Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Astringents: Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.WeldingCitric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Beryllium: Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Antiperspirants: Agents that are put on the SKIN to reduce SWEATING or prevent excess sweating (HYPERHIDROSIS).Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.CitratesOrganometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Sucralfate: A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Aurintricarboxylic Acid: A dye which inhibits protein biosynthesis at the initial stages. The ammonium salt (aluminon) is a reagent for the colorimetric estimation of aluminum in water, foods, and tissues.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Naphthaleneacetic Acids: Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Corrosion: The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Silicic Acid: A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Neodymium: Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Guam: An island in Micronesia, east of the Philippines, the largest and southernmost of the Marianas. Its capital is Agana. It was discovered by Magellan in 1521 and occupied by Spain in 1565. They ceded it to the United States in 1898. It is an unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Department of the Interior since 1950. The derivation of the name Guam is in dispute. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p471)Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Water SofteningShips: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Hemodialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.MalatesHydrofluoric Acid: Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Lasers, Solid-State: Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.Scandium: Scandium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sc, atomic number 21, and atomic weight 45.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Yttrium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Air Abrasion, Dental: A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Hemodialysis, Home: Long-term maintenance hemodialysis in the home.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Hydrangea: A plant genus of the family HYDRANGEACEAE. Members contain hydrangenol, thunberginols, hydramacrosides A and B, and secoiridoid glucosides.Neurologic Manifestations: Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.Andropogon: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of bluestem is also used for other plants in this family. Andropogon nardus has been reclassified as CYMBOPOGON nardus and Andropogon zizanioides to VETIVERIA zizanioides.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Hematoporphyrin Derivative: A complex mixture of monomeric and aggregated porphyrins used in the photodynamic therapy of tumors (HEMATOPORPHYRIN PHOTORADIATION). A purified component of this mixture is known as DIHEMATOPORPHYRIN ETHER.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Light Coagulation: The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Phalaris: A plant genus of the family POACEAE.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cladocera: A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.Lewis Acids: Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Cooking and Eating UtensilsGraphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Penicillin G Procaine: Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining penicillin G with PROCAINE.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)WyomingPhosphorus Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Dihydrotachysterol: A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Gastric Lavage: Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Succinic Anhydrides: A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Patch Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.Secale cereale: A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Activation Analysis: A method of chemical analysis based on the detection of characteristic radionuclides following a nuclear bombardment. It is also known as radioactivity analysis. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Electroplating: Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Tin: A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Fasciitis: Inflammation of the fascia. There are three major types: 1, Eosinophilic fasciitis, an inflammatory reaction with eosinophilia, producing hard thickened skin with an orange-peel configuration suggestive of scleroderma and considered by some a variant of scleroderma; 2, Necrotizing fasciitis (FASCIITIS, NECROTIZING), a serious fulminating infection (usually by a beta hemolytic streptococcus) causing extensive necrosis of superficial fascia; 3, Nodular/Pseudosarcomatous /Proliferative fasciitis, characterized by a rapid growth of fibroblasts with mononuclear inflammatory cells and proliferating capillaries in soft tissue, often the forearm; it is not malignant but is sometimes mistaken for fibrosarcoma.Potentiometry: Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.NorwayOxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Calbindin 1: A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Posterior Capsulotomy: Procedures performed to remove CAPSULE OPACIFICATION that develops on the POSTERIOR CAPSULE OF THE LENS following removal of a primary CATARACT.Plant Root Cap: A cone-shaped structure in plants made up of a mass of meristematic cells that covers and protects the tip of a growing root. It is the putative site of gravity sensing in plant roots.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Apicoectomy: Excision of the apical portion of a tooth through an opening made in the overlying labial, buccal, or palatal alveolar bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Tetanus ToxoidDental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Propantheline: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Fluorine: A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.Mice, Inbred BALB CEquipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Tetralones: A group of TETRAHYDRONAPHTHALENES containing a keto oxygen.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Heinkel He 57
List of bicycle types
Aluminum frames have recently been used in Cruiser construction, lowering weight. Cruisers typically have minimal gearing and ... Cruisers were the bicycle standard in the United States from the 1930s until the 1950s. The traditional cruiser is single-speed ... Using a sturdy welded chromoly or aluminum frame derived from the mountain bike, the city bike is more capable at handling ...
St. Louis YPT-15
The first aluminum cookware was a tea kettle made around 1893. In 1903 the company moved to new premises at 12th and Raspberry ... The logo was changed to block lettering during the 1920s through the 1930s. This version of the Griswold logo is the most ... In the 1920s Griswold began producing enameled items, and in the 1930s had added electrical items to their product line. ... Cast-iron stovetop waffle irons were one of the company's earliest and most successful products, manufactured into the 1930s. ...
APEV Pouchel Light
Wright designed a succession of popular furniture lines for many furniture companies beginning in the early 1930s through the ... He also designed top selling wooden furniture, spun aluminum dining accessories and textiles. His simple, practical style was ... began creating small objects for the home consisting of cast metal animals and informal serving accessories of spun aluminum ... influential in persuading ordinary Americans to embrace Modernism in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. Wright's trademarked signature ...
Federal Building and United States Courthouse (Wheeling, West Virginia, 1907)
Pull-off bottle cap
ALKA was made of aluminum and had a tab that was pulled to remove the cap. There was no scoring on an ALKA cap. In the 1970s ... ALKA, the predecessor of the modern ring-pull caps, was introduced during the 1930s. ALKA had a seal made of natural cork. It ... A MaxiCap is an aluminum closure with scoring and a tab to pull. They were easier to use than the ALKA and pre-manufactured ...
The aluminum-alloy slide has either a dark-bronze anodized finish or was painted matte-black after 1939. Trigger Trigger weight ... had to be 500 grams for .22 short in ISSF regulations, compared to 1,360 grams for .22LR in the 1930s. Nowadays .22LR is ... Slide The slide is made of steel when chambered for cal.22 long rifle ammunition and aluminum-alloy for cal.22 short. ... Variations within models may include: barrel lengths and designs, grip designs and slides made steel or aluminum-alloy. Three ...
These were some of the first pistons to use an aluminum body with a steel strut, allowing for the weight of aluminum and the ... Nelson-Bohnalite was the name of a piston developed by Adolph Lincoln Nelson in the 1930s and 1940s. The pistons were licensed ... Many then existing brands of autos used this type of piston in the mid-1930s: Auburn, Graham, Hupmobile, Nash, Packard, Pierce- ... to Bohn Aluminum and sold to all the major auto manufacturers at the time. ...
William Justin Kroll
He continued to gamble, losing $6,000 in one night in the late 1930s. Gardiner's drinking increased until 1940, when Audrey ... He was involved in real estate, metal stamping, manufacturing, forest products, aluminum products and car rentals. He partnered ... organizing conventions and developing policy in the 1930s and 1940s. He was instrumental in the updating of the Conservative ...
Air hammer (fabrication)
This tool was later scaled down for sheet metal, as the 1930s saw the advent of monocoque aluminum aircraft. The other new ... By World War II, rivet guns were used widely in U.S. aircraft factories both for riveting aluminum sheets, and for flow forming ... the process of working aluminum sheet into and over wooden forms by the application of the pneumatic rivet gun. Post-war ...
Wagner Manufacturing Company
The "Magnalite" line of cast aluminum products was introduced in the early 1930s, made from a patented aluminum alloy. The ... Wagner grew into a major manufacturer of cast iron and aluminum products, selling in the US and Europe. In addition to cookware ... In 1894 Wagner was one of the first to make aluminum cookware. The company acquired their competitor Sidney Hollow Ware from ... The Wagner Manufacturing Company was a family-owned manufacturer of cast iron and aluminum products based in Sidney, Ohio, US. ...
The Four-Way Test
In the early 1930s Herbert J. Taylor set out to save the Club Aluminum Products distribution company from bankruptcy. He ... The test was scripted by Herbert J. Taylor an American from Chicago as he set out to save the Club Aluminum Products ... He retained the rights to use the test for himself, his Club Aluminum Company and the Christian Workers Foundation. The test is ...
Ferdinand Anton Ernst Porsche
During the early 1930s, Germany's economic crisis was at its peak. The country was about to be politically dominated by the ... In 1933, their first race car was developed with a 4.5 litre V-16 engine and an aluminum framework. In 1934, Wanderer and ... During the 1930s, Stuttgart had already established itself as a center for the automobile industry. Germany's most important ... They overwhelmingly dominated all the competitions of the 1930s. In 1938, Ferdinand Porsche senior left the Auto Union racing ...
Beginning in the 1930s, merchants started to move from charge coins to the newer Charga-Plate. The Charga-Plate, developed in ... They came in various shapes and sizes; with materials made out of celluloid (an early type of plastic), copper, aluminum, steel ... Charge coins and other similar items were used from the late 19th century to the 1930s. ... 1928, was an early predecessor of the credit card and was used in the U.S. from the 1930s to the late 1950s. It was a 2½" × 1¼ ...
Bartle Hall Pylons
Rail transportation in the United States
With the 1930s came the widespread use of stainless steel for carbodies. The typical passenger car was now much lighter than ... Aluminum and Cor-ten were also used in lightweight car construction, but stainless steel was the preferred material for car ... By the end of the 1930s, railroads and carbuilders were debuting carbody and interior styles that could only be dreamed of ... As early as the 1930s, automobile travel had begun to cut into the rail passenger market, somewhat reducing economies of scale ...
Passenger car (rail)
Until about the 1930s, these had an open-air platform at the rear, the "observation platform". These evolved into the closed ... Aluminum construction). A portion of the car, usually in the center, is split between two levels, with stairs leading both up ... With the 1930s came the widespread use of stainless steel for carbodies. The typical passenger car was now much lighter than ... Aluminum and Cor-Ten steel were also used in lightweight car construction, but stainless steel was the preferred material for ...
St. Louis YPT-15 - Wikipedia
Let's learn a Sustainable Lifestyle; children's workbook by Earth Charter International - Issuu
A reddish sedimentary rock formed by aluminum hydrates, iron oxides, and aluminum silicates. It is the primary source for ... CFCs began being produced in the 1930s for refrigeration. Afterward, they were used as propellants in spray cans and as ... Aluminum is produced from bauxite which is a mineral often found in the forest? • Making aluminum from recycled material uses ... Cover the inside of the top with aluminum foil. b) Bend the wire as shown in the drawing and use it to keep the top in place. c ...
List of bicycle types - Wikipedia
Aluminum frames have recently been used in Cruiser construction, lowering weight. Cruisers typically have minimal gearing and ... Cruisers were the bicycle standard in the United States from the 1930s until the 1950s. The traditional cruiser is single-speed ... Using a sturdy welded chromoly or aluminum frame derived from the mountain bike, the city bike is more capable at handling ...
What Came After Knob and Tube Wiring??? - DoItYourself.com Community Forums
Caring for audio, video and data recording media - Preventive conservation guidelines for collections - Canada.ca
1930s to 1960s. Aluminum base (sometimes glass, steel or cardboard) with primarily a cellulose nitrate lacquer. Only grooved ... Depending on the optical disc format, the metal reflective layer may be composed of aluminum, aluminum alloy, silver, silver ... A phonograph record made of aluminum coated with cellulose nitrate. Exudation of additives forms crystalline or greasy ... but the film of a hard disk is on a rigid platter usually made of aluminum, although ceramic or glass have also been used as ...
How to Clean a Fountain Pen (with Pictures) - wikiHow
Environment : Digging for Alzheimer's Data in Canadian Mine : Aluminum has been linked inconclusively to the brain disease. Now...
Not only did aluminum show up in the brains of Alzheimers disease victims, but it also was present in precisely those tangled ... Back in the 1930s, hard-rock mining operations were plagued with silicosis outbreaks among their workers. Silicosis is a ... Companies that process aluminum or sell aluminum products, through their trade group, the Aluminum Assn., have been holding ... So why should a little bit of water-borne aluminum matter?. Perl responds that aluminum is highly complex, appearing in many ...
Environment : Digging for Alzheimer's Data in Canadian Mine : Aluminum has been linked inconclusively to the brain disease....
Not only did aluminum show up in the brains of Alzheimers disease victims, but it also was present in precisely those (Page 2 ... Back in the 1930s, hard-rock mining operations were plagued with silicosis outbreaks among their workers. Silicosis is a ... So why should a little bit of water-borne aluminum matter?. Perl responds that aluminum is highly complex, appearing in many ... He became interested in the possibility that aluminum might be more dangerous if inhaled, and he put aluminum-impregnated ...
Bicycle - Wikipedia
Since the late 1930s alloy steels have been used for frame and fork tubes in higher quality machines. By the 1980s aluminum ... Since then aluminum alloy frames and other components have become popular due to their light weight, and most mid-range bikes ... are now principally aluminum alloy of some kind.[where?] More expensive bikes use carbon fibre due to its significantly lighter ... welding techniques had improved to the point that aluminum tube could safely be used in place of steel. ...
SIC 3291 Abrasive Products - Description, Market Prospects, Industry History
... products market into the 1930s. In 1938, a new technique for producing aluminum oxide was developed, resulting in the most ... In the 1950s, aluminum oxides were produced by nonfusion methods. Fused mixtures of aluminum and zirconium oxides also became ... aluminum oxide, and boron carbide. Aluminum oxide, produced from bauxite, is used to cut hard metals, while boron carbide is ... Fused aluminum oxide abrasives, pioneered by C. B. Jacobs in the 1890s, became a commercial product by 1904. Along with the ...
Amelia Earhart - Wikipedia
... an aluminum panel, possibly from an Electra, made using 1930s manufacturing specifications; an oddly cut piece of clear ... In July 2017, staff from the New England Air Museum notified TIGHAR that the unique rivet pattern of the aluminum panel ... Ric Gillespie, head of TIGHAR, claimed the found aluminum panel artifact has the same dimensions and rivet pattern as the one ... Recently rediscovered photos of Earharts Electra just before departure in Miami show an aluminum panel over a window on the ...
Capacitor types - Wikipedia
Two 8 μF, 525 V wound wet aluminum electrolytic capacitors in paper housing sealed with tar out of a 1930s radio. ... Aluminum e-caps with non-solid electrolyte have a polarity marking at the cathode (minus) side. Aluminum, tantalum, and niobium ... Aluminum electrolytic capacitors with aluminum oxide as dielectric. *Tantalum electrolytic capacitors with tantalum pentoxide ... Aluminum oxide Al. 2O. 3,. Tantalum pentoxide Ta2O5, Niobium pentoxide Nb. 2O. 5. Greatly reduced ESR compared with manganese ...
Collecting to Teach: The Extraordinary Legacy of Joseph A. Haller, S.J. | Georgetown University Library
In the 1930s, with the help of his cousin Joseph Hirshhorn, Friedlander emigrated to Canada, where he met and married his ... Louise Miller Boyer created this drypoint on a treated aluminum plate, which was much harder than the traditional copper or ... In the 1930s Benton became identified as a Regionalist artist together with Grant Wood and John Steuart Curry. Shunning the ... Dwight worked for New Yorks Federal Art Project in the late 1930s and wrote a critical essay, "Satire in Art," for a report on ...
eNews: Volume 17, Number 8 (December 2019) | NIOSH | CDC
Fushun | China | Britannica.com
The Potential Significance of Aluminum/DNA Compounds in Gardasil on Health - SaneVax, Inc.
Alum has been used to improve the efficacy of vaccines since the 1930s. Here we show that alum acts in part via host DNA to ... Filed Under: HPV, SANE Vax Press Releases, Vaccine Science, World News Tagged With: aluminum adjuvants, Aluminum-DNA compounds ... The Potential Significance of Aluminum/DNA Compounds in Gardasil on Health. The Potential Significance of Aluminum/DNA ... Excerpts from a recent paper entitled "Host DNA released in response to aluminum adjuvant enhances MHC class II-mediated ...
Electronics/Capacitors - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Two 8 μF, 525 V wound wet aluminum electrolytic capacitors in paper housing sealed with tar out of a 1930s radio. ... Aluminum e-caps with non-solid electrolyte have a polarity marking at the cathode (minus) side. Aluminum, tantalum, and niobium ... Aluminum electrolytic capacitors with aluminum oxide as dielectric. *Tantalum electrolytic capacitors with tantalum pentoxide ... Aluminum dioxide Al2O3,. Tantalum pentoxide Ta2O5, Niobium pentoxide Nb2O5. Greatly reduced ESR compared with manganese or non- ...
Beer | Encyclopedia.com
The glass-lined cans allow producers to package their beer in a package like aluminum to allow for a lower breakage rate than ... Canned beer first came on the market in the 1930s. The American beer market today is dominated by several large companies such ... Though brewers first put beer in tin or steel cans, Coors introduced the aluminum can in 1959 and it was quickly adopted by the ... The desire to create jobs during the Great Depression of the 1930s also encouraged the repeal of prohibition. Many people ...
Beekeeping - Wikipedia
In 1919, Abushady patented a removable, standardized aluminum honeycomb. In 1919 he also founded The Apis Club in Benson, ... In Egypt in the 1930s, Abushady established The Bee Kingdom League and its organ, The Bee Kingdom. ... in the early 1930s. Beekeeping with European honeybee, (Apis mellifera) was started by Dr. A. S. Atwal and his team members, O ... in France the De-Layens trough-hive became popular and in the UK a British National hive became standard as late as the 1930s ...
Adjuvants and Vaccines | Vaccine Safety | CDC
Aluminum. Aluminum-containing adjuvants are vaccine ingredients that have been used in vaccines since the 1930s. Small amounts ... Aluminum salts, such as aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, and aluminum potassium sulfate have been used safely in ... Aluminum. One or more of the following: amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate (AAHS), aluminum hydroxide, aluminum ... Aluminum salts were initially used in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s with diphtheria and tetanus vaccines after it was found they ...
Yellowstone geyser erupts, pours out trash dating back to 1930s | WHNT.com
Dr. Steven Novella, why is this so hard to understand? - AGE OF AUTISM
So aluminum (a known neurotoxin) has been in vaccines since the 1930s. ... What have we found? Aluminum and thimerisol have been found to what? ah, to cause autism in monkeys. Not in little boys...just ... The NNii says on their website that aluminum has been used in vaccines as an adjuvant for over 75 years. ... and aluminum (in amounts that exceed the minimal risk level). ...
binocular facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about binocular
In the 1930s, nearly all of the metal parts of the service glasses were made of aluminum to save brass and reduce the weight. ... Reductions in the weight of the binoculars occurred with the use of aluminum or polycarbonate housings instead of the heavier ... Modern-day binocular tubes are primarily made out of aluminum coated with silicon or a leather-like material called gutta- ... These components are then manually assembled into a die cast body, which is often made from aluminum. ...
Vaccine: Know Your Rights and Risks
Take aluminum, for example, which has been added to vaccines since the 1930s to help jolt the bodys immune system into action ... you really cannot compare orally ingested aluminum and intra-muscularly injected aluminum. These two routes of administration ... In order for an adult to get the same amount of aluminum per kilo of weight that a child receives at the age of 2 months, the ... I]ngesting aluminum orally, where only about 0.25 percent is absorbed and then filtered by the kidneys, is very different than ...
Fluoride Action Network | Toxic Treatment: Fluoride's Transformation from Industrial Waste to Public Health Miracle
In the mid-1930s, whether natural or anthropogenic, fluoride compounds were nothing but bad news for human and environmental ... A big step toward solving the mystery of brown stain occurred in 1931, when nervous chemists at the Aluminum Company of America ... During the 1930s, Dean, McKay, and colleagues from the PHS and various university dental schools set about trying to ... By the late 1920s, however, the company was fending off charges that its aluminum cookware was slowly poisoning the population. ...
Anna Hyatt Huntington: A Collector's Eye; article by Robin Salmon
Forming the bones of the original sculpture garden, her bronze and aluminum castings of Diana of the Chase, Lions, The Young ... Designed for the Paul Rainey Memorial Gate at the Bronx Zoo, Shoebill Stork exemplifies Paul Manships style in the 1930s and ... By the end of the 1930s, the Brookgreen collection included more than 350 works by important sculptors as well as rising stars ... through the decade of the 1930s. Although Archer Huntington provided the funds, it was Anna Hyatt Huntington who personally ...
The 2019-2024 World Outlook for Hot Impression Die Impact, Press, and Upset Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Forgings
... and upset aluminum and aluminum alloy forgings across more than 190 countries. For each ... ... In the 1930s, John Meynard Keynes conjectured that as incomes rise, the average propensity to consume would fall. The average ... and upset aluminum and aluminum alloy forgings. 3321121101 Hot impression die impact, press, and upset aluminum and aluminum ... The 2019-2024 World Outlook for Hot Impression Die Impact, Press, and Upset Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Forgings *January 2018 ...
Lindbergh flight goggles join Minnesota Historical Society collection
A pair of 1930s-era Charles Lindbergh pilot goggles is now in the hands of the Minnesota Historical Society to go along with ... The Historical Societys $8,500 bid landed the U.S. Navy MK1 goggles and aluminum case from a private collector in a May ... A pair of 1930s-era Charles Lindbergh flight goggles is now in the hands of the Minnesota Historical Society. (Courtesy of ...
Morgan EV3: 3 Wheels, Ash Wood Frame And Electric Traction
Following their 1930s traditions, the face of the "EV3" is designed to function. Brass conductive coolings fins surround the ... The body construction utilizes a carbon bonnet, a protective cover, side pads and aluminum panels, all of which are hand worked ... brass and polished aluminum. Morgan plan to put the "EV3" into production in the late 2016. Meanwhile you can check 10 Most ... build three-wheel electric vehicle complying with its 1930s flair - the "EV3". It will be the first production electric vehicle ...
Serving in the late 1930sLate 1930sCars of the 1930sAdjuvant1940sSalts1950sVaccineAlumAmounts of aluminum1920sAlcoa1970sAmericaExposureAsbestosWidespreadOxideSyntheticGreat DepressionAlzheimer'sHydroxideFoilResinAircraft industryToxicityBoneCompoundsSteelPotassiumBrainsBackMiners2018NeurotoxinMetalsCansToxicVaccinationsMadeSurfacesMercuryWaterSilicosisBodiesDiamondsCorkAmountDecadesAmericanSingleImmuneSubstancesShowScientistsPlaceSimilarBrain
Serving in the late 1930s1
Cars of the 1930s2
- Long hailed as one of the most influential cars of the 1930s -- perhaps of all time -- it nevertheless stands as a classic example of how greatness so often goes awry. (howstuffworks.com)
- Inspired by the racing cars of the 1930s, this single seater uses a big battery and augmented reality to mix modern luxury with an old-school aesthetic. (wired.com)
- Each dose of Gardasil contains 225mcg of aluminum-based adjuvant. (sanevax.org)
- In the case of Gardasil, the aluminum adjuvant is present to keep the HPV 6/11/16/18 virus-like particles in contact with the immune system long enough for the body to produce antibodies to those HPV genotypes. (sanevax.org)
- Excerpts from a recent paper entitled " Host DNA released in response to aluminum adjuvant enhances MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation and prolongs CD4 T-cell interactions with dendritic cells ," by McKee et al. (sanevax.org)
- What could happen in vaccine recipients when the DNA interacting with the aluminum adjuvant is not from the host, but from viral gene fragments with topological non-B conformational changes already bound to the aluminum adjuvant before it is injected - as it is with Gardasil? (sanevax.org)
- A report just published concludes that the adjuvant activities of alum (the aluminum salt used in vaccines) remain confusing because the material has been reported to act in so many different ways. (anh-usa.org)
- Aluminum, used as a adjuvant in many vaccines, is a neuro toxin. (citizenwells.com)
- Since the 1930s vaccine makers have been using aluminum as an adjuvant in vaccines. (vactruth.com)
- Aluminum salts were initially used in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s with diphtheria and tetanus vaccines after it was found they strengthened the body's immune response to these vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- In the 1930s and 1940s, American car makers used actual wood to enclose the passenger compartments in style. (fossilcars.com)
- Many vaccines include aluminum salts (alum) as adjuvants despite little knowledge of alum's functions. (sanevax.org)
- Aluminum salts, such as aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, and aluminum potassium sulfate have been used safely in vaccines for more than 70 years. (cdc.gov)
- Nature Medicine (2011)doi:10.1038/nm.2403 Received: 11 February 2011 Accepted: 19 May 2011 Published online: 17 July 2011 Abstract Aluminum-based adjuvants (aluminum salts or alum) are widely used in human vaccination, although their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. (sanevax.org)
- Aluminum gels or salts of aluminum which are added as adjuvants to help the vaccine stimulate a better response. (citizenwells.com)
- Aluminum-containing adjuvants are vaccine ingredients that have been used in vaccines since the 1930s. (cdc.gov)
- Small amounts of aluminum are added to help the body build stronger immunity against the germ in the vaccine. (cdc.gov)
- Scientific research has shown the amount of aluminum exposure in people who follow the recommended vaccine schedule is low and is not readily absorbed by the body. (cdc.gov)
- The FDA has set a limit on the amount of aluminum that can be in vaccines, but this number was based on the amount of aluminum required to enhance the effectiveness of the vaccine. (anh-usa.org)
- Pragmatic vaccine safety needs to embrace conventional toxicology, addressing especial characteristics of unborn fetuses, neonates and infants exposed to low levels of aluminum, and ethylmercury traditionally considered innocuous to the central nervous system. (citizenwells.com)
- Recently a post-doctoral fellow, L. Tomljenovic, and a professor, C.A. Shaw, both associated with the University of British Columbia, Canada, published the paper, "Aluminum Vaccine Adjuvants: Are they Safe? (vactruth.com)
Amounts of aluminum2
- In the 1930s, aluminum industry giant Alcoa was the largest producer of fluoride, releasing vapors into the atmosphere that crippled or killed farm animals and scorched crops and other vegetation. (mercola.com)
- Another motivation was the reality that disposing of fluoride waste from its aluminum plants was becoming increasingly costly for Alcoa. (mercola.com)
- In the 1930s Alcoa was charged with anti-trust violations. (blogspot.com)
- Right now, it looks like there may be a causal link between (aluminum) exposure and brain dysfunction," says Sandra Rifat, an epidemiologist at the Clark Institute in Toronto. (latimes.com)
- Not only did about twice as many miners from the aluminum-breathing group score in the "impaired" range, their amount of exposure seemed to worsen their difficulties. (latimes.com)
- research on aluminum exposure and vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- Shipyards throughout the U.S. have been major sources of asbestos exposure since the 1930s. (asbestos.com)
- Infants' exposure to aluminum from vaccines and breast milk during the first 6 months. (citizenwells.com)
- Vance, who moved to Ontario from his native England to take a job in the mines, was amazed to be subjected to a cloud of sooty-black aluminum oxide on his first day at work. (latimes.com)
- Synthetic abrasives, first invented by Edward G. Acheson in 1891, include silicon carbide (also known as Carborundum), aluminum oxide, and boron carbide. (referenceforbusiness.com)
- Aluminum oxide, produced from bauxite, is used to cut hard metals, while boron carbide is one of the hardest abrasives. (referenceforbusiness.com)
- Fused aluminum oxide abrasives, pioneered by C. B. Jacobs in the 1890s, became a commercial product by 1904. (referenceforbusiness.com)
- Along with the naturally occurring corundum, garnet, and diamond, silicon carbide and fused aluminum oxide dominated the abrasive products market into the 1930s. (referenceforbusiness.com)
- In 1938, a new technique for producing aluminum oxide was developed, resulting in the most successful abrasive grain for precision grinding that existed to date. (referenceforbusiness.com)
- Pure aluminum left in the air soon becomes coated with an oxide. (modernmechanix.com)
- To the home chemist, this fast-forming oxide of aluminum offers the means of performing two novel electrical experiments. (modernmechanix.com)
- A formation of oxide on the aluminum sheets becomes thicker and thicker until it forms a non-conducting wall that cuts down the current. (modernmechanix.com)
- The aluminum will be covered with a dull white film of oxide. (modernmechanix.com)
- America's Great Depression of the 1930s was a time of starvation and subsistence survival for many families. (thesurvivalmom.com)
- Many economists and politicians compare his trade policy as a march towards another "Great Depression" similar to the one, in the 1930s when President Hoover signed the Smoot-Hawley Act. (com.pk)
- Shepherdson noted that global trade flows plunged 66% after the United States imposed a wave of tariffs in the 1930s, deepening the Great Depression . (cnn.com)
- Environment : Digging for Alzheimer's Data in Canadian Mine : Aluminum has been linked inconclusively to the brain disease. (latimes.com)
- In 1980, two neuropathologists in New York made an intriguing discovery: Not only did aluminum show up in the brains of Alzheimer's disease victims, but it also was present in precisely those tangled brain cells that characterize the disease. (latimes.com)
- In the years since then, medical scientists have debated fiercely whether ingesting aluminum may somehow cause the dreaded, always-fatal Alzheimer's. (latimes.com)
- Since all people ingest aluminum all the time, these scientists demand, then wouldn't all people develop Alzheimer's if aluminum were really the culprit? (latimes.com)
- Now, in the northern Ontario town of Timmins, a group of gold miners enters the picture, presenting a tantalizing, as-yet-untapped body of evidence that may sway the Alzheimer's-aluminum debate one way or the other. (latimes.com)
- Ever since the public became aware that aluminum might have something to do with Alzheimer's disease, consumers have been giving aluminum products a distinctly cold shoulder. (latimes.com)
- Companies that process aluminum or sell aluminum products, through their trade group, the Aluminum Assn., have been holding forums on aluminum and Alzheimer's disease, where scientists present their findings, pro and con. (latimes.com)
- And there have been other findings: brain diseases among dialysis patients living in places with heavy concentrations of aluminum in the water, for instance, or Alzheimer's-like tangles in the brains of animals injected with aluminum. (latimes.com)
- Aluminum is a well-documented neurotoxin linked with Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, asthma, hyperactivity and Down's syndrome. (mercola.com)
- Aluminum is a well-documented neurotoxin linked to a number of neurodegenerative disorders such as dialysis encephalopathy syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. (anh-usa.org)
- All solutions containing aluminum can be identified by the jellylike precipitate formed when ammonium hydroxide (ordinary household ammonia will do) is added. (modernmechanix.com)
- When the ammonia water is added, the liquid will cloud up as the thick aluminum hydroxide precipitate is formed. (modernmechanix.com)
- Many aluminum compounds will react with ordinary water without the addition of the ammonium hydroxide to form the hydroxide of aluminum. (modernmechanix.com)
- Decades later, many survivors of those years hold on to the survival lessons they learned, from hoarding pieces of aluminum foil to eating lettuce leaves with a sprinkle of sugar. (thesurvivalmom.com)
- For the first, immerse two sheets of aluminum foil in a small jar or beaker containing a solution of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate). (modernmechanix.com)
- Knowing the toxicity of aluminum, you would think that rigorous safety testing has been done to prove that injecting aluminum into people, especially children with their developing brains, is safe. (anh-usa.org)
- The most sensitive target of aluminum toxicity is the nervous system. (citizenwells.com)
- We do not know if children are more susceptible than adults to aluminum toxicity. (citizenwells.com)
- In these patients the accumulation of aluminum in tissues causes an encephalopathy (dialysis encephalopathy or dialysis dementia), a specific form of metabolic bone disease (osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy), and an anemia and also plays an etiological role in some of the other complications associated with end-stage chronic renal disease. (vactruth.com)
- Since World War II there has been considerable industrial development, including the manufacture of electronic and office equipment, truck bodies, surgical supplies, pharmaceuticals, and aluminum, steel, and wire products. (britannica.com)
- In today's world of carbon fiber, steel, and aluminum auto body parts, we often forget that real wood was regularly used. (fossilcars.com)
- We use aluminum, galvanized steel and stainless steel to manufacture our products. (bizeurope.com)
- Atelier Phi will be presenting the innovative steel and aluminum range of tables and chairs created using only locally sourced materials from sustainable Switzerland-based suppliers. (prweb.com)
- My latest steel and aluminum collection was conceived and designed in a truly unique way. (prweb.com)
- While defending his tariff policy on several imported products such as steel and aluminum, President Trump argues that: "We've lost, over a fairly short period of time, 60,000 factories in our country - closed, shuttered, gone. (com.pk)
- A steel worker who lost his job when the factory closed due to the invasion of cheap foreign steel and aluminum will certainly be happy to re-elect President Trump for a second term. (com.pk)
- China has threatened to impose tariffs on American fruit, nuts and other products to retaliate for Trump's steel and aluminum tariffs. (cnn.com)
- Trump's much-feared tariffs on steel and aluminum imports were watered down substantially. (cnn.com)
- Aluminum and steel should be recycled, though, as we need less energy for that than to produce them from scratch. (japantimes.co.jp)
- Metals like steel, iron and aluminum created most pump components, but all connecting metal surfaces needed a flexible bonding agent. (asbestos.net)
- Some scrap steel, some brazing material, a bit of stainless steel, and a AR coated 1/4th inch diameter window for one end of the tube, and aluminum for the resonator. (laserpointerforums.com)
- Aluminum cans, office paper, steel from old buildings and plastic containers are all exam-ples of materials commonly recycled in large quantities, often through municipal programs encouraging bulk household collections. (howstuffworks.com)
- But the findings, although entirely circumstantial, are arresting: Miners who inhaled the aluminum were more than twice as likely to have impaired cognitive ability than were miners who weren't exposed. (latimes.com)
- Work on the gold miners of northern Ontario has already attracted the attention of a variety of interested parties, not the least of which is the aluminum industry. (latimes.com)
- Each day when the miners entered the headframe--a tall building where they reported to work, changed their clothes and caught elevators underground--they were required to sit for 10 minutes in the locker room while aluminum dust was blown around them. (latimes.com)
- This being 2018, it's made of carbon fiber, so it's painted to look like aluminum. (wired.com)
- A 2018 analysis concluded that the reasoning that has allowed such high levels of aluminum to remain in childhood vaccines is deeply flawed and "place[s] infants at risk of acute, repeated, and possibly chronic exposures of toxic levels of aluminum. (citizenwells.com)
- After the eruption, officials wrote on Facebook , park employees "found a strange assortment of items strewn across the landscape around its vent," from dozens of coins that people threw in to make wishes to just plain garbage: aluminum cans, plastic cups, cigarette butts, a broken bottle, etc. (whnt.com)
- Crushed aluminum ready to be recycled into new cans. (howstuffworks.com)
- What you've probably never been told is that the fluoride added to drinking water and toothpaste is a crude industrial waste product of the aluminum and fertilizer industries, and a substance toxic enough to be used as rat poison. (purewatergazette.net)
- What is the cumulative or total amount of aluminum storing as a toxic body burden in tiny infants' bodies? (vactruth.com)
- In the 1930s, nearly all of the metal parts of the service glasses were made of aluminum to save brass and reduce the weight. (encyclopedia.com)
- Modern-day binocular tubes are primarily made out of aluminum coated with silicon or a leather-like material called gutta-percha. (encyclopedia.com)
- Incidentally, a good product of this type can be made by dissolving about a tablespoonful of the aluminum chloride in half a tumbler of water. (modernmechanix.com)
- Within seconds a cube made from aluminum starts to inflate into the shape of a sponge under the impact of heat. (youris.com)
- However, quantities of mercury, aluminum, formaldehyde, human serum albumin, antibiotics, and yeast proteins in vaccines have not been found to be harmful in humans or experimental animals. (aappublications.org)
- At least 2 of those substances, mercury and aluminum are neuro toxins. (citizenwells.com)
- They point out that aluminum is one of the most abundant elements of the Earth's crust, and that people encounter it in any number of routine activities: when they take an antacid, when they spray on an antiperspirant, when they cook in an aluminum pan, sometimes even when they drink tap water, depending on how it was purified. (latimes.com)
- Perhaps most perplexing of all, critics noted, no matter how much aluminum the British subjects might be getting in their water, they would always be getting much more through food additives. (latimes.com)
- So why should a little bit of water-borne aluminum matter? (latimes.com)
- Some of the contaminants that accompany the fluoride added to your drinking water likely include aluminum, arsenic, lead and radionucleotide, among others. (mercola.com)
- Science and medicine know what happens to kidney dialysis patients if they receive kidney-filtering water that contains aluminum used as a flocking agent in municipal water systems. (vactruth.com)
- The most other Self-awakening download popular eugenics national efficiency and american mass culture in the 1930s is that of treasurer use and an Web-based target. (gomte.com)
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- In the 1930s and 40s, conservation and recycling became important in American society and in many other parts of the world . (howstuffworks.com)
- Animal studies show that repeated inoculation with aluminum-containing vaccines, in doses comparable to what children receive on the CDC schedule, causes severe neurological problems (restlessness, muscle tremors, loss of response to stimuli), altered expression of brain genes, and aluminum in the central nervous system tissue. (anh-usa.org)
- Her innovations in technique and display, as exhibited through her aluminum statues in Brookgreen Gardens, guarantee her place in the annals of art history. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The exhibition will take place in a renovated 1930s factory building in central Geneva and proceeds will go to Fondation Aide Aux Enfants children's charity. (prweb.com)
- 1 As a consequence of this and similar incidents, preservatives have been required for vaccines contained in multidose vials (with some exceptions) since the 1930s. (aappublications.org)
- Children who are exposed to high levels of aluminum exhibit symptoms similar to those seen in adults, including neurological effects and skeletal effects. (citizenwells.com)
- Mt. Sinai Medical Center's Perl, for one, went on from aluminum identification to the study of a baffling wave of degenerative brain disease on the Pacific island of Guam. (latimes.com)
- Regarding the role of aluminum in vaccines and brain inflammation, I just co-authored a paper with Dr. Harold E. Buttram, MD, titled "Vaccines and Brain Inflammation," which has been accepted for publication by an online journal. (vactruth.com)