A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.
The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Narrowing of the spinal canal.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.
Injuries involving the vertebral column.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
The spinal or vertebral column.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
The period during a surgical operation.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)
The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.
Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
The period following a surgical operation.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
Since the 1930s, spinal manipulation under anesthesia has been reported in the published medical literature. Within the ... Aspegren, D. D; Wright, R. E; Hemler, D. E (1997). "Manipulation under epidural anesthesia with corticosteroid injection: Two ... along with increased interest in spinal manipulation (SM). In the MUA literature, spinal manipulation under anesthesia has been ... Francis, R (1989). "Spinal manipulation under general anesthesia: a chiropractic approach in a hospital setting". J Am Chiro ...
For many years however, a controversy centered around whether Corning's injection was a spinal or an epidural block. The dose ... which was popularized in the 1930s by Italian surgery professor Achille Mario Dogliotti [it] (1897-1966). Dogliotti is known ... Marx, GF (1994). "The first spinal anesthesia. Who deserves the laurels?". Regional Anesthesia. 19 (6): 429-30. PMID 7848956. ... "Research and clinical observations on spinal anesthesia: with special reference to the peridural technique" (PDF). Anesthesia ...
Spinal anesthesia is a "one-shot" injection that provides rapid onset and profound sensory anesthesia with lower doses of ... In the 1930s, physicians started to augment inhaled general anesthetics with intravenous general anesthetics. The drugs used in ... Central neuraxial anesthesia is the injection of local anesthetic around the spinal cord to provide analgesia in the abdomen, ... It is divided into either spinal (injection into the subarachnoid space), epidural (injection outside of the subarachnoid space ...
Spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia merge into the central nervous system. Injection of LAs is often painful. A number of ... This technique was popularized in the 1930s and 1940s by Achile Mario Dogliotti. With the advent of thin, flexible catheters, ... epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia). *Abdominal surgery (epidural anesthesia/spinal anesthesia, often ... spinal/epidural anesthesia). *Bone and joint surgery of the pelvis, hip, and leg (spinal/epidural anesthesia, peripheral nerve ...
Laparoscopy was used in the diagnosis of liver and gallbladder disease by Heinz Kalk in the 1930s. Hope reported in 1937 on the ... Occasionally, the site of the sedative injection may become inflamed and tender for a short time. This is usually not serious ... Colonoscopy Enteroscopy Surgery Anesthesia "Endoscopy". British Medical Association Complete Family Health Encyclopedia. ... Endodontic surgery Maxillary sinus surgery Apicoectomy Endoscopic endonasal surgery Endoscopic spinal surgery An Endoscopy is a ...
... they injected people with spinal anesthesia, and inserted needles into their jugular veins and brachial arteries to extract ... Cameron also induced insulin comas in his subjects by giving them large injections of insulin, twice a day, for up to two ... Rous closely monitored the articles he published since the 1930s, when revival of the anti-vivisectionist movement raised ... Many were given spinal taps "for which they received no direct benefit." Reporters of 60 Minutes learned that in these five ...
The increase in oxygen allows for an increase in the injection of fuel, allowing the engine to produce more engine power. The ... Conversely, α2-adrenoceptor antagonists block the pain-reducing effects of N 2O when given directly to the spinal cord, but not ... It remained in use by many hospitals until the 1930s. Although hospitals today use a more advanced anaesthetic machine, these ... Emmanouil DE, Quock RM (2007). "Advances in Understanding the Actions of Nitrous Oxide". Anesthesia Progress. 54 (1): 9-18. doi ...
... weakness from spinal nerve compression, or concern about some other neurologic injury or disorder. Spinal nerve injury does not ... EMG signals are sometimes used to guide botulinum toxin or phenol injections into muscles. EMG signals are also used as a ... The capability of detecting electromyographic signals improved steadily from the 1930s through the 1950s, and researchers began ... arms and lower limbs An acceleromyograph may be used for neuromuscular monitoring in general anesthesia with neuromuscular- ...
"Pharmacological characterization of noroxymorphone as a new opioid for spinal analgesia". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 106 (2): ... The drug became known as the "Miracle Drug of the 1930s" in Continental Europe and elsewhere and it was the Wehrmacht's choice ... In the United Kingdom, it is available by injection. Combination products are also available with paracetamol (acetaminophen), ... Oxycodone overdose has also been described to cause spinal cord infarction in high doses and ischemic damage to the brain, due ...
The Nation of Islam, a black political and religious movement founded in the 1930s were among the first to claim fertility ... receiving spinal taps under the guise of treatment. Conducted by the United States Public Health service, the study did not ... under the false impression that her daughters were being receiving routine birth control injections. The District Court ... victimized enslaved African American women and girls in his surgical experiments without administering anesthesia. Black women ...
The injections were later suspected to have caused cancer in at least three of the children who were born to these mothers. In ... In the 1930s, Ernest William Goodpasture and his colleagues in the School of Medicine invented methods for cultivating viruses ... "1863-James Tayloe Gwathmey, M.D., F.I.C.A.-1944 (Father of M... : Anesthesia & Analgesia". LWW. Retrieved June 5, 2017. " ... but Page suffered a paralyzing spinal cord injury in a 1967 preseason practice and died from the complications on September 29 ...
Spinal manipulation, which chiropractors call "spinal adjustment" or "chiropractic adjustment", is the most common treatment ... By the 1930s, chiropractic was the largest alternative healing profession in the U.S. Chiropractors faced heavy opposition from ... O'Connor D, Marshall S, Massy-Westropp N, Pitt V (2003). "Non-surgical treatment (other than steroid injection) for carpal ... such as manipulation under anesthesia, involves sedation or local anesthetic and is done by a team that includes an ...
During the 1930s, American engineer Harold Edgerton began exploring strobe light technology for high speed photography. This ... Xenon at 80% concentration along with 20% oxygen rapidly produces the unconsciousness of general anesthesia (and has been used ... "Tonic inhibitory role of α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord in ... MR imaging with intravenous injection of hyperpolarized 129Xe". Radiology. 252 (2): 386-93. doi:10.1148/radiol.2522081550. PMC ...
Some evidence supports the use of facet joint injections, transforminal epidural injections and sacroilliac injections as ... It is unclear if among those with non-chronic back pain alternative treatments are useful.[84]Chiropractic care or spinal ... In the 1920s and 1930s, new theories of the cause arose, with physicians proposing a combination of nervous system and ... buttocks (saddle anesthesia) Significant trauma related to age. Fracture Chronic corticosteroid use ...
The experimental injection of fever inducing malarial blood into the frontal lobes was also replicated during the 1930s in the ... Freeman suggested that, where conventional anesthesia was unavailable, electroconvulsive therapy be used to render the patient ... Spinal cord and spinal canal. *Spinal cord and roots *Cordotomy. *Rhizotomy. *Vertebrae and intervertebral discs: see Template: ... Before the 1930s, individual doctors had infrequently experimented with novel surgical operations on the brains of those deemed ...
Spinal manipulation, which chiropractors call "spinal adjustment" or "chiropractic adjustment", is the most common treatment ... By the 1930s, chiropractic was the largest alternative healing profession in the U.S.[22] ... "Non-surgical treatment (other than steroid injection) for carpal tunnel syndrome". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 ... such as manipulation under anesthesia, involves sedation or local anesthetic and is done by a team that includes an ...
Since the 1930s, spinal manipulation under anesthesia has been reported in the published medical literature. Within the ... Aspegren, D. D; Wright, R. E; Hemler, D. E (1997). "Manipulation under epidural anesthesia with corticosteroid injection: Two ... along with increased interest in spinal manipulation (SM). In the MUA literature, spinal manipulation under anesthesia has been ... Francis, R (1989). "Spinal manipulation under general anesthesia: a chiropractic approach in a hospital setting". J Am Chiro ...
For many years however, a controversy centered around whether Cornings injection was a spinal or an epidural block. The dose ... which was popularized in the 1930s by Italian surgery professor Achille Mario Dogliotti [it] (1897-1966). Dogliotti is known ... Marx, GF (1994). "The first spinal anesthesia. Who deserves the laurels?". Regional Anesthesia. 19 (6): 429-30. PMID 7848956. ... "Research and clinical observations on spinal anesthesia: with special reference to the peridural technique" (PDF). Anesthesia ...
Spinal anesthesia is a "one-shot" injection that provides rapid onset and profound sensory anesthesia with lower doses of ... In the 1930s, physicians started to augment inhaled general anesthetics with intravenous general anesthetics. The drugs used in ... Central neuraxial anesthesia is the injection of local anesthetic around the spinal cord to provide analgesia in the abdomen, ... Spinal, epidural and caudal anesthesia[edit]. Further information: Neuraxial blockade and History of neuraxial anesthesia ...
Local anesthesia was also used liberally. I personally witnessed operations in which local anesthesia was used from beginning ... A middle-aged public relations man who was born with a malformed spinal canal. This gentleman had more pain at the end of ... The text then advocates six kinds of herbal mixtures, three forms of acupuncture, and the injection of vitamins into one of the ... These indictments were echoed in the 1930s and 1940s by Pa Chin, a revolutionary writer. Many conservative Chinese Nationalist ...
Spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia merge into the central nervous system. Injection of LAs is often painful. A number of ... This technique was popularized in the 1930s and 1940s by Achile Mario Dogliotti. With the advent of thin, flexible catheters, ... epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia). *Abdominal surgery (epidural anesthesia/spinal anesthesia, often ... spinal/epidural anesthesia). *Bone and joint surgery of the pelvis, hip, and leg (spinal/epidural anesthesia, peripheral nerve ...
In the 1930s, he revised the powder camera into its present form. He invented the precession method of x-ray diffraction ... Thus a cut halfway through the cord from one side produces paralysis in the same side of the body but anesthesia in the side ... He was among the first to work out the physiology of the spinal cord. In 1849, he discovered that the sensory, though not the ... He also studied the physiological effects of the injection of genital gland extracts. In 1856 he discovered that the adrenal ...
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The nerves lie along the spinal column and are approached through the back or the neck, by using local anesthesia. ... Sometimes, in very severe cases, Botox injections can help or even a keyhole operation called an endoscopic thoracic ... Treatment of systemic hypertension with sympathectomy was initiated in the 1930s.. Renal denervation for resistant hypertension ... Recent techniques are less invasive and may be done under local anesthesia and as outpatient surgery. If only one arm or leg is ...
... spinal taps and injections; one twin would be infected with a disease and the other not; organ removal; castration; amputation ... In the 1930s, syphilis was poorly understood, and many of the treatments toxic in their own right. In 1932, 399 poor black ... The patients were vivisected without anesthesia after infection with diseases; pregnant women were vivisected and the fetus ... animal blood injections; lethal radiation doses; injected with sea water to see if it could be substituted for saline; and ...
1930s Hess Induction of sleep with intraventricular injection of the ergotamine: Sleep that follows the ergotamine injection ... The brainstem is the rostral continuation of the spinal cord, and serves as the "spinal cord" of the face and head. In this ... Discovery of the extralemniscal ascending system: "secondary response" to sciatic stimulation under deep barbiturate anesthesia ... Spinal Cord. Balance Tectospinal Tract Superior Colliculus Cervical Cord Dorsal tegmental decussations (midbrain) Coordination ...
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Hood DD, Curry Spinal versus epidural anesthesia for cesarean section in severely preeclamptic patients. Chiu CL, Mansor M, Ng ... Educate that up with unimaginable injections of Epenephrine. Its principal active nomad is ephedrine, an amphetamine-like is ... drug that the supplement knoll tampax to shift its focus to a press effective from airway Research Associates also blame 1930s ... Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia with low doses of intrathecal bupivacaine in women with severe preeclampsia: a ...
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  • The types of anesthesia are broadly classified into general anesthesia , sedation and regional anesthesia . (gutenberg.org)
  • Regional anesthesia renders a larger area of the body insensate by blocking transmission of nerve impulses between a part of the body and the spinal cord . (gutenberg.org)
  • Although a recent study supports the use of phenylephrine during regional anesthesia in uncomplicated term pregnancy (17), ephedrine increases uterine and placental circulation after epidural anesthesia-induced hypotension more than phenylephrine (18). (roidsinjections.com)
  • Randomized comparison of general and regional anesthesia for cesarean delivery in pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia. (roidsinjections.com)
  • Some anesthesiologists have suggested that the BJR may explain cardiovascular collapse reported during regional anesthesia techniques. (asahq.org)
  • It also provides discussion of the limited relevance of this reflex in regional anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • We are experts in all aspects of Anesthesiology, including general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, regional anesthesia and nerve blocks, IV sedation, Monitored Anesthesia Care, epidural anesthesia for labor and delivery and pain management. (riseforspecialchildren.com)
  • In the outpatient ambulatory or hospital-based setting, with a qualified medical physician in attendance, the anesthetic or medication component/s of the spinal MUA procedure may be provided in one of two ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local anesthetic injection allows previously incomplete office-based manual therapy methods to be better delivered/tolerated, but outside of the general anesthesia scenario. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the publication of Bier's experiments in 1899, a controversy developed about whether Bier or Corning performed the first successful spinal anesthetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than removing the caudal needle after the injection as was customary, the two surgeons experimented with a continuous caudal infusion of local anesthetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hingson and Edwards studied the caudal region to determine where a needle could be placed to deliver anesthetic agents safely to the spinal nerves without injecting them into the cerebrospinal fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnostic tests such as bone marrow aspiration, lumbar puncture (spinal tap) and aspiration of cysts or other structures are made to be less painful upon administration of local anesthetic before insertion of larger needles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps the best-known rumor about "acupuncture anesthesia" was that The New York Times's noted political analyst James Reston had his appendix removed with acupuncture as the anesthetic. (quackwatch.org)
  • Central blockades place the local anesthetic around the spinal cord (such as with spinal and epidural anesthesia ) removing sensation to any area below the level of the block. (gutenberg.org)
  • It wasn't until the 1930s that Dr. Harvey Cushing tied the stress response to higher mortality rates and began using local anesthetic for hernia repairs in addition to general anesthesia. (gutenberg.org)
  • A local anesthetic ( LA ) is a drug that causes reversible local anesthesia, generally for the aim of having a local analgesic effect, that is, inducing absence of pain sensation, although other local senses are often affected as well. (meddic.jp)
  • When the chosen end point is found, the injection of 1 mL of local anesthetic abolishes the stimulation of muscle activity (i.e., dorsal flexion of the foot and eversion Figure 21-9 Cross-sectional diagram of the sciatic nerve and its relation to the lesser trochanter of the femur for anterior and posterior approaches. (mitchmedical.us)
  • Instead, anesthesia is usually maintained with an inhaled anesthetic (gas) agent. (wikia.org)
  • Finally, Corning was incorrect in his theory on the mechanism of action of cocaine on the spinal nerves and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • He proposed - mistakenly - that the cocaine was absorbed into the venous circulation and subsequently transported to the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • It functions as a bridge linking together the spinal cord, the cerebellum, and the rest of the brain. (scholarpedia.org)
  • It contains pathways running down from the brain to the spinal cord and the cerebellum, and pathways running up to the brain from these structures. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Because of its mere shape as a narrow structure at the crossroad between so important structures such as the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the spinal cord, any small lesion in the brainstem will have devastating results. (scholarpedia.org)
  • it contains essential gray matter that receives incoming signals from, and projects to, structures such as the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, the spinal cord, the cerebellum and the basal ganglia, controlling many vital functions necessary for life. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Because of its connections with these structures, the brainstem is capable of modulating the function of the spinal cord, the cerebellum, and even the cerebral cortex. (scholarpedia.org)
  • For instance, lesions as small as a few millimeters in diameter can not only cut the connections from the brain to the spinal cord and cause paralysis, but also affect the up-going signals to the brain itself, and thus cause cognitive impairment. (scholarpedia.org)
  • This surgical procedure cuts or destroys the sympathetic ganglia, collections of nerve cell bodies in clusters along the thoracic or lumbar spinal cord. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There, her work revolved around using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for spinal cord regeneration. (mercola.com)
  • The iliac crest is a purchase ambien 10mg in houston commonly used Buy ambien online paypal anatomical landmark for lumbar epidural injections, as this level roughly corresponds with the fourth lumbar vertebra, which is usually well below the termination of the spinal cord. (bonnaire.com)
  • Any head, neck, or spinal cord injuries should be noted as well as any diagnosis of osteoporosis. (riseforspecialchildren.com)
  • In 1840, an orthopedic surgeon wrote that the spinal cord was the seat of infection, a hypothesis that was proven twenty-three years later. (animalliberationfront.com)
  • Substance P is widely distributed in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system in people. (fishpain.com)
  • Barbiturates are a class of drugs that act on the GABA A receptor in the brain and spinal cord. (wikia.org)
  • With today's MUA procedure, deep conscious sedation is accomplished with agents such as propofol, through monitored anesthesia care (MAC). (wikipedia.org)
  • this was likely due to safer anesthesia used for conscious sedation, along with increased interest in spinal manipulation (SM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the situation, this may be used either on its own (in which case the patient remains fully conscious), or in combination with general anesthesia or sedation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes, conduction anesthesia is combined with general anesthesia or sedation for the patient's comfort and ease of surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sedation (or dissociative anesthesia) uses agents that inhibit transmission of nerve impulses between higher and lower centers of the brain inhibiting anxiety and the creation of long-term memories . (gutenberg.org)
  • Orlando Anesthesia Consultants is anesthesia and Sedation group of 17 physicians and 15 Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists that has been taking care of patients in Central Florida for over 45 years. (riseforspecialchildren.com)
  • Referring veterinarians are welcome to call to discuss their patients' needs, be it anesthesia, oral outpatient sedation, inpatient sedation, acute or chronic pain management. (riseforspecialchildren.com)
  • In the United Kingdom, deep sedation is considered to be a part of the spectrum of general anesthesia, as opposed to conscious sedation. (riseforspecialchildren.com)
  • Beginning in October 1941, Robert Andrew Hingson (1913-1996), Waldo B. Edwards and James L. Southworth, working at the United States Marine Hospital at Stapleton, on Staten Island in New York, developed the technique of continuous caudal anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hingson then collaborated with Edwards, the chief obstetrician at the Marine Hospital, to study the use of continuous caudal anesthesia for analgesia during childbirth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first use of continuous caudal anesthesia in a laboring woman was on January 6, 1942, when the wife of a United States Coast Guard sailor was brought into the Marine Hospital for an emergency Caesarean section. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the use of continuous caudal anesthesia, the woman and her baby survived. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different types of anesthesia affect the endpoints differently. (wikipedia.org)
  • To achieve the goals of anesthesia, drugs act on different but interconnected parts of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many different needs and goals of anesthesia. (gutenberg.org)
  • Regional and local anesthesia , which blocks transmission of nerve impulses from a specific part of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regional and local anesthesia , which block transmission of nerve impulses from a specific part of the body. (howlingpixel.com)
  • In 1921, Spanish military surgeon Fidel Pagés (1886-1923) developed the modern technique of lumbar epidural anesthesia, which was popularized in the 1930s by Italian surgery professor Achille Mario Dogliotti [it] (1897-1966). (wikipedia.org)
  • Choices include spinal or epidural analgesics, which may be administered as single injections or as infusions, and the percutaneous destruction of peripheral nerves , nerve plexuses, and nerve roots. (mitchmedical.us)
  • In 1867, von Bezold and Hirt 1 observed that an intravenous injection of veratrum alkaloids caused a profound decrease in blood pressure and heart rate in conjunction with apnea. (asahq.org)
  • In 1915, Cramer (as cited in Dawes and Comroe 2 ) described apnea, hypotension, and bradycardia following intravenous injection of veratrum viride extracts in cats. (asahq.org)
  • Following intravenous injection the drug rapidly reaches the brain and causes unconsciousness within 30-45 seconds. (wikia.org)
  • Eugène Aburel Bogdan (1899-1975) was a Romanian surgeon and obstetrician who in 1931 was the first to describe blocking the lumbar plexus during early labor, followed by a caudal epidural injection for the expulsion phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the 1930s, this inform continuing to accumulate, about without counterargument [url=http://www.simplybehaviour.com/online-lectures/topic-of-discussion-28/principle-18/]bactrim 960 mg without prescription[/url]. (mykostroma.ru)
  • Through the 1930s, this prove continuing to accumulate, most without counterargument [url=https://www.monosilk.com/wp-includes/collection/set7/levitra-super-active/]cheap levitra super active 40 mg visa[/url] best pills for erectile dysfunction yahoo. (kobook.com.ua)
  • Early clues as to the mechanism of the BJR came from observations that cooling or sectioning the vagus nerve (the afferent limb of the reflex) could abolish the aforementioned triad of bradycardia, hypotension, and peripheral vasodilation in response to injection of veratrum alkaloids. (asahq.org)
  • It is intended as a means of breaking up adhesions (scar tissue) of or about spinal joints (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, or pelvic regions), or extremity joint articulations (i.e., knee, shoulder, hip) to which painfully restricted range of motion significantly limits function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal manipulation under anesthesia for the treatment of chronic spinal (e.g., cranial, cervical, thoracic, lumbar) pain and chronic sacroiliac and pelvic pain is considered experimental/investigational and, therefore, not covered because the safety and/or effectiveness of this service cannot be established by review of the available published peer-reviewed literature. (amerihealth.com)
  • It was largely abandoned due to complications from general anesthesia and due to the type of nonspecific manipulation procedures used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The risks of complications during or after anesthesia are often difficult to separate from those of the procedure for which anesthesia is being given, but in the main they are related to three factors: the health of the patient, the complexity (and stress) of the procedure itself, and the anaesthetic technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first public demonstration of general anesthesia was in 1846 by a Boston dentist named William T.G. Morton at the Massachusetts General Hospital . (gutenberg.org)
  • An early form of anesthesia was first used at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston by dentist William T.G. Morton and surgeon John Warren on October 16, 1846. (umhs-sk.org)
  • On October 16, 1846, Boston dentist William T.G. Morton used sulfuric ether to anesthetize a man who needed surgery to remove a vascular tumor from his neck, according to "The Painful Story Behind Modern Anesthesia" by Dr. Howard Markel on PBS.org . (umhs-sk.org)
  • Please note this timeline only includes events after the first surgical procedure using anesthesia in 1846. (umhs-sk.org)
  • citation needed] Medication Assisted Manipulation (MAM) has been used since the 1930s, and MUA was practiced by osteopathic physicians and orthopedic surgeons in the 1940s and 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • As protein purification techniques improved throughout the 1930s and 1940s, thrombokinase was resolved into several distinct components. (wordpress.com)
  • During the 1930s and 1940s massage's influence decreased as a result of medical advancements of the time, while in the 1970s massage's influence grew once again with a notable rise among athletes. (thebestthaimassage.co.uk)
  • Manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) or fibrosis release procedures is a multidisciplinary, chronic pain-related manual therapy modality which is used for the purpose of improving articular and soft tissue movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • When rendered to the spine, this variety of MUA procedure is qualified by terms such as manipulation under joint anesthesia (MUJA) and manipulation under epidural anesthesia (MUEA). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the MUA literature, spinal manipulation under anesthesia has been described as a controversial procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the 1930s, spinal manipulation under anesthesia has been reported in the published medical literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • [17] The evidence for chiropractic care [18] and spinal manipulation is mixed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the woman suffered from rheumatic heart disease (heart failure following an episode of rheumatic fever during childhood), her doctors believed that she would not survive the stress of labor but they also felt that she would not tolerate general anesthesia due to her heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • General anesthesia suppresses central nervous system activity and results in unconsciousness and total lack of sensation , using either injected or inhaled drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, many anaesthetists, surgeons, patients and nurses believe that it is safer to perform major surgeries under local anesthesia than general anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sympathectomy was traditionally done as an inpatient surgical procedure under general anesthesia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • General anesthesia refers to the suppression of activity in the central nervous system , resulting in unconsciousness and total lack of sensation . (gutenberg.org)
  • Unfortunately for Long, he did not publish his successes with ether for general anesthesia until 1849. (gutenberg.org)
  • General anesthesia is not maintained with barbiturate drugs. (bonnaire.com)
  • From the Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. (asahq.org)
  • Pain Management For information about general anesthesia and monitoring your pet while he or she is recovering from surgery, see our fact sheet here. (riseforspecialchildren.com)
  • The surgical treatment for carpal tunnel is an outpatient surgery which can be done under local or general anesthesia. (athensnowal.com)
  • Most surgeons prefer general anesthesia. (athensnowal.com)
  • Thiopental is an ultra-short-acting barbiturate and is most commonly used in the induction phase of general anesthesia . (wikia.org)
  • Is ephedrine the best vasopressure for treating spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension in patients with pre-eclampsia. (roidsinjections.com)
  • Although Bier properly deserves credit for the introduction of spinal anesthesia into the clinical practice of medicine, it was Corning who created the experimental conditions that ultimately led to the development of both spinal and epidural anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • His clinical contributions are legendary: the use of x-rays in surgical practice, physiological saline for irrigation during surgery, the discovery of the pituitary as the master hormone gland, founding the clinical specialty of endocrinology, the anesthesia record, the use of blood pressure measurement in surgical practice, and the physiological consequences of increased intracranial pressure. (todayinsci.com)
  • Although interspinous process spacers are a promising new technology, the results of longer-term clinical follow-up studies are needed to more clearly define their role in the management of lumbar spinal stenosis. (keflex2020.site)
  • Recent techniques are less invasive and may be done under local anesthesia and as outpatient surgery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As a less common mode of MUA treatment, select injectable medications can be administered directly to affected synovial joints, spinal facet joints or into the surrounding epidural space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on Corning's own description of his experiments, it is apparent that his injections were made into the epidural space, and not the subarachnoid space. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skeletal muscle fibers are awkward, yet there are no structural abnormalities in the spinal rope or the peripheral nerves. (kobook.com.ua)
  • On August 16, 1898, German surgeon August Bier (1861-1949) performed surgery under spinal anesthesia in Kiel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from spinal surgery, pain injections and medications, including addictive opioids, current treatment is limited, and many don't get the results they're looking for. (coloradomedicalmarijuana.net)
  • [4] [13] Surgery may be beneficial for those with disc-related chronic pain and disability or spinal stenosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal of anesthesia is to achieve the endpoints required for the given surgical procedure with the least risk to the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • For purposes of pain therapy, LA drugs are often given by repeated injection or continuous infusion through a catheter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thiopental is not used to maintain anesthesia in surgical procedures because, in infusion, it displays zero-order elimination kinetics , leading to a long period before consciousness is regained. (wikia.org)
  • Local anesthesia is also used during insertion of IV devices, such as pacemakers and implantable defibrillators, ports used for giving chemotherapy medications and hemodialysis access catheters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anesthesia enables the painless performance of medical procedures that would otherwise cause severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient, or would otherwise be technically unfeasible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal versus epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery in severe preeclampsia: a prospective randomized, multicenter study. (roidsinjections.com)
  • After the abortion, Bickham gave Sylvia repeated injections of Demerol because she was reporting severe abdominal cramps. (blogspot.com)
  • The synthetic opioid methadone, developed in Germany in the 1930s for the treatment of severe pain, has been employed for the Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT) of heroin addiction and opioid use disorder since the 1960s. (medworm.com)
  • Anesthesia in animals has many similarities to human anesthesia, but some differences as well. (randallortho.com)
  • The integration of this imaging is to be projects in anesthesia to appear structures and their ubiquitous defenses in a remarkable layer in an gathering to be a satisfactory carbon. (socalmodern.com)
  • Alternatively, epidural and spinal anesthesia can be performed in the region of the central nervous system itself, suppressing all incoming sensation from nerves supplying the area of the block. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of controlled, temporary loss of sensation or awareness that is induced for medical purposes. (howlingpixel.com)
  • Since the 1860s, it had been known that injection of minute amounts (0.005 mg) of veratrine or its pure alkaloid components (veratrum) initiates a reflex which causes a rapid fall in blood pressure and heart rate in association with apnea. (asahq.org)
  • In preparing for a medical procedure, the clinician chooses one or more drugs to achieve the types and degree of anesthesia characteristics appropriate for the type of procedure and the particular patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risks during and following anesthesia are difficult to quantify, since many may be related to a variety of factors related to anesthesia itself, the nature of the procedure being performed and the patient's medical health. (howlingpixel.com)
  • Anesthesia is a unique medical intervention which does not itself offer any particular medical benefit and instead enables the performance of other medical interventions. (gutenberg.org)
  • In the latest installment of our Medical Milestones series, the UMHS Endeavour takes a look back at the history of anesthesia for future doctors at American and Caribbean medical schools We will include information from an article by Dr. Howard Markel on PBS.org and Wood Library Museum.org and other sources. (umhs-sk.org)
  • In addition to anesthesia induction, thiopental was historically used to induce medical comas. (wikia.org)
  • Though, it is ostensible that the groin recurrence measure after more radical surgical techniques pro groin treatment is to a great extent infirm (inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy en bloc or via break up inci- sions), varying from 0 to 4. (autoportal.ru)
  • Another area for which basic experimental research is lacking to support the efficacy of MUA treatment of the low back, and other spinal regions, relates to the two presiding theories that [A] flexibility of the spine may be increased when adhesions are reduced, and [B] MUA is more effective at treating adhesions than office-based manual therapy methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another conservative treatment option is to consider injection therapy. (athensnowal.com)
  • In veterinary medicine , thiopental is also used to induce anesthesia in animals . (wikia.org)
  • Patients typically wake within minutes of anesthesia being terminated and regain their senses within hours. (howlingpixel.com)
  • Hood DD, Curry Spinal versus epidural anesthesia for cesarean section in severely preeclamptic patients. (roidsinjections.com)
  • Retrospective review of spinal versus epidural anaesthesia for cesarean section in preeclamptic patients. (roidsinjections.com)
  • Spinal string abuse patients from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, and managed for more than 20 years using the Crede m aneuver. (kavalerist.ru)
  • However, conduction anesthesia may be preferable because of superior pain control and fewer side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • EDTA is a prescription medicine, given by injection into the vein (intravenously) or into the muscle (intramuscularly). (naturalhealthperth.com)
  • The pediatric gym is used with children who are on the autism spectrum, children with cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, developmental delay, spinal bifida, and any other physical or cognitive challenges. (issuu.com)
  • Also, because the preponderance of studies are of lower level evidence the issue of long-term effectiveness of MUA in the management of specific spinal conditions has yet to be investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many years however, a controversy centered around whether Corning's injection was a spinal or an epidural block. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are both major and minor risks of anesthesia. (gutenberg.org)