Germany, WestGermany, EastGermanyWest Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)West VirginiaAfrica, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Drug-Eluting Stents: Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.Literature: Writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. The body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age. (Webster, 3d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Blattellidae: A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.Endometrial Ablation Techniques: Procedures used for the targeted destruction of the mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity.National Socialism: The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.BerlinPredatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Vanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Prussia: Former state in north central Germany. Formally abolished March 1, 1947. Kingdom established 1701.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Awards and PrizesTax Exemption: Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Dens in Dente: Anomaly of the tooth, found chiefly in upper lateral incisors. It is characterized by invagination of the enamel at the incisal edge.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Arthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.Antigens, Dermatophagoides: Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.AustriaMorphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Morphine Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Holocaust: A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Unedited FootageEuropean Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Mice, Inbred NZB
"German Youth Amazed; No Wild West Heroes". The Milwaukee Journal. 1941-07-28. Retrieved 2014-06-09. Kennedy 1994, p. 4 "Press ... Born in Hamburg, Germany, where he attended the Wilhelm-Gymnasium, he and his family emigrated to the United States in 1938, ... Spiro was born in Hamburg, Germany to Jewish parents. His family name is a corruption of Speyer, a town in the Rhineland which ... In a news interview a few years after his arrival, he expressed his disappointment at the relative absence of "wild west heroes ...
Guns for the Germans? The arguments for and against German rearmament by Basil Davidson, 1951. Japan for Peace or War?:The Case ... Neutrality: Germany's way to peace by Canon Stuart Morris, 1953. The Problem of Peace by Albert Schweitzer, 1954. The Camp of ... Forced Labour in the Colonies by J.W. Cowling, 1943. Food Relief in the Second World War by Roy Walker, 1943. Citizens in Jail ... East and West by Heinz Kraschutzki, 1949. Power or Peace : Western industrialism and World leadership, by Wilfred Wellock, 1950 ...
... in German). 24 (Year book): 85-90. H.W. Scharf (2003). Eisenbahn-Rheinbrücken in Deutschland (in German). Freiburg. ISBN 3- ... This type of construction was applied in Germany for the first time on a railway bridge and was later used for other rail ... In the west, the bridge connects with the Rhine bridge. The track has a expansion joint that allows for longitudinal movements ... On the west bank flood bridge immediately next to the Worms bridge is Worms Brücke (Worms Bridge) station, which formerly ...
A similar process of over-expansion had taken place in Germany and Austria, where the period from German unification in 1870/71 ... Eyck, Erich (1950). Bismarck and the German Empire. Fawcett, W. L. (1877). Gold and Debt; An American Hand-Book of Finance. ... The contraction of the German economy was exacerbated by the conclusion of war reparations payments to Germany by France in ... Germany was now on the gold standard. Demonetization of silver was thus a common element in the crises on both sides of the ...
West Germany) was a German journalist and a politician in the Social Democratic Party of Germany. He was one of few German Jews ... He was intimately involved with the 1952 reparation treaty between West Germany and Israel. Altmaier was also a member of the ... Jewish Member of West German Parliament, Dead; Was 73", JTA, 1963, retrieved 2013-02-03 Christoph Moss (1 January 2003). Jakob ... During World War One, Altmaier volunteered for the Germany army and was severely wounded. In 1918, he participated in the ...
In the 1960s, he worked as a defence lobbyist in the West German capital Bonn. He died in 1971 during a stay in Florence. ... v. Tilman Koops, Boldt, Boppard am Rhein 1982, S.XLIV Harold James: Deutschland in der Weltwirtschaftskrise 1924-1936 (Germany ... Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (20 March 1891, Schieder, Germany - 7 June 1971 Florence, Italy) was a German politician from the ... He was the son of a German father and a Scottish mother. After graduation, he became an officer in the Imperial German Navy ...
Luth.-Sekundar-Schule, is a German international school in Beit Jala, West Bank, Palestinian territories. The school, located ... "Deutscher Bundestag 4. Wahlperiode Drucksache IV/3672" (Archived 2016-03-12 at WebCite). Bundestag (West Germany). 23 June 1965 ... Israel captured the West Bank from Jordan in the 1967 Six-Day War. Beit Jala went to Palestinian control after 1993. The ... p. PT96 (Google Books): "We traveled to a German school on the outskirts of Beit Jala.[...]There is a dormitory for boys, ...
1862 - Catholic church of St.Mary is built to a design of E. W. Pugin. 1941- 3 March - German bombers damage town. 1948 - 6 to ... However in late-2014, he moved to Germany. Michael P Hughes (1981-), solicitor and arctic adventurer, lives in Haddington. ... Hailes Castle is a mainly fourteenth-century castle about five miles south-west of Haddington. This castle, which has a fine ... These are recognisable by their distinctive red-brick appearance, and can be seen from West Road, Somnerfield Court, and the ...
... the stone became a boundary point along the Inner German Border, from 1945 between the British Zone of Occupation in the west ... It is now part of the German Green Belt. The Drei-Länder-Stein is no. 47 in the system of checkpoints in the Harzer Wandernadel ... The Drei-Länder-Stein is a boundary stone at the tripoint of the German federal states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and ... Since 3 October 1990, German Unity Day, the boundary stone has marked the borders of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia ...
... in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. Searle, Alaric (2003). Wehrmacht Generals, West ... Schwerin sought to augment his Prussian Officer anti-Nazi credentials in West Germany's post-war political environment on the ... Stackpole, 2007). 'The Siegfried Line:The German Defence of the West Wall. September to December 1944', by S. Mitcham (2009). ' ... Wehrmachtgeneral Kanzlerberater Lobbyist (in German). Paderborn, Germany: Ferdinand Schöningh. ISBN 978-3-506782-29-8. Rass, ...
... in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. Searle, Alaric (2003). Wehrmacht Generals, West ... in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2497-6. Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) . Die Träger des ... in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939-1945 ... ISBN 978-0-275-97968-3. Alfred Schulze-Hinrichs in the German National Library catalogue. ...
... in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. Searle, Alaric (2003). Wehrmacht Generals, West ... Mitcham, Samuel W. (2009). Panzers in Normandy: General Hans Eberbach and the German Defense of France, 1944. Mechanicsburg, Pa ... in German). Bissendorf, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2322-1. Zetterling, Niklas; Frankson, Anders (2012). The Drive ... in German). Bad Friedrichshall, Germany: Friedrichshaller Rundblick. ISBN 978-3-9802222-7-3. Wegmann, Günter (2004). Die ...
He was raised in West Germany (Stein-Wingert), not returning to Dresden until well after the Berlin Wall came down. After his ... Prince Daniel Timo of Saxony, Duke of Saxony (German: Daniel Timo Prinz von Sachsen, Herzog zu Sachsen; born 23 June 1975) is ... ISBN 0-9532142-4-9. "Geschichte des Hauses Wettin von seinen Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart" (in German). Prince Albert of Saxony. ... "Was lesen und essen Sie gern, Herr Daniel von Sachsen?" (in German). Sächsische Zeitung. 13 May 2006. Retrieved 19 July 2009. ...
... in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. Searle, Alaric (2003). Wehrmacht Generals, West German ... die nationalsozialistischen Verbrechen in Frankreich und die Justiz der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. (in German). Wallstein. ... Breitman, Richard and Goda, Norman J. W. (2010). Hitler's shadow: Nazi war criminals, U.S. intelligence, and the Cold War. ... Helmut Beck-Broichsitter (30 August 1914 - 25 September 2000) was a German military police officer during World War II. ...
... in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. Searle, Alaric (2003). Wehrmacht Generals, West ... Born in 1889, Ramcke joined the Imperial German Navy in 1905 and served during the First World War. Ramcke fought in the West ... ISBN 0-231-11882-1. Mitcham, Samuel W. (2009). Defenders of Fortress Europe: The Untold Story of the German Officers During the ... in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2300-9. Williamson, Gordon (2006). Knight's Cross with Diamonds ...
... in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. Searle, Alaric (2003). Wehrmacht Generals, West ... Nazi Trials and German Public: Occupation, early Federal Republic and the GDR] (in German). Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & ... The German Cross 1941 - 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN ... The Diamonds Leaves Bearers of the German Armed Forces 1941-1945-History in Color] (in German). Selent, Germany: Pour le Mérite ...
... in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. Searle, Alaric (2003). Wehrmacht Generals, West ... The German Cross 1941 - 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN ... The society was used to spread love in West Germany. He was the author of Das Wagnis der Freiheit (Tactical ... in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche ...
Germany: Mittler & Sohn Verlag. OCLC 10573418. Searle, Alaric (2003). Wehrmacht Generals, West German Society, and the Debate ... in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2300-9. Hasso von Manteuffel in the German National Library ... Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: ... After the war, he was elected to the Bundestag (West German legislature) and was the spokesman for defense of the Liberal Party ...
Engel H, Dermek A, Klofac W, Ludwig E, Brückner T (1996). Schmier- und Filzröhrlinge s.l. in Europa. Die Gattungen Boletellus, ... These include Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Slovakia. It is considered ... Boletinus, Phylloporus, Suillus, Xerocomus (in German). Weidhausen: H. Engel. ISBN 3-926470-08-9. Pilát A, Svrcek M (1949). " ... landkammeri described by Czech mycologists Albert Pilát and Mirko Svrček in 1949. The nomenclatural databases Index Fungorum ...
... was born in Dresden, Germany, on 22 August 1895. He joined the German Army early in World War I, on 22 August 1914 ... Norman Franks, Frank W. Bailey, Russell Guest. Grub Street, 1993. ISBN 0-948817-73-9, ISBN 978-0-948817-73-1. Fokker D VII Aces ... General Major Georg Weiner was a German flying ace during World War I, being credited with nine aerial victories. He would ... He died on 24 January 1957 in Göttingen, Germany. 1914 Iron Cross first and second class Pilot's Badge Ritterkreuz second class ...
Later editions were edited by his son W.D. Treadwell. Tables for Qualitative Analysis (German:Tabellen zur Qualitativen Analyse ... F.P. Treadwell studied chemistry in Heidelberg (Germany) under Robert Bunsen. He graduated with a doctoral degree in 1878 and ... German: Kurzes Lehrbuch der analytischen Chemie). (1899-1949, Leipzig and Vienna, Deuticke; 2 volumes) Kurzes Lehrbuch der ... The "Treadwell" was in common use in Universities, with editions spanning up to 1949. It was translated into French, Italian, ...
The German Cross 1941 - 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN ... Beerenbrock returned to West Germany in mid-December 1949. In 1955 he joined the air force in the Bundeswehr. ... Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: ... in German). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann. ISBN 978-3-87341-065-7. Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das ...
West Germany) was based in Bonn, the capital city of that state. The British embassy to the German Democratic Republic (East ... British Embassy, Berlin (German: Britische Botschaft, Berlin) is the United Kingdom's diplomatic mission to Germany. It is ... Germany was divided. The British Ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany ( ... Germany) was situated near to the old embassy, at Unter den Linden 32-34. Upon reunification in 1991, the German government ...
He was involved in the rearmament of West Germany. Bürkner died on 15 July 1975 in Frankfurt. He was aged 81. Bürkner held the ... Deutschland was attacked on 29 May 1937 by Spanish Republican Air Force aircraft off Ibiza. In reprisal, on 31 May 1937 Admiral ... On 25 April 1935 he officially informed the British Naval attaché to Germany, Captain Gerard Muirhead-Gould, that Germany had ... After his release he became director of the German staff of the Dutch airline KLM in Frankfurt. From 1949 he acted at times as ...
Brandler returned to Germany in the August 1922, assuming once again the role of top leader of the German Communist Party, a ... The Action against the Kapp Putsch in West Saxony.) Berlin: Berliner buch- und kunstdruckerei, 1920. Betriebsräte und ... Party of Germany. Following the rise to power of Adolf Hitler and his ultra-nationalist National Socialist German Workers Party ... Brandler returned to Germany in 1914, just prior to the outbreak of World War I, settling in Chemnitz as secretary of the ...
A Federal Republic of China (Chinese: 中華聯邦共和國; pinyin: Zhonghua Lianbang Gongheguo) is a proposed federal republic encompassing mainland China, Macau, Hong Kong and Taiwan. This "Third Republic" (following on from the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China) is proposed by supporters of the Tibet independence movement, although it would not in effect create an independent Tibet. Yan Jiaqi, writing for the Tibetan government in exile, has written that:. "It would be a federation with the characteristics of a confederation. Federal China would consist of two kinds of republics: 'loose republics' such as Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao, Tibet, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang: and 'close republics' consisting the rest of China.". According to Yan:. "They would differ from the existing federal countries in their defence, taxation and legal systems". This model, however, in which the close republics would have an arrangement based on the United States of America, and the loose ...
... (English: Helga - On the Origins of Human Life, lit. On the development of human life) is a 1967 West German sex education documentary and the first film of the Helga trilogy. Its release in West Germany was followed by international releases to many European countries, the British Commonwealth and the United States. It became one of the greatest box-office successes of West German cinema, viewed by forty million people in West Germany and internationally. In the first months of its showing in West Germany the audience had reached four million people. The film featured scenes of childbirth which were the first to be shown publicly in Germany. Helga was the first in a series of educational films which were considered "relatively permissive" at the time. The film was ...
Although Brandt is perhaps best known for his achievements in foreign policy, his government oversaw the implementation of a broad range of social reforms, and was known as a "Kanzler der inneren Reformen" ('Chancellor of domestic reform'). According to the historian David Childs, "Brandt was anxious that his government should be a reforming administration and a number of reforms were embarked upon". Within a few years, the education budget rose from 16 billion to 50 billion DM, while one out of every three DM spent by the new government was devoted to welfare purposes. As noted by the journalist and historian Marion Dönhoff, "People were seized by a completely new feeling about life. A mania for large scale reforms spread like wildfire, affecting schools, universities, the administration, family legislation. In the autumn of 1970 Jürgen Wischnewski of the SPD declared, 'Every week more than three plans for reform come up for decision in cabinet and in the Assembly.'" According to ...
The development of analogs of thalidomide was precipitated by the discovery of the anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of the drug yielding a new way of fighting cancer as well as some inflammatory diseases after it had been banned in 1961. The problems with thalidomide included; teratogenic side effects, high incidence of other adverse reactions, poor solubility in water and poor absorption from the intestines. In 1998 thalidomide was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) under strict regulations. This has led to the development of a number of analogs with fewer side effects and increased potency which include lenalidomide, pomalidomide and apremilast, all of which are currently marketed and manufactured by Celgene. Thalidomide was originally released in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) under the label of Contergan on October 1, 1957 by Chemie ...
An indirect presidential election (officially the 8th Federal Convention) was held in West Germany on 23 May 1984. Though not term limited, incumbent Karl Carstens elected not to seek a second term. His Christian Democratic Union instead nominated Richard von Weizsäcker, the Governing Mayor of West Berlin. The Greens, who were represented at the Federal Convention for the first time, nominated author Luise Rinser. The SPD and FDP elected not to nominate candidates. Weizsäcker won the election with 80% of the vote on the first ballot.. ...
Pfau was born on 9 September 1929 in Leipzig, Germany, to Lutheran Protestant parents. She had four sisters and one brother. Her home was destroyed by bombing during World War II. Following the post-war Soviet occupation of East Germany she escaped to West Germany along with her family, and chose medicine as her future career. During the 1950s, she studied medicine at the University of Mainz. During this time, Pfau met several times with a Dutch Christian woman, who was a concentration camp survivor and currently dedicated her life to "preaching love and forgiveness". After "her life-changing experience", Pfau left "a romantic association" with a fellow student and got involved in discussions in Mainz's philosophy and classical literature department. After completing her clinical examination, Pfau moved to Marburg to carry on her clinical studies. Then she was baptized as an Evangelical Protestant in ...
... or Scotland Yard vs. Dr Mabuse (German: Scotland Yard jagt Dr. Mabuse is a 1963 German crime film directed by Paul May and starring Peter van Eyck. Scotland Yard vs. Dr. Mabuse was distributed in West Germany by Gloria Film, premiering on 20 September 1963. The film was based on a story written by Bryan Edgar Wallace It was shot at the Spandau Studios in Berlin. The film's sets were designed by the art directors Albrecht Hennings and Hans Kuhnert ...
3.0.co;2-j. ISSN 0893-7524. PMID 14635278. Hierholzer, J; Hierholzer C; Hierholzer K (1994). "Johann Lukas Schönlein and his contribution to nephrology and medicine". Am. J. Nephrol. SWITZERLAND. 14 (4-6): 467-72. doi:10.1159/000168767. ISSN 0250-8095. PMID 7847488. Losse, H (Aug 1990). "[Typhoid fever]". Schweiz. Rundsch. Med. Prax. SWITZERLAND. 79 (34): 976-82. ISSN 1013-2058. PMID 2204983. Koelbing, H M (Mar 1990). "[Johann Lucas Schönlein (1793-1864), a researcher and clinician]". Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete. West Germany. 41 (3): 174-7. ISSN 0017-8470. PMID 2188938. Ziegler-Böhme, H; Gemeinhardt H (1990). "[150 years medical mycology since Johann Lucas Schönlein]". Dermatologische Monatsschrift. 176 (10): 623-31. ISSN 0011-9083. PMID 2079125. Wagner, D (1989). "Not Available". NTM. Germany. 26 (2): 67-71. ISSN 0036-6978. PMID 11634437. Bleker, J (1989). "[Johann Lukas Schönlein, the ...
Cook was born in Stuttgart, West Germany, and moved to Texas with his family in 1972. Kerry Max Cook served over 20 years in a Texas prison on Death Row. Since his release, Cook has become an activist against the death penalty, speaking across the United States and in Europe.. Cook has written a book published by HarperCollins entitled Chasing Justice which details his conviction, the widespread prosecutorial abuses which led to it, and the battle to prove his innocence. Chasing Justice was nominated for the Edgar Award by Mystery Writers of America. He was awarded a Soros Justice Fellowship to write the book. In an advance blurb for the memoir, former FBI Director and Federal Judge William S. Sessions noted, "Kerry Max Cook has written a brutal but compelling account of his 22 years on Texas's death row for a murder he did not commit. The book depicts his struggles against all odds to free himself from an inept justice system that would not let go, despite ...
... (September 25, 1956 - June 19, 2013) was an American comic book editor, translator, and publisher, best known as vice president and co-publisher of Seattle-based Fantagraphics Books. Along with co-publisher Gary Groth, Thompson used his position to further the cause of alternative comics in the American market. In addition, Thompson made it his business to bring the work of European cartoonists to American readers. Kim Thompson was born in Denmark in 1956. Child of a government contractor father, Thompson spent much of his youth in Europe, living in West Germany and the Netherlands. His mother is Danish, and Thompson grew up speaking the language, a skill which aided his later career as a translator of European comic books. (He was also fluent in French.) Thompson developed an interest in comics early in life, some of his favorites being the works of André Franquin, Maurice Tillieux, and Jacques Tardi. As a young man, Thompson was a frequent contributor ...
Brain was a Hamburg-based record label prominent in the 1970s releasing several important Krautrock records by bands such as Neu!, Cluster and Guru Guru. Many of its more prominent records are currently being reissued on CD by Repertoire Records. In the middle of 1971, Rolf-Ulrich Kaiser's management style at Ohr caused two of his A&R men, Bruno Wendel and Günter Körber, to leave Ohr and set up their own record company, which they called Brain. Wendel & Korber brought Guru Guru with them from Ohr, and immediately signed Cluster, who had recorded one LP for Philips; they soon recorded and released Cluster II. Brain was rapidly a success throughout West Germany and much of western Europe, although had little presence in the US. Signings throughout the seventies and into the eighties included Neu!, Cluster, Harmonia, Klaus Schulze, Edgar Froese, Guru Guru, Grobschnitt, Novalis, Jane, Birth Control, Embryo, Popol Vuh, Curly ...
The Brazil Independence Cup was an international football tournament held in Brazil, from 11 June to 9 July 1972, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Brazilian Declaration of Independence. It was called the Minicopa by the Brazilians and the final was between Brazil and Portugal, in the Maracanã Stadium. Brazil won 1-0, with Jairzinho scoring in the 89th minute. Brazil no longer had Pelé but still had Tostão, Jairzinho and Rivelino, the later two also played in the 1974 FIFA World Cup, in West Germany. Despite Portugal's quality results and team, including Benfica players such as Eusébio, Jaime Graça, José Henrique, Humberto Coelho, Rui Jordão, and Toni, the team missed the World Cup 1974 and 1978 qualifying matches, so this tournament was their best result until the 1984 European Football Championship. 20 teams competed; 18 national teams as well as 2 representative sides from Africa and CONCACAF (North and Central America and the Caribbean). 15 ...
This is a list of diplomatic missions of Germany. Historically, the German state of Prussia and several smaller German states had sent emissaries abroad prior to the establishment of the North German Confederation, the precursor to the modern Federal Republic of Germany. In 1874, Germany had only four embassies (in London, Paris, Saint Petersburg, and Vienna), but this was complemented by non-ambassadorial representation in the form of 14 ministerial posts (in Athens, Bern, Brussels, The Hague, Constantinople, Copenhagen, Lisbon, Madrid, Rome, Stockholm, Peking, Rio de Janeiro, Washington, D.C., and to the Holy See), seven consulates-general with diplomatic status (in Alexandria, Belgrade, Bucharest, London, New York, Budapest, and Warsaw), and 37 consulates and vice-consulates headed by consular officers. By 1914, five additional embassies were established in Constantinople, Madrid, Rome, Washington, D.C., and Tokyo. The Foreign Office progressively ...
The election of the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany (officially the 1st Federal Convention) was held on 12 ... FDP and German Party (DP). The FDP leader Theodor Heuss, who was nominated by CDU/CSU and FDP because of an accord in the ... Under the 1949 Basic Law, the new office of the Federal President was given less powers than the preceding office of Reich ... September 1949, following the first Bundestag election of August 14, 1949 and coalition talks/ negotiations between CDU/CSU, ...
The Rich West, "The Giant Dwarf: West Germany," Helsinki: WSOY, 1985 David Reynolds (2015) One World Divisible: A Global ... Most West German parties at the time of the 1949 Bundestag election were committed to democracy, but they disagreed on what ... Enough participating West Germans favoured Adenauers and his coalition partners - the liberal Free Democrats (FDP) and the ... Dennis L. Bark and David R. Gress, A History of West Germany, volume 1: 1945-1963: From Shadow to Substance, London, UK: Basil ...
"The Resources of a German Chancellor." West European Politics 14 (2): 48-61. ... See Leaders of East Germany.) See the article Chancellor for the etymology of the word.. Role. West Germanys 1949 ... Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany Bundeskanzler(in) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German). ... official German title: Bundeskanzler) in 1867. After unification of Germany in 1871, the office became known in German as ...
"The Resources of a German Chancellor." West European Politics 14 (2): 48-61. ... See Leaders of East Germany.). See the article Chancellor for the etymology of the word.. Role. West Germanys 1949 ... German Chancellery, Berlin, Germany (primary). Palais Schaumburg, Bonn, Germany (secondary). Appointer. The Federal President. ... official German title: Bundeskanzler) in 1867. After unification of Germany in 1871, the office became known in German as ...
Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland by Germany (West)( ). in German and held by 279 WorldCat member ... Heer Germany (West) Germany (West).--Bundesverfassungsgericht Germany (West).--Heer Germany--Baden-Württemberg Germany-- ... Handbook of German affairs by Germany (West)( Book ). 3 editions published in 1954 in English and held by 213 WorldCat member ... The German code of criminal procedure by Germany (West)( Book ). 10 editions published between 1955 and 1973 in English and ...
... incidence from 1979 to 1999 ranged from a minimum of 0.1 per million in several northern states to 3.1 per million in Baden-W ... The epidemiology of Q fever in Germany was examined by reviewing relevant studies since 1947 and by analyzing available ... manifest Q fever has been statutorily notifiable since 1962 in the former West Germany and since 1979 in the former German ... Hellenbrand W, Breuer T, Petersen L. Changing Epidemiology of Q Fever in Germany, 1947-1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001 ...
Splendid achievement which goes far beyond German borders. Also treats Latin literature of Germany. d. Helmut A. W. de Boor and ... WEMSK38:Medieval German Literature WEMSK38 -- German Literature 1. Introductory bibliographies: a. Johannes Hansel, ... Middle High German Literature 1. Gentle guide: A very good book to start Middle High German with, if you know a little Modern ... by W. Kohlschmidt and W. Mohr (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1958-). Often called "Merker-Stammler" from its first two editors. ...
Faunistic Substrate Preference Assessment in Forest Springs of the German Subdued Mountains , IntechOpen, Published on: 2015-04 ... 64 - Vannote, R.L., Minshall, G. W., Cummins, K. W., Sedell, J. R., Cushing, C. E. The river continuum concept. Canadian ... Axel Schönhofer (Mainz, Germany) for Opiliones (harvestmen); Christoph Bückle (Tübingen, Germany) for Auchenorrhyncha (cicadas ... The study sites are located in the central area of the German subdued mountains. Table 3 gives an overview to their natural ...
1963, Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs Archives [henceforth ΑΥΕ], West Germany reparations/69.4. All quotations from German ... 1 Pelt, M., Tying Greece to the West. US-West German-Greek Relations 1949-74 (Copenhagen 2006) 97. ... Germanys exports to a recipient could only be paid for by Germany imports from that state. 6 In 1934, the German tobacco ... 67 Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs to State General Accounting Office, 10 April 1963, ΑΥΕ, West Germany reparations/69.4. ...
Nationality: Germany. Executive summary: Chancellor of West Germany, 1949-61. Mayor of Cologne during the Weimar Republic, ... German Minister Foreign (1951-55). German Mayor Cologne (1917-33). Christian Democratic Union Chairman (1950-66). Time Person ... Birthplace: Cologne, Germany. Died: 19-Apr-1967. Location of death: Rhöndorf, Germany. Cause of death: Heart Failure. Remains: ... Elected first Chancellor of West Germany on 15 September 1949 and held the office fourteen years.. Father: Konrad Adenauer. ...
natural historic Descriptor books are Germany, France, the Netherlands, and the United States. In the economic hero of the few ... Visual Visitor is no many to know Celts about the free Nazi Crimes against Jews and German Post War Justice: The West German ... Most of the much free Nazi Crimes against Jews and German Post War Justice: The West German Judicial breaks credited by the ... There s another free Nazi Crimes against Jews and German Post War Justice: The West German Judicial System During Allied, the ...
Adaptation (Physiology) Art, German Atmospheric chemistry Berlin (Germany : West).--Senat Biogeochemistry Biolinguistics ... Berlin (Germany : West)( Book ). * 4 Jahre Selbstbehauptung : Der Senat von Berlin 1959-1962 by Berlin (Germany : West)( Book ) ... Microbiology Fisheries Fishery management Fish populations Genetics Germany.--Geheime Staatspolizei Germany--Berlin Germany-- ... Most widely held works by Berlin (Germany : West) Evolution and development : report of the Dahlem Workshop on Evolution and ...
Language and Ideology in the GDR and West Germany from 1949 - 1989 15 ... Contemporary Turkish-German Text and Film 15 GM4091 Generation, Genealogy and the Quest for Tradition: Contemporary German ... Contemporary Turkish-German Text and Film 15 GM4091 Generation, Genealogy and the Quest for Tradition: Contemporary German ... Language and Ideology in the GDR and West Germany from 1949 - 1989 15 ...
2) German records of the German empire, which is now Germany, the former Soviet Union, France, and Poland from 1800 to 1895. ... In the late 1960s the Mormon Church filmed 100-year-old vital records in the towns and cities of West Germany, Poland, Hungary ... West Germany, and the Search Bureau for Missing Relatives in Jerusalem.. The its, administered by the International Red Cross, ... Bulliet, Richard W. Conversion to Islam in the Medieval Period: An Essay in Quantitative History. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard ...
Newsweek examines Germanys profound lessons for the developed world ... But in West Germany, the restiveness had an added, and peculiarly German, twist: externally, the old Adenauerian pro- ... Perhaps half the population watched it: an unknown number of East Germans saw it too, illicitly on West German television. ... For all its success, Germany bears a -distinctive burden.. German angst follows a venerable German tradition of agonised ...
May: Germany split into East and West. June: British author George Orwell publishes 1984. ... June: German army launches a surprise attack against the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa). ... After the end of World War II, the world is split into two - East and West. This marks the beginning of the era called the Cold ... August: Construction begins on the Berlin Wall in Germany. September: US 5th Special Forces Group, the "Green Berets" activated ...
Chancellor of West Germany, 1949-61. Louis Agassiz. Paleontologist. 28-May-1807. 14-Dec-1873. Ichthyologist at Harvard. ... German Chancellor 1917-18. Max Weber. Sociologist. 21-Apr-1864. 14-Jun-1920. The Protestant Ethic. ... Theodor W. Hänsch. Physicist. 30-Oct-1941. Quantum optics. Werner Heisenberg. Physicist. 5-Dec-1901. 1-Feb-1976. Heisenberg ... 26-Mar-1949. Perfume, The Story of a Murderer. Georg von Hertling. Head of State. 31-Aug-1843. 4-Jan-1919. German Chancellor ...
The Federal Republic of Germany is a Central European state bounded by the German Democratic Republic , Czechoslovakia, Austria ... Find out information about Germany, Federal Republic of. ... the North German, South German, West German, Southwestern, ... Switzerland, France,... Explanation of Germany, Federal Republic of ... Germany, Federal Republic of. Germany, Federal Republic of. (FRG, Bundesrepublic Deutschland).. The Federal Republic of Germany ...
German version has been published in Polio-Nachrichten 4 / 2004 Translation by Hayo Schuette / Dr. med. Peter Brauer ... Pschyrembel, W.: Klinisches Wörterbuch. Verlag Walter de Gruyter & Co. Berlin 85.-99. Aufl. 1951.. 23. Raritan Valley Post- ... Referring to Germany , the numbers mainly given estimate some 30.000 to 140.000 afflicted persons at the present time. By ... Bezogen auf Deutschland finden sich überwiegend Angaben von 30 000 bis 140 000 geschätzten Betroffenen für den gegenwärtigen ...
... the Basic Law has become the Constitution of the unified West and East Germany (former Federal Republic of Germany and German ... In 1999 the average agreed working week was 37.4 hours in West Germany and 39.2 hours in East Germany(Source: Federal Ministry ... In 1999, 14% of East German employees and 8% of West German employees, including trainees, had a fixed-term employment contract ... of West German employees and 55% of East German employees can claim paid leave of 6 weeks or more. Compared to the period from ...
Facts About Germany. Frankfurt am Main: German Societats Verlag, 1996.. Larsson, Mans O., ed. Lets Go Germany. New York: St. ... Walled-in West Berlin, by contrast, developed into a highly dynamic factor in West German and international politics. The ... By 1948, the United States had claimed West Germany, and the Soviet Union had assumed control of East Germany, but Berlins ... Visits across the wall and access to West Berlin from West Germany were finally regularized in the Berlin accords reached among ...
"Deutschland, Deutschland ueber alles" (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism, it was banned after 1945; in 1952, ... Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; ... West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable ... citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a German citizen or a resident alien who has lived in Germany at least ...
Its capital was East Berlin, but the status of West Berlin, - an enclave of the Federal Republic of Germany 150 km (93 miles) ... Although economic recovery from World War II was slower than in the west, East Germany, under Erich Honecker (Chairman of the ... to prevent large-scale emigration to West Germany. Walter Ulbricht (1893-1973) was General Secretary of the ruling Socialist ... inside East German territory, whose existence was guaranteed by the Four-Power Agreement between the victorious allied powers ...
... had been the first Governor-General of the German protectorate of South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia). Heinrich had three ... Kilduff, Peter (2013). Herman Göring, Fighter Ace: The World War I Career of Germanys Most Infamous Airman. London: Grub ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;[a] German: [ˈɡøːʁɪŋ] (. listen); 12 January 1893 - 15 October 1946) was a German political ... New York: H.W. Wilson. OCLC 16655369.. *. Blood, Philip W. (2001). Holmes, E. R., ed. Bandenbekämpfung: Nazi occupation ...
When did the border between East and West Germany open and what happened to the Wall? ... III.German war criminal would be punished. IV.Free elections in occupied countries. V.Free elections in Poland. ... June 1947 - it made the West noticeably richer than the East.. He blocked off West Berlin in an attempt to force the West out ... It stopped migration to the West but made East Germany like a prison ...
Bundesrepublik Deutschland1990Konrad Adenauer194819501945Federal RepubliChancellor of West GermanyGermany's1946BundestagSovietsWeimar RepublicUnificationJahre19611976OccupationBerlinGrundgesetzBonn19551972Presidential election198919751958Kanzler1935ConstitutionNazi GermanyRepublicFrankfurt1871MunichPopulous nationAdenauer'sCzechoslovakiaRefugeesChemistMennonites in GermanyHeldNATOCommunistGeographyBasic LawFormallyEastNegotiationsPostwar1941Europe'sLiteratureDemocraticSoviet UnionDemocracyUnemploymentPrussia
- Die Erkrankungsmeldungen umfassen bis 1945 das Gebiet des Deutschen Reiches, ab 1946 die Gebiete der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der DDR. (post-polio.org)
- Czechs then Turks from the East 23 May 1949 BDR: Bundesrepublik Deutschland wurde gegrundet Der erste Kanzler der Bundesrepublik Deutschland für 12 Jahre war Konrad Adenauer (1949-1963) (8Jahr in Konzentrationslager. (scribd.com)
- West Germany is the colloquial name given to the Federal Republic of Germany ( Bundesrepublik Deutschland ) prior to German reunification in 1990. (conservapedia.com)
- In the now defunct German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany), which existed from 7 October 1949 to 3 October 1990 (when the territory of the former GDR was reunified with the Federal Republic of Germany), the position of chancellor did not exist. (wikipedia.org)
- The mean annual incidence rate was calculated for the periods from 1979 to 1989 and from 1990 to 1999 by taking the mean number of persons with Q fever reported per year during each period and dividing by the 1985 and 1995 German populations, respectively. (cdc.gov)
- With its amendment by the Unification Treaty of 31 August 1990 and the Federal Statute of 23 September 1990, the Basic Law has become the Constitution of the unified West and East Germany (former Federal Republic of Germany and German Democratic Republic). (ilo.org)
- The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German reunification in 1990. (cia.gov)
- The first free elections since 1933 were held in March 1990, with the conservative Christian Democratic Union emerging victorious, and on 3 October 1990 the republic ceased to exist, being absorbed into the Federal Republic of Germany. (oxfordreference.com)
- The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. (flagcounter.com)
- Wolf was an enormously significant figure, regarded up until 1990 as someone who carefully and delicately expanded the boundaries of what could be said in East Germany,' Georgina Paul, an expert in East German literature at Oxford University , told Reuters. (baltimoresun.com)
- Germany remained a divided nation until the collapse of the communist government in East Germany and reunification in 1990. (history.com)
- This introduction to German cultural history examines social and historical developments as they are reflected in literature, art, music, and philosophy from the age of Martin Luther to the unification of Germany in 1990. (dartmouth.edu)
- in the period between its formation in May 1949 to German reunification in October 1990, when the communist East Germany was dissolved and the five states on its territory joined the Federal Republic of Germany, ending the more than 40-year division of Germany and Berlin. (thefullwiki.org)
- East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990. (thefullwiki.org)
- Its postwar five states ( Länder ) were reconstituted, and along with reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional Land , they formally joined the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16. (thefullwiki.org)
- The enlarged Federal Republic of Germany is the continuation of, and not a successor to, the (West German) Federal Republic of Germany with fewer states until 1990. (thefullwiki.org)
- The Christian Democratic (CDU) leader, 73-year-old Konrad Adenauer, former mayor of Cologne and party chairman in the British Zone since March 1946, believed in moderate, non-denominational and humanist Christian democracy, social market economy and integration with the West. (wikipedia.org)
- The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer , who remained in office until 1963, had worked for a full alignment with the West rather than neutrality. (thefullwiki.org)
- Q fever was first recognized in southern Germany when several large outbreaks occurred in rural communities in 1947 to 1948 ( 25 - 28 ). (cdc.gov)
- West Berlin was completely surrounded by East German territory and had suffered a Soviet blockade in 1948/1949 which had been overcome by the Berlin airlift. (scribd.com)
- Der Mennonit (founded in 1948), though printed (at Karlsruhe) and edited in Germany, was published as an international European Mennonite journal by the Mennonite Central Committee (MCC). (gameo.org)
- During 1948 and 1949, the Soviets blocked all land travel into West Berlin, forcing the United States to establish the Berlin Airlift to feed and care for the population of the city. (history.com)
- This is the seat of German power, where Adolf Hitler (1889 - 1945) gained control in 1933 by marching through the Brandenburg Gate and taking over parliament in the Reichtags building. (encyclopedia.com)
- European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating world wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. (cia.gov)
- 12 January 1893 - 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945. (wikipedia.org)
- Februar 1945 Yalta Konference / Crimea Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt Deutschland wurde eingeteilt. (scribd.com)
- 8 May 1945 Deutschland kapitulierte. (scribd.com)
- Of the congregations in North Germany 9 were refugee congregations of former Danzig-West Prussian origin established since 1945. (gameo.org)
- Born in 1929 in a part of Germany that is now in Poland, Wolf moved to East Germany in 1945 and joined the Socialist Unity Party in 1949. (baltimoresun.com)
- By 1945, many U.S. officials began to see the Soviet Union as a potential adversary in the postwar world and viewed a reunified-and pro-West-Germany as valuable to the defense of Europe. (history.com)
- When the war ended in May 1945, Russian forces occupied a large portion of Germany, including Berlin. (history.com)
- Meanwhile, the political landscape in Europe was undergoing major changes, especially in Germany, where Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) and his Nazi Party began their rise to power. (notablebiographies.com)
- When the war in Europe ended in May 1945, however, Soviet troops were in complete control of eastern Germany and all of Berlin. (history.com)
- However, on July 11, 1945, the Russian government announced that it would hand over all civilian and military control of West Berlin to British and American forces. (history.com)
- The election of the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany (officially the 1st Federal Convention) was held on 12 September 1949, following the first Bundestag election of August 14, 1949 and coalition talks/ negotiations between CDU/CSU, FDP and German Party (DP). (wikipedia.org)
- After World War II, the German Instrument of Surrender and the country's division into four Allied occupation zones, the elections were held in the Federal Republic of Germany, established under occupation statute in the three Western zones with the proclamation of its Basic Law by the Parlamentarischer Rat assembly of the West German states on 23 May 1949. (wikipedia.org)
- Nominated by the CDU/CSU faction, he was elected the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany on 15 September 1949 by an absolute majority of 202 of 402 votes. (wikipedia.org)
- The Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (in German called Bundeskanzler(in) , meaning "Federal Chancellor", or Kanzler( in ) for short) is, under the German 1949 Constitution , the head of government of Germany . (wikipedia.org)
- The eighth and current chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany is Angela Merkel , who was elected in 2005 and re-elected in 2009, 2013 and 2018. (wikipedia.org)
- With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). (cia.gov)
- Its capital was East Berlin, but the status of West Berlin, - an enclave of the Federal Republic of Germany 150 km (93 miles) inside East German territory, whose existence was guaranteed by the Four-Power Agreement between the victorious allied powers - caused serious problems (see Berlin Airlift). (oxfordreference.com)
- 1955 NATO: The Federal Republic of Germany, founded on 23 May 1949, was declared 'fully sovereign' on 5 May 1955. (scribd.com)
- Bonn was rebuilt after the war and in 1949 became capital of the newly created Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany. (washingtonpost.com)
- Months earlier, in May, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) had been formally proclaimed. (history.com)
- Became the first chancellor (1949-63) of the new Federal Republic of Germany and helped lead West Germany to postwar recovery and prosperity. (german-way.com)
- Adenauer was also the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963. (art-for-a-change.com)
- The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) is a constitutional federal republic and a parliamentary democracy. (snafu.de)
- The Federal Republic of Germany claimed an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, considering itself to be the democratically re-organized German Reich on the grounds that the GDR government was not democratically elected, but was installed by a foreign occupying power and thus not legitimate. (thefullwiki.org)
- in 1952, and when the Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957. (thefullwiki.org)
- While legally not part of the Federal Republic of Germany, as it was under four-power occupation, West Berlin was represented directly or indirectly in federal institutions. (thefullwiki.org)
- When the G6/G8 was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well. (thefullwiki.org)
- The political home of Germany's Federal Government and the educational center of Germany, Berlin is the nation's capital and busiest city. (encyclopedia.com)
- As the Second World War progressed, Göring's standing with Hitler and with the German public declined after the Luftwaffe proved incapable of preventing the Allied bombing of Germany's cities and resupplying surrounded German forces in Stalingrad . (wikipedia.org)
- When this relaxed city on the Rhine became West Germany's 'temporary' capital in 1949 it surprised many, including its own residents. (lonelyplanet.com)
- After German reunification, Wolf was criticized for not having been more critical of East Germany's repression and for leaving the Communist Socialist Unity Party only in 1989. (baltimoresun.com)
- Bonn was chosen as West Germany's "provisional" capital, in part because it was Adenauer's home town. (german-way.com)
- The economic performance of East Germany stagnates between 70 and 80% of West Germany's level, depending on the statistical figure used. (iwh-halle.de)
- Fiat Review of German Science, 1939-1946, pp. 253. (ajtmh.org)
- All the German population, with small exceptions, living east of that line was evacuated or expelled westward and was added to the population of the truncated Republic of Germany, with a (1946) population of 65,151,019 excluding the Saar. (gameo.org)
- A "Mennonitischer Zentral-Ausschuss" served as liaison between the German conferences and the Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) of North America, which conducted relief work in Germany after 1946 and in 1956 had permanent German and European headquarters in Frankfurt (Eysseneckstrasse 54). (gameo.org)
- Federal President Heuss took the oath of office in front of Bundestag and Bundesrat the day following his election, on September 13, 1949. (wikipedia.org)
- Federal elections were held in West Germany on 14 August 1949 to elect the first Bundestag, with a further eight seats elected in West Berlin between 1949 and January 1952 and another eleven between February 1952 and 1953. (wikipedia.org)
- Most West German parties at the time of the 1949 Bundestag election were committed to democracy, but they disagreed on what kind of democracy West Germany should become. (wikipedia.org)
- He constantly accused Adenauer of betraying national interests (see, for example, Bjöl, Grimberg's History of the Nations), culminating in his heckle at the Bundestag session of 25 September 1949: "The Chancellor of the Allies! (wikipedia.org)
- The former capital, Berlin, had been divided into four sectors, the Western Allies joining their sectors to form West Berlin, while the Soviets held East Berlin. (scribd.com)
- The Soviets came to much the same conclusion in regards to East Germany. (history.com)
- When, in 1949, the United States proposed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (a military and political alliance between America and several European states) and began to discuss the possible inclusion of a remilitarized West Germany in NATO, the Soviets reacted quickly. (history.com)
- The new constitution for East Germany, approved by the People's Council of the Soviet Zone of Occupation (a puppet legislative body dominated by the Soviets), made clear that the Russians were going to establish a separate and independent East Germany. (history.com)
- Schumacher had heavily agitated against the forced merger of the Communist Party (KPD) and SPD (both in the Soviet occupation zone) into the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and he had also turned the party's course away from the working class advocacy group of the Weimar Republic towards a left-wing big tent party with distinct patriotic features. (wikipedia.org)
- After the 'War to end all wars' Germany attempted to become a democratic republic, but the Weimar Republic proved to be only a short-lived prelude to the rise of Hitler and the dictatorial 'Third Reich' of the Nazis. (prezi.com)
- Courses under this rubric will explore important moments in the cultural history of German-speaking countries in the twentieth century, from the Weimar Republic to the Holocaust, and from the Cold War to the fall of the Berlin Wall and beyond. (dartmouth.edu)
- In Von Deutscher Republik (1923), as a semi-official spokesman for parliamentary democracy, Mann called upon the German intellectual class to support the new Weimar Republic . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Yet Stalin still believed that Truman would ultimately be compelled to concede German unification on Soviet terms - massive reparations and a political structure favorable to the Communists - in order to fulfill his predecessor Franklin D. Roosevelt's pledge to withdraw U.S. troops from Europe within two years after the war. (foreignpolicy.com)
- While the population in West Germany had been stagnating since the turn of the millennium and recently even increased, East Germany suffers a decline in population of about 15% since 2000 since many people left East Germany after the German unification. (iwh-halle.de)
- Wir lassen den Mann selbst reden: 'Als meiner Eltern von Deutschland nach Amerika auswanderten, war ich etwa vier Jahre alt, und weil wir von Haus aus arm waren, zogen meine Eltern sogleich nach dem fernen Westen, denn mein Vater rechnete darauf, seine Familie von der Jagd zu ernaehren, bis dem Lande die erste Ernte abzugewinnen sei. (wisc.edu)
- this organization was instrumental in sealing the GDR's borders in August 1961 (including erecting the Berlin Wall) to prevent large-scale emigration to West Germany. (oxfordreference.com)
- About 150,000 have quit East Germany for the West since the East Germans erected their wall dividing Berlin in 1961. (nytimes.com)
- While border tourism peaked in the years after the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961, the consumption of the inter-German border as a tourist commodity had started well before, lasted through its dismantling in 1989 and continues as commemorative tourism to the present day. (zeithistorische-forschungen.de)
- Between 1949 and 1961, some 2.5 million East Germans fled from East to West Germany, most via West Berlin. (adst.org)
- And so, on the night of August 12-13, 1961, East German soldiers began to install more than 30 miles of barbed wire barrier through the heart of Berlin and blocked East Berlin citizens who tried to travel to West Berlin. (adst.org)
- In 1961, the government of East Germany constructed the famous Berlin Wall , creating an actual physical barrier to separate East and West Berlin. (history.com)
- Before World War II, tobacco was the most important Greek export, but just days after the German invasion in April 1941, the occupation authorities rushed to seize the tobacco production. (cambridge.org)
- It emerged in 1949 from the Soviet Zone of occupation of Germany. (oxfordreference.com)
- In a precursor to the establishment of a separate, Soviet-dominated East Germany, the People's Council of the Soviet Zone of Occupation approves a new constitution. (history.com)
- Although the division of Berlin (and of Germany as a whole) into zones of occupation was seen as a temporary postwar expedient, the dividing lines quickly became permanent. (history.com)
- During a number of wartime conferences, the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union agreed that following the defeat of Germany, that nation would be divided into three zones of occupation. (history.com)
- The United States and Great Britain would later give up part of their zones of occupation in Germany and Berlin to make room for a French zone of occupation. (history.com)
- joined in February 1952 by: 3 CDU, 4 SPD, 4 FDP) indirectly elected by the West Berlin legislature (Stadtverordnetenversammlung) are included below in parentheses. (wikipedia.org)
- Adenauer had ensured that the votes of the predominantly Social Democrat West Berlin deputies did not count and later stated that he "naturally" had voted for himself. (wikipedia.org)
- Merkel is also the first chancellor elected since the fall of the Berlin Wall to have been raised in the former East Germany . (wikipedia.org)
- Feench President Nicolas Sarkozy ]and German Chancellor Angela Merkel gesture as they address a news conference at the Chancellery in Berlin June 17, 2011. (newsweek.com)
- 23% of the foreign residents in Germany live in Hamburg and Berlin, including a large population of Turkish immigrants. (encyclopedia.com)
- Berlin lies on a huge plain in the northeast corner of Germany, comprising 833 square kilometers. (encyclopedia.com)
- After World War II , Berlin turned into a Cold War battleground, separated into a Soviet-influenced East and an American-influenced West by the Berlin Wall in 1966. (encyclopedia.com)
- Berlin is located in the northeastern corner of Germany on the banks of the river Spree. (encyclopedia.com)
- Numerous transportation projects are currently under way, modernizing and extending the existing system, and connecting the former East and West Berlin into one community. (encyclopedia.com)
- High speed trains, such as the Inter City Express (ICE) and the Euro City (EC) operate to and from Berlin, but in 2005 the Transrapid magnetic levitation train will make travel even faster between Hamburg and Berlin (the two largest cities in Germany). (encyclopedia.com)
- When in 1991 a reunited German government decided to move to Berlin, it shocked many, especially Bonn's own residents. (lonelyplanet.com)
- EAST GERMANY EAST BERLINWest Germany close its mission in East Berlin to. (britishpathe.com)
- East Germany: East Berlin: West German Special Envoy Herr Egon Bahr Crosses Into. (britishpathe.com)
- East Germany: East Berlin: East German Leader Ulbricht Says Bonn Must Grant His. (britishpathe.com)
- East Germany: West German Officials Go To East Berlin For Preparatory Talks For. (britishpathe.com)
- East Germany: East German And West Berlin Negotiators Meet To Discuss Passes To. (britishpathe.com)
- She became increasingly critical of East Germany and in 1989 joined the chorus of calls for reform that eventually led to the fall of the Berlin Wall . (baltimoresun.com)
- Giuseppe Savoca, born on April 22, 1968 in West Berlin, lived with his parents, Italian immigrants, and two younger sisters in the Kreuzberg district. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- Ten minutes later the West Berlin police and firemen arrived. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- As had been the case with previous incidents of children falling into the water at Gröbenufer, the East German border guards did not allow the West Berlin rescue teams to get involved or assist in the rescue. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- The boy's mother later reported to the West Berlin police that a woman had told her that a man who had wanted to rescue her son had been threatened by East German border guards with their guns. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- Giuseppe Savoca's body was released for burial by the East German state prosecutor's office two days later and delivered to West Berlin on June 19, 1974. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- The West Berlin press criticized East Germany, accusing the border guards of having hindered and delayed the rescue. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- Although representatives of the West Berlin Senate and the East German government had been negotiating for months over how to provide immediate emergency rescue measures in similar cases, they still had not come up with a solution. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- One more child, Cetin Mert, would have to die before the Senate and the East German government signed an agreement on October 29, 1975 on rescue measures for accidents in the Berlin waterways. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- BERLIN, Oct. 16-East Germany announced today that it was dropping all criminal proceedings against refugees and others who left the country "without permission" before last Jan. 1. (nytimes.com)
- Today's decision apparently restores the right of thousands of refugees now in West Germany or other Western countries to move freely across East German territory between West Germany and West Berlin. (nytimes.com)
- The very term 'Iron Curtain' became almost synonymous with the Berlin Wall despite the fact that the inter-German border was both equally dangerous and much longer, and that a similarly fortified boundary existed (and continues to exist) at another Cold War hotspot, between North and South Korea. (zeithistorische-forschungen.de)
- This article purposefully circumvents the Berlin Wall and introduces the little known phenomenon of tourism to the Iron Curtain, using the example of the inter-German border. (zeithistorische-forschungen.de)
- Using the city of Berlin itself as a site and object of study, students will explore contemporary German culture in its widest sense. (dartmouth.edu)
- Born in Berlin to German Jewish parents on Feb. 5, 1921, Ken Adam left Germany in 1934 when he was 13 and his family moved to England because of the rise of the Nazis and Jewish persecution. (german-way.com)
- Their nefarious plots to capture the train and its payload form just one underpinning of the new German TV series, Babylon Berlin . (art-for-a-change.com)
- I have always had a passion for the art produced in Germany during the Weimar years (1919-1933), so I was thrilled to discover Babylon Berlin would depict that tumultuous period. (art-for-a-change.com)
- Before Babylon Berlin was shown on German TV, series producer Stefan Arndt explained the plot to Bild-Zeitung . (art-for-a-change.com)
- In an interview with Charles Stuart Kennedy, Richard W. Boehm, who served in Berlin from 1959 until 1962, discusses the causes and effects of the tensions that ultimately led to the construction of the wall. (adst.org)
- It seemed to me at the time that in that statement he unmistakably made a sharp distinction between the extent to which we were committed to West Berlin and Berlin as a whole. (adst.org)
- He said that West Berlin was what we were really committed to. (adst.org)
- Primarily, they lived in East Berlin and worked in West Berlin. (adst.org)
- There also were people who lived in West Berlin and worked in East Berlin, but there was a smaller number of these. (adst.org)
- There had always been a trickle of refugees coming into West Berlin. (adst.org)
- Suddenly, the whole situation swelled, and the border crossers simply stayed in West Berlin. (adst.org)
- Fulfilling agreements reached at various wartime conferences, the Soviet Union promises to hand power over to British and U.S. forces in West Berlin. (history.com)
- Berlin, the capital city of Germany, would likewise be divided. (history.com)
- In the years to come, West Berlin became the site of some notable Cold War confrontations. (history.com)
- In 1989, with communist control of East Germany crumbling, the Berlin Wall was finally torn down. (history.com)
- GDR (in German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR) with its de facto capital East Berlin . (thefullwiki.org)
- Germany was de facto divided into two countries, plus two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin. (thefullwiki.org)
- In addition to the official ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial de facto eleventh state. (thefullwiki.org)
- Since the adoption of the current constitution of Germany (the "Basic Law" or "Grundgesetz") in 1949 the formal title of the office is once again Bundeskanzler (Federal Chancellor) . (wikipedia.org)
- West Germany 's 1949 constitution , the Basic Law ( Grundgesetz ), invests the Federal Chancellor ( Bundeskanzler ) with central executive authority. (wikipedia.org)
- Its present constitution, called the Basic Law ( Grundgesetz ), was adopted in 1949. (thefreedictionary.com)
- West Germany: Chad Economic Delegation In Bonn. (britishpathe.com)
- An American armored column pushed through the heavy bomb damage toward downtown Bonn in the closing phase of World War II, the tanks' commander hoping to find a bridge left standing across the Rhine by the retreating German army. (washingtonpost.com)
- Closing the door on Beethoven House, I rendezvoused with a German friend on the Mu nsterplatz, a great open space in the heart of Bonn sprinkled with park benches, shade trees, antique-style lamps and cafe' tables where people were enjoying the warm, late-summer evening. (washingtonpost.com)
- It was formed from the British, French and American zones of occupied Germany in 1949, and the 'provisional' capital of the state was Bonn . (conservapedia.com)
- ISPI EMEA (Europe, Middle East, Africa) invites you to join us in Bonn, Germany for our 15th conference on September 22-24, 2016! (ispi.org)
- The former occupying Western troops remained on the ground, now as part of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) which West Germany joined on 9 May 1955, promising to re-arm itself soon. (scribd.com)
- The total number of baptized Mennonites in 1955 in Germany was about 11,500 in 60 congregations. (gameo.org)
- Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 - August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and Nobel Prize laureate, lauded principally for a series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- In October 1949, he was appointed Bishop of Detroit and Cleveland, and in 1955, he was appointed administrator of the Chicago-Minneapolis diocese. (orthodoxwiki.org)
- The 1949 Constitution increased the role of the chancellor compared to the 1919 Weimar Constitution by making the chancellor much more independent of the influence of the President and granting the chancellor the right to set the guidelines for all policy areas, thus making the chancellor the real chief executive. (wikipedia.org)
- The German constitution was adopted on 23 May 1949 and is referred to as the Basic Law . (ilo.org)
- Mann emigrated from Nazi Germany to Küsnacht near Zürich , Switzerland in 1933, then to the United States in 1939, where he taught at Princeton University , along with such other émigrés as Albert Einstein . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Churchill was Prime Minister 1940-45, successfully leading Great Britain against Nazi Germany. (biographyonline.net)
- Clinically manifest Q fever has been statutorily notifiable since 1962 in the former West Germany and since 1979 in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany). (cdc.gov)
- The East German parliament passed a law declaring that "persons who left the German Democratic Republic by Jan. 1 of this year under violation of existing laws and who have not returned will lose citizenship of the German Democratic Republic. (nytimes.com)
- In October 1949, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was declared. (history.com)
- Police in eastern states, almost exclusively holdovers from the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), are still undergoing a difficult transition to a complex new legal system and different police methods. (snafu.de)
- Oskar Schindler was born in 1908 in the industrial city of Zwittau, Moravia, then a German province of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and now part of the Czech Republic. (notablebiographies.com)
- Thirty years after the democratic awakening in the German Democratic Republic, or so the accusation goes, many people are still yet to arrive in the reunited Germany. (rosalux.de)
- Given the historical events and circumstances surrounding the post-World War II opera libretto and the original 1939 radio play, the Brecht text was considered too staunchly antimilitaristic , and not in accordance with advocacy of defensive strategy planned for the nascent German Democratic Republic. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This process benefited from transfers from West Germany, which is why productivity advanced faster compared to other transition countries such as Poland, Hungary or the Czech Republic," says Oliver Holtemöller, IWH Vice President. (iwh-halle.de)
- Frankfurt: Athenaeum, 1949) is good. (gsu.edu)
- The German Mennonite congregations were all (except Frankfurt) members of one of two conferences: (1) Vereinigung der Deutschen Mennonitengemeinden , mostly North Germany with the Palatinate and Hesse, and (2) the Verband Badisch-Württembergisch-Bayrischer Mennonitengemeinden , almost all of whose congregations were in the three last indicated territories. (gameo.org)
- Frankfurt, 1936) tried to give complete names and addresses of all Mennonites living in Germany in 1936, by congregations. (gameo.org)
- He attended celebrations in both Frankfurt am Main and Weimar, making a clear statement that German culture extended beyond the political borders of East and West Germany. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- GERMANY achieved national unity in 1871, much later than other European nations, but quickly caught up economically and militarily. (prezi.com)
- Modern Germany, established as a nation in 1871 by the Treaty of Versailles following the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, suffered considerable territorial loss in the East as a result of defeats in World Wars I (area 180,999 sq. mi. (gameo.org)
- Before Germany became a nation state in 1871, language and culture defined its identity. (dartmouth.edu)
- Changes in Compulsory Schooling and the Causal Effect of Education on Health: Evidence from Germany ," MEA discussion paper series 10200, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy. (repec.org)
- Mann's career as a writer began when he joined the writing staff of Simplicissimus, a German literary and political magazine based out of Munich and well-known for its satires of the noble classes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. (cia.gov)
- Today Germany is the European Union's most populous nation. (prezi.com)
- As Western Europe's richest and most populous nation, Germany remains a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. (exportinfo.org)
- Enough participating West Germans favoured Adenauer's and his coalition partners' - the liberal Free Democrats' (FDP) and the conservative German Party's (DP) - policies and promises over Schumacher's and the other left-wingers' policies to give the centre-right parties a slight majority of deputies. (wikipedia.org)
- German businessman Oskar Schindler became an unlikely hero when he saved hundreds of Jews in Poland and Czechoslovakia from death at the hands of the Nazis during World War II (1939-45). (notablebiographies.com)
- Hitler began stirring up ethnic feelings among the Sudeten Germans, pointing out that their 'rightful' ties were with Germany, not Czechoslovakia. (notablebiographies.com)
- The group took refuge in southern Czechoslovakia and eventually arrived in West Germany with the help of American soldiers. (orthodoxwiki.org)
- Many such refugees also became members of the old established congregations in both North and South Germany. (gameo.org)
- There was also a Genossenschaftliches Flüchtlingswerk to aid in resettlement of refugees in Germany. (gameo.org)
- Presumably, refugees will also be able to visit East Germany without risking arrest and punishment. (nytimes.com)
- Parliament passed today, all those refugees and their offspring are evidently stricken off the books as East Germans, and thus are not liable to punishment. (nytimes.com)
- But this is mainly due to the extraordinary influx of refugees who are distributed to the federal states of Germany according to a fixed ratio. (iwh-halle.de)
- At the time, the Germans held some of the top scientists in the world. (listverse.com)
- That same year the East Germans also proclaimed that all those who lived in East Germany when it was founded in October, 1949, held citizenship. (nytimes.com)
- Adenauer held the record for his term in office until it was broken by former German chancellor, Helmut Kohl . (german-way.com)
- The foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid during the Wirtschaftswunder (economic miracle) of the 1950s, when West Germany rose from the massive destruction wrought by World War II to become the world's third largest economy. (thefullwiki.org)
- Under the 1949 Basic Law, the new office of the Federal President was given less powers than the preceding office of Reich President, due to the bad experiences of the past, especially the abuse of emergency powers. (wikipedia.org)
- Persuant to the Basic Law, Germany is a democratic and social federal state, in which basic rights are guaranteed (Art. (ilo.org)
- Germany is a federal state made up of 16 states (Bundesländer), to which self government is guaranteed except as otherwise provided by the Basic Law. (ilo.org)
- The Basic Law, adopted in 1949, rests firmly on the principles of liberty, equality, and the free exercise of individual rights. (snafu.de)
- The following year, East and West Germany formally reunited. (history.com)
- De jure West Germany formally maintained the exclusive mandate: it recognized the GDR as a de facto government still within a single German nation that in turn is represented de jure by the West German state only, while East Germany recognized the existence of two German countries de jure, and the West as both de facto and de jure foreign country. (thefullwiki.org)
- See Leaders of East Germany . (wikipedia.org)
- The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy--where unemployment can exceed 20% in some municipalities--continues to be a costly long-term process, with total transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $3 trillion so far. (traveldocs.com)
- The end of the Cold War, reunited the two parts of the country although the economy of the former EAST continues to lag behind that of the former WEST. (prezi.com)
- Nearly thirteen million East Germans went to the polls on. (britishpathe.com)
- A senior West German Government official crossed the wall into East. (britishpathe.com)
- Congo: East German Gift Arrives. (britishpathe.com)
- East Germany has presented the Congo with a gifts worth 500. (britishpathe.com)
- Last Sunday East German Trade Minister Heinrich Rau opened. (britishpathe.com)
- West Germany became a focus of the Cold War with its juxtaposition to East Germany, a member of the subsequently founded Warsaw Pact. (scribd.com)
- All the Mennonites who had lived in Danzig and East and West Prussia , as well as those in the three congregations in Poland , were transported westward in this action, some of them later emigrating to Canada and Uruguay . (gameo.org)
- In 1956 the country was still divided into East Germany (Russian Zone) with a population of some 18,000,000, in which there were possibly a maximum of 800 Mennonites of former West Prussian residence, but no organized congregations or ordained ministers, and West Germany with about 47,000,000 and some 15,000 Mennonites (souls). (gameo.org)
- She won awards in both East and West Germany for her work, including the Thomas Mann Prize in 2010. (baltimoresun.com)
- On the Oberbaum Bridge, 60 meters away, an East German border guard watched the events through his binoculars. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- A bit later, independently of this report, a patrol boat of the East German border troops passed right by the site of the accident. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- in any case it was illegal for anyone to cross the red-white barrier line of the Spree without receiving an explicit order from the commander of the East German border regiment and without informing the border guards on the Oberbaum Bridge border crossing in advance. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- At about 10:25 a.m. he began searching for the drowned boy together with another East German border troop boat. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- The search for the child did not begin until 10:45 a.m., when a diving troop of the East German border regime arrived at the site of the accident. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- The East German government charged the parents 54.50 German marks for this service. (chronik-der-mauer.de)
- It included those in jails and those who had tried to flee East Germany or had tried to help others to flee. (nytimes.com)
- In 1957, East Germany decreed that attempts to flee its territory, including attempts that failed, were punishable crimes. (nytimes.com)
- However, it fit in with another action taken-ratification of the East German‐West German transport agreement. (nytimes.com)
- The East Germans have announced that they will ease travel for Germans in both directions under the treaty, pledging to allow their own citizens trips to the West "in urgent family affairs. (nytimes.com)
- The Iron Curtain dividing West and East Germany during the Cold War was always more than a geographical boundary. (zeithistorische-forschungen.de)
- 4 East German border guards counted them because the steady stream of visitors was considered a major provocation. (zeithistorische-forschungen.de)
- East and West German border guards regularly commented on the seasonal fluctuations in the stream of visitors. (zeithistorische-forschungen.de)
- That was viewed by Moscow as an indication the U.S. would not respond militarily to any move it took regarding East Germany. (adst.org)
- We thought that the East Germans would have to stop this refugee flow. (adst.org)
- The East Germans are a hot topic again, both in politics and in the media. (rosalux.de)
- One need not share in these suspicions to find the ongoing, and in part even solidifying, divide between East and West in opinions, habits, and political attitudes somewhat odd. (rosalux.de)
- The gap between East and West is smaller than ever. (rosalux.de)
- The economic situation of East Germans continues to improve. (rosalux.de)
- And yet former East Germany continues to be dominated by a sense of powerlessness, and a political populism that feeds off this powerlessness. (rosalux.de)
- Often enough, East Germans find themselves confronted by foreign wealth when they roam through their native realm, and this tarnishes their joy over what has been rescued from decay as well as what has been newly created. (rosalux.de)
- For the foreseeable future, inhabitants of the East will not be able to threaten the head start that West Germans have in terms of property. (rosalux.de)
- The East German economic convergence process is hardly progressing. (iwh-halle.de)
- The productivity gap between East German companies and equivalent groups in the west remains even if firms of the same size of workforce and the same industry are compared. (iwh-halle.de)
- Politicians' and economists' explanations for this development differ: While politicians are more likely to argue with the start-up difficulties, the lack of large-scale research firms and the break-up of the East German markets, scientists have brought lack of investment in education and research, the lack of internationality and insufficient innovations - and thus future-oriented arguments - to the forefront. (iwh-halle.de)
- Today, the East-German physical infrastructure is on the same level as West Germany. (iwh-halle.de)
- However, the fact that the catch-up process has remained slow thus far, also in terms of the employment structure in East Germany, has other causes. (iwh-halle.de)
- Indeed, in 2015, the population increased in East Germany as well. (iwh-halle.de)
- It will also present how the German and the Greek postwar authorities handled these claims, taking into consideration Greek and German archival sources, which have hitherto been relatively neglected. (cambridge.org)
- The postwar status of Germany had become a bone of contention between the United States and the Soviet Union even before World War II ended. (history.com)
- The Soviet Union wanted assurances that Germany would be permanently disarmed and demanded huge reparations from the postwar German government. (history.com)
- Charles Langford Spencer (1855-1941,) the son of William Austin Spencer (1824-1897) and Marie Antoinette Langford Spencer (1829-1906,) was born in Utica, Oneida County, New York, married Margaret Clough (1869/1870-1949) in 1890, died at this address, and was buried at Oakland Cemetery. (angelfire.com)
- Also treats Latin literature of Germany. (gsu.edu)
- Brian O. Murdoch, Old High German Literature. (gsu.edu)
- She studied German literature in Jena and Leipzig, and became a publisher and editor. (baltimoresun.com)
- An introduction to the lives, times, and main works of major writers of German literature. (dartmouth.edu)
- Mann is one of the last notable authors of German Modernism , but one of the first to herald the shattered aesthetic of German literature after the horrors of World War II . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Mann was a champion of democracy, and he devoted his life to preventing and recording the disasters that ultimately consumed Germany in the 1930s and 1940s. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The following day, President Wilson spoke about the importance of "making the world safe for democracy" while making the case for fighting against Germany. (go.com)
- The German labor market also showed a strong performance in 2010, with the unemployment rate dropping to 7.5%, its lowest level in 17 years. (traveldocs.com)
- Women continue to suffer disproportionately from unemployment in Eastern Germany. (snafu.de)
- Unemployment also worsened in the west as the jobless rate there rose to 8.1 percent, with some 2.5 million without jobs. (snafu.de)
- In recent times, productivity, wages, and pensions have grown faster than in the West, and unemployment is declining more rapidly. (rosalux.de)