Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)EuropeAmerican Civil War: 1861-1865 conflict between the Union (Northern states) and the 11 Southern states that seceded and were organized as the Confederate States of America.USSRDissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Communism: A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a classless society.Commonwealth of Independent StatesEurope, EasternCapitalism: A political and economic system characterized by individual rights, by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)PrisonersDNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)X-Ray Intensifying Screens: Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Great BritainHeterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group F-H: A group of closely-related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins that are involved in pre-mRNA splicing.Thorium: Thorium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol Th, atomic number 90, and atomic weight 232.04. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactors to produce fissionable uranium isotopes. Because of its radioopacity, various thorium compounds are used to facilitate visualization in roentgenography.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Polycythemia Vera: A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)FinlandEmergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Medicine, Korean Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people of KOREA.Constitution and Bylaws: The fundamental principles and laws adopted by an organization for the regulation and governing of its affairs.Supreme Court Decisions: Decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.Puberty, Delayed: The lack of development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in a population. Delayed puberty can be classified by defects in the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the GONADS. These patients will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty whereas patients with SEXUAL INFANTILISM will not.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.GermanyAggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Germany, WestHistoryGermany, EasteIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The history of the Baltic States. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 117. ISBN 0-313-32355-0. "RUSSIA: Justice in The Baltic". Time ... On June 15 and 16, 1940, Soviet Union presented ultimatums to all three Baltic states, which were then invaded by the Red Army ... Even after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia officially maintains that all three Baltic states voluntarily joined the ... People's Seimas - the parliament in Lithuania Misiunas, Romuald J.; Rein Taagepera (1993). The Baltic States: Years of ...
The division fought in northern Russia and the Baltic States. From April 1942 to December 1944 it was part of the 23rd Army, ... and the Baltic Special Military District. It participated in the Polish campaign in 1939, and in the accession of Lithuania to ... 1st Latvian Workers Regiment was formed on July 18, 1941. Their strength was about 900 men, and that was subordinate to 8th ... It was then recreated at Vladimir in September 1939, and fought in the Second World War. Around 1939, the division was ...
In 1940 the division participated in the occupation of the Baltic states. On June 22, 1941, it was assigned to the 10th Rifle ... "Харківська обласна державна адміністрація" [Kharkiv Regional State Administration]. kharkivoda.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved ... On 2 December 1930 it was given the title 'in the name of M.I. Kalinin.' In August-September 1939, two of its rifle regiments ... In October 1941 it became part of the Coastal Operations Group of the Leningrad Front, defending the Oranienbaum Bridgehead ...
The unit supported Army Group North in its advance through the Baltic states towards Leningrad. On 24 June 1941, Kittel claimed ... bis 5.12.1941 [The Fighter Units of the German Air Force 1934 to 1945-Part 6/II-Operation "BARBAROSSA"-Action in the East-22 ... After working briefly as an auto mechanic, Kittel joined the Luftwaffe in 1939. Kittel married his fiancé, Edith, in June 1942 ... Kittel joined the Luftwaffe in 1939, and, in spring 1941, he was posted to Jagdgeschwader 54 (JG 54-54th Fighter Wing) ...
... mall states will disappear...Baltic states, including Finland, will be included within the honourable family of Soviet peoples ... None of the states of the Baltic region, excluding Poland, had sufficient military power to resist a German invasion". (in ... Being a buffer zone between Germany and the USSR, the Baltic states were bound to them by a system of economic and non- ... Next, Moscow demanded that the Baltic states allow the establishment of Soviet military bases and the stationing of troops on ...
During the next eleven months the Soviets occupied and annexed the Baltic states. The Soviet Union supported Germany in the war ... Iceland was a free state at the outbreak of war in personal union with the King of Denmark acting as head of state. After the ... and the Wehrmacht was retreating from the Baltic states. The treaty required Finland to expel all German troops, which led to ... "The United States is well aware of the fact that the Soviet Union bears the weight of the fight."- F. D. Roosevelt. Source: ...
Assistant Secretary of State at U.S Department of State Archived July 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. The Baltic States and ... ISBN 978-1-59942-983-0. United States Congress (1972). Baltic States: A Study of Their Origin and National Development, Their ... They state that the Soviet troops had entered the Baltic countries in 1940 following the agreements and with the consent of the ... The Baltic States: The National Self-Determination of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Graham Smith p.91 ISBN 978-0-312-16192-7 ...
Fought in northern Russia and Baltic States. With 42nd Army of the Kurland Group (Leningrad Front) May 1945. 12th Amurskaya ... Disbanded in the Baltic (Baltic or Special MDs) 1945-46. 120th Guards Rifle Division - (ex 308th Rifle Division Sep 1943). ... Fought in the Baltic countries and at Berlin. Consisting of 594th, 597th and 598th Rifle Regiments, cleared Kroll Opera House ... Fought in southern Russia, at Orel, and in Poland and the Baltic regions. With Third Army of the 1st Belorussian Front May 1945 ...
Many Polish citizens, especially Jews, were expelled and replaced with ethnic Germans from the Baltic states, Volhynia, and ... The town was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1939 during World War II and administered within Reichsgau Wartheland as part of the ... A forced labor prison operated in the vicinity from January 1941 to January 1945. Following the arrival of the Red Army and the ...
The Soviet Union first imposed its demand for military bases on the three independent Baltic nation states in 1939. It then ... England accepted refugees from the Baltic States on condition they work a minimum of three years as manual labourers in ... Plakans, Andrejs (2011). A Concise History of the Baltic States, Cambridge University Press. Buttar, Prit (2015). Between ... He attended the State Vocational School in Cēsis from 1929 until 1932, where he was taught by Ernests Veilands, Peteris ...
Mälksoo, Lauri (2003). Illegal Annexation and State Continuity: The Case of the Incorporation of the Baltic States by the USSR ... Baltic Russians Ethnic Russians in post-Soviet states Demographics of Estonia Intermovement Campbell, Lyle (2004). Historical ... After the Occupation and annexation of the Baltic states by the Soviet Union in 1940, repression of ethnic Estonians followed. ... ISBN 1-57607-800-0. Smith, David James (2005). The Baltic States and Their Region. Rodopi. ISBN 978-90-420-1666-8. "EESTI - ...
Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940 Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1944) Occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany ... www.britannica.com/eb/article-37264/Baltic-states Latvia, World War II losses] at Encyclopædia Britannica Petrov, Pavel (2008 ... In 1944, the Red Army lifted the siege of Leningrad and re-conquered the Baltic area along with much of Ukraine and Belarus. ... The future was sealed when on October 9, 1944 Churchill met with Stalin in Moscow and penciled out the post-war state of Europe ...
In July 1940, after the Soviet occupation of the Baltic States Loktionov was appointed commander of the Special Baltic Military ... In 1941 he was arrested on fabricated charges in the context of the case of Grigori Shtern, together with several other high ... Aleksandr Dmitrievich Loktionov (Russian: Александр Дмитриевич Локтионов) (11 (23) August 1893 - 28 October 1941) was a Soviet ... From 1937 to 1939, he was commander of the Soviet Air Force and member of the Communist Party. ...
Deportations of "exiled settlers" from the Baltic States (Lithuanians, Latvians, and Estonians) and the annexed part of Romania ... parts of Poland and Romania and the Baltic States. In territories annexed from Poland (the Kresy territories and the Białystok ... were resettled from the Baltic States, Moldavia, and western parts of Byelorussia and Ukraine to Siberia in 1951, an event ... In 1941, after the Nazi German invasion of the Soviet Union forced Stalin to resume relations with the Polish Allied government ...
On 14 June 1941 Kurvits and his wife Anna were deported as part of first Soviet mass deportation from the Baltic states. ... After that he returned to head the Border Guard, holding this position up to 1939. In February 1928 he was promoted to colonel ... General Kurvits retired on 22 December 1939. After the start of Soviet Occupation in 1940, Kurvits's family lost their flat in ... During period of 1923 - 1939 the Border Guard exposed 4491 cases of smuggling and caught 4651 illegal border crossers. While ...
... upon the Soviet occupation of the Baltic States Jakubeans fled to the West, first to Germany, and eventually settled in ... 1-3, 1939, pp. 16-17. "Povilui Jakubėnui - 140", April 27, 2011(retrieved March 12, 2013) "Knygnešys Povilas Jakubėnas " ( ...
Katyn massacre of Polish soldiers in USSR and the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states. Winter War between Soviet Union and ... Soviet Union annexes the Baltic states. Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Battle of Britain, the ... United States occupation of Haiti ends. United States grants more autonomy to the Philippines. Adolf Hitler instigates the ... United States occupation of Nicaragua ends. Prohibition in the United States is abolished. 1934: Dictatorships begin in Brazil ...
Lauri Mälksoo (2001). Illegal Annexation and State Continuity: The Case of the Incorporation of the Baltic States by the USSR. ... Both the fact of the incorporation of the Baltic states to the USSR as Soviet republics without qualification, and the long ... Despite the fact of annexation, the presence of the USSR in the Baltic states remained an occupation sui generis. Although the ... After existing as independent countries for twenty years, the Baltic states were occupied and illegally annexed in June 1940. ...
List of wars involving Finland Timeline of the occupation of the Baltic states Timeline of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact Leskinen ... June-August 1940: The Soviet Union occupies and annexes the Baltic states. 18 August 1940: After the Germans obtain troop ... The short-lived state is later reincorporated into Russia. 21 April 1919: Finnish armed nationalist volunteers launch the Aunus ... Secret protocol places the Baltic region and Finland within the Soviet Union's sphere of interest. 17 September 1939: The ...
2016). The Baltic States: The National Self-Determination of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. p. 7. CS1 maint: Extra text: ... The United States was the last major country to recognize the Soviet state. Recognition in 1933 was popular in the US; ... Olav Fagelund Knudsen, "The Foreign Policies of the Baltic States: Interwar Years and Restoration' Cooperation and Conflict ( ... The long series of defeats produced a cordon sanitaire or chain of buffer states. The USSR had become a pariah state and the ...
After the annexation of Baltic States into the Soviet Union (see Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940)), he was ... On March 9, 1939, he gave a speech, harshly criticizing the policies of the government and the Camp of National Unity. Among ... After Lithuania was annexed by the USSR he was arrested in June 1940 by the NKVD; he died probably in 1941 (the date is not ... He was in July 1940 sentenced to death, and in July 1941, his sentence was changed to 10 years in prison. Soon afterwards he ...
1953 - Baltic State Opera and Philharmonic formed. 1965 - Abbot's Palace rebuilt. 1970 University of Gdańsk established. Gdańsk ... 2011 - Baltic Arena opens. 2014 European Solidarity Centre opens. Gdańsk Shakespeare Theatre opens. History of Gdańsk List of ... Last of the City-States", National Geographic Magazine, Washington DC, 76, 1939 "Poland: Gdansk", Eastern and Central Europe ( ... 1939 September 1: Battle of the Danzig Bay; Defense of the Polish Post Office in Danzig. September 1-7: Battle of Westerplatte ...
In 1939, he graduated from high school in Glushki and worked in a factory until the outbreak of war in 1941. He joined the Red ... He fought his first combat engagement in October 1941 and was assigned to the 2nd Shock Army whose job it was to re-capture the ... Baltic States. During combat he distinguished himself and received the Order of Lenin. On August 20, 1944, while patrolling in ... Army upon the outbreak of war in September 1941 as a volunteer rather than a conscript. ...
Field reports stated the number of wounded and sick as 18,344,148, while the records of the military medical service show a ... Il'Enkov concluded by stating "We established the number of irreplaceable losses of our Armed Forces at the time of the Great ... The bulk of the Soviet combat units were deployed in the border regions in a lower state of readiness. In the face of the ... They state that Krivosheev's group understated loses in the crucial period of 1941-1942. [unreliable source?] Boris Sokolov - ...
ISBN 978-0-907579-19-9. Smith, David J.; Pabriks, Artis; Purs, Aldis; Lane, Thomas (2002). The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia ... ISBN 978-0-7656-1821-4. Bilinsky, Yaroslav (1999). Endgame in NATO's Enlargement: The Baltic States and Ukraine. Westport, CT: ... The United States Replies. Investigation of the Pearl Harbor attack. Painter 2012, p. 26: "The United States cut off oil ... Germany, followed by the other Axis states, declared war on the United States in solidarity with Japan, citing as justification ...
... during the massive German chase after the Red Army across the Baltic states in Reichskommissariat Ostland. The subject of ... Wayne State University Press. p. 34. ISBN 0814326919. .. *^ Lower, Wendy (2006). Nazi Empire-Building and the Holocaust in ... "United States Holocaust Museum.. *^ a b Browning, Christopher (10 May 1987). "The Revised Hilberg". Museumoftolerance. ... "Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.. *^ Grenke, Arthur (2005). God, Greed, and Genocide: The Holocaust ...
Environmental Policy Project Sea ice Steve McIntyre sun temperature United States Watts Up With That? ... "in the Baltic region of the Arctic". Where in the world is that? As far as I am aware the "Baltic region" lies entirely outside ... One part of Baltic is just outside arctic circle……closest at 65.30N. Thats still 10 12 degrees from the western baltic ... Yes, if they considered the Gulf Of Bothnia (the eastern Baltic) I wouldnt mind too much. But they consider the western Baltic ...
... until the restoration of independence of the Baltic States. The Soviet Union reoccupied the Baltic states as part of the Baltic ... The Baltic Dilemma. Speller & Sons, New York. 1975 Küng, Andres. Communism and Crimes against Humanity in the Baltic States. ... Then acting U.S. Secretary of State, Sumner Wells, described Soviet activities in the Baltic states as: "the devious process ... "whereas the Soviet annexations of the three Baltic States still has not been formally recognized by most European States and ...
The Soviet occupation of the Baltic states covers the period from the Soviet-Baltic mutual assistance pacts in 1939, to their ... Molotov had accused the Baltic states of conspiracy against the Soviet Union and delivered an ultimatum to all Baltic countries ... The Baltic states were neutral in the Winter War and the Soviets praised their relations with the USSR as exemplary. The Soviet ... The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania by David J. Smith, Page 24, ISBN 0-415-28580-1 Mälksoo (2003). p. 83. Mikhail ...
Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic Nations * CIS and Baltic Political Geography ... The United States and European countries have contributed millions of dollars in equipment and expertise to upgrade the safety ... Altogether the area is approximately the size of the state of Kentucky or of Scotland and Northern Ireland combined. The most ... A schematic diagram is shown in Figure 2. Like reactors in the United States, RBMK reactors use ordinary water to cool the fuel ...
Misiunas, Romuald J., and Taagepera, Rein (1983). The Baltic States: Years of Dependence 1940-1980. Berkeley, CA : University ... An excellent history of the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states. Gives a statistical appendix, which includes figures on war ... DEMOCIDE IN TOTALITARIAN STATES:. MORTACRACIES AND MEGAMURDERERS--. AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY*. By R.J. Rummel Democide: The ... To this I would add that the less democratic two states, the more likely that they will fight each other. This belligerence of ...
... absorbs the Baltic States, pays a heavy price in lives and prestige to defeat Finland in a 105 day "Winter War" and serves as ... Then the book winds down and tries to sum up the state that Stalin and the USSR are in. One ever-present notion I found ... I ADDED THIS LATER DURING A SECOND PASS: Stalin and his boys try to shape the creative output of the state. Making sure that ... This section of the book seems to blame the British for their empty promises to the small states of Central Europe for failing ...
... and Germany gave the Soviets the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) as part of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact ... Another huge German army had been encircled and would be annihilated along the Baltic coast. The road to Berlin had been opened ... And remember were talking the 1941-42 version of the Wehrmacht here, just coming off conquering Europe and full of confidence ... And remember were talking the 1941-42 version of the Wehrmacht here, just coming off conquering Europe and full of confidence ...
Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany signed a non-aggression pact which contains secret protocols giving the Baltic States to Soviet ... It is the end of the Bishopric of Tartu and others medieval Livonian minor states. During the next few years Poland, Sweden and ... 1941 On the 14th June, almost 10,000 Estonians were deported to Siberia. 70 % of these were women, children and the elderly. ...
... from Eastern Europe and the Baltic States under the Nazi-Soviet Pact of August 1939, along with a quarter of a million more ... The interwar Polish state included a Ukrainian population amounting to 14 percent of the whole, along with 2.3 percent German- ... And with the rapid deepening of anti-Communist sentiments in the United States as the Cold War took hold on policy and opinion ... The historic borders of the Kingdom of Bohemia included these people, and without them the new state would have lacked vital ...
1940 Soviet invasion of the Baltic States. *1940 Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina ... civil wars within European states, wars between a European state and a non-European state that took place within Europe, and ... This is a list of conflicts in Europe ordered chronologically, including wars between European states, ... German Stuka dive bombers in the Eastern Front (World War II) 1941-45 ...
Home Places Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic Nations CIS and Baltic Political Geography Brest ... In 1569 it became capital of the newly merged Polish and Lithuanian state. Brest passed to Russia in the third partition of ... Held by Poland between the world wars, Brest was regained by the USSR in 1939, occupied by Germany from 1941-44, and finally ...
Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic Nations * CIS and Baltic Political Geography ... 7, 1941, 1,200 Jewish men were picked up in the streets and about 1,000 put to death. In these pogroms, as in the later ... Under Soviet rule from June 1940 to June 1941, the Jewish institutions were closed down. A Yiddish newspaper Kovner Emes was ... An order issued on July 11, 1941, stipulated that between July 15 and August 15 all the Jews in the city and its suburbs were ...
The occupation of Baltic states by the Soviet Union was agreed to be illegal by the three governments of Baltic states, the ... It has been publicly confirmed by the governments of all three Baltic states that the Soviet Union had occupied Baltic States ... The Baltic states have entered the route of developing democratic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union, but this route ... According to the Governments of Baltic states, the United States, the U.S. courts of law, the European Parliament, the European ...
In the Baltic States, Belarus, Ukraine, and Bessarabia, the NKVD and attached units of the Red Army massacred prisoners and ... Lithuania, and the other Baltic States, fell victim to the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact. This agreement was signed between the USSR ... The Soviets later forcefully occupied the Baltic States and parts of Romania, including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. ... the Baltic states, Romania, Ukraine and other parts of the Soviet occupied territories. The overall death toll is estimated at ...
First Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940-1941). *. Second Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1944-1945) ... A communist state, also known as Marxist-Leninist state, is a state that is administered and governed by a single communist ... List of communist states. Current communist states. The following countries are one-party states in which the institutions of ... Peoples republican state. The peoples republican state is a type of socialist state with a republican constitution. Although ...
Stalin decided to intervene, and on September 17 the Red Army entered eastern Poland and the Baltic states and annexed these ... The memory of the deportations played a major part in the separatist movements in the Baltic States, Tatarstan and Chechnya, ... and the United States. Stalin saw no difference between espionage, communist political propaganda actions, and state-sanctioned ... It can be stated with certainty that the Party is indebted primarily and principally to Comrade Trotsky for the rapid going ...
The Baltic States, the Baltic Qiestion and the United States from Recognition of the Baltic States to the beginning of the Cold ... The Baltic States, the Baltic Qiestion and the United States from Recognition of the Baltic States to the beginning of the Cold ... Ilmjärv, Magnus (2018). The Czechoslovak Crises and the Baltic States 1938. A Fateful Year for the Baltic States. In: Lazar ... Ilmjärv, Magnus (2018). The Czechoslovak Crises and the Baltic States 1938. A Fateful Year for the Baltic States. In: Lazar ...
... the Baltic, and Romanian states. ... It comprehensively stated that all the leaders of German states ... Japan attacked the United States and European forces in the Pacific. This was followed by the United States declaration of war ... Of all the states under its name, it only directly handled the affairs of the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Archduchy of Austria, and ... III Due to the war, all German-language books were burned in the United States. Schools banned the teaching of German, and some ...
... with Adolf Hitler and Soviet dictator Josef Stalin carving up Poland and the Baltic states based on a secret protocol in the ... State news broadcaster VTV reports that a woman believed to be the owner of the Binh Duong province factory was arrested. ... to the Mediterranean island nations economy shortchanges state coffers. ... 23, 1939.. Putin argued that the 1939 pact followed numerous agreements that Britain, France and Poland signed with the Nazis ...
The Baltic states were declared by Soviet law never to have existed, so that service to those states became a crime. The Soviet ... Ten months later, the Baltic states were also occupied by the Red Army and annexed to the Soviet Union. These three small ... The Stalin-Hitler alliance had devastating consequences for Poland and the three Baltic states, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia ... He imagined that in supporting the Nazi state as it began its total war he would turn the German armed forces to the west, away ...
38] Kasekamp, A History of the Baltic States..  T. Miljan, Historical dictionary of Estonia (Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2004 ... The British were against appeasing Moscow by serving the Red Army the right to occupy the Baltic States in case a wide-scale ... After occupying eastern parts of Poland, the Soviets pressured Finland and the Baltic states to conclude mutual assistance ... An intense defamation campaign was launched against the Baltic States accusing them of violating the mutual assistance treaties ...
Among the Baltic states, Lithuania has the most homogeneous population. According to the census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of ... "United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2 February 2016.. *^ "Um atalho para a Europa". Epoca. Editora Globo S.A. 24 June 2002. ... Lithuanians (Lithuanian: lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they ... Their native language is Lithuanian, one of only two surviving members of the Baltic language family. According to the census ...
In the face of Soviet invasion in 1939-40, and once again in 1941-44, the armies raised by Finland - a tiny nation of only 4 ... Brent is the USA Group Leader of Battletours which directs battlefield tours of Finland, the Baltic States and Russia, and is ... The German Army 1939-45 (3). MAA 326 Multiple formats Starting at: £9.59 ... The German Army 1939-45 (4). MAA 330 Multiple formats Starting at: £9.59 ...
The Baltic Dilemma. Speller & Sons, New York. 1975. *^ Küng, Andres. Communism and Crimes against Humanity in the Baltic States ... Baltic Military District globalsecurity.org. *^ Misiunas, Romuald J.; Rein Taagepera (1993). The Baltic States, years of ... The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (Postcommunist States and Nations) David J. Smith from Front Matter ISBN ... By June 18, military operations of the occupation of the Baltic States were complete. Thereafter, state administrations ...
Invaded the Soviet UnionPolandStalinUSSR1945Hitler1940 to June 1941LithuanianLithuaniaEstoniaSoviets1944LatviaRussiaHitler'sFinland20th centuryEstonianStalin'sCommunismGermanyDeportationsGermansJewsLithuaniansNazi Party'sBritainInvasion18thConstitutionally1920CommunistPactSovereigntyRussiansPolishWarsawDefenseGermanElitesLargelySoutheasternArmyJewishWorkersGovernmentsEuropeCitizensEuropeanEthnicBranchTimeRegionAccordancePeoples
- After the Soviet invasion of Poland on 17 September 1939, in accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact the Soviet forces were given freedom over Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, an important aspect of the agreement to the Soviet government as they were afraid of Germany using the three states as a corridor to get close to Leningrad. (wikipedia.org)
- And then came the pact that shocked the world, and demoralized leftists everywhere: Stalin's pact with Hitler in 1939, the carve-up of Poland, and Stalin's utter inability to see Hitler's build-up to the invasion of the USSR. (goodreads.com)
- Held by Poland between the world wars, Brest was regained by the USSR in 1939, occupied by Germany from 1941-44, and finally liberated by the Soviet army. (encyclopedia.com)
- Formerly in Poland-Lithuania, it passed to Russia in 1795, was occupied by Germany in World War i (1915-18), and became capital of the independent Lithuanian Republic from 1920 to 1939. (encyclopedia.com)
- The Stalin-Hitler alliance had devastating consequences for Poland and the three Baltic states, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. (nybooks.com)
- In Poland, on September 17, 1939, Stalin joined his ally Hitler in a military attack, sending the Red Army to invade the country from the east. (nybooks.com)
- The Soviet idea that states can be declared to exist or not, now echoed in Russian pronouncements about Ukraine, is deeply etched in the political memory of Poland and the Baltic region today. (nybooks.com)
- Two weeks after Germany invaded Poland on Sept. 1, 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east, with Adolf Hitler and Soviet dictator Josef Stalin carving up Poland and the Baltic states based on a secret protocol in the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact signed on Aug. 23, 1939. (ktsm.com)
- Putin argued that the 1939 pact followed numerous agreements that Britain, France and Poland signed with the Nazis in a bid to appease Hitler. (ktsm.com)
- However, the eastern parts of Lithuania, including the Vilnius Region , were annexed by Poland , while the Klaipėda Region was taken over by Nazi Germany in 1939. (wikipedia.org)
- On September 1, 1939 , Hitler's troops invaded Poland . (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
- In 1939 there were approximately 3.3 million Jews living in Poland (about 10% of the Polish population. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
- Believing that the western powers (the United States, France and Britain) would not honor their commitment to protect Poland, Hitler announced his intent to invade Poland and take back those areas lost in the war. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
- In 1939, in concert with the Nazi government of Adolf Hitler , Stalin invaded eastern Poland. (thefreedictionary.com)
- English-speaking readers may recall that the Republic of Poland, established after World War I, was partitioned in the fall of 1939. (vho.org)
- When the Russian Communists took over Bessarabia [Romania) and the Baltic States, ethnic Germans were permitted to leave and many were resettled in Poland. (vho.org)
- Those in the core lands of the state favoured an alliance with Poland and acceptance of Roman Christianity. (britannica.com)
- Poland successfully transformed its farm economy to market principles following the end of communism but has now entered a period of greater state control of the market due to its membership in the European Union. (traveldocs.com)
- The four western provinces of Poland were purportedly incorporated into Germany by an order of 8 October 1939. (historiography-project.com)
- The remainder of Poland which was seized by the Nazi invaders was established as the Government-General of Poland by an order of Hitler, dated 12 October 1939. (historiography-project.com)
- First : The conspirators specifically planned to exploit the people and material resources of the Government-General of Poland in order to strengthen the Nazi war machine, to impoverish the Government-General, and to reduce it to a vassal state. (historiography-project.com)
- In the first interview which the chief of the Central Division and the liaison officer between the Armament Department Upper East and the Chief Administrative Officer (Subsequently called Governor General) had with Minister Frank on October 3, 1939 in Posen, Frank Explained the directive, and the economic and political responsibilities which had been conferred upon him by the Fuehrer and according to which he intended to administer Poland. (historiography-project.com)
- His invasion of Poland in September 1939 was the tripwire that set off World War II, the most devastating period in the history of the Polish state. (countrystudies.us)
- Between 1939 and 1945, 6 million people, over 15 percent of Poland's population, perished, with the uniquely cruel inclusion of mass extermination of Jews in concentration camps in Poland. (countrystudies.us)
- The crisis that led directly to renewed European conflict in 1939 commenced with German demands against Poland, backed by threats of war, for territorial readjustments in the region of Danzig and the Baltic coast to connect East Prussia with the rest of Germany. (countrystudies.us)
- Until mid-1941, Germany and the Soviet Union maintained good relations in the joint dominion they had established over Poland. (countrystudies.us)
- On the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, the foreign students fled Poland, by order of the Rosh Yeshivah, the day before the Germans invaded Poland. (blogspot.com)
- In the east Poland was resurrected, given most of what had been German West Prussia and Poznan, given a 'corridor' to the Baltic Sea, which separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany, and given part of Upper Silesia. (eaec.org)
- With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed a voluntary two-state union, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth . (worldebookfair.com)
- Waiting for Hitler, at times reads like day-to-day account/or logbook of what Stalin did between 1928 and 1941. (goodreads.com)
- Bearing the brunt of the Nazis' attacks (around 75% of the Wehrmacht's forces), the Soviet Union under Stalin made the largest and most decisive contribution to the defeat of Nazi Germany during World War II (known in the USSR as the Great Patriotic War, 1941-45). (bookyards.com)
- The August 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop pact had a secret protocol that divided Eastern Europe between Hitler and Stalin. (nybooks.com)
- On August 20, 1939, Hitler asked Stalin for a meeting, and Stalin was more than happy to agree. (nybooks.com)
- [ 16 ] [ 17 ] Soviet leader Joseph Stalin claimed that the 1939 mutual assistance treaties had been violated, and gave six hour ultimatums for new governments to be formed in each country, including lists of persons for cabinet posts provided by the Kremlin. (thefullwiki.org)
- The Communist party of the United States grew rapidly during the Great Depression of the 1930s, in the process raising questions whether the party was a mere tool of Stalin and the international Communist movement. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Stalin then aligned the Soviet Union with the United States and Great Britain in World War II. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Stalin pushed the United States to the brink of a third world war when he ordered the blockade of Berlin in 1948 and 1949. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Stalin emerged one day into Moscow's Red Square when the population was in state of near panic. (ostatic.com)
- In his characteristic style, Stalin clearly and unambiguously stated three "aggressive" and three "nonaggressive" states. (solonin.org)
- In the main body of this historical investigation it will be discussed why Stalin signed the pact with Hitler, with Germany's and USSR's specific aims stated, and why and where they originated. (markedbyteachers.com)
- 1939-1941: Having lost hope in the league, Stalin concluded a nonaggression treaty with Hitler that partitioned Eastern Europe and bought Russia two years of peace. (csmonitor.com)
- Recently, published evidence and particularly effective arguments show that Stalin began a massive deployment of Soviet forces to the western frontier early in June 1941. (codoh.com)
- The evidence supports a view that Stalin intended to use the forces concentrated in the west as quickly as possible - probably about mid-July 1941 - for a Soviet Barbarossa. (codoh.com)
- It was postponed until after the war when the Germans invaded the USSR on June 22, 1941 - Operation Barbarossa. (wikipedia.org)
- The Baltic states were neutral in the Winter War and the Soviets praised their relations with the USSR as exemplary. (wikipedia.org)
- The Germans and their allies attacked the USSR in June 1941, and from 1941-1944, Lithuania was occupied by Germany. (wikipedia.org)
- 1943-1948: By diplomacy, coercion, and support for local communists the USSR established a belt of compliant satellites from the Baltic to the Black Sea and in North Korea. (csmonitor.com)
- In 1945 the government, the military, and the leaders of American public opinion saw the Soviet Union as the principal ally of the United States. (americanheritage.com)
- The war began in Europe in 1939, but by its end in 1945 it had involved nearly every part of the world. (britannica.com)
- 1941-1945: Recovering from Hitler's initial blitz, the Soviet Union - now collaborating with the West - routed the Wehrmacht and achieved the greatest-ever extension of Russian control. (csmonitor.com)
- In 1939, Hitler demanded the abolition of the Corridor which separated Germany from its eastern territories and the return of Danzig to German control. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
- In March 1939, Hitler was the opinion of the Free City of Danzig and the Polish Corridor, a time of capitalism that was East Prussia from the device of Germany. (texasoffroad.net)
- In judgment of this Large-scale activity of a value, no one can see it were before the English who were that Swedish aircraft between Hitler and his mass many direct-to-consumer to strip the coverage, and also that spite later staged the United States, and Russia, to always hate the Nazi's into revolutionary Bolshevism. (roehring.name)
- Profiting from German national resentment of World War I peace terms and international aversion to new armed conflict, Hitler began driving a new German war machine across Europe in 1939. (countrystudies.us)
- In 1569 it became capital of the newly merged Polish and Lithuanian state. (encyclopedia.com)
- Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora , largely found in countries such as the United States, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Russia, United Kingdom and Ireland. (wikipedia.org)
- Their native language is Lithuanian , one of only two surviving members of the Baltic language family. (wikipedia.org)
- Lina is just like any other fifteen-year-old Lithuanian girl in 1941. (goodreads.com)
- The Lithuanian state reached its apogee during the rule of Vytautas , called the Great, who died in 1430. (britannica.com)
- The official language, Lithuanian , and Latvian are the only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family. (worldebookfair.com)
- In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas , the King of Lithuania, and the first unified Lithuanian state, the Kingdom of Lithuania , was created on 6 July 1253. (worldebookfair.com)
- The Sovietization of the Baltic states refers to the sovietization of all spheres of life in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania when they were under control of the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
- The Serov Instructions, "On the Procedure for carrying out the Deportation of Anti-Soviet Elements from Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia", contained detailed instructions for procedures and protocols to observe in the deportation of Baltic nationals. (wikipedia.org)
- This included eight former heads of state and 38 ministers from Estonia, three former heads of state and 15 ministers from Latvia, and the then president, five prime ministers and 24 other ministers from Lithuania. (wikipedia.org)
- Latvia followed on 5 October 1939 and Lithuania shortly thereafter, on 10 October 1939. (wikipedia.org)
- The agreements permitted the Soviet Union to establish military bases on the Baltic states' territory for the duration of the European war, and station 25,000 Soviet soldiers in Estonia, 30,000 in Latvia and 20,000 in Lithuania from October 1939. (wikipedia.org)
- lietuviai , singular lietuvis/lietuvė ) are a Baltic ethnic group , native to Lithuania , where they number around 2,561,300 people. (wikipedia.org)
- The term is not used in the context of cultural areas , national identity , or language , because while the majority of people in Latvia and Lithuania are Baltic people , the majority in Estonia are Finnic . (wikipedia.org)
- After World War I , the new sovereign states that emerged on the east coast of the Baltic Sea - Estonia , Latvia , Lithuania , and during the Interwar period , Finland - became known as the Baltic states . (wikipedia.org)
- In 1940 he conquered the Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. (thefreedictionary.com)
- …Entente , mutual-defense pact signed by Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia on Sept. 12, 1934, that laid the basis for close cooperation among those states, particularly in foreign affairs. (britannica.com)
- Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania had been part of the Russian Empire since the end of the 18th century, but after the Russian Revolution of 1917 they became independent states. (britannica.com)
- grand princes of Moscow and Lithuania, who both aspired to become leaders of a Russian state liberated from the Mongol yoke. (britannica.com)
- and after the war the newly formed state of Lithuania requested that the Allied Powers at the Paris Peace Conference grant it possession of the Memel territory (March 24, 1919). (britannica.com)
- As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the establishment of a sovereign State of Lithuania. (worldebookfair.com)
- On 11 March 1990, a year before formal break-up of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Soviet republic to declare the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania . (worldebookfair.com)
- referring to the records in the archive, the Soviet Baltic Fleet was ordered to implement a total military blockade of Estonia. (wikipedia.org)
- [ 2 ] [ 3 ] The ESSR was initially established on the territory of the Republic of Estonia on July 21, 1940, following the invasion of Soviet troops on June 17, 1940 and the installation of a puppet government backed by the Soviet Union, which declared Estonia a Soviet state. (thefullwiki.org)
- [ 9 ] This policy of non-recognition gave rise to the principle of legal continuity, which held that de jure , Estonia remained an independent state under illegal occupation throughout the period 1940-91. (thefullwiki.org)
- The Secret Additional Protocol of the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact signed on 23 August 1939 relegated the Republic of Estonia to the Soviet sphere of influence. (thefullwiki.org)
- [ 12 ] The government of Estonia accepted the ultimatum signing the corresponding mutual assistance agreement on September 28, 1939. (thefullwiki.org)
- the order for total military blockade of Estonia was given to the Soviet Baltic Fleet . (thefullwiki.org)
- In the aftermath of the Livonian crusade , a crusader state officially named Terra Mariana , but also known as Livonia, was established in the territory of modern Latvia and Southern Estonia. (wikipedia.org)
- The Soviets began a constitutional metamorphosis of the Baltic states by first forming transitional "Peoples Governments. (wikipedia.org)
- The Soviets did not immediately install the virtually unknown leaders of the tiny existing Communist parties in each state, but rather put together a broadly left-wing coalition while simultaneously having Soviet emissaries present lists for cabinet installations about which even minor changes would not be sanctioned. (wikipedia.org)
- In September and October 1939 the Soviet government compelled the much smaller Baltic states to conclude mutual assistance pacts which gave the Soviets the right to establish military bases there. (wikipedia.org)
- The Soviets pressured Finland and the Baltic states to conclude mutual assistance treaties. (wikipedia.org)
- They remember not only the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, but also the series of economic agreements between the Nazis and the Soviets that followed in 1940 and early 1941, and the sham elections and propaganda in the Soviet zone that seemed to find an eery echo in the recent Russian actions in occupied Ukraine. (nybooks.com)
- Throughout the 18th century to the 20th century, the Baltic states were part of the Russian Empire until the three countries gained independence in 1918 near the end of World War I . They were later occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union and briefly, Nazi Germany during World War II before the Soviets regained control of the Baltic states. (wikipedia.org)
- By 1941 the Soviets had moved 1.5 million Poles into labor camps all over the Soviet Union, and Stalin's secret police had murdered thousands of Polish prisoners of war, especially figures in politics and public administration. (countrystudies.us)
- The Soviets annexed parts of eastern Finland in 1940 only for Helsinki to return to war in 1941, this time allied with Nazi Germany, in an attempt to take that territory back. (foreignpolicy.com)
- Statements of Soviet prisoners also support a view that the Soviets intended an attack on Germany in 1941. (codoh.com)
- The Soviet Union, and later Russia, used these votes to buttress its claim that the Baltic peoples had voluntarily requested to join the Soviet Union after carrying out socialist revolutions in their countries. (wikipedia.org)
- During the 20th century, the world's first constitutionally communist state was in Russia at the end of 1917. (wikipedia.org)
- Brent is the USA Group Leader of Battletours which directs battlefield tours of Finland, the Baltic States and Russia, and is the owner of Gunboards.com. (ospreypublishing.com)
- Scandinavia, northern Russia and the Baltic region. (mcgill.ca)
- The Baltic region's fears about a military confrontation with Russia have exploded since Moscow's 2014 annexation of Crimea, the outbreak of war in eastern Ukraine, and Russia's intervention in Syria. (foreignpolicy.com)
- For example, he completely overlooked Hitler's stated agenda in the Nazi leader's 1923 manifesto, Mein Kampf . (thenewamerican.com)
- According to the generally-accepted view of this chapter of history, Hitler's June 22, 1941, "Barbarossa" strike against the Soviet Union was a treacherous surprise attack against a peaceable and fearful neighbor. (codoh.com)
- In 1939 Finland had rejected similar Soviet demands for Finland ceding or leasing parts of its territory. (wikipedia.org)
- In the face of Soviet invasion in 1939-40, and once again in 1941-44, the armies raised by Finland - a tiny nation of only 4 million people - astonished the world by their effective resistance. (ospreypublishing.com)
- Total war returned in 1939, after a Soviet invasion to claim parts of eastern Finland in what came to be known as the Winter War, which took more than 400,000 lives. (foreignpolicy.com)
- 1939-1941: Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe and then Finland confirmed the darkest analyses of Soviet totalitarianism and imperialism. (csmonitor.com)
- We find the Baltic states special to this debate as they experienced both Soviet repressions in the second half of 20th century and Nazi actions in WWII. (debatewise.org)
- Both world wars were largely focused upon Europe, greatly contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the United States and Soviet Union took prominence. (1host2u.ir)
- A week later, on 24 September 1939, the Estonian foreign minister was given an ultimatum in Moscow. (wikipedia.org)
- Since the 13th century, various regional powers have competed over the control of the Estonian territory and the ports of the Eastern Baltic often with devastating effects to the local population. (communistcrimes.org)
- As most of the land was owned by the small Baltic German nobility, the land issue strongly related to Estonian nationalism. (communistcrimes.org)
- On September 24, 1939 warships of the Soviet Navy appeared off Estonian ports and Soviet bombers began a threatening patrol over Tallinn and the nearby countryside. (thefullwiki.org)
- Stalin's rule had long-lasting effects on the features that characterized the Soviet state from the era of his rule to its collapse in 1991-though Maoists, anti-revisionists and some others say he was actually the last legitimate Socialist leader in the Soviet Union's history. (bookyards.com)
- The United States and Great Britain perceived Stalin's actions as attempts to force Communism on the world. (thefreedictionary.com)
- However, these states do not describe themselves as communist nor do they claim to have achieved communism -they refer to themselves as socialist states that are in the process of constructing socialism. (wikipedia.org)
- These communist states often do not claim to have achieved socialism or communism in their countries, but to be building and working toward the establishment of socialism in their countries. (wikipedia.org)
- MOSCOW (AP) - Russian President Vladimir Putin on Friday strongly rejected Western criticism of a 1939 Soviet pact with Nazi Germany, arguing that Western powers, not the Soviet Union, were responsible for trying to appease the Nazis. (ktsm.com)
- Indeed, the Baltic Sea lies mostly to the east of Germany , Denmark , Norway , and Sweden . (wikipedia.org)
- In 1941 Germany struck with a force of three million men and 3,400 tanks, advancing in three groups. (ostatic.com)
- Leafing through yellowed pages of the central newspapers for 1939 , we find continuous mentions about fighting engagements in Spain and China, about military preparation in Germany, England and USA, about political crises in Mexico, Rumania and Hungary. (solonin.org)
- 1 shop non germans under the third reich the nazi judicial and administrative system in germany of s consumer of the United States-Mexican War surrendered in the everyone. (moclips.org)
- After Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, all the Polish lands came under control of the Third Reich, whose occupation policies became even more bloodthirsty as the war continued. (countrystudies.us)
- Here is how it happened: When Germany declared open season on all shipping by its submarines in February 1917, the United States formally declared war on Germany and the Central Powers. (eaec.org)
- In a speech on January 8, 1918 president Woodrow Wilson spoke to a joint session of the United States Congress, and formulated 14 points that must be met by Germany and its allies for a peace settlement. (eaec.org)
- According to historian Robert Conquest, the selective deportations from the Baltic States represented the policy of "decapitation" of the nation by removing its political and social elite, "as was later evidently to be the motive for the Katyn massacre. (wikipedia.org)
- The Soviet occupation of the Baltic states covers the period from the Soviet-Baltic mutual assistance pacts in 1939, to their invasion and annexation in 1940, to the mass deportations of 1941. (wikipedia.org)
- Jaksch is something of a hero to Douglas, though it has to be said that the amount of support he commanded among Sudeten Germans by 1939 had shrunk to an almost irreducible minimum, and it is doubtful whether his policy would have commanded much support among them even later on, after the war. (newrepublic.com)
- Originally there were numbers of temporary collecting points in which all cultural objects found in the United States Zone in need of preservation or suspected of having been looted by the Germans were stored. (archives.gov)
- It heard the testimony of Lt. Col. Donald B. Stewart, a United States Army officer, who as a German prisoner of' war, was taken by the Germans to view the mass graves at Katyn in May 1943. (katyn.ru)
- The Morgenthau report stated that some forms of discrimination against Jews was of political rather than anti-Semitic nature and specifically avoided use of the term "pogrom," noting that the term was used to apply to a wide range of excesses, and had no specific definition. (infogalactic.com)
- As much as American Jews care, or claim to care, about the Jewish state, they are not one-issue voters. (tabletmag.com)
- Accordingly, there is no reason to believe that Jews would have died en masse living under German rule in Madagascar either. (axishistory.com)
- Until the German invasion, Anne's childhood in Amsterdam was filled with school and friends-she had attended the Sixth Montessori school in Amsterdam until September 1941, when Jewish children are no longer allowed to go to school with non-Jews. (theholocaustscream.com)
- function from the Nazi Party's year of shared sword: ' 60 000 pagan includes what this molecule with Baltic History is the foot in his genesis. (texasoffroad.net)
- library from the Nazi Party's onslaught of Baltic time: ' 60 000 air is what this energy with first power chapters the weight in his semblance. (thehundredacrewood.net)
- Academics, political commentators and other scholars tend to distinguish between communist states and democratic socialist states, with the first representing the Eastern Bloc and the latter representing Western Bloc countries which have been democratically governed by socialist parties such as Britain, France, Sweden and Western social-democracies in general, among others. (wikipedia.org)
- This Little Britain: How One Small Country Changed the Modern World 2007 warfare bersichtsseite of the United States 1960. (ghostwings.net)
- 1934-1938: Moscow failed to forge a viable system of collective security - mostly because Britain, France, and, of course, the United States, held back. (csmonitor.com)
- Following invasion by the Red Army in the summer of 1940, Soviet authorities compelled the Baltic governments to resign. (wikipedia.org)
- The government in the drugs will begin, but because the EU is not deporting the strongest public Glycogen behind the United States, figure will do the society been Europe by those subject Templar towers that are the invasion as a province. (thehundredacrewood.net)
- When Americans think of the Second World War, it is understandably most often in terms of the United States role, such as in the D-Day invasion or the war in the Pacific against Japan. (codoh.com)
- Launched 23rd Oct.1920 by New York Shipbuilding Co, Camden, N.J as the HOOSIER STATE for the U.S. Shipping Board, and sailed San Francisco - Manila for Pacific Mail Line. (theshipslist.com)
- Launched 4th Aug.1920 by New York Shipbuilding Corp, Camden, N.J as the EMPIRE STATE for the US Shipping Board and sailed San Francisco - Manila for Pacific Mail Line, 1922 renamed PRESIDENT WILSON, 1925 transferred to Dollar Line, 1938 transferred to American President Line, 1940 sold to Berge y Cia, Spain, renamed MARIA PIPA and sailed Seattle - Los Angeles - Balboa - Valparaiso - Straits of Magellan - Buenos Aires. (theshipslist.com)
- To protect the Baltic democracies on their path, we propose to ban the display of Nazi or communist symbols in these three countries. (debatewise.org)
- This article is about sovereign states governed by communist parties, usually Marxist-Leninist or some national variation thereof. (wikipedia.org)
- A communist state , also known as Marxist-Leninist state , is a state that is administered and governed by a single communist party guided by Marxism-Leninism . (wikipedia.org)
- Marxism-Leninism was the state ideology of the Soviet Union , the Comintern after Bolshevization and the communist states within the Comecon , the Eastern Bloc and the Warsaw Pact . (wikipedia.org)
- Marxism-Leninism remains the ideology of several communist states around the world and the official ideology of the ruling parties of China , Cuba , Laos and Vietnam . (wikipedia.org)
- Communist states are typically administered by a single, centralized party apparatus . (wikipedia.org)
- There have been several instances of communist states with functioning political participation processes involving several other non-party organizations such as direct democratic participation, factory committees and trade unions . (wikipedia.org)
- As a term, communist state is used by Western historians, political scientists and media to refer to these countries and distinguish them from other socialist states . (wikipedia.org)
- After World War II , the Soviet Army occupied much of Eastern Europe and helped establish communist states in these countries. (wikipedia.org)
- Most communist states in Eastern Europe were allied with the Soviet Union, except for Yugoslavia which declared itself non-aligned . (wikipedia.org)
- Communist states were also established in Cambodia , Cuba , Laos and Vietnam . (wikipedia.org)
- A communist state was established in North Korea , although it later adopted its own ideology called Juche . (wikipedia.org)
- In 1989, the communist states in Eastern Europe collapsed under public pressure during a wave of mostly non-violent movements as part of the Revolutions of 1989 which led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. (wikipedia.org)
- Today, the existing communist states in the world are in China, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam. (wikipedia.org)
- Communist states share similar institutions which are organized on the premise that the communist party is a vanguard of the proletariat and represents the long-term interests of the people. (wikipedia.org)
- From its inception, the United Nations Organization has been the tool of America's enemies: Communist regimes and their sympathizers, later joined by the Islamic states - tyrannies all. (theatheistconservative.com)
- Putin, speaking during Friday's meeting with the leaders of other ex-Soviet nations in St. Petersburg, strongly criticized a recent resolution of the European parliament, which blamed the 1939 Soviet-Nazi pact for the outbreak of World War II. (ktsm.com)
- The Nazis broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. (ktsm.com)
- The book mostly concentrates on what the pact led to in relation to the Baltic States. (markedbyteachers.com)
- I hope that by disentangling the history of sovereignty from the history of states and by focusing on sovereignty as a problem, we can avoid the distortions and restrictions that the "rise of the state" narrative imposes on the European past. (historians.org)
- If we consider sovereignty as a problem, therefore, we will be able to acknowledge the abiding importance of the state without losing sight of the complex, uneven, and unfinished aspects of state making. (historians.org)
- The idea of a "nation-state" is more recent still, as is the gradual evolution of the criteria which any state should meet if it wishes to claim independent sovereignty and the status of nation-state. (quadrant.org.au)
- The democratically elected Mazowiecki government responded with the Balcerowicz Plan, which freed most prices, dramatically reduced state control over the Polish economy, and clamped down on runaway inflation. (traveldocs.com)
- An independent Polish state should be created, with access to the Baltic sea. (eaec.org)
- The chairman of the committee published this press release in its entirety in the Congressional Record on March 11, 1952, and called upon the Secretary of State to take prompt action relative to the propaganda activities of the Polish Embassy here in Washington. (katyn.ru)
- The Secretary of State on March 20, 1952, delivered a stern reprimand to the Polish Embassy regarding such press releases and greatly restricted its activities in this field. (katyn.ru)
- At that time (1941) I wrote Zwei Jahre Wiederaufbau im Distrikt Warschau (Two Years Rebuilding Work in the District of Warsaw). (vho.org)
- These are the opening paragraphs of the foreword to Warschau unter Deutscher Herrschaft (Warsaw under German Rule) by the Governor of Warsaw, Dr. Ludwig Fischer, who commissioned Dr. Friederich Gollert to expand the 1941 edition with access to official records and documents. (vho.org)
- As far as Baltic defense policy white papers go, this was big news. (foreignpolicy.com)
- Sweden - Finland's closest military ally and another non-NATO member - recently shifted its defense posture, remilitarizing the remote island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea for the first time since the end of the Cold War. (foreignpolicy.com)
- The first section deals with the occupation from June 1940 to July 1941 when the German occupation began. (wikipedia.org)
- Another huge German army had been encircled and would be annihilated along the Baltic coast. (shroomery.org)
- During the wars, Beneš pushed aside the Sudeten German Social Democrats, led by Wenzel Jaksch, whose advocacy of a multinational postwar state was effectively suppressed. (newrepublic.com)
- Besides the socio-economic inequalities, the Baltic German nobility possessed the monopoly of power in the local politics, denying the natives the right to speak for themselves in their shared home-lands. (communistcrimes.org)
- Terms related to modern name Baltic appear in ancient texts, but had fallen into disuse until reappearing as the adjective Baltisch in German, from which it was adopted in other languages. (wikipedia.org)
- This change was a result of the Baltic German elite adopting terms derived from Baltisch to refer to themselves. (wikipedia.org)
- The public download Women and were security on September 11, 1941, with the Pentagram inherited to counterfeit its former booking to use the German storage of Pentagon itself, with the Pentagram then ran its genetic economy review to go the Pentagon. (krugerquarterhorses.com)
- During the war period, the Red Army "ground up" 626 divisions of the Axis states, of which 508 were German. (moonofalabama.org)
- the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point held mostly German-owned material, especially that of the former Prussian State Museums, the Städel Institute of Frankfurt, and the local museums of Wiesbaden, plus a certain amount of internal loot (material confiscated from German nationals) and objects subject to restitution. (archives.gov)
- German forces came very close to defeating the Soviet Union in 1941. (codoh.com)
- It is not to be confused with States as a federal union, the wider Baltic region or the Balkans in southeastern Europe. (wikipedia.org)
- It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea , to the east of Sweden and Denmark . (worldebookfair.com)
- For centuries, the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea was inhabited by various Baltic tribes . (worldebookfair.com)
- Ten months later, the Baltic states were also occupied by the Red Army and annexed to the Soviet Union. (nybooks.com)
- There he was finalizing his studies to qualify for Semikhah (rabbinical ordination) when the Soviet Army invaded the Baltic States. (blogspot.com)
- Yuri Vladimirovich graduated in June 1939, and on November 18 of the same year Nikulin, who was not yet eighteen years old, was drafted into the army. (topwar.ru)
- The early Soviet leaders publicly denounced anti-Semitism, wrote William Korey: "Anti-Jewish discrimination had become an integral part of Soviet state policy ever since the late thirties. (infogalactic.com)
- But who can forget that he started his first term telling a group of Jewish leaders he invited to the White House that it was important to put daylight between the United States and Israel? (tabletmag.com)
- A test of this type that disconnected the safety systems would never be allowed in the United States, Western Europe , or Asia. (encyclopedia.com)
- At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, however, the seemingly simple and obvious idea that every nation should have the democratic right to elect its own government foundered on the intractable realities of centuries-old patterns of ethnic and religious diversity in East-Central Europe, and ran up against the requirements of security and viability for the new states created out of the wreckage of the old. (newrepublic.com)
- This is a list of conflicts in Europe ordered chronologically, including wars between European states , civil wars within European states, wars between a European state and a non-European state that took place within Europe, and global conflicts in which Europe was a theatre of war. (wikipedia.org)
- This article is about a geopolitical term used for grouping the three countries on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. (wikipedia.org)
- It was written just four years after the Munk family left Europe and arrived in the United States. (theragens.com)
- When elderly women from the villages of Eastern Europe arrived as migrants in the United States, they learned with even greater surprise that immigration officials classified them as "Poles" or "Galicians"-terms they had never heard of. (quadrant.org.au)
- Lietuvos Respublika ), is a country in Northern Europe , one of the three Baltic states . (worldebookfair.com)
- Let's debate about the use of these symbols in the daily lives of Baltic citizens - in the streets, on the walls, on the shirts of youngsters. (debatewise.org)
- In the case of Baltic citizens, the meaning of these symbols is certainly connected with the atrocities these brutal regimes commited on the Baltic soil. (debatewise.org)
- I am not suggesting that it is the only perspective-there is no one way to tell Europe's story-but that it has some notable advantages over its chief competitor, which is to view the history of European politics as the history of the rise of the state, which usually means the combined histories of a few major Western European states. (historians.org)
- It would, of course, be foolish to deny the importance of states in the history of European politics. (historians.org)
- eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. (mcgill.ca)
- It was only from the early sixteenth century that European princes started to see themselves, not just as the owners of property but as the leaders of states. (quadrant.org.au)
- It is also a member of the Nordic Investment Bank , and part of Nordic-Baltic cooperation of Northern European countries. (worldebookfair.com)
- The mistreatment of ethnic minorities before and during World War I in the Habsburg and Ottoman empires had led not just to a determination in the international community to guarantee their rights, but more importantly to a decision to cut through the problem by creating unitary national states. (newrepublic.com)
- Changing Cultural Demographics Although the comparative relation of children is decreasing in relationship to the adult populace, the racial, ethnic, and cultural distinctiveness in the midst children is significantly increasing in the In accord States (ChildStats. (autoportal.ru)
- The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Oral History branch received copies of interviews from the Holocaust Resource Center of Buffalo from 1990 - 1993. (ushmm.org)
- The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archives received the collection by transfer from the Oral History branch in February 1995. (ushmm.org)
- They are the only branch within the group that managed to create a state entity in premodern times. (britannica.com)
- The Baltic states have entered the route of developing democratic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union, but this route is long and it takes a lot of time before a country could call itself a stable democracy. (debatewise.org)
- Action T4 expressed a content of empty osteoporosis of the progressively and not restored and exiles in social pairs that had time Highly from 1939 to 1941, and legged until the circonda of the connection. (texasoffroad.net)
- Over agit-prop used those taken not undaunted, which were as many forces who was soon on time states, but those who appeared from controlled eBooks of Prelude giving list, exact society, and day. (texasoffroad.net)
- For during that time we may discern a revolution in American attitudes and opinions, and not only in the course of the great American ship of state. (americanheritage.com)
- They did not give time to build up the recruit - already on November 30, 1939 the Soviet-Finnish war began, and the aim of the anti-aircraft gunners was to defend the air borders of the city of Leningrad from the expected Finnish attacks aviation . (topwar.ru)
- During the 19th century, Baltic started to supersede Ostsee as the name for the region. (wikipedia.org)
- In the 13th century pagan and Eastern Orthodox Baltic and Finnic peoples in the region became a target of the Northern Crusades . (wikipedia.org)
- suggests that the winter severity index over the past 600 years in the Baltic region of the Arctic is "strongly modulated" by solar activity over periods as short as one decade, or in other words, the 11 year sunspot cycle. (wattsupwiththat.com)