An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to an ethyl group.
Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
A highly toxic compound used as a fungicide for treating seeds.
Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.
Legal documents that are declarations of individuals' wishes regarding the disposal of their property or estate after death; esp: written instruments, legally executed, by which dispositions are made of estates. LIVING WILLS are written declarations regarding prolongation of life by extraordinary means.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.
Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Agents that remove, correct, repress, or mask undesirable ODORS. In personal hygiene, deodorants often contain astringent preparations that reduce SWEATING, referred to as ANTIPERSPIRANTS. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Agents that are put on the SKIN to reduce SWEATING or prevent excess sweating (HYPERHIDROSIS).
A group of degraded TRITERPENES in which the four terminal carbons of the C17 side chain have been removed, and the remaining portion often forming C17 furans.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.
Rapid and extreme blood loss leading to HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Merthiolate was introduced as a vaccine preservative in 1931, and by the late 1980s thimerosal was used in all whole-cell DPT ... Nobel laureate Herbert C. Brown was one of his students during the 1930s. When World War II began, the US government recognized ... He synthesized an important anti-microbial alkyl mercuric sulfur compound, thimerosal, commercially known as Merthiolate, which ...
Calomel was commonly used in infant teething powders in the 1930s and 1940s. Mercurials are also used agriculturally as ... Organic mercury compounds have been used as topical disinfectants (thimerosal, nitromersol, and merbromin) and preservatives in ... medical preparations (thimerosal) and grain products (both methyl and ethyl mercurials). Mercury was used in the treatment of ...
"Thimerosal in Vaccines Thimerosal , Concerns , Vaccine Safety , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019. ... Although it is possible to have aluminium toxicity, aluminium salts have been used effectively and safely since the 1930s when ... Even though evidence supports the safety and efficacy of thimerosal in vaccines, thimerosal was removed from childhood vaccines ... Thimerosal is used to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi in vials that contain more than one dose of a vaccine. This ...
It was introduced as a preservative in the 1930s to prevent the growth of infectious organisms such as bacteria and fungi, and ... Thiomersal (or Thimerosal) is a mercury compound used as a preservative used in some vaccines. Anti-vaccination activists ... CDC PUBLISHES THIMEROSAL IN VACCINES Notice to Readers: Thimerosal in Vaccines Baker JP (2008). "Mercury, Vaccines, and Autism ... Thiomersal (also spelled thimerosal, especially in the United States) is an organomercury compound used as a preservative in ...
Human anthrax vaccines were developed by the Soviet Union in the late 1930s and in the US and UK in the 1950s. The current ... The preservative is thiomersal (0.005%). The vaccine is given by intramuscular injection and the primary course of four single ... Anthrax vaccines were developed in the Soviet Union in the 1930s and available for use in humans by 1940. A live attenuated, ...
The Japanese encephalitis vaccines first became available in the 1930s. It is on the World Health Organization's List of ... vaccine based on SA 14-14-2 strain which was developed in a technology transfer agreement with Intercell and is a thiomersal- ... Japanese encephalitis vaccines first became available in the 1930s. One of them was an inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccine ... Furthermore, vaccines against JEV have been available since the 1930s. World Health Organization (2019). World Health ...
... including thiomersal, phenoxyethanol, and formaldehyde. Thiomersal is more effective against bacteria, has a better shelf-life ... By the 1930s there was increasing interest in the prophylactic value of an oral typhoid fever vaccine for example.[94] ... Thimerosal is a mercury-containing antimicrobial that is added to vials of vaccine that contain more than one dose to prevent ... Offit PA (September 2007). "Thimerosal and vaccines--a cautionary tale". The New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (13): 1278-9 ...
... "thimerosal" in the US) from vaccines as quickly as possible, and thiomersal has been phased out of US and European vaccines, ... England in the late 1930s who breathed methylmercury that was being used as a seed disinfectant and preservative. Outbreaks of ... but their 1999 action sparked confusion and controversy that Thiomersal was the cause of autism. Since 2000, the thiomersal in ... 2007). "Early thimerosal exposure and neuropsychological outcomes at 7 to 10 years". N. Engl. J. Med. 357 (13): 1281-92. doi: ...
Until recent years, the preservative thiomersal (A.K.A. Thimerosal in the US and Japan) was used in many vaccines that did not ... By the 1930s there was increasing interest in the prophylactic value of an oral typhoid fever vaccine for example. An oral ... Several preservatives are available, including thiomersal, phenoxyethanol, and formaldehyde. Thiomersal is more effective ... Thiomersal is a mercury-containing antimicrobial that is added to vials of vaccine that contain more than one dose to prevent ...
Eli Lilly has developed the vaccine preservative thiomersal (also called merthiolate and thimerosal). Thiomersal is effective ... In the 1930s the company also continued expansion overseas. In 1934, Eli Lilly and Company Limited, the company's first ...
A formalin-inactivated mouse-brain derived vaccine was first produced in Japan in the 1930s and was validated for use in Taiwan ... vaccine based on SA 14-14-2 strain which was developed in a technology transfer agreement with Intercell and is a thiomersal- ...
"Thimerosal in Vaccines Thimerosal - Concerns - Vaccine Safety". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. October 27, ... Vaccination against influenza began in the 1930s, with large-scale availability in the United States beginning in 1945. It is ... Some injection-based flu vaccines intended for adults in the United States contain thiomersal (also known as thimerosal), a ... "Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. October 16, 2015. Archived from the original on ...
Many epidemiological studies have reported no association between either the MMR vaccine and autism, or thimerosal-containing ... in the 1930s. Bach claimed that dew found on flower petals retain imagined healing properties of that plant. Systematic reviews ... originally proposed in the 1930s. Autodynamics - a physics theory proposed in the 1940s that claims the equations of the ... which was developed in the 1930s by William Garner Sutherland. According to the American Cancer Society, although CST may ...
Until recent years, the preservative thiomersal (A.K.A. Thimerosal in the US and Japan) was used in many vaccines that did not ... By the 1930s there was increasing interest in the prophylactic value of an oral typhoid fever vaccine for example.[109] ... including thiomersal, phenoxyethanol, and formaldehyde. Thiomersal is more effective against bacteria, has a better shelf-life ... Thiomersal is a mercury-containing antimicrobial that is added to vials of vaccine that contain more than one dose to prevent ...
In the past, thiomersal was used as a preservative. In 1989, thiomersal was responsible for about 10% of problems related to ... The development of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in the 1930s paved the way for the manufacture of plastic scleral lenses. In ... As a result, most products no longer contain thiomersal. Contact lens sensors to monitor the ocular temperature were recently ... Wilson-Holt, N; Dart, JK (1989). "Thiomersal keratoconjunctivitis, frequency, clinical spectrum and diagnosis". Eye (London, ...
In the past, thiomersal was used as a preservative. In 1989, thiomersal was responsible for about 10% of problems related to ... In 1940, German optometrist Heinrich Wöhlk produced fully plastic lenses, based on experiments performed during the 1930s.[ ... Wilson-Holt, N; Dart, JK (1989). "Thiomersal keratoconjunctivitis, frequency, clinical spectrum and diagnosis". Eye (London, ... Blown-glass scleral lenses remained the only form of contact lens until the 1930s when Perspex/Plexiglas was developed, ...
He credited much of his success to his work with chickens as a boy; since in the 1930s fertile chicken eggs had often been used ... Thiomersal. *Andrew Wakefield. *Cedillo v. Secretary of Health and Human Services. *Alternative vaccination schedule ...
In the 1930s, a group of lawyers and judges arranged for 166 state-institutionalized, mentally ill residents to be released and ... all born in the 1930s, as living very disparate lives, but appearing to share something he labeled as "infantile autism," which ... Thiomersal (Chelation). Diagnostic scales. *Gilliam Asperger's disorder scale. *Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule ...
The anthraquinone process, which is still used, was developed during the 1930s by the German chemical manufacturer IG Farben in ...
Thimerosal has been used since the 1930s. One would think that if it were so harmful, we might have detected it before now. It ... Since 1992 our own vaccine production has been free of thimerosal, i.e. since 1992 no Danish child has received a thimerosal- ... contain thimerosal as a preservative.* Some pediatric vaccines have never had thimerosal in them (e.g., the MMR vaccine). ... No study will ever be able to show with absolute certainty once and for all that thimerosal or any other substance does not ...
Thimerosal has been used since the 1930s.... One would think that if thimerosal were so harmful, we might have detected it ... The multi-dose flu vaccines contain thimerosal. In my posts on autism and thimerosal (written before thimerosal was removed ... For more on thimerosal see the CDC article on Seasonal Influenza.. The reader also informed me that the nasal spray version of ... Thimerosal is metabolized in humans to ethylmercury, not methymercury..... .... Methyl mercury is absorbed more quickly and ...
Thimerosal has been used as a preservative in vaccines since the 1930s.1 It is 49.6% mercury by weight and is metabolized into ... thimerosal-containing injection • AD = autistic disorder • ADI-R = Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised • ADOS = Autism ... Early thimerosal exposure and neuropsychological outcomes at 7 to 10 years. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(13):1281-1292. ... An assessment of thimerosal use in childhood vaccines. Pediatrics. 2001;107(5):1147-1154. ...
Get answers to questions about the use and safety of thimerosal in vaccines ... Is thimerosal safe?. Yes. Thimerosal has been used safely in vaccines for a long time (since the 1930s). ... Does thimerosal cause autism?. No. Research does not show any link between thimerosal and autism.. Read more about vaccines and ... What is thimerosal?. Thimerosal is a vaccine additive, added to some vaccines to prevent germs (like bacteria and fungi) from ...
Thimerosal is a preservative that has been used in manufacturing vaccines since the 1930s. Reports have indicated that infants ... 2.5 +/- 0.3). A higher percentage of the total Hg in the brain was in the form of inorganic Hg for the thimerosal-exposed ... A semilogarithmic plot of washout of total Hg in blood and the brain after four weekly im injections of vaccine thimerosal (20 ... The initial and terminal half-life of Hg in blood after thimerosal exposure was 2.1 and 8.6 days, respectively, which are ...
Thimerosal. So, what does this have to do with thimerosal? Thimerosal has been used in vaccines since the early 1930s. A ... Thimerosal plays an integral role in keeping multi-dose vaccine vials safe for use. As SAGE points out, removing thimerosal, ... Total Views 6,818 Views Today 1 mercury , vaccine , thimerosal , american academy of pediatrics , immunization ... on immunization recommended that thimerosal use continue. The group reaffirmed:. "thiomersal-containing vaccines were safe, ...
Thimerosal, hailed for its bacteria-killing properties, has been a vaccine staple ingredient since the 1930s. But when the ... "Thimerosal has been used for decades, but the surge in vaccinations caused fear that possible accumulations of ethyl mercury, ... In fact, the body rids the kind found in thimerosal more that 10 times faster than it removes the kind one might encounter in a ... "Replacing the thimerosal in vaccines globally would put these vaccines beyond what the world community could afford for its ...
A global treaty on mercury pollution will do more harm than good if it bans the vaccine preservative thiomersal, says medical ... Thiomersal also serves an irreplaceable function. It has been added to medical products since the 1930s as a preservative, ... Another compound facing a possible ban, however, is a benign medicinal preservative called thiomersal (thimerosal in the US). ... But thiomersal is not a threat, and banning it would create far more human misery than failing to negotiate a treaty at all. ...
Thimerosal was added to vaccines to keep multi-dose vials free from such bacteria starting in the 1930s. ... Thimerosal was used in trace amounts in vaccines.. Methyl mercury is the compound found in fish and water, which builds up ... Thimerosal was removed and has not been used as a preservative in any vaccine on the recommended schedule for children since ... But he was willing to entertain the idea that thimerosal was helping to impair infant brains, even though there were no data to ...
Thiomersal (or thimerosal) is a preservative that contains a form of mercury. Thiomersal is partly composed of mercury in the ... It was used in very small amounts in vaccines from the 1930s onwards, to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination. Many ... having resulted from the use of vaccines containing thiomersal. Nonetheless, thiomersal was removed from childhood and ... Since 2000, vaccines available on Australias National Immunisation Program have not contained thiomersal. Some vaccines may ...
Thimerosal-a preservative containing ethyl mercury-has been used in vaccines and other products since the 1930s. Until 1999, ... contained thimerosal. Prior to 1991, the only thimerosal-containing vaccine that was recommended for all infants was the whole- ... they still contain thimerosal as a preservative and may be given to some children. [14] Parents Responsibility Doctors of ... Immunization Safety Review: Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. 2001. National Academy Press. www. ...
Thimerosal, an organic mercurial compound in use since the 1930s, has been added to certain immunobiologic products as a ... Additional information about thimerosal and the thimerosal content of vaccines is available on the FDA website (www.fda.gov/ ... Thimerosal is present at preservative concentrations in multidose vials of some brands of vaccine. Receiving thimerosal- ... Allergy to thimerosal usually consists of local delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Thimerosal elicits positive delayed- ...
Thimerosal, a mercury containing preservative, was first use in the vaccines in the early 1930s. Prior to 1970 the prevalence ... Thimerosal in Vaccines: a joint statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Public Health Service. MMRW 1999;48. 26 ... It would make more sense for us to eliminate the cause of the problem by deleting thimerosal from the vaccines now and by ... I believe that the introduction of the Hepatitis B vaccine in 1991 has sparked this recent epidemic because of the thimerosal. ...
Thimerosal is a preservative that was put in vaccines back in the 1930s. Almost immediately after it was put in, autism cases ... thimerosal was first added to baby vaccines in 1931. Internal documents reveal that Eli Lilly, which first developed thimerosal ... Thimerosal, which is 49.6 percent ethyl mercury by weight, was phased out of most U.S. childhood immunizations beginning in ... Most of those shots contain thimerosal.. Note: This article was removed from the Times website. The link above uses archive.org ...
In the 1930s, some vaccine makers used a preservative called Thimerosal, which contained a very low concentration of a mercury ... And for autism: As with Thimerosal, autism diagnoses shot up around the time antigens were being reduced in vaccines. ... First of all, children are hardly getting Thimerosal in vaccines anymore. In 2001, the FDA stopped issuing licenses for ... As for autism, since the time Thimerosal was removed from childrens vaccines, the percentage of diagnosed autism cases happens ...
Thiomersal. Thiomersal (sodium ethylmercuric thiosalicylate) is an organic compound containing ethylmercury that has been ... widely used as a vaccine preservative since the 1930s. Concerns have focused on its potential toxicity as a heavy metal, and ... Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: a critical review of published original data. Pediatrics 2004; ... Since then, controversy has surrounded the potential association between MMR vaccine and autism, with thiomersal a suggested ...
Thimerosal was added to vaccines as a preservative beginning in the early 1930s and has been in use ever since. ... Mercury has been in vaccines since the 1930s in the form of a preservative called Thimerosal, which is 49.6 percent ... Despite an agreement to phase Thimerosal out of vaccines for children, existing stocks of Thimerosal-laced vaccines could still ... Receiving the Hib vaccine with Thimerosal on the first day of birth is the equivalent of a 200-pound adult male consuming 1,400 ...
Calomel was commonly used in infant teething powders in the 1930s and 1940s. Mercurials are also used agriculturally as ... Organic mercury compounds have been used as topical disinfectants (thimerosal, nitromersol and merbromin) and preservatives in ... medical preparations (thimerosal) and grain products (both methyl and ethyl mercurials). Mercury was used in the treatment of ...
Before the 1930s no such powerful preservative was available. Its not beyond reason or statistical probability that the ... Chiron also uses the mercury-based preservative thimerosal as a sterilizing agent in making Fluvirin, to prevent exactly this ...
Thimerosal Removed From Vaccines. Thimerosal has been used as a preservative in vaccines since the. 1930s, the researchers ... Thimerosal Removed From Vaccines. Thimerosal has been used as a preservative in vaccines since the. 1930s, the researchers ... request thimerosal-free vaccines for their children.. Perspectives: Thimerosal and Autism. Researchers in the current study ... request thimerosal-free vaccines for their children.. Perspectives: Thimerosal and Autism. Researchers in the current study ...
Thimerosal, a preservative that contains mercury, has been added to vaccines to prevent their deterioration since the 1930s.[29 ... Thimerosal. For more details on this topic, see Thimerosal controversy.. ... Mercury and vaccines (thimerosal). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. ... Ethylmercury is a breakdown product of the antibacteriological agent thimerosal which has effects similar but not identical to ...
Merthiolate was introduced as a vaccine preservative in 1931, and by the late 1980s thimerosal was used in all whole-cell DPT ... Nobel laureate Herbert C. Brown was one of his students during the 1930s. When World War II began, the US government recognized ... He synthesized an important anti-microbial alkyl mercuric sulfur compound, thimerosal, commercially known as Merthiolate, which ...
very soon of meningitis, Thimerosal was presumed from that point on to be unquestionably safe. As I understand it, Thimerosal ... So aluminum (a known neurotoxin) has been in vaccines since the 1930s. ... that ethyl mercury, Thimerosal in general, was never studied on infants. It was studied on a few people who were dying of ... the ethyl mercury in Thimerosal is as safe as you, the CDC, FDA, IOM, NIH, Pharma, and Paul Offit say it is, you would have no ...
Since the 1930s, some vaccines have contained the preservative thiomersal (also called thimerosal), which is metabolized or ... Thiomersal, (called Thimerosal in the United States), is a mercury-containing organic compound used as a preservative in ... FDA, Thimerosal in Vaccines. Retrieved August 14, 2007.. *↑ BBC, Worlds most precise clock developed. Retrieved August 14, ... The organomercury compound Thiomersal (commonly called Thimerosol) is a widely used antibacterial and antifungal agent. ...
Thimerosal is 49.6% ethyl mercury, a known neurotoxin [13]. It was used since the 1930s to keep vaccines from becoming ... By 1999, thimerosal was used in more than 30 U.S. vaccines. Although the amount of thimerosal used in each vaccine was less ... These results supported the IOM conclusion that thimerosal is not a primary cause of autism [22]. It should be noted that some ... Neurodevelopmental disorders after thimerosal-containing vaccines: a brief communication. Exp Biol Med. 2003;228(6):660-664. ...
Millions of vaccines containing preservatives such as thimerosal have been administered since the 1930s, and there have been no ... Thimerosal Content of Vaccines Used in Canada. Vaccines approved for use in Canada may contain the following:. *no thimerosal: ... If a thimerosal preservative-free product is not available, it is clearly better to administer a vaccine containing thimerosal ... thimerosal added as a preservative. Such vaccines are typically those supplied in multi-dose vials with thimerosal added in ...
Thimerosal has been used safely in vaccines for a long time (since the 1930s) and has a proven track record of being safe. A ... They havent found any actual evidence that thimerosal causes harm.". It doesnt take much effort to discover that Moench is ... "Research does not show any link between thimerosal and autism. … ... variety of scientists have been studying the use of vaccines that have thimerosal in them for many years. ...
Thimerosal contains a mercury preservative which has been used in some vaccines and other products since the 1930s. ... The CDC website refutes the danger of thimerosal: "There is no convincing evidence of harm caused by the low doses of ... One concern about the vaccine has been the link between thimerosal and autism. ... and vaccine manufacturers agreed that thimerosal should be reduced or eliminated in vaccines as a precautionary measure." ...
OBJECTIVES: Thiomersal is ethylmercury containing compound. It has been used as a preservative in vaccines since the 1930s ... Total mercury content in canine hair before and after administration of vaccines containing thiomersal.. Sedlackova L, Kral T, ... Total mercury content in canine hair before and after administration of vaccines containing thiomersal. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. ... Thimerosal:administration & dosage, Vaccines:administration & dosage,. Citation ...
  • Exposure to thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that is used in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, has been hypothesized to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (aappublications.org)
  • Most previous research has not revealed an increased risk of autism associated with receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines. (aappublications.org)
  • Does thimerosal cause autism? (cdc.gov)
  • No. Research does not show any link between thimerosal and autism. (cdc.gov)
  • I'm not going to try to respond to every claim he makes, but one in particular ought to be addressed: the claim that protecting drug companies in the Homeland Security Act from lawsuits claiming thimerosal causes autism is the smoking gun for the conspiracy hypothesis. (skepdic.com)
  • The report rejected that thimerosal-containing vaccines are causative of disorders such as autism, and further stated that the rejection of vaccines could lead to increases in infectious diseases such as whopping cough, measles, and bacterial meningitis. (healthmap.org)
  • The CDC also points out that there is no convincing evidence of harm caused by thimerosal in vaccines, and that since 2001, when thimerosal was no longer in vaccines, autism has actually gone up in the United States . (healthmap.org)
  • February's issue of Pediatrics offers another reason to rethink blaming the spike in autism diagnoses on thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative routinely used in several childhood vaccines until the late '90s. (rochester.edu)
  • These findings come in the wake of recent news from the California Department of Health, which reported last month that autism rates continue to mushroom in spite of the widespread removal of thimerosal from most U.S. childhood vaccines in 2001, though it continues to be used in vaccines used elsewhere in the world. (rochester.edu)
  • In 1999, the Food and Drug Administration held meetings to discuss the idea that thimerosal - then used in three childhood vaccines such as the hepatitis B shot - was damaging immunized infants' brains and contributing to the rise in autism diagnoses. (politifact.com)
  • Now the science is definitive that the small amount of thimerosal did not cause autism or any other neurological damage. (politifact.com)
  • Since then, controversy has surrounded the potential association between MMR vaccine and autism, with thiomersal a suggested culprit. (mja.com.au)
  • As for autism, since the time Thimerosal was removed from children's vaccines, the percentage of diagnosed autism cases happens to have shot up. (ksl.com)
  • And for autism: As with Thimerosal, autism diagnoses shot up around the time antigens were being reduced in vaccines. (ksl.com)
  • According to the CDC's website, vaccines contain 53 separate ingredients, but only 1 - thimerosal - has ever been looked at in terms of its relationship to autism. (ageofautism.com)
  • Anti-vaccination activists promoting the incorrect claim that vaccination causes autism have asserted that the mercury in thiomersal is the cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • The potential impact of thiomersal on autism has been investigated extensively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple lines of scientific evidence have shown that thiomersal does not cause autism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, multiple population studies have found no association between thiomersal and autism, and rates of autism have continued to increase despite removal of thiomersal from vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, major scientific and medical bodies such as the Institute of Medicine and World Health Organization (WHO) as well as governmental agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reject any role for thiomersal in autism or other neurodevelopmental disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of the consensus of the scientific community, some parents and advocacy groups continue to contend that thiomersal is linked to autism and the claim is still stated as if it were fact in anti-vaccination propaganda, notably that of Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., through his group Children's Health Defense. (wikipedia.org)
  • This controversy has caused harm due to parents attempting to treat their autistic children with unproven and possibly dangerous treatments, discouraging parents from vaccinating their children due to fears about thiomersal toxicity and diverting resources away from research into more promising areas for the cause of autism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of perceived increased autism rates and increased number of vaccines in the childhood vaccination schedule, some parents believed the action to remove thiomersal was an indication that the preservative caused autism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has compared the incidence of autism with the amount of thimerosal received from vaccines. (quackwatch.org)
  • Preliminary results indicated no change in autism rates relative to the amount of thimerosal a child received during the first six months of life (from 0 micrograms to greater than 160 micrograms). (quackwatch.org)
  • An Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee, which issued a comprehensive report in October 2001, found no proof of a link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, speech or language delays, or other neurodevelopmental disorders [5]. (quackwatch.org)
  • I worked firsthand with Dr. F. Edward Yazbak, MD, FAAP, Wendy Fournier of the National Autism Association and Rep. Peter Palumbo (two children, both autistics) on legislation for six years to eliminate Thimerosal from children's vaccines. (warwickonline.com)
  • When Cenk Uygur, CEO of TYT Network (5 million subscribers with 170 million monthly views), invited Silberman to debate me on the merits of his thesis (I recently wrote the book Thimerosal: Let the Science Speak , which summarizes the overwhelming scientific evidence linking mercury containing vaccines to the epidemic of neurodevelopmental diseases, including autism), Silberman declined. (globalresearch.ca)
  • This large case-control study looked at the relationships between thimerosal-containing injections-either before birth or during infancy-with the development of autism. (immunizationinfo.org)
  • There is a large body of published studies which have shown no evidence that thimerosal exposure is associated with the development of autism. (immunizationinfo.org)
  • Are there relationships between thimerosal-containing injections-either before birth or during infancy-with the development of autism? (immunizationinfo.org)
  • This study adds to the number of epidemiologic studies that have been unable to establish any association between ethylmercury exposure in thimerosal and the subsequent development of autism. (immunizationinfo.org)
  • Despite that the CDC possessed a 2002 communication that revealed a causal relationship between the removal of thimerosal from vaccines and a decline in autism rates, the CDC published a 2003 cornerstone article in Pediatrics that ignored the Danish data and misled the medical community and public by insinuating that thimerosal in vaccines does not increase the risks of autism. (wnd.com)
  • Almost inconceivable, the Pediatrics article actually purported that autism rates increased after thimerosal was removed. (wnd.com)
  • And to add insult to injury, the PRNewswire report noted, "One coauthor, from Aarhus University, Denmark, was aware of the omission and alerted CDC officials in a 2002 email, stating, 'Attached I send you the short and long manuscript about Thimerosal and autism in Denmark … I need to tell you that the figures do not include the latest data from 2001 … but the incidence and prevalence are still decreasing in 2001. (wnd.com)
  • The NAA added, "Recent studies have confirmed the association between the use of thimerosal and autism has moved from 'biologically plausible' [in 2001] to a 'biological certainty. (wnd.com)
  • Thimerosal used as a preservative in vaccines is likely related to the autism epidemic. (opednews.com)
  • But a 2004 FDA report quashed the argument, saying there's no link between thimerosal and autism. (fiercevaccines.com)
  • By Offit's count, there are several high-quality studies that show thimerosal in vaccines does not cause autism or developmental delays in the children who receive them. (huffpost.com)
  • Thimerosal used as a preservative in vaccines is directly related to the autism epidemic. (lookingglassnews.org)
  • Thimerosal has been linked to various neurologic disorders and to autism. (fireengineering.com)
  • The thiomersal controversy describes claims that vaccines containing the mercury-based preservative thiomersal contribute to the development of autism and other brain development disorders . (wikia.org)
  • However, the removal of thiomersal coincided with statements from scientific bodies indicating that it was harmless, sparking confusion and controversy that has diverted attention and resources away from other efforts to find the causes of autism. (wikia.org)
  • All eight demonstrated that autism rates failed to decline despite removal of thiomersal, arguing strongly against a causative role. (wikia.org)
  • In spite of the consensus of the scientific community, some parents and advocacy groups continue to contend that thiomersal is linked to autism. (infogalactic.com)
  • If it is true that vaccines do not cause autism, then how is it that there are doctors in this nation reversing autism by use of mercury (thimerosal) and viral overload detoxification? (blogspot.co.uk)
  • Yet it breaks down into ethylmercury, which is expelled from the body too quickly to have a damaging effect (plus autism continues to be diagnosed in children born after thimerosal was removed from vaccines). (nature.com)
  • Large studies in which some children received vaccines containing thimerosal and received thimerosal-free vaccines showed no difference in the number of children who developed autism. (babyandus.co.za)
  • Numerous studies--by The CDC, The Institute of Medicine, The American Academy of Pediatrics, The World Health Organization, and The National Academy of Sciences, among other prestigious organizations--have found no autism-vaccine link, while other studies have shown an increase in autism in countries that have removed thimerosal from vaccines. (thepostemail.com)
  • According to a number of researchers, thimerosal is responsible for a dramatic increase in autism and other neurological disorders. (wordpress.com)
  • There is also a link between thimerosal and speech delays, attention-deficit disorder, hyperactivity and autism. (wordpress.com)
  • In February 2017, Children's Health Defense collected 89 peer-reviewed published articles linking autism, mercury and thimerosal. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • The science continues to accumulate that mercury and thimerosal are potent drivers of the autism epidemic. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • Reports have indicated that infants can receive ethylmercury (in the form of thimerosal) at or above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for methylmercury exposure, depending on the exact vaccinations, schedule, and size of the infant. (nih.gov)
  • Brain concentrations of total Hg were significantly lower by approximately 3-fold for the thimerosal-exposed monkeys when compared with the MeHg infants, whereas the average brain-to-blood concentration ratio was slightly higher for the thimerosal-exposed monkeys (3.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.3). (nih.gov)
  • University of Rochester suggests that infants' bodies expel the thimerosal mercury much faster than once thought - thereby leaving little chance for a progressive building up of the toxic metal. (rochester.edu)
  • This debunks the myth, believed by some parents and some pediatricians, that the gauntlet of thimerosal-containing shots many infants received in the 1990s - when the average number of vaccines kids received increased sharply - had put them at risk for developmental disorders. (rochester.edu)
  • In the Rochester study, 216 infants from R. Gutierrez Children's Hospital (in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where thimerosal is still routinely used in vaccines) were divided into three age groups to have their blood-mercury levels tested both before and after shots were administered at either their newborn, 2- or 6-month checkup. (rochester.edu)
  • 6 In full-term infants exposed to vaccines containing thiomersal, mercury concentrations detected in blood (range, 2.85-20.55 nmol/L) were well below the level thought to be associated with adverse effects. (mja.com.au)
  • 6 Because the developing fetus and low birthweight babies are more vulnerable to toxic effects of mercury, it has been suggested that exposure to vaccines containing thiomersal at time of birth may pose some risk in very low birthweight premature infants. (mja.com.au)
  • Although the numbers were small, one study (4) suggested that the serum half-life of ethylmercury in infants given thimerosal-containing vaccines was shorter than that suggested by work with methylmercury and did not seem to raise the blood concentrations of mercury above acceptable values. (canada.ca)
  • The subsequent FDA review noted that with the increased number of vaccines then recommended for infants, the total amount of mercury in vaccines containing thimerosal might exceed the levels recommended by other federal agencies [1]. (quackwatch.org)
  • A study published in 2002 of infants who were 6 months of age or younger compared the levels of mercury in the blood, hair, urine, and stool of 40 who received vaccines containing thimerosal and 20 who received vaccines without thimerosal. (quackwatch.org)
  • At the time the FDA Modernization Act was passed, it was recommended that infants receive 3 different vaccines that contained thimerosal: diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP), hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib). (aappublications.org)
  • Once the cumulative amount of thimerosal that children were receiving through injections of 30-some odd vaccines was finally measured in 1999, the FDA discovered that infants were receiving more than 100 times the EPA's safe limit for mercury by 18 months. (opednews.com)
  • In a 2008 report, the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety noted a study of mercury in premature and low-birth-weight infants in which those who received a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine containing thimerosal did not exhibit an accumulation of mercury in blood. (fiercevaccines.com)
  • An internal company memo that surfaced in a lawsuit against vaccine maker, Merck, proves the company knew infants were being injected with unsafe amounts of thimerosal back in 1991. (lookingglassnews.org)
  • Most vaccines made for young children and infants no longer contain Thimerosal due to the risk it poses. (fireengineering.com)
  • Congressman Weldon questions the CDC director as to why, following this meeting, Dr. Verstraeten published his results, almost four years later, in the journal Pediatrics to show just the opposite, that is, that there was no correlation to any neurodevelopmental problems related to thimerosal exposure in infants. (whale.to)
  • At the time of our review, vaccines containing thimerosal as a preservative could expose infants to cumulative mercury at levels that exceed EPA recommendations during the first 6 months of life. (wikia.org)
  • Pichichero ME, Cernichiari E, Lopreiato J, Treanor J. Mercury concentrations and metabolism in infants receiving vaccines containing thimerosal: a descriptive study. (jamanetwork.com)
  • In June 1999 the FDA revealed that infants who receive multiple doses of vaccines containing thimerosal would be exposed to total amounts of mercury that exceeded some federal guidelines. (blogspot.com)
  • In 2003 when all the residual stock of thimerosal containing vaccines was almost distributed, the CDC Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices (ACIP) made the new recommendation that all pregnant women, infants starting at six months of age and children receive flu vaccines annually. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • This recommendation was contradictory to the fact that the prestigious Institute of Medicine made the recommendation in 2001 that pregnant women, infants and children NOT receive thimerosal preserved vaccines. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • This flu season approximately 48 million doses of flu vaccine containing thimerosal were distributed, leaving pregnant women, infants and children in the U.S. at risk of mercury exposure. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • The Institute of Medicine conducted a study on thimerosal and concluded that the link between thimerosal and neurodevelopmental disorders was biologically plausible and called for the removal of thimerosal to "reduce mercury exposure of infants and children as much as possible. (wordpress.com)
  • 1 As a precautionary measure, the US Public Health Service and the American Academy of Pediatrics urged vaccine manufacturers to remove thimerosal from all infant vaccines as soon as practical and recommended that studies be conducted to investigate the risks associated with ethylmercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines. (aappublications.org)
  • Nevertheless, to be super-cautious, the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) asked doctors to minimize exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines and manufacturers to remove thimerosal from vaccines as soon as possible [2]. (quackwatch.org)
  • The decision also gave a sheen of scientific legitimacy to anti-vaccination groups who took the decision to remove thimerosal as an admission of guilt. (huffpost.com)
  • On July 9, 1999, after much haggling, the CDC and AAP decided to exercise the precautionary principle, asking vaccine makers to remove thimerosal from their products as soon as possible. (nzgeo.com)
  • No. Thimerosal hasn't been used in vaccines for children since 2001. (cdc.gov)
  • Since 2001, no new FDA-approved vaccines for children have contained thimerosal , and all vaccines for children under six years of age are thimerosal-free (or only contain trace amounts of the compound). (healthmap.org)
  • Thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative, has been the focus of intense scrutiny by the US Congress and the news media after its removal from most childhood vaccines in 2001. (aappublications.org)
  • 4 Therefore, thimerosal was removed from most childhood vaccines by 2001 as a precautionary measure. (aappublications.org)
  • Products containing thimerosal were not recalled and the manufacturers were allowed to continue to distribute thimerosal containing vaccines well into 2001 that had a two year expiration date. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • As of March 2001, all vaccines for routine immunization of children in Canada and the United States are produced without thimerosal. (babyandus.co.za)
  • Thimerosol, which has been used in vaccines since the 1930s, has not been used in the U.S. since 2001 and the vaccine dosages containing the preservative that were given before then had about the same amount of mercury found in an infant's daily supply of breast milk. (thepostemail.com)
  • First of all, children are hardly getting Thimerosal in vaccines anymore. (ksl.com)
  • It has been added to medical products since the 1930s as a preservative, including in vaccines packaged in multi-dose vials. (newscientist.com)
  • Thimerosal was added to vaccines to keep multi-dose vials free from such bacteria starting in the 1930s. (politifact.com)
  • They asked vaccine makers to remove thiomersal from vaccines as quickly as possible as a precautionary measure, and it was rapidly phased out of most US and EU vaccines, but is still used in multi-dose vials of flu vaccines in the U.S. No vaccines in the European Union currently contain thiomersal as a preservative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thimerosal is a compound that is 49.6% ethyl mercury by weight which has been used as a preservative to prevent contamination of multi-dose vials of vaccines and other drugs since the 1930s. (immunizationinfo.org)
  • Thiomersal has been used widely since the 1930s to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination of multi-dose vials of vaccines. (gavi.org)
  • While it is true that preservatives are used to prevent bacterial contamination in multi-dose vials of vaccines, there is ample evidence provided by federal agencies and independent scientists that spans the last 80 years which documents that thimerosal is not an effective or safe vaccine preservative. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • Thiomersal contains ethyl mercury which is used to prevent bacterial and fungal growth in inactivated vaccines most often the ones in multi-dose vials. (mommyingbabyt.com)
  • Thimerosal is a mercury-containing preservative that is added to multi-dose vials (vials containing more than one dose) of vaccine to prevent contamination and growth of potentially harmful bacteria. (vaccineriskawareness.com)
  • Thimerosal is a very effective preservative that has been used since the 1930s to prevent contamination in a number of products including some multi-dose vials of vaccines. (vaccineriskawareness.com)
  • Some will come in multi-dose vials and will contain thimerosal as a preservative. (wordpress.com)
  • Multi-dose vials of seasonal influenza vaccine also contain thimerosal to prevent potential contamination after the vial is opened. (wordpress.com)
  • Developed as an antiseptic and antibacterial product, pharmaceutical companies began to use thimerosal in vaccines in the 1930s for the intended purpose of preventing bacterial contamination due to repeated needle punctures into multi-dose vials of vaccine. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • A weak association was found with thimerosal intake and certain neurodevelopmental disorders (such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) in one study, but was not found in a subsequent study [4]. (quackwatch.org)
  • It all started when a friend of mind sent me a copy of a letter from Congressman David Weldon, M.D. to the director of the CDC, Dr Julie L. Gerberding, in which he alludes to a study by a Doctor Thomas Verstraeten, then representing the CDC, on the connection between infant exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental injury. (whale.to)
  • In this shocking letter Congressman Weldon referrers to Dr. Verstraeten's study which looked at the data from the Vaccine Safety Datalink and found a significant correlation between thimerosal exposure via vaccines and several neurodevelopmental disorders including tics, speech and language delays, and possibly to ADD. (whale.to)
  • The committee concludes that although the hypothesis that exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines could be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders is not established and rests on indirect and incomplete information, primarily from analogies with methylmercury and levels of maximum mercury exposure from vaccines given in children, the hypothesis is biologically plausible. (wikia.org)
  • Immunization Safety Review: Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. (jamanetwork.com)
  • risk, if any, of neurodevelopmental effects posed by exposure to thimerosal. (truthsnitch.com)
  • The debate is partly fuelled by a historic confusion between risks ascribed to methyl mercury and the ethyl mercury in thiomersal. (newscientist.com)
  • While the study was not specifically designed to assess the toxicity of thimerosal, it does provide data helpful for assessing related risk -- in light of the short blood half-life of ethyl mercury. (rochester.edu)
  • That is a very different chemical from ethyl mercury, a component in the vaccine preservative thimerosal. (politifact.com)
  • Organic mercury compounds have been used as topical disinfectants (thimerosal, nitromersol and merbromin) and preservatives in medical preparations (thimerosal) and grain products (both methyl and ethyl mercurials). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thimerosal, which contains ethyl mercury, has been used as an additive to biologics and vaccines since the 1930s because it is effective in preventing bacterial and fungal contamination, particularly in multidose containers. (fireengineering.com)
  • Thimerosal is a derivative of ethyl mercury . (thevaccinemom.com)
  • Thimerosal is an organic compound that is 49.6% ethyl mercury by weight. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • Thimerosal has been used in vaccines since the early 1930s. (healthmap.org)
  • Thimerosal, a mercury containing preservative, was first use in the vaccines in the early 1930s. (whale.to)
  • Despite evidence, dating to the early 1930s, indicating Thimerosal to be potentially hazardous to humans and ineffective as an antimicrobial agent it is still being used. (blogspot.com)
  • 1 As a consequence of this and similar incidents, preservatives have been required for vaccines contained in multidose vials (with some exceptions) since the 1930s. (aappublications.org)
  • Nonetheless, starting in the 1930s, pharmaceutical companies began to use thimerosal in multidose vials of vaccine to extend shelf life and lessen the risk of bacterial and fungal contamination that arises when several doses are drawn from the same vial. (westonaprice.org)
  • Thimerosal plays a vital role in keeping vaccines fresh and ready to use in the developing world, where refrigeration and single-dose vials may not be an option. (fiercevaccines.com)
  • Thimerosal is the most widely used preservative in vials of vaccines used multiple times, a mercury-based organic compound that can prevent bacteria and fungus from growing. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • Chiron also uses the mercury-based preservative thimerosal as a sterilizing agent in making Fluvirin, to prevent exactly this type of contamination. (dailystrength.org)
  • First introduced in the 1930s, it prevents bacterial and fungal contamination of these products. (canada.ca)
  • Thiomersal (also spelled thimerosal, especially in the United States) is an organomercury compound used as a preservative in vaccines to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thimerosal has been used as preservative in biologics and vaccines since the 1930s because it prevents bacterial and fungal contamination, particularly in multidose containers. (quackwatch.org)
  • Many attribute the increase in numbers of ASDs to children being exposed to significant quantities of thimerosal, a mercury-based compound that has been used since the 1930s as a preservative in certain vaccines and pharmaceutical products to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination. (wnd.com)
  • Thimerosal never measured up to its supposed raison d'être of safely preventing microbial contamination, and studies continued to chalk up clear and unequivocal evidence that thimerosal was deadly to human cells. (westonaprice.org)
  • Vaccine makers started using preservatives in the 1930s after they found that contamination could become a problem with multi-dose vaccines. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • Total mercury content in canine hair before and after administration of vaccines containing thiomersal. (nel.edu)
  • Sedlackova L, Kral T, Sevcikova M, Kruzikova K, Svobodova Z. Total mercury content in canine hair before and after administration of vaccines containing thiomersal. (nel.edu)
  • Recognising this, the treaty text specifically excludes "vaccines containing thiomersal as preservatives," and instead focuses on restricting the major sources of mercury releases into the environment. (gavi.org)
  • Knowledge of the toxicokinetics and developmental toxicity of thimerosal is needed to afford a meaningful assessment of the developmental effects of thimerosal-containing vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • But the truth is, as the NAA reports, "There are over 1,500 studies and papers documenting the hypoallergenicity and toxicity of thimerosal (ethylmercury) have existed for decades," with most recent research revealing commonness of speech delays and tics. (wnd.com)
  • Eli Lilly researchers reported in 1931 that animals seemed to tolerate high doses of thimerosal. (thetruthseeker.co.uk)
  • Our review revealed no evidence of harm caused by doses of thimerosal found in vaccines, except for local hypersensitivity reactions. (wikia.org)
  • Data from 19 studies show no convincing evidence of harm caused by the low doses of thimerosal in vaccines, except for minor local injection site reactions like redness and swelling at the injection site. (vaccineriskawareness.com)
  • He further explains that he is referring to children being exposed to thimerosal in vaccines. (whale.to)
  • Pharmaceutical), calls the fallout from the decision to withdraw thimerosal from vaccines a 'cautionary tale:' 'Although the precautionary principle assumes that there is no harm in exercising caution, the alarm caused by the removal of thimerosal from vaccines has been quite harmful,' he writes. (rachel.org)
  • Removal of thimerosal from vaccines was precipitated by an amendment to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Modernization Act, which was signed into law on November 21, 1997. (aappublications.org)
  • Although the precautionary principle assumes that no harm will come from exercising caution, the alarm caused by the removal of thimerosal from vaccines has proved damaging. (nzgeo.com)
  • Three preservatives are used in vaccines licensed in the United States: phenol, 2-phenoxyethanol, and thimerosal (Table 1 ). (aappublications.org)
  • Preservatives have been required in multi-dose vaccines since the 1930s. (thevaccinemom.com)
  • Thiomersal has been used in vaccines since the 1930s and there is little evidence that vaccines or preservatives in vaccines have given rise to new health conditions. (mommyingbabyt.com)
  • He synthesized an important anti-microbial alkyl mercuric sulfur compound, thimerosal, commercially known as Merthiolate, which he patented in 1928 and assigned to the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and Company. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Morris Kharasch, a university chemist and Eli Lilly fellow, developed thimerosal and filed for a patent in June 1929, describing thimerosal as an "alkyl mercuric sulfur compound" with antibacterial properties. (thetruthseeker.co.uk)
  • All of this because thimerosal is a mercury compound. (healthmap.org)
  • A mercury-containing organic compound, thimerosal has been used to prevent microbial growth in vaccines. (healthmap.org)
  • Another compound facing a possible ban, however, is a benign medicinal preservative called thiomersal (thimerosal in the US). (newscientist.com)
  • Thiomersal (sodium ethylmercuric thiosalicylate) is an organic compound containing ethylmercury that has been widely used as a vaccine preservative since the 1930s. (mja.com.au)
  • In the 1930s, some vaccine makers used a preservative called Thimerosal , which contained a very low concentration of a mercury compound. (ksl.com)
  • Thimerosal is an organic mercury compound that is an effective preservative. (canada.ca)
  • Thiomersal is ethylmercury containing compound. (nel.edu)
  • The organomercury compound Thiomersal (commonly called Thimerosol) is a widely used antibacterial and antifungal agent. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Thiomersal (or Thimerosal) is a mercury compound used as a preservative used in some vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The review also highlighted difficulty interpreting toxicity of the ethylmercury in thiomersal because guidelines for mercury toxicity were based primarily on studies of methylmercury, a different mercury compound with different toxicologic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.N. Environment Program is toiling with the idea of putting the kibosh on thimerosal , an organic mercury compound widely used as a preservative in multidose vaccines since the 1930s. (fiercevaccines.com)
  • In line with this review, U.S. vaccine manufacturers responded to a December 1998 and April 1999 FDA request to provide more detailed information about the thimerosal content of their preparations that include this compound as a preservative. (truthsnitch.com)
  • Thimerosal is an organic mercury compound that has been used as a preservative in some vaccines and other medications since the 1930s. (babyandus.co.za)
  • Bolen notes that back in the 1930s the risk of this mercury (Hg) compound was of real concern. (blogspot.com)
  • The product Thimerosal (Merthiolate) is a mercury-containing pharmaceutical compound that is 49.55% mercury. (blogspot.com)
  • Are there side effects from thimerosal in vaccines? (cdc.gov)
  • Most people don't have any side effects from thimerosal, but some people will have mild side effects like redness and swelling at the place where the shot was given, which will only last 1 to 2 days. (cdc.gov)
  • Most people do not see any side effects from thimerosal, but there is a chance of a mild reaction like swelling or redness at the injection site due to this additive. (flufree.com)
  • Lives potentially would be lost if we banned thimerosal from vaccines. (fiercevaccines.com)
  • Ball LK, Ball R, Pratt RD. An assessment of thimerosal use in childhood vaccines. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Although thimerosal was slated for removal from childhood vaccines in 1999, the reformulation process took several years. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • Ironically, thimerosal was first added to vaccines in the 1930s to make the shots safer. (huffpost.com)
  • In 1999, the AAP, the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) and various vaccine manufacturers actually agreed that thimerosal should be "removed as soon as possible" from vaccines due to its potential neurotoxicity. (healthmap.org)
  • Since the 1999 recommendation, researchers have reviewed data on the safety and efficacy of mercury compounds in vaccines, have monitored vaccine coverage and have reviewed the risks and benefits of thimerosal-containing vaccines and their alternatives. (healthmap.org)
  • In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the US Public Health Service issued a joint statement recommending the removal of thiomersal from vaccines as a precautionary measure, following a US Food and Drug Administration review. (newscientist.com)
  • Thimerosal was removed and has not been used as a preservative in any vaccine on the recommended schedule for children since 1999. (politifact.com)
  • After the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 mandated a review and risk assessment of all mercury-containing food and drugs, vaccine manufacturers responded to FDA requests made in December 1998 and April 1999 to provide detailed information about the thiomersal content of their preparations. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] In July 1999, following a review of mercury-containing food and drugs, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) asked vaccine makers to remove thiomersal from vaccines as quickly as possible, and it was rapidly phased out of most U.S. and European vaccines. (wikia.org)
  • After public pressure, on July 7, 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the US Public Health Service (PHS) released a joint statement acknowledging the dangers of thimerosal, short of prosecuting the drug companies which used it even after the ban. (blogspot.com)
  • In 1999, sci-en-tists at the FDA cal-cu-lat-ed that the rec-om-mend-ed vac-cines would deliv-er a total of 187.5 micro-grams of mer-cury. (nomeasles.com)
  • Merthiolate was introduced as a vaccine preservative in 1931, and by the late 1980s thimerosal was used in all whole-cell DPT vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eli Lilly and Company registered thimerosal under the trade name Merthiolate later that year. (thetruthseeker.co.uk)
  • The mercury in vaccines, however, is in the form of thimerosal. (chappellhealth.com)
  • In the past, mercury was present in some vaccines in the form of thimerosal. (babyandus.co.za)
  • Geneva, 18 January 2013 - Delegates at the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) today recognised the safety of thiomersal - a mercury-based vaccine preservative - and the critical role it plays in global health - by excluding it from a treaty on the release of mercury into the environment. (gavi.org)
  • There was a wide range of opinions on the urgency and significance of the safety of thiomersal, with some toxicologists suggesting there was no clear evidence that thiomersal was harmful and other participants like Neal Halsey , director of the Institute of Vaccine Safety at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, strongly advocating removal of thiomersal from vaccines due to possible safety risks. (infogalactic.com)
  • In our study of MCO members, prenatal and early-life exposure to ethylmercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations was not related to increased risk of ASDs. (aappublications.org)
  • The findings from this large comprehensive study do not suggest any causal association between increasing exposure to ethylmercury in thimerosal-prenatally and early in life-and ASD, AD or ASD with regression at 7 to 10 years of age. (immunizationinfo.org)
  • In the final preparation of vaccines, the concentration of thimerosal is small, measured in micrograms (µg), one millionth of a gram. (canada.ca)
  • 3. Factors affecting the concentration of thimerosal in aqueous solutions and in vaccines stored in rubber-capped bottles. (vaccinationnews.org)
  • This study was designed to examine relationships between prenatal and infant ethylmercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and/or immunoglobulin preparations and ASD and 2 ASD subcategories: autistic disorder (AD) and ASD with regression. (aappublications.org)
  • Exposure to thimerosal in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations was determined from electronic immunization registries, medical charts, and parent interviews. (aappublications.org)
  • It was introduced as a preservative in the 1930s to prevent the growth of infectious organisms such as bacteria and fungi, and has been in use in vaccines and other products such as immunoglobulin preparations and ophthalmic and nasal solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next listed article (presently listed as # 395 (PMID: 14253616) was by the same authors and was published in the following issue of the same journal in November 1964: "Thimerosal as a preservative in biological preparations. (vaccinationnews.org)
  • They haven't found any evidence that thimerosal causes harm. (cdc.gov)
  • There was no convincing evidence that there was any harm from thimerosal, but I felt we would have difficulties with public acceptance of vaccines if we continued its use,' Halsey said. (politifact.com)
  • With the availability of additional evidence on the safety of thimerosal as a preservative in vaccines, NACI published a brief statement updating its recommendations in December 2005 (2) in conjunction with the annual influenza vaccine campaign, promising to follow up with a completely revised statement. (canada.ca)
  • But a now-debunked 1998 study on the link between vaccines and brain damage, as well as growing concern from a small number of parents suspicious of vaccine ingredients, set the stage for its removal, even though there was no scientific evidence that thimerosal was harmful. (huffpost.com)
  • Despite the lack of convincing evidence of toxicity of thiomersal, the USPHS and AAP determined that thiomersal should be removed from vaccines as a purely preventative measure and to increase public confidence in vaccines. (wikia.org)
  • In 2004, two UK studies found no evidence that expo-sure to thimerosal in vaccines was harmful, and a more comprehensive study has just confirmed that result. (nzgeo.com)
  • With respect to thimerosal in particular, the panel found evidence from 1950 which concluded that "thimerosal was no better than water in protecting mice from potential fatal streptococcal infections. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • There is no evidence that the presence of thimerosal in vaccines causes brain damage in children. (babyandus.co.za)
  • Like Halsey, Dr. Paul Offit, a pediatrics professor at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, agreed that the science never supported the theory that thimerosal caused harm. (politifact.com)
  • Attention by the news media has caused some parents to fear that thimerosal contained in vaccines might harm their children. (aappublications.org)
  • The CDC and other officials have known for DECADES that thimerosal causes harm. (vaccineriskawareness.com)
  • Thimerosal - A preservative containing mercury that has been used as an additive in vaccines since the 1930s. (blogspot.com)
  • (3) Live vaccines, such as the oral polio drops and the MMR or measles, mumps and rubella vaccines, do not contain thiomersal, because it would kill the immunizing component. (mommyingbabyt.com)
  • When a person is immunized with a vaccine that contains thimerosal, the resultant concentration of metabolized ethylmercury is reduced even further as it is diluted in the body. (canada.ca)
  • An Infowars reader has sent a vaccine insert that proves Fluzone contains thimerosal, the deadly antiseptic and antifungal agent. (wordpress.com)
  • Thimerosal was used in trace amounts in vaccines. (politifact.com)
  • 6 To minimise any potential risk, all vaccinations in the Australian Standard Vaccination Schedule for children younger than 5 years are now thiomersal-free or contain only trace amounts. (mja.com.au)
  • Some vaccines, including certain flu vaccines, still contain trace amounts of thimerosal. (huffpost.com)
  • Some vaccines contain trace amounts of mercury (thimerosal), but it's a different kind of mercury than is found in things like fish. (thevaccinemom.com)
  • However, the fact that thiomersal contains small amounts of ethylmercury has warranted its inclusion in the UNEP treaty negotiations, which were set up as part of an effort to rid the world of the risks posed to human health and the environment by mercury. (gavi.org)
  • By mid-2000, thimerosal-free vaccines against hepatitis B and bacterial meningitis were widely available. (quackwatch.org)
  • Since then, thimerosal has been the most widely used preservative in multi-dose vaccines . (thevaccinemom.com)
  • While it is true that thimerosal is a widely used preservative, it is not necessarily an effective preservative. (childrenshealthdefense.org)
  • Some parents have questions about the safety of ingredients - like thimerosal ("THY-mayr-uh-sal") - in children's shots (vaccines). (cdc.gov)
  • We want you to know that thimerosal is no longer used in children's shots, except some types of flu shots. (cdc.gov)
  • Thiomersal is no longer used in most children's vaccines in the United States, with the exception of some types of flu shots. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of these findings, Russia banned thimerosal from children's vaccines in 1980. (wordpress.com)
  • On five separate occasions, Frist has tried to seal all of the government's vaccine-related documents -- including the Simpsonwood transcripts -- and shield Eli Lilly, the developer of thimerosal, from subpoenas. (skepdic.com)
  • Regardless of the real motivations of Frist or Armey or anyone else for that matter, the argument that Lilly and other drug companies should be given protection from thimerosal lawsuits as a matter of national security must be considered on its own merits. (skepdic.com)
  • Thimerosal is a mercury-based preservative that was developed in the 1930s by Eli Lilly, and has been used regularly in vaccines ever since basically to boost vaccine maker profits by allowing drug companies to package vaccines in large containers instead of a single dose. (opednews.com)
  • During this same time period, the Eli Lilly researchers reported on the first injections of thimerosal into humans. (westonaprice.org)
  • For people who want to avoid thimerosal, the preservative-free flu vaccination is an excellent option. (flufree.com)
  • Comparison of blood and brain mercury levels in infant monkeys exposed to methylmercury or vaccines containing thimerosal. (nih.gov)
  • In this study we compared the systemic disposition and brain distribution of total and inorganic mercury in infant monkeys after thimerosal exposure with those exposed to MeHg. (nih.gov)
  • But he was willing to entertain the idea that thimerosal was helping to impair infant brains, even though there were no data to support the theory. (politifact.com)
  • Calomel was commonly used in infant teething powders in the 1930s and 1940s. (wikipedia.org)
  • This epidemic in all probability may have been prevented or curtailed had the FDA not been asleep at the switch regarding a lack of safety data regarding injected thimerosal and the sharper eyes of infant exposure to this known neurotoxin. (opednews.com)