Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.DucksQuarantine: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.Basic Reproduction Number: The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.GeesePolysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.United StatesSqualeneMice, Inbred BALB CCivil Defense: Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Schools: Educational institutions.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)DelawareVirus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.SingaporeEpidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.MexicoInfluenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.VietnamModels, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919: The influenza outbreaks of 1918 to 1919 also known as Spanish flu pandemic. First reported in Haskell County in Kansas in March of 1918 the disease spread throughout the world and may have killed as many as 25 million people.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.EuropeInfluenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Geography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Fomites: Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include CLOTHING, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.JapanViral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.PyransRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Hand Disinfection: The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Red Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Patient Isolation: The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
"Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus , Avian Influenza (Flu)". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 24 February 2017.. ... ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur.. Influenzavirus C. This genus has one species, influenza C virus, which ... "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") causes H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or ... Genesis of a Highly Pathogenic and Potentially Pandemic H5N1 Influenza Virus in Eastern Asia. The Threat of Pandemic Influenza ...
Other pandemic threat subtypes. "Human influenza virus" usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans ... Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine.. HA: ( ... Variants and subtypes of Influenzavirus A. Main article: Influenzavirus A. Variants of Influenzavirus A are identified ... Influenza pandemics. Known influenza pandemics. Name of pandemic. Date. Deaths. Case fatality rate. Subtype ...
The Avian Flu | Smore Newsletters
The Avian Flu - Kenneth Accos,1/11/2015 by kenneth accos , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating ... The A(H7N9) virus subtype, a low pathogenic AI virus, first infected 3 humans - 2 residents of the city of Shanghai and 1 ... Pandemic outbreaks/location avian influenza A (H5N1) in Asia, Africa, the Pacific, Europe and the Near East. Indonesia and ... major change in the influenza A viruses is known as "antigenic shift." Antigenic shift results when a new influenza A virus ...
Summer: Time for Influenza Pandemics? | HealthMap
Total Views 11,617 Views Today 0 pandemic influenza , influenza A , spanish flu , swine flu , h1n1 , avian influenza , H7N9 , ... All known influenza pandemics in human history have been caused by different subtypes of the influenza A virus (the other virus ... Although the H7N9 and H5N1 avian influenza strains have not caused pandemics or infected significant numbers of people during ... The influenza A subtypes that have historically caused human disease are three HA subtypes (H1, H2, and H3) and two NA subtypes ...
Go to Novel, Variant, and Pandemic Influenza.
However, two identified avian (bird) influenza viruses have the potential to cause a pandemic-H5N1 and H7N9. Because H5N1 and ... A novel influenza virus is an influenza A virus with a subtype that is different from the flu viruses that usually spread in ... Novel, Variant, and Pandemic Influenza. Types of influenza viruses. The influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in ... What is an influenza pandemic?. An influenza pandemic is a worldwide outbreak of disease. This occurs when an influenza virus ...
Effects of medicinal plant powder as feed additives on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immune response of...
... and immune responses of Japanese quails against avian influenza and Newcastle disease killed vaccine virus. A total of ... ... of subtype H7 influenza viruses (H7 antigen), from a convalescent patient infected with H7N9 in 2017. P52E03 showed in vitro ... Narcolepsy and Pandemic Influenza Vaccination: What We Need to Know to be Ready for the Next Pandemic ... Viral interference between H9N2-low pathogenic avian influenza virus and avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccine strain H120 ...
Frontiers | Back to the Future: Lessons Learned From the 1918 Influenza Pandemic | Cellular and Infection Microbiology
... including highly pathogenic H7N9 and H5N1 viruses). An understanding of past influenza virus pandemics and the lessons that we ... which we will face in the context of any future influenza virus pandemic. In the last decade there has been a dramatic increase ... contribute to differences in the severity of influenza virus infections. Co-infections with bacterial pathogens, and possibly ... The severity of this pandemic resulted from a complex interplay between viral, host and societal factors. Here, we review the ...
Flu pandemic: Could it happen and what would make it happen?
Find out what can make a flu pandemic happen, including the mechanisms that cause a change in a virus and how to prevent a ... but a pandemic can occur if a new strain of a disease emerges and conditions allow it to spread in a population. ... Certain subtypes of influenza A virus only occur in certain species, but birds are hosts to all known subtypes of influenza A ... "influenza virus with pandemic potential.". Two "bird flu" viruses are H5N1 and H7N9. They are non-human, circulating in birds, ...
Updated Preparedness and Response Framework for Influenza Pandemics
Emergence of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus causing severe human illness-China, February-April 2013. MMWR 2013;62:366-71. ... Influenza caused by a new subtype has been identified in humans. Investigation: Investigation of novel influenza A infection in ... Novel Influenza A Virus Pandemic Intervals. The novel influenza A virus pandemic intervals are based on what is known about ... such as the influenza A(H5N1) and influenza A(H7N9) viruses in Asia (4,5). Furthermore, novel influenza A viruses, even when ...
Kinetics of pulmonary immune cells, antibody responses and their correlations with the viral clearance of influenza A fatal...
... neutrophils and the antibody response all have an essential role in virus elimination of fatal influenza A viral infection. ... These findings may have implications for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic strategies in fatal influenza A viral ... Further evaluation of the cooperation among macrophages, neutrophils and antibody responses in eliminating the virus with fatal ... virus in mice. The changes in lung viral load were also evaluated. We found that pulmonary macrophages and neutrophils both ...
Volume 24, Number 10-October 2018 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
New Reassortant Clade 126.96.36.199b Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus in Wild Birds, South Korea, 2017-18 [PDF - 675 KB - 3 pages] J. ... Molecular Evolution, Diversity, and Adaptation of Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses in China [PDF - 3.25 MB - 11 pages] J. Lu et al. ... which followed a season with influenza B and pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus activity. Peak-timing prediction performance ... We found the transmissibility of influenza B virus to be higher than that of influenza A virus among children. Compared with ...
Uneasy Lies the Head That Wears the Flu - Science-Based Medicine
The gene sequences also indicate that these viruses may be better adapted than other avian influenza viruses to infecting ... It would appear that H7N9 is not to be the next pandemic strain to repeat the disaster of 1918. Not quite there genetically. ... Q226L in the HA protein, which was first reported in H7 field viruses, as well as H5 subtypes, was expected to bind strongly to ... 15 Human influenza viruses preferentially bind to α2,6 sialyl glycan, whereas most avian viruses bind to α2,3 sialyl glycan. ...
influenza facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about influenza
Make research projects and school reports about influenza easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... and the other two pandemics are known to have been caused by strains produced by the reassorting of human and avian viruses.. ... The various influenza A viruses are categorized into subtypes by the differences in those two antigens, such as A (H1N1) or A ( ... Another avian strain, A (H7N9), infected humans with often deadly results in 2013-14; the strain, which first appeared in China ...
h7n9 - new super bugs - Devtome
H7N9. Influenza (flu) A viruses come from numerous avian species, and for some unknown reason come almost exclusively from ... These two new viruses are the H5N1, a slower to progress sub-type virus and an even newer H7N9 sub-type which has been much ... I believe this H7N9 virus will be the One, the next big pandemic, the plague which the H1N1 was thought to be but was not, only ... Effects of Past Pandemics on the United States. Pandemic---Estimated U.S. Deaths---Influenza A Strain---Populations at Greatest ...
Century After Pandemic, Science Takes Its Best Shot at Flu - NBC4 Washington
That Chinese H7N9 bird flu "worries me a lot," Taubenberger said. "For a virus like influenza that is a master at adapting and ... How does an avian virus become adapted to a mammal?". While scientists hunt those answers, "its folly to predict" what a next ... Even better, "these antibodies were much broader than anything weve seen," capable of blocking multiple subtypes of flu, said ... Theres no way to predict what strain of the shape-shifting flu virus could trigger another pandemic or, given modern medical ...
Influenza Spotlight - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Find articles about Influenza from the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal at CDC. ... Co-infection with Avian (H7N9) and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Viruses, China Wanju Zhang et al. Volume 21, Number 4-April ... Geographic Co-distribution of Influenza Virus Subtypes H7N9 and H5N1 in Humans, China Liya Wang et al. Volume 19, Number 11- ... H7N9) Virus Wei Wang et al. Volume 20, Number 5-May 2014 Novel Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Tree Sparrow, Shanghai, China, ...
... , Avian Influenza A, Bird Flu, Asian H5N1, Influenza A H5N1. ... Avian Influenza A H5N1 Virus, H5N1 Viruses, H5N1 Virus, Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype, Virus, H5N1, Viruses, H5N1, H5N1 virus ... H7N9, Fowl plague, Avian influenza, Avian influenza (disorder), Fowl Plague, Avian Influenzas, Avian Influenza, Influenzas, ... Influenzavirus type A, avian, H5N1 strain (organism), Influenzavirus type A, avian, H5N1 strain, ...
OpenStax: Microbiology | 22.3 Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract | Top Hat
The most virulent group is the influenza A viruses, which cause seasonal pandemics of influenza each year. Influenza A virus ... There are three genetically related influenza viruses, called A, B, and C. The influenza A viruses have different subtypes ... a domestic duck H7N3 virus, a wild bird H7N9 virus, and a domestic poultry H9N2 virus. The virus was detected in the Chinese ... an antigenic shift involving the recombination of avian and human viruses is thought to have produced a new H1N1 virus. This ...
Influenza - Wikipedia
"Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus , Avian Influenza (Flu)". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 24 February 2017.. ... ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur.. Influenzavirus C. This genus has one species, influenza C virus, which ... "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") causes H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or ... Genesis of a Highly Pathogenic and Potentially Pandemic H5N1 Influenza Virus in Eastern Asia. The Threat of Pandemic Influenza ...
Exaphone: Need-To-Know Is Antithetical And Harmful To The Scientific Process
Avian Influenza Report 13 Week 23 and WHO, Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - China June 8, 2017. UPDATED 05/ ... Perspectives on Research with H5N1 Avian Influenza, Chapter 3 and NAP, The Threat of Pandemic Influenza. UPDATED 04/21/2017 WHO ... A universal vaccine would ideally induce immunity against all or most influenza A subtypes. However, as influenza continually ... UPDATED 10/23/2017 CDC, Mammalian Pathogenesis and Transmission of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses, Tennessee, USA, 2017 ...
... the genes of the virus were determined to be of avian origin. Although a subtype of Influenza A (H7N4) Virus sparked a minor ... In clinical trials, this molecule was able to suppress Influenza A(H1N1) Virus, Influenza A(H7N9) and Influenza A(H5N1) Virus. ... Influenza A(H2N2) viruses caused two pandemics (1898 and 1957), about 69 years apart;. Influenza A(H3Nx) viruses caused two ... Dhori Virus, Araguari Virus, Batken Virus, Jos Virus, Upolu Virus, Aransas Bay Virus, Bourbon Virus and Sinu Virus.  ...
Influenza Spotlight - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Find articles about Influenza from the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal at CDC. ... Co-infection with Avian (H7N9) and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Viruses, China Wanju Zhang et al. (Volume 21, Number 4) ... Biodefense Shield and Avian Influenza Ken Alibek et al. (Volume 12, Number 5) Novel Swine Influenza Virus Subtype H3N1, United ... H7N9) Viruses Katrina Sleeman et al. (Volume 19, Number 9) Monitoring Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus through National Influenza- ...
Towards a universal influenza vaccine: different approaches for one goal | Virology Journal | Full Text
The major targets of the antibody response against influenza virus are the surface glycoprotein antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and ... Hypervariability of the amino acid sequences encoding HA and NA is largely responsible for epidemic and pandemic influenza ... Annual influenza vaccination is the primary prophylactic countermeasure aimed at limiting influenza burden. However, the ... For this reason, if an antigenic mismatch exists between the current vaccine and circulating influenza isolates, vaccinated ...
Genesis and pathogenesis of the 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus | PNAS
Family Clusters of Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus Infection in Guangdong Province, China ... 1982) Prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition antibody to current strains of the H3N2 and H1N1 subtypes of influenza A virus ... 1989) Avian-to-human transmission of the PB1 gene of influenza A viruses in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. J Virol 63(11):4603- ... The Avian-Origin PB1 Gene Segment Facilitated Replication and Transmissibility of the H3N2/1968 Pandemic Influenza Virus ...
... "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") causes H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or ... ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur.. Influenzavirus C. This genus has one species, influenza C virus, which ... "Asian Lineage Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 7 December 2018. Retrieved 10 ... Types of virus. In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family ...
Pneumonia Spotlight - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China Changwen Ke et al. Volume 23, Number 8-August 2017 ... Influenza Pandemics of the 20th Century Edwin D. Kilbourne Volume 12, Number 1-January 2006 2005. Influenza Virus Infection in ... Epidemiology of Influenza Virus Types and Subtypes in South Africa, 2009-2012 Adam L. Cohen et al. Volume 20, Number 7-July ... Seasonal Influenza and Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Surveillance among Inpatients and Outpatients, East Jakarta, Indonesia, ...
Author: 'Tumpey, Terrence M.' - PubAg Search Results
... pandemic; transcriptomics; virulence; viruses; China. Abstract:. ... A novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus (IAV) emerged ... H5N1 influenza viruses are capable of causing severe disease and death in humans, and represent a potential pandemic subtype ... virus-like particle vaccines; virus-like particles; viruses; China. Abstract:. ... A novel avian-origin influenza A H7N9 virus ... Recombinant virus-like particles elicit protective immunity against avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in ferrets ...
Influenza w/ other respiratory manifestations | Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing - eBooks | Read eBooks online
Influenza w/ other respiratory manifestations: lt;div class=hatnote,,Flu redirects here. For other uses, see ,Flu ( ... "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") causes H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or ... H7N9 Influenzavirus B. This genus has one species, influenza B virus. Influenza B almost exclusively infects humans and is ... ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur. Influenzavirus C. This genus has one species, influenza C virus, which ...
Influenza - Wikipedia
... "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") causes H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or ... ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur.. Influenzavirus C. This genus has one species, influenza C virus, which ... "Asian Lineage Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 7 December 2018. Retrieved 10 ... Genesis of a Highly Pathogenic and Potentially Pandemic H5N1 Influenza Virus in Eastern Asia. The Threat of Pandemic Influenza ...
subject:(Influenza) - OATD
... virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) caused the first influenza pandemic in the 21st century. In 2013, a novel avian influenza virus A(H7N9) ... Whilst many influenza viruses, such as the H5N3 subtype, are of low-pathogenicity, H5N1 influenza viruses result in rapid ... Subjects/Keywords: low pathogenic avian influenza; highly pathogenic avian influenza; avian influenza virus; influenza A virus ... virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) caused the first influenza pandemic in the 21st century. In 2013, a novel avian influenza virus A(H7N9) ...
flu - meddic
... "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") causes H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or ... ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur.. Influenzavirus C. This genus has one species, influenza C virus, which ... H7N9 avian influenza human infections in China, World Health Organization, 1 April 2013. "... So far no further cases have been ... Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y; Kawaoka (January 2001). "Pandemic threat posed by avian influenza A viruses". Clin Microbiol Rev. 14 (1 ...
Frontiers | Secondary Bacterial Infections Associated with Influenza Pandemics | Microbiology
Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and ... Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and ... particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic. ... particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic. ... Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a ...
InfectionH3N2Hong KongVaccinesHighly pathogeniVaccineInfectionsVaccinationStrainPathogenic influenzaSwineRespiratoryPathogenicityEpidemicsH5N2H9N2PreparednessSeverityDiseaseH5N1 and H7N9BirdsHemagglutininAntibodiesInfectAnother pandemicMortality rateTransmissionMorbidity and mortaSymptomsTransmissibleInfectious DiseasesOrthomyxoviridaeNovel influenza A vir2019ImmunityWorldwide outbreakAntigenic driftGenesOccurEmergence20182017HumanCases of influenzaPneumoniaIllnessCurrent influenzaClearance of influenza
- Currently, the best way to prevent infection with avian influenza A viruses is to avoid sources of exposure whenever possible. (smore.com)
- While the H5N1 virus does not now infect people easily, infection in humans is very serious when it occurs. (smore.com)
- In conclusion, co-infection of chicks with AIV and IBV, simultaneously or sequentially, affected the clinical signs, the virus replication dynamics as well as the internal organ integrity. (medworm.com)
- The results proposed that infection with heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated. (medworm.com)
- We address unresolved questions of why the 1918 influenza H1N1 virus was more virulent than other influenza pandemics and why some people survived the 1918 pandemic and others succumbed to the infection. (frontiersin.org)
- Fatal influenza A virus infection is a major threat to public health throughout the world. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we investigated the overall kinetics of lung macrophages, neutrophils, CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, CD38 + cells, and CD138 + cells, the levels of antibody and cytokine responses, both in the early and late phases of fatal infection with A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus in mice. (biomedcentral.com)
- The work implies that pulmonary macrophages, neutrophils and the antibody response all have an essential role in virus elimination of fatal influenza A viral infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- These findings may have implications for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic strategies in fatal influenza A viral infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Further evaluation of the cooperation among macrophages, neutrophils and antibody responses in eliminating the virus with fatal infection is needed. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of increased pathogenicity of fatal influenza A viral infection is critical to optimize antiviral treatment strategies and control potential pandemics. (biomedcentral.com)
- A significantly rapid cell recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils into the lungs was assumed to have a role in the pathogenesis associated with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection (HPAI) [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- These findings have suggested complicated biological effects of macrophages and neutrophils in the fatal influenza A viral infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- There are three types of influenza viruses, identified as A, B, and C. Influenza A can infect a range of animal species, including humans, pigs, horses, and birds, but only humans are infected by types B and C. Influenza A is responsible for most flu cases, while infection with types B and C virus are less common and cause a milder illness. (encyclopedia.com)
- Approximately one to four days after infection with the influenza virus, the victim is hit with an array of symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
- Human infection is still very rare, but the virus that causes the infection in birds might change, or mutate, to more easily infect humans. (fpnotebook.com)
- Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. (fpnotebook.com)
- The infection may be confirmed by testing the throat, sputum , or nose for the virus. (wikipedia.org)
- Symptoms of influenza can start quite suddenly one to two days after infection. (wikipedia.org)
- While experts know that cold temperatures and low humidity promote transmission of the Influenza Virus, less is understood about the effect of decreased humidity on the immune system's defenses against an Influenza infection. (blogspot.com)
- Kudo et al: Low ambient humidity impairs barrier function and innate resistance against influenza infection in PNAS - 2019. (blogspot.com)
- Influenza virus infection is an ongoing health and economic burden causing epidemics with pandemic potential, affecting 5-30% of the global population annually, and is responsible for millions of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths each year. (biomedcentral.com)
- Ultimately, the upcoming clinical evaluation of these universal vaccine approaches will be fundamental to determine their effectiveness against preventing influenza virus infection and/or reducing transmission and disease severity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that is usually caused by bacteria or viruses. (cdc.gov)
- [ 9 ] [ 10 ] As the virus can be inactivated by soap, frequent hand washing reduces the risk of infection. (gutenberg.org)
- Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. (frontiersin.org)
- Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and mortality of influenza infection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , and Staphylococcus aureus reported as the most common causes. (frontiersin.org)
- Frequent hand washing reduces the risk of infection because the virus is inactivated by soap. (meddic.jp)
- Entry is thus the first hurdle a virus must overcome for a successful infection. (scoop.it)
- In contrast, a 2007 analysis of medical journals from the period of the pandemic found that the viral infection was no more aggressive than previous influenza strains. (bingj.com)
- The responses of well-differentiated (wd) NHBE cells were examined following infection with the 2009 pandemic Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 strain or following challenge with the dsRNA mimic, poly(I:C). At 30 h postinfection with H1N1pdm09, the integrity of the airway epithelium was severely impaired and apical junction complex damage was exhibited by the disassembly of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) from the cell cytoskeleton. (bvsalud.org)
- Thrombocytopenia is a common complication of influenza virus infection, and its severity predicts the clinical outcome of critically ill patients. (bvsalud.org)
- In this study, in patients with an influenza A/H1N1 virus infection, viral load and platelet count correlated inversely during the acute infection phase. (bvsalud.org)
- We confirmed this finding in a ferret model of influenza virus infection. (bvsalud.org)
- In these animals, platelet count decreased with the degree of virus pathogenicity varying from 0% in animals infected with the influenza A/H3N2 virus, to 22% in those with the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus, up to 62% in animals with a highly pathogenic A/H5N1 virus infection. (bvsalud.org)
- These insights clarify the pathophysiology of influenza virus infection and show how severe respiratory infections, including COVID-19, may propagate thrombocytopenia and/or thromboembolic complications. (bvsalud.org)
- However, according to recent reports it can affect immunocompetent hosts with severe influenza infection due to viral-dependent disruption of respiratory immune defenses. (bvsalud.org)
- A novel influenza virus is an influenza A virus with a subtype that is different from the flu viruses that usually spread in people (H3N2 and H1N1). (virginia.gov)
- Another notable pandemic is the Hong Kong flu (H3N2), which emerged in July 1968 and peaked after only two weeks. (healthmap.org)
- For example , the Spanish flu of 1918 was H1N1, the Asian flu of 1957 was H2N2, and the Hong Kong flu of 1968 was H3N2. (healthmap.org)
- Type A includes H1N1 , commonly known as "swine flu," H5N1 , also called "bird flu" or avian flu, and H3N2. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Similar processes may underlie age-specific mortality differences between seasonal H1N1 vs. H3N2 and human H5N1 vs. H7N9 infections. (pnas.org)
- Pandemics also occurred in 1957 and 1968 with the Asian flu and Hong Kong flu, respectively. (encyclopedia.com)
- A report published in early 2003 noted that Type A influenza virus has a high potential for use as such an agent because of the virulence of the Type A strain that broke out in Hong Kong in 1997 and the development of laboratory methods for generating large quantities of the virus. (encyclopedia.com)
- The first case of a bird flu virus infecting a person directly, H5N1, was in Hong Kong in 1997. (fpnotebook.com)
- Spanish influenza in 1918 (~50 million deaths), Asian influenza in 1957 (two million deaths), and Hong Kong influenza in 1968 (one million deaths). (wikipedia.org)
- [ 4 ] In the 20th century three influenza pandemics occurred: Spanish influenza in 1918, Asian influenza in 1958, and Hong Kong influenza in 1968, each resulting in more than a million deaths. (meddic.jp)
- After the initial identification of the H1N1 pandemic influenza strain in Mexico in April 2009 and its subsequent global spread, several monovalent influenza vaccines were developed as part of the pandemic response. (medworm.com)
- And because most vaccines rely on a B-cell response to work, the findings may explain why the influenza vaccine is less effective in this population. (blogspot.com)
- Scientists compared how B-cells and antibodies from younger adults (ages 22 to 64) and elderly adults (ages 71 to 89) responded to vaccines for recent Influenza strains. (blogspot.com)
- However, the effectiveness of current influenza vaccines are limited because they only confer protective immunity when there is antigenic similarity between the selected vaccine strains and circulating influenza isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
- In particular, current influenza vaccines do not confer complete protection against circulating epidemic and pandemic influenza strains. (biomedcentral.com)
- New approaches are currently under investigation for development of more broadly-reactive or universal influenza vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, there are additional aspects that deserve further considerations, such as the role of pre-existing immunity to influenza and how it shapes the response to vaccination, as well as age-related factors, that could influence the prophylactic effectiveness of current and candidate vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
- During the past decade, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have diversified genetically and antigenically, suggesting the need for multiple H5N1 vaccines. (usda.gov)
- However, preparation of multiple vaccines from live H5N1 HPAI viruses is difficult and economically not feasible representing a challenge for pandemic preparedness. (usda.gov)
- Human and veterinary vaccines against AI subtypes are needed. (usda.gov)
- Our results not only accentuate the merit of using live attenuated influenza vaccines in view of cross-reactivity, but also represent the potential of CApH1N1 live vaccine for mitigating the clinical severity that arises from reassortant viruses between pH1N1 and highly pathogenic H5 subtype viruses. (scoop.it)
- H5N1 pandemic vaccines and the technologies to rapidly create them are in the H5N1 clinical trials stage but cannot be verified as useful until after a pandemic strain emerges. (worldheritage.org)
- Usually, vaccination with the seasonal influenza vaccine provides some protection against the strains of flu that are circulating at the time. (virginia.gov)
- AbstractThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels ofGracilaria corticata (Gracilaria),Sargassum cristaefolium (Sargassum),Rhus coriaria (sumac), andPunica granatum (pomegranate) peel powdered on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immune responses of Japanese quails against avian influenza and Newcastle disease killed vaccine virus. (medworm.com)
- Viral interference between H9N2-low pathogenic avian influenza virus and avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccine strain H120 in vivo. (medworm.com)
- Protection dropped to 19 percent a few years ago when the vaccine didn't match an evolving virus. (nbcwashington.com)
- The vaccine is usually effective against three or four types of influenza. (wikipedia.org)
- A vaccine made for one year may not be useful in the following year, since the virus evolves rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
- For this reason, if an antigenic mismatch exists between the current vaccine and circulating influenza isolates, vaccinated people may not be afforded complete protection. (biomedcentral.com)
- There is currently an unmet need to develop an effective "broadly-reactive" or "universal" influenza vaccine capable of conferring protection against both seasonal and newly emerging pre-pandemic strains. (biomedcentral.com)
- A number of novel influenza vaccine approaches are currently under evaluation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Overall, these novel head- and stem-based approaches are moving closer to a more broadly-reactive or universal influenza vaccine. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this review we describe the current standard of care influenza vaccine, as well as those offering promise toward development of a universal influenza vaccination approach. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this context, vaccine approaches aimed at eliciting antibodies targeting the influenza HA glycoprotein are the primary focus. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising novel vaccine approach to control avian influenza including HPAI strains. (usda.gov)
- [ 16 ] The most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) that contains purified and inactivated antigens from three viral strains. (gutenberg.org)
- Typically, this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. (gutenberg.org)
- A vaccine formulated for one year may be ineffective in the following year, since the influenza virus evolves rapidly, and new strains quickly replace the older ones. (gutenberg.org)
- Serum from individuals vaccinated with a standard IM, 1/5 ID, or 1/25 ID vaccine dose were subjected to an ELISA specific for total A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1) virus-specific IgG and IgE antibodies. (oatd.org)
- With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic. (frontiersin.org)
- Here, we report that the cold-adapted pH1N1 live attenuated vaccine (CApH1N1) elicits cross-reactive immunity against seasonal and H5 influenza A viruses in the mouse model. (scoop.it)
- Japan has inoculated 6,000 health care workers with a pre-pandemic vaccine, and is planning how to proceed with widespread vaccinations, particularly workers who would provide utilities during an outbreak. (worldheritage.org)
- When flu viruses that normally affect pigs (swine flu viruses) cause infections in humans, these viruses are called variant influenza viruses. (virginia.gov)
- Sometimes, human infections with novel or variant flu viruses occur because of the close contact between humans and animals. (virginia.gov)
- Other times, the infections occur because of changes in the influenza virus. (virginia.gov)
- Human infections with these viruses have happened rarely, but if either virus changes in such a way that it is able to infect humans easily and spread easily from person-to-person, an influenza pandemic could result. (virginia.gov)
- However, an increase in infections since October 2013 may indicate a seasonal pattern similar to that of highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1), in which cases are most common in winter months. (healthmap.org)
- In addition to the role of humoral and cellular immunity, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that individual genetic differences, especially involving single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), contribute to differences in the severity of influenza virus infections. (frontiersin.org)
- Co-infections with bacterial pathogens, and possibly measles and malaria, co-morbidities, malnutrition or obesity are also known to affect the severity of influenza disease, and likely influenced 1918 H1N1 disease severity and outcomes. (frontiersin.org)
- It is, as infections go, quite the tricky virus and it remains a difficult beast to treat and prevent. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
- This subtype appeared around 1997 in China, and although it appeared before the widespread H1N1, H5N1 has not had the same global effect because it has been a very slow acting virus, slow at adapting for Human to Human (H2H) infections . (devtome.com)
- Influenza victims are also susceptible to potentially life-threatening secondary infections. (encyclopedia.com)
- Influenza complications usually arise from bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract. (encyclopedia.com)
- Viruses are the most frequent cause of respiratory tract infections. (tophat.com)
- The absence of high fever is typically used to differentiate common colds from other viral infections, like influenza. (tophat.com)
- Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia , secondary bacterial pneumonia , sinus infections , and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure . (wikipedia.org)
- The influenza virus causes human respiratory disease and vaccination is the most reasonable approach for controlling viral infections. (oatd.org)
- The World Health Organization (WHO) has produced a six-stage classification that describes the process by which a novel influenza virus moves from the first few infections in humans through to a pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
- This starts with the virus mostly infecting animals, with a few cases where animals infect people, then moves through the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people, and ends with a pandemic when infections from the new virus have spread worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
- H5N1 infections in humans are generally caused by bird to human transmission of the virus. (worldheritage.org)
- We report this case as the interest in influenza-associated IPA is high, both due to the clinical severity of this condition, which is treatable if identified early, and the emerging importance of respiratory infections caused by viruses belonging to the SARS family, such as SARS-CoV-2. (bvsalud.org)
- On SCAM sites you can often find the opinion that influenza isn't that bad, or that the medical-industrial complex overstates the morbidity and mortality of influenza to scare people into vaccination. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
- Annual influenza vaccination is the primary prophylactic countermeasure aimed at limiting influenza burden. (biomedcentral.com)
- This study tested the ability of low-dose ID vaccination to produce a similar immune response to standard IM vaccination by measuring the amount of virus-specific whole molecule IgG antibody. (oatd.org)
- Although it emerged in the spring of 2013, this strain of influenza did not exhibit an initial summertime peak and has not reached pandemic levels. (healthmap.org)
- Although the H7N9 and H5N1 avian influenza strains have not caused pandemics or infected significant numbers of people during the summer, the risk of a new influenza strain emerging and causing a summertime pandemic is not too far-fetched-just look at the history. (healthmap.org)
- 3) Like all similar subtypes, this strain has been known to infect birds, but it hasn't been up until very recently, 2013, that this strain has mutated and now effectively and fatally attacks humans. (devtome.com)
- There's no way to predict what strain of the shape-shifting flu virus could trigger another pandemic or, given modern medical tools, how bad it might be. (nbcwashington.com)
- Among the new strategies: Researchers are dissecting the cloak that disguises influenza as it sneaks past the immune system, and finding some rare targets that stay the same from strain to strain, year to year. (nbcwashington.com)
- In the 20th century three influenza pandemics occurred, each caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans, and killed tens of millions of people. (gutenberg.org)
- Often, new influenza strains appear when an existing flu virus spreads to humans from another animal species , or when an existing human strain picks up new genes from a virus that usually infects birds or pigs. (gutenberg.org)
- An avian strain named H5N1 raised the concern of a new influenza pandemic after it emerged in Asia in the 1990s, but it has not evolved to a form that spreads easily between people. (gutenberg.org)
- Influenza pandemics occur when a new strain of the influenza virus is transmitted to humans from another animal species. (wikipedia.org)
- One strain of virus that may produce a pandemic in the future is a highly pathogenic variation of the H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus . (wikipedia.org)
- On 11 June 2009, a new strain of H1N1 influenza was declared to be a global pandemic (Stage 6) by the WHO after evidence of spreading in the southern hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
- However, no pandemic strain of H5N1 has yet been found. (worldheritage.org)
- The recent reconstruction and characterization of the highly pathogenic and transmissible 1918 H1N1 pandemic strain provides a useful tool to understand the factors that may lead to the emergence of future pandemic influenza viruses ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
- The most recent pandemic occurred in 2009-2010, with the H1N1 (swine flu) virus. (virginia.gov)
- The more recent swine flu (H1N1) pandemic in 2009 also began in the spring and reached pandemic levels by June. (healthmap.org)
- In 2009, a novel swine-origin influenza virus capable of rapid human transmission was reported. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we reconstruct the origins of the pandemic virus and the classic swine influenza and (postpandemic) seasonal H1N1 lineages using a host-specific molecular clock approach that is demonstrably more accurate than previous methods. (pnas.org)
- Hence, although the swine lineage was a direct descendent of the pandemic virus, the post-1918 seasonal H1N1 lineage evidently was not, at least for HA. (pnas.org)
- Initially dubbed "swine flu" and also known as influenza A/H1N1 , it emerged in Mexico, the United States, and several other nations. (gutenberg.org)
- and of course the most common example, influenza, which circulates within and between swine, avian and human hosts (amongst others). (frontiersin.org)
- the second was the 2009 swine flu pandemic . (bingj.com)
- The 2009 flu pandemic or swine flu was an influenza pandemic , and the second of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus (the first of them being the 1918 flu pandemic ), albeit in a new version. (ipfs.io)
- The initial outbreak was called the "H1N1 influenza", or "Swine Flu" by American media. (ipfs.io)
- Influenza , or flu, is a contagious respiratory disease caused by a range of viruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Influenza is an acute epidemic respiratory disease that results in a high rate of mortality in human beings, especially among the elderly and children. (biomedcentral.com)
- Usually referred to as the flu or grippe, influenza is a highly infectious respiratory disease. (encyclopedia.com)
- When the virus is inhaled, it attacks cells in the upper respiratory tract, causing typical flu symptoms such as fatigue, fever and chills, a hacking cough, and body aches. (encyclopedia.com)
- Influenza (flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by flu viruses that can result in hospitalization, even death. (cdc.gov)
- International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses. (edu.au)
- We have demonstrated that the 1918 HA gene was necessary for efficient direct contact transmission, but did not allow respiratory droplet transmission between ferrets of an avian influenza virus possessing an avian polymerase subunit PB2. (pnas.org)
- The ability of the 1918 pandemic virus to transmit through the air by means of respiratory droplets is of particular interest, because efficient transmission by means of this route is a critical property of pandemic influenza strains. (pnas.org)
- similar to other influenza viruses, it is typically contracted by person to person transmission through respiratory droplets. (ipfs.io)
- The respiratory Influenza A Viruses (IAVs) and emerging zoonotic viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pose a significant threat to human health. (bvsalud.org)
- To accelerate our understanding of the host-pathogen response to respiratory viruses, the use of more complex in vitro systems such as normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell culture models has gained prominence as an alternative to animal models. (bvsalud.org)
- This study demonstrates that wdNHBE cells are an appropriate ex-vivo model system to investigate the pathogenesis of respiratory viruses. (bvsalud.org)
- We present the case of a 61-year-old Caucasian man admitted to the Emergency Department with respiratory failure and fever, who was diagnosed with H1N1 influenza and IPA. (bvsalud.org)
- The influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in people are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics each year. (virginia.gov)
- Influenza A viruses have caused several pandemics during the last century, and continue to cause epidemics annually. (biomedcentral.com)
- Epidemics and pandemics of influenza have been a reliable feature of the human condition since the gasping oppression first hit Europe 500 years ago. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
- Our findings suggest that better understanding of how initial exposure shapes lifetime immunity may enhance the prediction and control of future IAV pandemics and seasonal epidemics. (pnas.org)
- In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly - there have been about 9 influenza pandemics during the last 300 years. (wikipedia.org)
- Here, we review the viral, genetic and immune factors that contributed to the severity of the 1918 pandemic and discuss the implications for modern pandemic preparedness. (frontiersin.org)
- Use of this updated framework is anticipated to improve pandemic preparedness and response in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- Based on the concept of population medicine, promoting the integration of multidisciplinary and strengthening prevention, control and pandemic preparedness on influenza, corona virus disease 2019 and other infectious diseases, could consolidate the foundation of surveillance and early warning, prevention and control, diagnosis and treatment of emerging infectious diseases, as well as improve the ability of emergency preparedness for public health events. (bvsalud.org)
- The severity of this pandemic resulted from a complex interplay between viral, host, and societal factors. (frontiersin.org)
- This framework incorporates information from newly developed tools for pandemic planning and response, including the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool and the Pandemic Severity Assessment Framework, and has been aligned with the pandemic phases restructured in 2013 by the World Health Organization. (cdc.gov)
- The origin of the 1918 pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) and the reasons for its unusual severity are two of the foremost biomedical mysteries of the past century. (pnas.org)
- The source, timing, and geographical origin of the 1918-1920 pandemic influenza A virus have remained tenaciously obscure for nearly a century, as have the reasons for its unusual severity among young adults. (pnas.org)
- An influenza pandemic is a worldwide outbreak of disease. (virginia.gov)
- All known influenza pandemics in human history have been caused by different subtypes of the influenza A virus (the other virus types are influenza B and C). The influenza A subtypes that have historically caused human disease are three HA subtypes (H1, H2, and H3) and two NA subtypes (N1 and N2). (healthmap.org)
- More recently, the H5, H7, and H9 subtypes of HA have been discovered to cause human disease. (healthmap.org)
- In 1918 a mysterious and deadly disease spread around the world in three consecutive waves (spring 1918, autumn 1918, and winter 1918-19). (frontiersin.org)
- From time to time, a new disease emerges that could become a pandemic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A pandemic is a disease of global proportions that the human immune system is unable to deal with. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- When a pandemic happens, there is generally no cure, because the disease has changed quickly. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A flu pandemic is a disease of global proportions, covering a large geographical area. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The disease is caused by certain strains of the influenza virus. (encyclopedia.com)
- Influenza , commonly known as the flu , is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus . (wikipedia.org)
- UPDATED 05/15/2017 NAP, Global Health and the Future Role of the United States (2017), Infectious Disease, Pandemic Influenza, and Antimicrobial Resistance: Global Health Security Is National Security and Scowcroft Institute, The Growing Threat of Pandemics: Enhancing Domestic and International Biosecurity Paper focuses on creating realistic and effective plans for reducing the threat of pandemics. (toocan.com)
- Pilchard Orthomyxovirus is closely related to the Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus , which causes disease in Atlantic salmon on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. (blogspot.com)
- As is the case with Pilchard Orthomyxovirus, Infectious Salmon Anaemia virus causes disease in Atlantic salmon, but does not cause disease in herring, brown trout, or other fish species. (blogspot.com)
- Yearly vaccinations against influenza are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for those at high risk, and by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for those six months of age and older. (orange.com)
- Influenza , commonly known as "the flu ", is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae , the influenza viruses . (gutenberg.org)
- Although its geographic origin is unknown, the disease was called Spanish flu from the first wave of the pandemic. (bingj.com)
- The disease had been observed in Haskell County in January 1918 , prompting local doctor Loring Miner to warn the US Public Health Service 's academic journal. (bingj.com)
- The cloistered nature of the institution itself, its relatively small size, and a swiftly enacted protective sequestration policy all contributed to WPIB s escape of the influenza pandemic, even as the disease ravaged Pittsburgh. (forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl)
H5N1 and H7N91
- Avian influenza A ( H7N9 ) had been found only in birds until March 2013, when human cases were discovered in China. (healthmap.org)
- Influenza type A viruses have always attacked many different species of birds, hence the term, bird-flu. (devtome.com)
- Bird flu viruses infect birds, including chickens, other poultry, and wild birds such as ducks. (fpnotebook.com)
- Most bird flu viruses can only infect other birds. (fpnotebook.com)
- Since then, the bird flu virus has spread to birds in countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. (fpnotebook.com)
- Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY. (fpnotebook.com)
- Influenza may also affect other animals, including pigs, horses, and birds. (wikipedia.org)
- Avian influenza (AI) viruses circulating in wild birds pose a serious threat to public health. (usda.gov)
- Typically, influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, and from infected birds through their droppings . (wikipedia.org)
- Several of these new approaches focus on the surface receptor-binding glycoprotein of the influenza virus, the hemagglutinin (HA), which is comprised of globular head and stem (or stalk) regions. (biomedcentral.com)
- And compared with stimulation with hemagglutinin (HA) of H1N1 virus, the regulation pattern of these genes was unique in PBMCs response to Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 ex vivo. (bvsalud.org)
- Lack of pre-existing virus-specific and/or cross-reactive antibodies and cellular immunity in children and young adults likely contributed to the high attack rate and rapid spread of the 1918 H1N1 virus. (frontiersin.org)
- The B-cells of younger people were good at recognizing mutations of the virus and producing protective antibodies. (blogspot.com)
- The globular head of HA contains the receptor binding site and antibodies targeting this region inhibit virus binding to target cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Significantly, mouse antibodies were 10 times less potent against the mutants than against the pre-mutated viruses. (worldheritage.org)
- Because many viruses from the family Flaviviridae, to which HPgV belongs, are neurotropic, we studied whether HPgV could infect the central nervous system. (cdc.gov)
- These are the 2 new viruses which I have found during my research and the one I will focus on the most will be the faster acting one, the H7N9, which has just began, in 2013, to infect and kill quite a few people at an alarming CFR, in China - where it originated. (devtome.com)
- These novel strains are unaffected by any immunity people may have to older strains of human influenza and can therefore spread extremely rapidly and infect very large numbers of people. (wikipedia.org)
- Given the astonishing diversity of viruses that infect mammals alone-hundreds of thousands of different viruses according to some estimates -it is unsurprising that their entry routes into cells are just as diverse. (scoop.it)
- The six intervals of the updated framework are as follows: 1) investigation of cases of novel influenza, 2) recognition of increased potential for ongoing transmission, 3) initiation of a pandemic wave, 4) acceleration of a pandemic wave, 5) deceleration of a pandemic wave, and 6) preparation for future pandemic waves. (cdc.gov)
- or continue causing limited animal-to-human transmission of virus, such as the influenza A(H5N1) and influenza A(H7N9) viruses in Asia ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
- United States, National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity has requested researchers and scientific journals to withhold fundamental data 1 related to the laboratory gene manipulation and inter-species transmission of the influenza A-H5N1 -effectively classifying the scientific data and imposing a government gated "need-to-know" requirement. (toocan.com)
- Here, we used a series of human 1918-avian H1N1 influenza reassortant viruses to identify the genetic determinants that govern airborne transmission of avian influenza viruses. (pnas.org)
- Studies to investigate the transmissibility of the 1918 pandemic virus have been carried out in ferrets, which, based on accumulated data, are the best available animal model to study transmission of avian and human influenza viruses ( 7 , 9 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
- The various social and physical distancing measures implemented by Member States to reduce SARS-CoV2 virus transmission may also have played a role in interrupting influenza virus transmission. (bvsalud.org)
Morbidity and morta1
- Although the stomach or intestinal "flu" is commonly blamed for stomach upsets and diarrhea, the influenza virus rarely causes gastrointestinal symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
- Typical influenza symptoms include the abrupt onset of a headache, dry cough, and chills, rapidly followed by overall achiness and a fever that may run as high as 104 ° F (40 ° C). As the fever subsides, nasal congestion and a sore throat become noticeable. (encyclopedia.com)
- These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. (wikipedia.org)
- Symptoms of influenza, with fever and cough the most common symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
- Increasing water vapor in the air with humidifiers at home, school, work, and even hospital environments is a potential strategy to reduce Influenza symptoms and speed recovery, they said. (blogspot.com)
- Symptoms of influenza, with fever and cough the most common symptoms. (cfapps.io)
- Furthermore, novel influenza A viruses, even when transmissible in a closed setting, do not always result in a pandemic, such as the 1976 influenza A(H1N1) outbreak in Fort Dix, New Jersey, and the 2011-2013 H3N2v outbreak in the United States ( 3 , 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- The reconstructed 1918 virus is both transmissible and lethal to ferrets ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
Novel influenza A vir1
- Because people have little or no immunity to the new virus, it can lead to a pandemic. (virginia.gov)
- Many of the viruses that cause colds are related, so immunity develops throughout life. (tophat.com)
- Given the number of viruses that cause colds, however, individuals are never likely to develop immunity to all causes of the common cold. (tophat.com)
- We investigated the evolution and adaptation of H7N9 viruses by analyzing available data and newly generated virus sequences isolated in Guangdong Province, China, during 2015-2017. (cdc.gov)
- OBJETIVO: Determinar el impacto de la contaminación del aire sobre la salud respiratoria en las comunas de Chillán, Concepción y Los Ángeles entre los años 2013 y 2017. (bvsalud.org)
- It occurs when a new subtype emerges among the human population that has not spread between people before. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Human pegivirus (HPgV), previously called hepatitis G virus or GB virus C, is a lymphotropic virus with undefined pathology. (cdc.gov)
- Eventually these viruses mutate until they become effective or infective rather, to mammalians which include the human species. (devtome.com)
- We infer that the virus arose via reassortment between a preexisting human H1 IAV lineage and an avian virus. (pnas.org)
- The propagation of influenza viruses throughout the world is thought in part to be by bird migrations, though commercial shipments of live bird products might also be implicated, as well as human travel patterns. (wikipedia.org)
- Flu viruses can remain infectious for about one week at human body temperature, over 30 days at 0 °C (32 °F), and indefinitely at very low temperatures (such as lakes in northeast Siberia ). (wikipedia.org)
- The death toll is typically estimated to have been somewhere between 17 million and 50 million, making it one of the deadliest pandemics in human history. (bingj.com)
- The current evidence suggests that the 1918 influenza pandemic was caused by viruses with 2 receptor-binding variants: A/South Carolina/1/1918 (SC18) and A/Brevig Mission/1/1918, like A/London/1/1918, possess the human α2,6 SA receptor preference, whereas natural variants A/New York/1/1918 and A/London/1/1919 possess a mixed α2,6/α2,3 SA specificity ( 18 ). (pnas.org)
- Human H1 proteins that bind α2,6 SA, including the parental South Carolina HA of 1918, contain an aspartate at both positions (Asp 190 and Asp 225 ), whereas α2,3 binding avian viruses contain glutamate at position 190 (Glu 190 ) and glycine at position 225 (Gly 225 ) ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
Cases of influenza3
- A flu epidemic happens when more cases of influenza than expected affect a particular population, at a specific time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- As a result of being effectively shut off from the rest of the city, no cases of influenza appeared in the school during the period of protective sequestration. (forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl)
- Upon their return in early December, however, 12 cases of influenza were diagnosed among the WPIB students. (forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl)
- Over the course of a flu season (which typically occurs between October and May), different types of influenza are passed from person-to-person, causing illness. (virginia.gov)
- This occurs when an influenza virus undergoes an antigenic shift and creates a completely new subtype of influenza A with the ability to cause illness in people and spread easily from person-to-person. (virginia.gov)