using radio frequency from 125 kHz to 5.8 Ghz.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
African American Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968)". Scribd. Retrieved 2017-12-04. In a follow-up letter, Martin Luther King Jr ... African American Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968)". Scribd. Retrieved 2017-12-04. "Who Are We? , The Martin Luther King Jr. ... African American Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968)". Scribd. Retrieved 2017-12-04. "Newly found tape of Dr. Martin Luther King ... As a political leader in the Civil Rights Movement and as a modest preacher in a Baptist church, King evolved and matured ...
The Civil Rights Movement: A Photographic History, 1954-1968. Abbeville Press, New York. 1996. Print. ISBN 978-0789206565 Eli ... including The Civil Rights Movement: A Photographic History, written by Stephen Kasher. A collection of Herz's poetry was ... A dedicated civil rights activist, Herz spent time extensively documenting the events of the March on Washington for Jobs and ...
... to avoid provoking the civil disobedience which had become the hallmark of the Civil Rights Movement. King originally designed ... "The right man delivered the right words to the right people in the right place at the right time."[39] ... It can be considered a dynamic spectacle because it happened at the correct time and place: during the Civil Rights Movement ... "We Shall Overcome, Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement: Lincoln Memorial". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 2007- ...
Allen Johnson was a leader in the Civil Rights Movement, an activist in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored ... "Conflict of Interests: Organized Labor and the Civil Rights Movement in the South, 1954 - 1968". Cornell University. Retrieved ... he was an activist in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the larger civil rights movement. The ... In 1963, after Medgar Evers was assassinated by white supremacists for his civil rights leadership, an estimated five thousand ...
The Vietnam War and Civil Rights Movement were influential events that shaped her politics and songwriting. Feeney was also ... "Activist musician sings out loudly for women's rights". The Pittsburgh Press. March 17, 1989. Retrieved March 16, 2010. "Music ... Feeney graduated from Fontbonne Academy, a Catholic girls' high school, in 1968. After saving for one year, she purchased a ... The family moved to the nearby Brookline neighborhood of the city of Pittsburgh in 1954. She graduated from Resurrection ...
"To Thine Own Self Be True": Robert F. Kennedy, The Inner Cities, and the American Civil Rights Movement 1963-1968". publish.wm. ... and civil rights lawyer June Shagaloff, a white NAACP official (attending in an "unofficial capacity") Jerome Smith, Freedom ... the urgency of the racial situation and was a positive turning point in Kennedy's attitude towards the Civil Rights Movement. ... As the meeting got underway and Robert Kennedy began to recount how the Justice Department had been supporting the civil rights ...
Civil rights[edit]. Main article: African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968) ... He wrote legislation that would create a Civil Rights Commission in the executive branch and a civil rights department in the ... leading to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957.[97] That act, along with the Civil Rights Act of 1960, constituted the ... "What the International Response to the Civil Rights Movement Tells Us About Ferguson". TIME. Retrieved May 21, 2017.. ...
He had a progressive political viewpoint, publishing editorials supporting the civil rights movement and liberal causes. In ... "1968 Winners". The Pulitzer Prizes. "1990 Winners and Finalists". The Pulitzer Prizes. "The 2013 Pulitzer Prize Winners: ... After Steven's ouster, John Cowles, Jr., was editor of the two newspapers; he became president in 1968 and editorial chairman ... Photography 1968: Nathan K. (Nick) Kotz (Des Moines Register and Minneapolis Tribune), National Reporting Star Tribune ...
... was a student at Little Rock Central High School during the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968). She was ...
... which drew inspiration from the sit-in pioneered during the civil rights movement. In 1968, Sahlins signed the "Writers and ... He earned his PhD at Columbia University in 1954. There his intellectual influences included Eric Wolf, Morton Fried, Sidney ... Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968. Stone Age Economics. New York: de Gruyter, 1972. (ISBN 9780415330077) The Use and ... "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" January 30, 1968, New York Post Sahlins, Marshall (November 18, 2013). "China U". The ...
The Mississippi Movement & the MFDP ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans Dittmer, John (1994). Local People: The Struggle for Civil ... Civil Rights Movement Veterans Williams, Juan (1987). Eyes on the Prize: America's Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965. Viking. ... Many Civil Rights Movement activists felt betrayed by Johnson, Humphrey, and the liberal establishment. The movement had been ... As SNCC Chairman John Lewis later wrote: As far as I'm concerned, this was the turning point of the civil rights movement. I'm ...
... at the end of the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968) and during a time of racial unrest (Martin Luther King had ... Of Black America was a series of seven one-hour documentaries presented by CBS News in the summer of 1968, ... Clay Gowran (August 29, 1968). "Thoro Quiz of Whites, Blacks Told". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 8, 2017. Perry Wolff. "CBS ...
On p. 204 Moye stated that at as of 2004, in Sunflower County "a successful civil rights movement created a better business ... Let the People Decide - The University of North Carolina Press Full text at The Long Civil Rights Movement (LCRM) Project. ... Let the People Decide is the first published overview book of the Sunflower County civil rights movements, defined by the ... "In analyzing the struggle for racial justice, Moye writes that there was never one civil rights movement, either in a ...
Kaplow also reported on major events of the civil rights movement from the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 Brown v. Board of ... In 1968, he became a White House correspondent. In 1972, he switched to ABC News, where he remained until his retirement in ... Kaplow also covered Richard Nixon from 1958 to 1968. This kept Nixon in the public eye, which historian Erik Barnouw believed ... helped Nixon win the 1968 presidential nomination. After retiring in 1994, Kaplow lived in Falls Church, Virginia, with his ...
He became disenchanted as the national Democratic Party began to support the Civil Rights Movement. After the Brown v. Board of ... Colmer endorsed the Republican Party candidates Richard Nixon for president in 1960, 1968 and 1972, and Barry Goldwater in 1964 ... Education (1954) decision by the United States Supreme Court, ruling that public school segregation was unconstitutional, ...
The Civil Rights Movement Begins 1968: Civil Rights Act of 1968 which prevented "by force or by threat of force, injure, ... The 1960s were famous for numerous social movements, including the Black Panther Party in California. This increase in racial ... Cummins, Eric (1994-01-01). The Rise and Fall of California's Radical Prison Movement. Stanford University Press. ISBN ... Symbionese Liberation Army Black Panther Party Black Power Movement Black Liberation Army Venceremos Organization Weather ...
... was marked by successful handling of campus unrest arising from protests against the Vietnam War and the Civil Rights movement ... 3 (March, 1968), pp. 169-176 With Robert H. Bonthius and F. James Davis, Drushal authored The Independent Study Program in the ... 8 (November, 1954), pp. 411-416+455-456 The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 39, No. 3 (March, 1968), pp. 169-176 Wittenberg ... Drushal published an article in The Journal of Higher Education in 1954 on independent study programs and published another in ...
1857 American Civil War, April 12, 1861 - May 13, 1865 District of Columbia in the American Civil War Assassination of ... delivers his I Have a Dream speech President Lyndon Johnson signs the National Voting Rights Act on August 6, 1965 Twenty-third ... Police Department of the District of Columbia Recognition of same-sex unions in the District of Columbia Voting rights in the ... 1954 Civil Rights Movement from December 1, 1955, to January 20, 1969 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, ...
African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968) "The Goal: To Remember Each Jim Crow Killing, From The '30s On". NPR. ... Civil Rights Restorative Justice Project. Retrieved August 25, 2016. Official website "The Trouble I've Seen" - Civil Rights ... and supports policy initiatives on anti-civil rights violence, such as various remediation efforts including criminal and civil ... The Civil Rights Restorative Justice Project is an initiative by the Northeastern University School of Law to document every ...
African-American civil rights movement (1865-1896), immediately after the Civil War African-American civil rights movement ( ... African-American civil rights movement may refer to: ... with state-mandated segregation African-American civil rights ... a social movement in the United States during the second half of the 20th century. ...
The migration also empowered the growing Civil Rights Movement. While the Civil Rights Movement existed in all parts of the ... the American Civil War, the ending of slavery, and the American Civil Rights Movement. In Pre-Columbian times, the only ... ISBN 0-06-113024-9. Estes, Steve (2005). I Am a Man! Race, Manhood, and the Civil Rights Movement. Chapel Hill: University of ... African-Americans responded with two major reactions: the Great Migration and the Civil Rights Movement. The Great Migration ...
Brown sparked the modern American civil rights movement. The initial reaction of most Virginia politicians and newspapers to ... Passage of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 also greatly assisted this process. On May 27, 1968, the U.S. Supreme Court ... Patterson, James T. 'Brown v. Board of Education': A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy. New York: Oxford ... "Pupil Placement Board." Television News of the Civil Rights Era, 1950-1970. Virginia Center for Digital History. University of ...
Initially, Penn was a chemistry major, but chose to concentrate on law due to the civil rights movement. He then earned an LL.B ... He also served as a trial attorney from 1961 to 1965 and a reviewer from 1965 to 1968. Penn served as a judge on the District ...
... was a leader in the Civil Rights Movement and contemporary of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.. Mayor Tom Murphy ... Byrd Rowlett Brown (1929-2001) was an activist, lawyer, and leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for ... "Byrd Brown was an African-American who stood in the front lines of the civil rights movement and faced down enormous hatred and ... Thanks to the efforts of Brown and other civil rights activists, the Pittsburgh Plan was produced. This plan was considered a ...
United States federal judge linked to the American Civil Rights Movement. Richard Smith Whaley (1874-1951), U.S. Representative ... Confederate general in the American Civil War George E. Dixon (1837-1864), Commander of the Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley ... 1899-1954), US Senator, South Carolina Governor John Darlington Newcomer (1867-1931), American architect Josephine Pinckney ( ...
The U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division is the institution within the federal government responsible for enforcing federal statutes prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, sex, disability, religion, and national origin. The Division was established on December 9, 1957, by order of Attorney General William P. Rogers, after the Civil Rights Act of 1957 created the office of Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights, who has since then headed the division. The head of the Civil Rights Division is an Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights (AAG-CR) appointed by the President of the United States. The current AAG-CR is Eric Dreiband. ...
In several senses there is a natural fit between human security concepts and humanitarian principles. The concern with the protection of people or individuals is a core humanitarian value as well as of human security. In this sense it shares human security's merging of development and security and the casting of the protection of life as the referent object. Human security and humanitarian action also shared a similar process of evolution. The rise of the human security discourse in the 1990s paralleled an equally rapid expansion in humanitarian roles and a broadening in the objectives of humanitarianism that was labeled the 'new humanitarianism'. Humanitarian assistance, once encompassing a narrow set of emergency based life saving interventions conducted by a small group of relatively independent actors, became 'an organising principle for intervention in internal conflicts, a tool for peacebuilding and the starting-point for addressing poverty, as well as a palliative in times of conflict and ...
In the summer of 1964, civil rights groups brought almost 1,000 activists to Mississippi.[83] Most of them were white college students.[84]p. 66 Their goals were to work together with black activists to register voters, and to teach summer school to black children in "Freedom Schools." They also wanted to help create the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). At the time, only white people could take part in the Mississippi Democratic Party. The MFDP was planned as another political party that would allow black and white Democrats to take part in politics.[83] Many white Mississippians were angry that people from other states were coming in and trying to change their society. Government workers, police, the Ku Klux Klan, and other racist whites used many strategies to attack the activists and black people who were trying to register to vote. The Freedom Summer project lasted for ten weeks. During that time, 1,062 activists were ...
In the postwar years, African Americans in Kentucky pressed for civil rights, as they believed they had earned them with their service during World War II and many other contributions, in addition to rights being provided by the US Constitution. During the 1960s, as a result of successful local sit-ins during the Civil Rights Movement, the Woolworth's Store in Lexington ended practices of segregation at its lunch counter and in restrooms.[112] This was part of an era of activist efforts to achieve equal access to public facilities. Democratic Governor Edward Thompson "Ned" Breathitt, Jr., took pride in his civil rights leadership after being elected as governor in 1963. In Kentucky's 1963 gubernatorial campaign between Republican Louis Broady Nunn and ...
The Jim Crow system employed "terror as a means of social control,"[55] with the most organized manifestations being the Ku Klux Klan and their collaborators in local police departments. This violence played a key role in blocking the progress of the civil rights movement in the late 1950s. Some black organizations in the South began practicing armed self-defense. The first to do so openly was the Monroe, North Carolina, chapter of the NAACP led by Robert F. Williams. Williams had rebuilt the chapter after its membership was terrorized out of public life by the Klan. He did so by encouraging a new, more working-class membership to arm itself thoroughly and defend against attack.[56] When Klan nightriders attacked the home of NAACP member Dr. Albert Perry in October 1957, Williams' militia exchanged gunfire with the stunned Klansmen, who quickly retreated. The following day, the city council held an emergency session and ...
Organized in the South and having a predominately African-American membership, COGIC has had a long history in advancing civil rights. Pentecostals have been criticized because of their noticeable absence from the official record of activism that has been largely overshadowed by black ministers of other denominations such as Baptists and Methodists; however, there is irrefutable evidence to verify and document the role and response of COGIC ministers and other Pentecostals to the cause and struggle for Civil Rights. As previously stated, COGIC although predominately black, had a significant white membership during its first decade of existence, with a number of white ministers holding leadership positions in the church. However, after the meeting in Hot Springs and the founding of the Assemblies of God, the white constituency of COGIC continued to decline, until it was ...
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL; formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith) is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States. Describing itself as "the nation's premier civil rights/human relations agency", the ADL states that it "fights anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry, defends democratic ideals, and protects civil rights for all", doing so through "information, education, legislation, and advocacy". Founded in October 1913 by the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith, a Jewish service organization in the United States, its original mission statement was "to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. Its ultimate purpose is "to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike, and to put an end forever to unjust and unfair discrimination ...
As a young boy, Watkins and his family met Martin Luther King's family through their church. Watkins was eight years old when he met King, who served as the family's pastor.[1] From that point on, he became invested in the civil rights movement, and spent the rest of his life fighting for other fellow African Americans and other minorities who were struggling in their advance in the medical field.[11] In 1955, when Watkins was only 11 years old, he took part in the Montgomery bus boycott that took place after the bus incident with Rosa Parks. He also worked closely with King, serving as a volunteer driver for the civil rights leader.[1] Later in his life, he was selected to serve on the admissions board at Johns Hopkins University where he spent his last years making the school more fair to all ethnicities, especially minorities. He improved conditions at ...
... (October 1, 1922 - June 2, 2003) was an American lawyer and the head of the Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice during the Civil Rights Era. Marshall was born in Plainfield, New Jersey. He attended the Phillips Exeter Academy, graduating in 1940, and received a BA from Yale University in 1943. He joined the army, working in the intelligence corps as a Japanese translator and cryptoanalyst. It was during his military service that he met Violet Person, whom he later married. After World War II, Marshall returned to Yale Law School, earning his LL.D. in 1951. He was admitted to the Washington, D.C. bar the same year. Marshall joined the Washington-based law firm of Covington & Burling in 1952, where he worked for ten years, specializing in antitrust law for clients such as Standard Oil. Marshall was appointed Assistant Attorney General in 1961 ...
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Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
Despite the county's black majority, it had no registered black voters in the spring of 1965, after more than 60 years of disenfranchisement under the state constitution. Civil rights activists worked in Hayneville and Lowndes to organize residents in preparation for registration and voting. After passage of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 in August, activists provided residents with political education and helped them register to vote. They continued to work to integrate stores and public facilities. On August 13, 1965, Jonathan Daniels, an Episcopal seminarian from New Hampshire, worked with a group of 29 civil rights protesters to picket whites-only stores in the small town of Fort Deposit. All of the protesters were arrested by county police and taken to jail in nearby Hayneville. Five juvenile protesters were released the next ...
Chester began losing its mainstay shipyard and automobile manufacturing jobs as early as the 1960s, causing the population to be halved from over 66,000 in 1950 to under 34,000 in 2010. In the early 1960s, racial unrest and civil rights protests led by George Raymond of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Persons (NAACP) and Stanley Branche of the Committee for Freedom Now (CFFN) made Chester one of the key battlegrounds of the civil rights movement. James Farmer, the national director of the Congress of Racial Equality called Chester "the Birmingham of the North".[33] In 1962, Branche and the CFFN focused on improving conditions at the predominantly black Franklin Elementary school in Chester. Although the school was built to house 500 students, it had become overcrowded with 1,200 students. The school's average class-size was 39, twice ...
... extremely detailed Civil Rights Movement Veterans movement timeline Civil Rights Timeline, sections on Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Civil Rights: Pivotal Events - slideshow by Life magazine "Cases: U.S. Civil rights Movement". Global Nonviolent Action ... This is a timeline of the civil rights movement, a nonviolent freedom movement to gain legal equality and the enforcement of ... "Civil Rights Act of 1964Zwebsite=Finduslaw.com". Retrieved 30 October 2014. Loevy, Robert. "A Brief History of the Civil Rights ...
in a voters rights bill; they [were] interested in civil rights; they had a civil rights. movement going. They were interested ... demand a Bill of Civil Rights.^^. Williamss passion for and commitment to civil rights was demonstrated by her. affiliation ... 1983), 177-88, 210, 294-98; Paula F. Pfeffer, A. Philip Randolph: Pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement (Baton. Rouge, LA, 1990 ... By the 1930s the CPs special emphasis on black civil rights prompted the. ILD to take on legal cases involving African ...
Further information: Chicago Freedom Movement and Ghetto riots. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 declared all people born in the ... Native American civil rights. References[edit]. *^ ""Civil Rights Act of 1968" full text" (PDF). U.S. Government Publishing ... Title II-VII: Indian Civil Rights Act[edit]. This section is missing information about the Indian Civil Rights Act. Please ... "Civil Rights Act of 1866 & Civil Rights Act of 1871 - CRA - 42 U.S. Code 21 §§1981, 1981A, 1983, & 1988". findUSlaw. Archived ...
... the Civil Rights Movement..... When all the achievements of the Civil Rights Movement are taken together.... Civil Rights ... Civil Rights Movement Timeline:. What did the Civil Rights Movement need to achieve in order to be a success?. To end racial ... Why did the Civil Rights Movement start to gain momentum in the 1950s & 60s? What had the Civil Rights Movement acheived by ... Transcript of How Successful was the Civil Rights Movement?. How Successful was the Civil Rights Movement?. Achievements & ...
... to avoid provoking the civil disobedience which had become the hallmark of the Civil Rights Movement. King originally designed ... "The right man delivered the right words to the right people in the right place at the right time."[39] ... It can be considered a dynamic spectacle because it happened at the correct time and place: during the Civil Rights Movement ... "We Shall Overcome, Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement: Lincoln Memorial". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 2007- ...
African American Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968)". Scribd. Retrieved 2017-12-04. In a follow-up letter, Martin Luther King Jr ... African American Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968)". Scribd. Retrieved 2017-12-04. "Who Are We? , The Martin Luther King Jr. ... African American Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968)". Scribd. Retrieved 2017-12-04. "Newly found tape of Dr. Martin Luther King ... As a political leader in the Civil Rights Movement and as a modest preacher in a Baptist church, King evolved and matured ...
The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s came about out of the need and desire for equality and freedom for African ... About the Movement. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s came about out of the need and desire for equality and ... Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson fifty years ago on July ... Teach about the life, challenges and accomplishments of Rosa Parks, important social activist during the Civil Rights Movement. ...
The Civil Rights Movement - By: Aubrie Daft, Period 4 by Aubrie Daft , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool ... Importaint Groups Of The Civil Rights Movement The first group I see the most importance in is CORE (Congress Of Racial ... Had it not been for the Civil Rights Movement I believe most of the U.S. would still be Segregated. Black people or anybody ... In my flyer well go over how The Civil Rights Movement started, Who was involved, and peoples reaction to it. So Buckle Up! ...
... movement was a struggle by African Americans [2] in the mid-1950s to late 1960s to achieve civil rights [3] equal to those of ... whites, including equal opportunity in employment, housing, and education, as well as the right to vote, the right of equal ... CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. The civil rights movement comprised efforts of grassroots activists and national ... CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. The twentieth centurys Civil Rights movement was, like the nineteenth centurys Civil War, its central ...
Civil Rights Movement - By: Maddie Roberts by Maddie Roberts , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for ... Tactics of the Civil Rights Movement Sit ins was a main tactic of the civil rights movement. In these sit ins, protesters would ... Introduction to the Civil Rights Movement The civil rights movement began in 1954 and ended in 1968. Over the 14 years, the ... During the civil rights movement, segregation was found everywhere. Blacks and whites were not allowed to share restrooms or ...
Learn about activist and civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. in this unit study supplement. Keep his dream alive through ... and the Civil Rights Movement. The Civil Rights Movement took place in the U.S. from 1954-1968. Because African Americans ... became one of the most well known leaders of the Civil Rights Movements in the 1950s and 60s. This unit study covers various ... Martin Luther King, Jrs involvement in the Civil Rights Movement began in 1955 with the Montgomery bus boycott in Alabama. On ...
4. Americas Civil Rights Movement. Not only is it Black History Month, but its also Rosa Parks birthday on February 4. This ... With that being said, how do you know you are choosing the right books for their age and reading level? How do you know they ... is a great time to teach your children that every citizen is entitled to their own civil rights, however there are those in the ... This memorable character and her suspenseful adventure are just right for the very youngest child. It is Kittens first full ...
A History of the Civil Rights Movement, V 323.092 His. Against the Odds; The Artists of the Harlem Renaissance, V 700.8996 Aga ... The Civil Rights Movement: A Photographic History, 1954-1968, 323.1196 KAS. Robert J. Cottrol. Brown vs. The Board of Education ...
... Lead way of a new race in the 1960s ... Fact six:The civil rights movement lasted for 15 years, 1954- ... Fact one:The Civil Rights Act (1964) outlawed segregation in schools, public places or jobs. ... Fact two:The Civil Rights Act was originally proposed by President John F Kennedy. ... Fact three:The Voting Rights Act (1965) gave all black people the vote. ...
Between 1954 to 1968, the United States saw a great period of social change as a means of ending racial segregation and ... The African-American Civil Rights Movement refers to social movements that were undertaken by African-Americans in the United ... The African-American Civil Rights Movement. Between 1954 to 1968, the United States saw a great period of social change as a ... This movement was fighting house segregation. This climaxed into the Civil Rights Act of 1968. Martin Luther King Jr. was ...
Father William Coleman exposed Thomas to the civil rights movement. Thomass subsequent year (1967-1968) at Conception Seminary ... civil rights lawyer and U.S. Supreme Court justice, was born Thoroughgood Marshall in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of William ... civil rights attorney and U.S. Supreme Court justice. Thurgood (originally Thoroughgood) Marshall grew up on Druid Hill Avenue ... where he became active in the Black Power Movement. ... Civil Rights Era (5) * 1972-present: The Contemporary World (5) ...
Brown Girl Dreaming The American Civil Rights Movement. Buy Study Guide The Civil Rights Movement was a multi-decade movement ... Non-violent protest was a major element of the early Civil Rights Movement, and many see this as key to the movements success. ... Many see the end of World War II as the impetus for the Civil Rights movement. Many African Americans fought in World War II, a ... It is clear from Black Girl Dreaming that the Civil Rights Movement and its famous leaders had a great impact on Jacqueline ...
... an instructor at the University of Alabama who worked as a reporter covering the civil rights movement in Alabama during the ... Photojournalism and the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1968.. Speaking of Raines, earlier this month, the University of Alabamas ... Before joining the Times in 1978, the former executive editor published an oral history of the civil rights era.. By Richard ... which serves as an oral history of the civil rights era. "It is a seminal book on first-person interviews," said Martha Lockett ...
... at the end of the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968) and during a time of racial unrest (Martin Luther King had ... Of Black America was a series of seven one-hour documentaries presented by CBS News in the summer of 1968, ... Clay Gowran (August 29, 1968). "Thoro Quiz of Whites, Blacks Told". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 8, 2017. Perry Wolff. "CBS ...
This paper will discuss the Black struggle for civil rights in America by examining the civil rights movements history and ... The Civil Rights Movement. 911 Words , 4 Pages. *. The Civil Rights Movement : The Key Events In The Civil Rights Movement. ... The Civil Rights Movement : The Key Events In The Civil Rights Movement. 1243 Words , 5 Pages. The Civil Rights Movement marked ... The Civil Rights Movement Essay. 1259 Words , 6 Pages. The civil right movement refers to the reform movement in the United ...
Civil rights movement The African Americans managed to solve their conflict and resolution through acts of non-violence and ... The Civil Rights Movement Essay. 1259 Words , 6 Pages. The civil right movement refers to the reform movement in the United ... was one of the most famous leaders of the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s. The Civil Rights movement was a movement of ... Essay on The Civil Rights Movement. 1014 Words , 5 Pages. *. The Great Leaders Of The Civil Rights Movement. 1563 Words , 7 ...
50:014:340 The Civil Rights Movement (D) (3) Intensive examination of the civil rights movement, including the legal strategy ... Cross-listed with American History: 50:512:340 The Civil Rights Movement. ... and the civil rights revolution. Cross-listed with American History: 50:512:204 African-American History. ... civil rights, and ongoing struggles in "Post-Black" or "Post-Racial" America. This survey course covers key moments, ...
"Civil Rights Movement Memory and the Arts," delivered at Let Freedom Ring: Art and Democracy in the King Years, 1954-1968, ... "Memory and the Civil Rights Movement," delivered at University of Wisconsin-Madison; Cornell; University of Maryland, College ... "Civil Rights Movement Memory and The Help" Society for the Study of Southern Literature, 2012 ... "Memory, Nostalgia and the Civil Rights Movement," delivered at the Armand Hammer Museum (Los Angeles), Pomona College, SUNY- ...
It keeps alive the dreams of those who died during the civil rights movement and inspires those who still dream of a better ... Montgomery, Ala., the city known both as the birthplace of the civil rights movement and the first capitol of the Confederacy, ... The SPLC researched deaths during the era considered to be the modern-day civil rights movement - from May 17, 1954, the day ... Students of all ages visit to learn about the movement. And since 1998, the Congressional Civil Rights Pilgrimage has brought ...
The modern civil rights movement began with the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott in 1955 and 1956, led by Rev. Dr. martin ... The civil rights acts of 1866, 1870, and 1871 are usually called the Reconstruction Civil Rights Acts. The provisions of these ... As of 2003, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is the most comprehensive civil rights legislation in U.S. history. Congress enacted ... In the aftermath of the Civil War, Radical Republicans in the Congress were determined to protect the civil rights of blacks. ...
  • Martin Luther King and other leaders therefore agreed to keep their speeches calm, also, to avoid provoking the civil disobedience which had become the hallmark of the Civil Rights Movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activists worked together and used non-violent protest and specific acts of targeted civil disobedience, such as the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Greensboro Woolworth Sit-Ins, in order to bring about change. (adl.org)
  • As a result, organized social groups emerged whose approach involved using non-violent protests and civil disobedience in an effort to resolve crises. (worldatlas.com)
  • King, building on the tradition of civil disobedience and passive resistance earlier expressed by Thoreau, Tolstoy, and Gandhi, waged a war of nonviolent direct action against opposing forces of racism and prejudice that were embodied in the persons of local police, mayors, governors, angry citizens, and night riders of the Ku Klux Klan. (archives.gov)
  • Chapter Three considers the Warren Court's continuing engagement with the civil rights movement and the different kinds of cases that that movement spawned, including issues of First Amendment rights of free speech and press, civil disobedience and mass protest, and the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection of the laws. (h-net.org)
  • Major anti-imperialist demonstrations took place in China, Egypt, and Iraq, and there was massive civil disobedience against colonial power in India. (revolutionaryworkers.org)
  • The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed. (adl.org)
  • Fact three:The Voting Rights Act (1965) gave all black people the vote. (adobe.com)
  • This attack caused a national outcry that forced the president and the senate to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965. (worldatlas.com)
  • In 1965 the Organization of Afro-American Unity founder Malcolm X was assassinated, and in 1968 Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated as well. (gradesaver.com)
  • In 1965, the Black Power Movement began grew in response to the setbacks encountered by the nonviolent protests of the Civil Rights Movement. (gradesaver.com)
  • Here was where "Bloody Sunday" occurred on March 7th, 1965, when John Robert Lewis, now a U.S. Representative from Atlanta, Georgia, led a group of six-hundred marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge, en route to Montgomery. (noparticularplacetogo.net)
  • The Black Arts Movement started in 1965 when poet Amiri Baraka [LeRoi Jones] established the Black Arts Repertory Theater in Harlem, New York, as a place for black artistic expression. (archives.gov)
  • This church served as a starting point for the Selma to Montgomery Marches in 1965, and it played a major role in events that led to the adoption of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. (blackpast.org)
  • The "Double V" campaign, supported by organizations such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Urban League and supported by the black media, achieved some successes helping to drive the civil rights agenda well into the late 1940s. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) was an important organization that sponsored civil rights law suits and lobbied for the African-American rights. (worldatlas.com)
  • The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (naacp) in 1909 signaled that the twentieth century battle for civil rights had begun. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Parks, a member of the Black rights organization, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), was just one in a long line of brave and exhausted individuals. (shmoop.com)
  • It was as president of the Arkansas state conference of the NAACP that Bates coordinated the efforts to integrate Little Rock's public schools after the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision outlawed segregated public schools in 1954. (aaregistry.org)
  • Johnson began his civil rights activism as a teenager, as the youngest president of any Kentucky chapter of the NAACP. (ket.org)
  • The NAACP is the nation's oldest, largest and most recognized civil rights organization. (majortests.com)
  • This was the first instance in which the NAACP had specifically used the term integration in a civil rights policy pronouncement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The story of the American Civil Rights Movement is one of those tales that is told again and again and again, often with a few protagonists, a couple of key events, and one dramatic conclusion. (shmoop.com)
  • it became the leading Black newspaper in the state and a powerful voice in the American Civil Rights Movement. (aaregistry.org)
  • Close to a century after the abolition of slavery in the United States, black Americans were still oppressed and subject to rampant race-inspired violence, segregation in public facilities, unequal job distribution, and lack of voting rights. (worldatlas.com)
  • The u.s. civil war and the thirteenth amendment may have ended slavery, but they did not end racial discrimination. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Slavery was outlawed in 1865, following the union victory in the Civil War. (lanekenworthy.net)
  • One of our first stops was in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania to visit the Civil War battlefield where thousands of men died fighting for conflicting ideologies: State's rights versus Federal rights, slavery versus abolitionism and a rural, southern society versus the social disruption the north was experiencing with the spread of manufacturing, commerce and the industrial revolution. (noparticularplacetogo.net)
  • African Texans have fought for civil rights since their emancipation from slavery in 1865. (tshaonline.org)
  • Social movements are vital to the establishment of our societies, and they way we are governed. (bartleby.com)
  • Social movements help the less privileged band together to create a stronger voice among a sea of political correctness and unlawfully rule that the public supposedly have to abide by without question. (bartleby.com)
  • 1. This document project differs in three respects from those previously published in Women and Social Movements in the United States . (alexanderstreet.com)
  • The famous "I Have a Dream" address was delivered in August 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. Less well-remembered are the early sermons of that young, 25-year-old pastor who first began preaching at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama in 1954. (wikipedia.org)
  • Martin Luther King Jr. delivering "I Have a Dream" at the 1963 Washington D.C. Civil Rights March . (wikipedia.org)
  • On August 28, 1963 one of the key events of the Civil Rights Movement took place: the March on Washington. (gradesaver.com)
  • King and the movement won the support of the nation, and in August 1963, the world watched as hundreds of thousands of people-white and Black-came together in peace to help grant King his dream of racial equality. (shmoop.com)
  • This unit uses the 10 Questions Framework to explore two examples of youth activism: the 1963 Chicago schools boycott and the present-day movement against gun violence launched by Parkland students. (facinghistory.org)
  • In 1963, after campaigns of restaurant sit-ins, Freedom Rides on interstate buses and bloody civil rights marches - a quarter of a million people marched to the Lincoln Memorial to hear King's 'I have a dream' speech. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Branch's first volume, "Parting the Waters," covers the years 1954-1963 and won the Pulitzer Prize for history in 1989 for its breathtaking scope and for revealing black Christianity as the real wellspring of civil rights. (csmonitor.com)
  • Civil Rights in the Sixties HIS/145 John Lary By Linsey Tisdale Week two Civil Rights in the Sixties Martin Luther King, Jr. gave a 17 minute speech on August 28, 1963, from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial to over 200,000 civil rights followers. (majortests.com)
  • National attention in the spring of 1963 was focused on Birmingham , Alabama, where King was leading a civil rights drive. (britannica.com)
  • The non-violent peaceful protests of the Civil Rights movement proved highly effective at improving the lives of black Americans in the South by tackling segregation. (prezi.com)
  • The protests throughout the state were organized by various African-American movements and involved white students from the north. (worldatlas.com)
  • A wave of riots and violent protests occurred over the next decade, driving some white support from the movement. (gradesaver.com)
  • Lockett said the discussion is the second and final event in a series dedicated to the Spider Martin Retrospective , an exhibit of the pictures taken by The Birmingham News photographer during the Selma-to-Montgomery march and other civil rights protests. (adweek.com)
  • In 1968, the Kerner Commission, appointed by President Johnson in the wake of urban disorders and violent protests, concluded that "Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white - separate and unequal. (lanekenworthy.net)
  • And I believe that is why extremists are not waiting like they did from 1868 to 1896 and from 1954 to 1968, but they are attacking it right now because they see it. (blogspot.com)
  • These celebrated words from the Brown v. Board of Education Majority Opinion ushered in an unprecedented era of civil rights and school restructuring in the United States. (adl.org)
  • The CORE organization was involved in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education and the Montgomery Bus Boycott. (majortests.com)
  • Movement for the Liberation of Women) developed within the radical thinking and action that marked 1968 and produced feminist extensions of the work of Lacan, Derrida, and Deleuze. (britannica.com)
  • When a vicious civil war in the Bengali-majority East Pakistan saw the region become Bangladesh (December 1971), a group of disgruntled military officers forced General Yahya Khan (who had replaced Ayub in 1969) to resign. (com.pk)
  • They came to have their voices heard and listen to speeches by many civil rights leaders, especially Martin Luther King, Jr., who delivered what would become one of the most influential speeches in history. (adl.org)
  • Before joining the Times in 1978, the former executive editor published an oral history of the civil rights era. (adweek.com)
  • In 1977, Raines published a book titled My Soul Is Rested: Movement Days in the Deep South Remembered , which serves as an oral history of the civil rights era. (adweek.com)
  • The Civil Rights Movement: Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. changed history not only for African American's, but for all who live in the United States. (bartleby.com)
  • 50:014:204 African-American History II (D) (3) Continuation of 50:014:203, tracing black leadership and cultural development through Reconstruction, the period of official segregation, and the civil rights revolution. (rutgers.edu)
  • Each name is a history lesson, and we are saying, don't just think of the deaths, but think of a movement of ordinary people who just got tired of injustice," Dees told The New York Times in 1989. (splcenter.org)
  • Their names were inscribed on a circular, black granite table that chronicles the history of the movement in lines that radiate like the hands of a clock. (splcenter.org)
  • Civil rights history has meaning as a collective biography for Americans today (one sadly neglected and distorted). (csmonitor.com)
  • As "Pillar of Fire," the second volume of Taylor Branch's epic history makes clear, the main actors in civil rights were not politicians or generals. (csmonitor.com)
  • For information about early civil rights history in Wisconsin, see our black history page at http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/blackhistory. (wisconsinhistory.org)
  • As part of the Civil Rights in Kentucky Oral History Project, the Kentucky Oral History Commission and Historical Society have produced full-length video interviews with many of the project participants under the title Living the Story: The Rest of the Story. (ket.org)
  • These four groups can all be linked together sometime in the history of the Civil Rights Movement. (majortests.com)
  • The Chicano Movement encompassed a broad list of issues-from restoration of land grants, to farm workers' rights, to enhanced education, to voting and political rights, as well as emerging awareness of collective history. (rug.nl)
  • Rosa Parks , a seamstress by profession, had been formally educated on civil rights and had a history of activism prior to the boycott. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Submitted by Joseph G. Blake in May 1968 to the History Department of the University of Notre Dame, Indiana in partial fulfillment for a Bachelor of Arts Degree, it examines the Van Sweringen Developments in Cleveland, Shaker Heights, and the Cleveland Terminal development. (clevelandmemory.org)
  • The Chicano Movement that culminated in the early 1970s took inspiration from heroes and heroines from their indigenous , Mexican and American past. (rug.nl)
  • In the 1970s supporters of the women's rights movement championed the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the Constitution, which outlawed gender-based discrimination and enabled Congress to make laws to enforce the ban. (coursehero.com)
  • He therefore endorsed a 1954 plan to expand the Urbana campus and create a new Chicago campus. (illinois.edu)
  • In the summer of 1954 a faculty committee estimated that enrollment on the Urbana-Champaign campus would reach 23,000 in 1962-63 and a whopping 38,000 by 1972. (illinois.edu)
  • Socially, the Chicano Movement addressed negative ethnic stereotypes of Mexicans in mass media and the American consciousness. (rug.nl)
  • The Chicano Movement had been fermenting since the end of the U.S.-Mexican War in 1848, when the current U.S-Mexican border took form. (rug.nl)
  • There were several leaders throughout the Chicano Movement. (rug.nl)
  • This was the cultural section of the Black Power movement, in that its participants shared many of the ideologies of black self-determination, political beliefs, and African American culture. (archives.gov)
  • Similar to the Black Power movement , scholars have also written about the repression and police brutality experienced by members of this movement which some connect to larger government-organized activity such as COINTELPRO . (rug.nl)
  • Finally, the Civil Rights Act of 1968, commonly known as the "Fair Housing Act," provided equal housing opportunities regardless of race, creed or national origin and made it illegal to interfere with housing rights and opportunities. (adl.org)
  • Martin Luther King had to suffer numerous injustices since he was fighting for equal rights, though Malcolm suffered more. (bartleby.com)
  • Prior to 1954, "separate but equal" was permitted under the law across the United States. (enterprisecommunity.org)
  • A century of racial segregation destroyed, and equal rights won, and in just under a decade. (shmoop.com)
  • Schools integrated, the Civil Rights Movement flourished, and the goal of equal opportunity for all Americans came into sight. (cbsnews.com)
  • Kathleen, like many of the women involved in the Civil Rights Movement, sought an equal partnership alongside her male peers. (shmoop.com)
  • Nearly a century later, this idea of assisting whole classes of individuals to gain access to the goods of U.S. life reemerged in U.S. law and society through a series of court decisions and political initiatives interpreting the Civil Rights guarantees within the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Integration refers not only to the elimination of such policies but also to the active incorporation of different races into institutions for the purpose of achieving racial balance, which many believe will lead to equal rights, protections, and opportunities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hundreds of thousands sign up, hoping that their service will earn them equal rights back home. (paleycenter.org)