Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype
Influenza in Birds
Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Influenza A virus
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Basic Reproduction Number
Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
Communicable Disease Control
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype
Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Disease Transmission, Infectious
Communicable Diseases, Emerging
World War I
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919
Drug Resistance, Viral
Atlases as Topic
Influenza B virus
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype
World Health Organization
Health Planning Guidelines
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Sequence Analysis, DNA
The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Eastman Institute for Oral Health
". "How have dentists' offices changed amid pandemic?". "Rochester Business Journal - Eastman Institute a hub for dentistry ... since 1917". "Eastman Dental Celebrates Completion of $5.9 Million Renovations". URMC Newsroom. "UR/Eastman Institute for Oral ...
History of the Royal Australian Navy
When the pandemic struck in 1918, the ships of the Royal Australian Navy were dispersed throughout the world. The speed at ... The pandemic swept through the British Grand Fleet in 1918; the Australian cruisers assigned to the fleet suffered high ... Stevens, David (2007). "The RAN and the 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic". In Forbes, Andrew; Lovi, Michelle (eds.). Australian ... 12 July 1917. p. 9. Retrieved 16 May 2013. Stevens 2001, pp. 29-30. Stevens 2001, p. 318. ...
Her family survived the influenza pandemic of 1917. Later, she married M. Venkatesh who worked for the Mysore Railways, and had ...
Stanislaus County Fair
... and 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. There was an online event in 2020. The mission of the Stanislaus County Fair is to ... The Carnival was not held once the U.S. entered World War I in 1917, and for the remainder of the war. It returned in 1919. ... There had been fair interruptions in 1917-18 because of World War I, 1942-45 due to World War II; ...
History of Saint Helena
The 1918 world pandemic of influenza bypassed St Helena. William A. Thorpe was killed in an accident in 1918, his business ... One news report in August 2020 stated that the costs imposed by the pandemic led to the "collapse of the island's tourism ... The travel restrictions imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic had a very negative effect on tourism in 2020 and extending into ... The self-proclaimed Sultan of Zanzibar, Seyyid Khalid Bin Barghash, was exiled in St Helena from 1917 to 1921 before being ...
", "Bluin' the Blues", and "Dixieland Jass Band One-Step". He died in the Spanish flu pandemic of 1919. He was replaced by J. ... "Darktown Strutters' Ball" (1917) by Original Dixieland Jass Band was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2006 Yanow, Scott ...
During this time, Hayek also survived the 1918 flu pandemic. Hayek then decided to pursue an academic career, determined to ... In 1917, Hayek joined an artillery regiment in the Austro-Hungarian Army and fought on the Italian front. Hayek suffered damage ...
"A Pandemic of Typhus in Serbia in 1914 and 1915". Section of Epidemiology and State Medicine. Zinsser, Hans (1996) . Rats ... Due to fear of an outbreak of epidemic typhus, the US Government put a typhus quarantine in place in 1917 across the entirety ...
"A Pandemic of Typhus in Serbia in 1914 and 1915". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine (published 1918). 11 (Sect ...
Portland Rose Festival
COVID-19 pandemic concerns also cancelled the 2020 edition. No festival was held in 1917 and 1918 because of World War I and ... Rose Festival organizers made the announcement Thursday due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Rose Festival events were scheduled to ... or canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. 2007, 2011: the International Festivals and Events Association named the Portland ...
St. Patrick's Day Parade Scranton
The 2020 parade was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. And 2021 was rescheduled to mid-September. Other cancellations were ... in 1917-18 & 1942-45. "The 10 largest St. Patrick's Day parades in the country: See where Syracuse ranks". 2014-03-14. "St. ...
Timeline of New York City
1832 - Cholera pandemic reaches North America. It breaks out in New York City on June 26, peaks at 100 deaths per day during ... March 22: The city goes into a state of lockdown, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. March 30: The Mercy-class hospital ship USNS ... Jewell, Britta L.; Jewell, Nicholas P. (14 April 2020). "The Huge Cost of Waiting to Contain the Pandemic". The New York Times ... 1918 The "Great Influenza Pandemic" rages across the country and worldwide. On one particularly virulent October day, 851 ...
Michigan-Ohio State football rivalry
The 2020 matchup was canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Ohio State has vacated all 12 of its victories and its Big Ten ... when it was not held due to the coronavirus pandemic. The game has been played at the end of the regular season since 1935 ( ... In 1917, Michigan rejoined the conference after a ten-year absence. In 1918, the teams played their first conference matchup, ... Ohio State began league play with the 1913 season, and Michigan returned for the 1917 season. The 1918 matchup between the two ...
He died five months later during the influenza pandemic of 1918. In 1920 she married journalist and investor Ronald Tree (1897- ... She was first married, in 1917, to Henry Field, an heir to the Marshall Field department store fortune. ...
McKissock died in 1919, a victim of the 1918 flu pandemic. Carr, Adam (2008). "Australian Election Archive". Psephos, Adam ... He held the seat until his defeat in 1917, after which he became a Labor Party organiser. ...
Women's suffrage in the United States
"A pandemic nearly derailed the women's suffrage movement". National Geographic. Retrieved 2020-04-27. The record of the Leslie ... In 1917 Catt received a bequest of $900,000 from Mrs. Frank (Miriam) Leslie to be used for the women's suffrage movement. Catt ... In November 1917 a referendum to enfranchise women in New York - at that time the most populous state in the country - passed ... The entry of the U.S. into World War I in April 1917 had a significant impact on the suffrage movement. To replace men who had ...
During the 1918 influenza pandemic it saw extensive use. That hospital would be the forerunner of the VA Hospital at Fort ... For WWI the 41st Infantry was constituted at the fort in May of 1917 and inactivated in September 1921. The army established an ...
National Cattle Congress
There was no convention in 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nor was in 1917-18 because of World War I. Official website ...
List of highest-grossing films in the United Kingdom
Pulver, Andrew; Sweney, Mark (5 January 2021). "Battlefield drama 1917 wins 2020 UK box office in pandemic-struck year". ...
The Influenza pandemic of 1918 closed local movie theaters and pool halls. By the 1930s, Chattanooga was known as the "Dynamo ... The bridge was completed in 1917 for the large sum of $1 million for the time. Having stood for decades since its last major ... Chattanooga grew with the entry of the United States in the First World War in 1917; the nearest training camp was in Fort ... American Library Annual, 1917-1918. New York: R.R. Bowker Co. 1918. hdl:2027/mdp.39015013751220. http://www.lib.chattanooga.gov ...
Cloverdale Rodeo and Country Fair
There was no fair since 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It was also cancelled in 1917-18 & 1942-44. There are cooking, ...
George F. Le Feuvre
Marguerite died during the influenza pandemic, in March 1919. George never remarried, and remained a single man for the rest of ... They had one daughter, Reine, born in 1917. ...
He died in Heidelberg from influenza during the 1918 influenza pandemic. Zur Entwicklungsphysiologie der Farnprothaillen, 3 ... Bände, 1917 Beiträge zur Physiologie der Pflanzenzelle, 1888 Die Bedingungen der Fortpflanzung bei einigen Algen und Pilzen, ...
American Quartet (ensemble)
... a victim of the 1918 flu pandemic. The group continued thereafter, with Hooley replaced by bass singer Donald Chalmers who, ... The American Quartet (1917) in 'Traveling Culture: Circuit Chautauqua in the Twentieth Century. ... 1917), and "Over There" (1917). William Hooley died in October 1918, ...
The Citadel Bulldogs basketball, 1900-1919
Andrew Miller (May 3, 2020). "Global pandemic 100 years ago rocked sports world in SC and across America". Post and Courier. ... The 1917-18 season was interrupted by World War I and the Spanish flu. ...
Timeline of New Zealand history
End of World War I. Influenza pandemic in which an estimated 8,500 die. Creation of power boards for electricity distribution. ... 28 April: First confirmed New Zealand case in the 2009 swine flu pandemic. 2010 4 September: A magnitude 7.1 earthquake strikes ... 1917 Battle of Passchendaele, 3,700 New Zealanders killed. Six o'clock public house closing introduced. Lord Liverpool becomes ...
Edward Francis Hutton
She died in the early days of the 1918 Spanish Flu influenza pandemic. Blanch and Edward had one son: Halcourt Horton Hutton ( ... He married his first wife Blanch Horton (December 6, 1878 - December 18, 1917) on October 9, 1900. Blanch was the daughter of ...
2020 saw some events moving to digital caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The new American Royal Complex was constructed in 1992 ... During World War II, the Royal complex was converted into a glider factory. No event was held in 1917-18 nor ...
Nenana Ice Classic
Mid-March 2020 saw the COVID-19 pandemic as grounds for betting remotely. The "tripod", which actually has four supports, is ... In 1917, railroad engineers bet $801 on when the ice would break. In 2009 the 93rd annual prize money was $283,723. In 2014 the ... the lottery was opened up to residents of the Alaska and Yukon territories in 1917. ...
The 2009 flu pandemic involved another strain of Influenza A H1N1, commonly known as "swine flu". By 1985, Harald zur Hausen ... The strain of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 that killed up to 50 million people during the Spanish flu pandemic in 1918 was ... The cause of the devastating Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 was initially unclear. In late 1918, French scientists showed that a ... by Félix d'Herelle in 1917. As bacteria could be grown easily in culture, this led to an explosion of virology research. ...
1918 flu pandemic. *Blockade of Germany. *Deportations from East Prussia. *Destruction of Kalisz ... 1914-1917:. Russian Empire. 1918:. Armenia. United Kingdom. Centrocaspian Dictatorship. Ottoman Empire. 1918:. Azerbaijan. 1918 ... On March 9, 1917, a Special Transcaucasian Committee was established with Member of the State Duma V. A. Kharlamov as the ... In December 1917, the Dashnaks of the Armenian national liberation movement through the Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians ...
Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology
Institute of the Ministry of Defense and the Vector Institute of the Rospotrebnadzor in order to curb the COVID-19 pandemic. ... http://drw.saw-leipzig.de/31229 - "BLJUMENTAL', Filipp Markovič [...] 1891-1917 [:] Gründer und Direktor des privaten „Chemisch ...
The total number of deaths worldwide from the pandemic is estimated at 75-200 million with up to 50 million deaths in Europe ... and the Khanate of Khiva survived as a Russian protectorate until 1917. ...
Known flu pandemics. Name of pandemic. Date. Deaths. Case fatality rate. Subtype involved. Pandemic Severity Index ... Epidemic and pandemic spread. Further information: Flu pandemic. As influenza is caused by a variety of species and strains of ... The most famous and lethal outbreak was the 1918 flu pandemic (Spanish flu pandemic) (type A influenza, H1N1 subtype), which ... Pandemics continued sporadically throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, with the pandemic of 1830-1833 being particularly ...
The pandemic coincided with a period of drought, causing widespread famine. The starving human populations died of smallpox, ... Cockerell, T. D. A. (1917). "A fossil tsetse fly and other Diptera from Florissant, Colorado". Proceedings of the Biological ...
... described the tactics used by those who deny the Holocaust and by those who deny that the AIDS pandemic is due to infection ... O'Shea, Paul (2008). A Cross Too Heavy: Eugenio Pacelli, Politics and the Jews of Europe 1917-1943. Rosenberg Publishing. p. 20 ... Paul O'Shea, A Cross Too Heavy: Eugenio Pacelli, Politics and the Jews of Europe 1917-1943, Rosenberg Publishing, 2008. ISBN 1- ...
Also around this time, O'Keeffe became sick during the 1918 flu pandemic. ... I (1917). She "captured a monumental landscape in this simple configuration, fusing blue and green pigments in almost ... Alfred Stieglitz, an art dealer and photographer, held an exhibit of her works in 1917. Over the next couple of years, she ... II, 1917, watercolor on newsprint paper, 11 7/8 x 8 7/8 inches, Amon Carter Museum of American Art ...
List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events
Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues, Volume 1. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN ... Russell, C.T. (1917). The Finished Mystery (Studies in the Scriptures). International Bible Students Association. ASIN ...
How does that work during a pandemic?". Berkeleyside. Archived from the original on April 29, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2020.. ...
After recovering from the 1918 flu pandemic he was assigned to the American delegation at the Paris Peace Conference, along ... 1917, the day before Lenin left Switzerland to travel to Saint Petersburg aboard a German train. ...
Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers
1918 flu pandemic. *Destruction of Kalisz. *Rape of Belgium. *German occupation of Belgium ... Thomas, Nigel (2012). The German Army in World War I (3): 1917-18. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78096-575-8.. ... On 15 December 1917, an armistice was signed between the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) on the one side ... Slusser, Robert M.; Triska, Jan F. (1959). A Calendar of Soviet Treaties, 1917-1957. Stanford University Press.. ...
In the next decade, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns, bralettes and soft bras started replacing ... Corsets started to go out of fashion by 1917 as when metal was needed to make tanks and munitions for World War I, and the ...
Castillo, Edward D. (2001). "Blood Came from Their Mouths: Tongva and Chumash Responses to the Pandemic of 1801". Medicine Ways ... Adele Perez Dominguez, (b. 1917), is one of the last full-blooded Gabrieleño-Tongva tribal elders; she is the great- ...
The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 (or the Spanish flu) killed 25-50 million people (about 2% of world population of 1.7 billion).[ ... Between 1518 and 1568 disease pandemics are said to have caused the population of Mexico to fall from 20 million to 3 million.[ ... A pandemic (or global epidemic) is a disease that affects people over an extensive geographical area. ... or pandemic, which is a global epidemic. If the cause of the infectious disease is unknown, epidemiology can be used to assist ...
Also, during this time, he survived the 1918 flu pandemic, having come down with the illness. He secured Ethiopia's ... On 11 February 1917 he was crowned Le'ul-Ras and became known as Ras Tafari Makonnen listen (help·info). Ras is translated ... 1 November 1905 - 11 February 1917: Dejazmach Tafari Makonnen. *11 February 1917 - 7 October 1928: Le'ul-Ras Tafari ... On 11 February 1917, the coronation for Zewditu took place. She pledged to rule justly through her Regent, Tafari. While Tafari ...
"Mnuchin's claim that the pre-pandemic economy 'would pay down debt over time'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2020-09-10. The ... and revolutionary Russia of 1917 which refused to accept the responsibility for Imperial Russia's foreign debt. Another ...
United States Grand Prix
Grands Prix affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. * - Grands Prix expected to run in 2020 only ... with the exception of 2020 when it was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. ... "Championship Auto Races for 1917". The New York Times. March 18, 1917. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013. Retrieved ... The two Santa Monica events were the only road races on the 1916 championship, and the aborted 1917 National Championship was ...
"Diphtheria in the Former Soviet Union: Reemergence of a Pandemic Disease". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 4 (4): 539-550. doi ... Nation, R. Craig (1992). Black Earth, Red Star: A History of Soviet Security Policy, 1917-1991. Cornell University Press. pp. ... Getzler, Israel (2002) . Kronstadt 1917-1921: The Fate of a Soviet Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN ... During the 20th century, the world's first constitutionally communist state was in Russia at the end of 1917. In 1922, it ...
During the early stages of the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, reliable treatment options had not been found. In reaction, ... Convalescent plasma collected at a blood donor center during the COVID-19 pandemic. ... Emil Behring (1854-1917) had pioneered the technique, using guinea pigs to produce serum. Based on his observation that ...
... the reality of the COVID-19 pandemic  or, at the very least, deny that deaths are happening in the manner ... Paul O'Shea, A Cross Too Heavy: Eugenio Pacelli, Politics and the Jews of Europe 1917-1943, Rosenberg Publishing, 2008. ISBN 1- ...
"Diphtheria in the Former Soviet Union: Reemergence of a Pandemic Disease". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 4 (4): 539-550. doi ... Political Power in the U.S.S.R., 1917-1947: The Theory and Structure of Government in the Soviet State Oxford Univ. Press, 1948 ... Soviet Foreign Policy, 1917-1991: A Retrospective (2014). *Grant, Ted. Russia, from Revolution to Counter-Revolution, London, ... Schapiro, Leonard B. The Origin of the Communist Autocracy: Political Opposition in the Soviet State, First Phase 1917-1922. ...
인간면역결핍 바이러스 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
Unsafe Health Care and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic 2003. *HIV/AIDS: global trends, global funds and delivery bottlenecks ...
Garret TA (2007). Economic Effects of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Implications for a Modern-day Pandemic (PDF).. ... Influenza Pandemic 1919. Portland Victoria *^ Ryan, Jeffrey, ed. Pandemic influenza: emergency planning and community ... "characterized the historic 1918 pandemic and estimated the effects of a similar pandemic occurring today using the AIR Pandemic ... The pandemic mostly killed young adults. In 1918-1919, 99% of pandemic influenza deaths in the U.S. occurred in people under 65 ...
Political parties in the United States
American electoral politics has been dominated by two major political parties since shortly after the founding of the republic. Since the 1850s, they have been the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. Since the last major party realignment in the mid-20th century, the Democratic Party has been the center-left and liberal party, and the Republican Party has been the center-right and conservative party. Since the 1990s, both the Republican and Democratic parties have shifted further apart. This two-party system is based on laws, party rules and custom, not specifically outlined in the US Constitution. Several third parties also operate in the U.S., and from time to time elect someone to local office. The largest third party since the 1980s has been the Libertarian Party. Besides the Constitution, Green, and Libertarian parties, there are many other political parties that receive only minimal support and only appear on the ballot in one or a few states. The need to win popular support in a ...
ܘܝܩܝܦܕܝܐ:ܡܟܬܒܘܬܐ ܕܡܓܠܐ ܠܟܠ ܘܝܩܝܦܕܝܐ - ܘܝܩܝܦܕܝܐ
There are a growing number of Wikipedia projects, some very active and others quite stagnant. I propose that we invigorate them by ensuring that they each contain a minimum amount of basic, useful information. This way, people will be encouraged to use these projects and help in their growth. I therefore suggest that we make a list of about 1,000 basic articles that we advise having on every existing Wikipedia. These articles should be very basic, and incorporate the most essential information. In some cases, it will be only a table, while in other cases, it will be a stub. This will, however, provide some impetus for the smaller projects to grow.. In addition to simply listing the articles, this project hopes to eventually create easily translatable versions of these articles, possibly containing core information at . Until then, links to the largest Wikipedia, the English language version, are provided as a translatable resource.. Because this list has grown so large, it is currently in the ...
West Windsor-Plainsboro Regional School District
... by the Administration and community members who prioritized the well-being of the community during the Covid-19 pandemic.  ... One of our schools, Dutch Neck Elementary School, was opened in 1917 and is over one-hundred years old. Another school, Wicoff ...
... although it had not yet reached pandemic levels in Cuzcatlán. The first known visit by Spaniards to what is now ... The San Salvador area has been hit by earthquakes in 1576, 1659, 1798, 1839, 1854, 1873, 1880, 1917, 1919, 1965, 1986, 2001 and ...
Raj of Sarawak
H1N1 pandemic in Malaysia. 2009-2010. 1Malaysia Concept. 2009-2018. 1MDB Scandal. 2015-present. ... The first wireless telegraphy station was erected in Kuching in 1917, followed by Sibu and Miri immediately thereafter. It ... He ruled Sarawak until his death in 1917 and was succeeded by his son, Charles Vyner Brooke. ...
Difteria - Wikipèdia
Diphtheria in the Former Soviet Union: Reemergence of a Pandemic Disease. », Emerging Infectious Disease Journal, Centers for ... Emil Adolf von Behring (1854-1917), médecin et bactériologiste allemand, lauréat du prix Nobel en 1901. », medarus.org « ...
The stated goal of this program is the capability of producing 150,000,000 doses of pandemic vaccine within six months of ... declaring a flu pandemic. In April 2014, Novartis divested its consumer health section with $3,5 billion worth of assets ... Johann Rudolf Geigy-Merian (1830-1917) and Johann Muller-Pack acquired a site in Basel in 1857, where they built a dyewood mill ... Department of Health and Human Services awards Novartis USD 486 million contract to build manufacturing facility for pandemic ...
Influenza Milestones 1917 - 2009 Timeline | Pandemic Influenza (Flu) | CDC
Past Pandemicsplus icon *2009 H1N1 Pandemicplus icon * Summary of Progress since 2009 ... Pandemic Severity Assessment Framework. *Allocating & Targeting Pandemic Influenza Vaccineplus icon *Guidance Development and ... Third wave of pandemic flu activity occurs. Pandemic subsides, but virus (H1N1) continues to circulate seasonally for 38 years. ... Three Waves of the Pandemic. *The Deadliest Flu: The Complete Story of the Discovery and Reconstruction of the 1918 Pandemic ...
1510 influenza pandemic - Wikipedia
The pandemic caused significant disruption in government, church, and society with near-universal infection and a mortality ... Flu became more widely referred to as coqueluche and coccolucio in France and Sicily during this pandemic, variations of which ... Ryan, Jeffrey R. (2008-08-01). Pandemic Influenza: Emergency Planning and Community Preparedness. CRC Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-1- ... Morens, David; North, Michael; Taubenberger, Jeffrey (4 December 2011). "Eyewitness accounts of the 1510 influenza pandemic in ...
Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in Belarus - Wikipedia
This article documents the timeline of transmission of COVID-19 during the pandemic in Belarus. COVID-19 pandemic in Belarus ... "За сутки в Беларуси 1917 новых случаев COVID-19". tut.by (in Russian). 18 December 2020. Archived from the original on 3 ... "Официально: за сутки коронавирусом заразились 1917 человек. Больных стало меньше на 450". Onliner.by (in Russian). 24 December ...
Trump asks congressional leaders to return for shutdown talks Friday -lawmaker
Gilroy Shooting: Police find 16th shooting victim [Video]
Video: Rory Best joins up with the Lions - BelfastTelegraph.co.uk
'Crazy chicken lady' funds feathered friends by filling out online surveys - BelfastTelegraph.co...
1918 Pandemic Influenza Historic Timeline | Pandemic Influenza (Flu) | CDC
Past Pandemicsplus icon *2009 H1N1 Pandemicplus icon * Summary of Progress since 2009 ... Pandemic Severity Assessment Framework. *Allocating & Targeting Pandemic Influenza Vaccineplus icon *Guidance Development and ... Three Waves of the Pandemic. *The Deadliest Flu: The Complete Story of the Discovery and Reconstruction of the 1918 Pandemic ... Philadelphia is hit hard with the pandemic flu viruses-more than 500 corpses await burial, some for more than a week. Cold- ...
Health outcomes of young children born to mothers who received 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination during pregnancy:...
Pandemic H1N1 Influenza in Pregnancy Working Group. . Pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus illness among pregnant women in the ... The pandemic influenza vaccination campaign in Ontario started on 26 October 2009. In Canada, two pandemic vaccines were ... Pandemic (H1N1) 2009: assessing the response. CMAJ2010;182:1874-8. doi:10.1503/cmaj.100900 pmid:20956501. ... Association between pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination in pregnancy and early childhood morbidity in offspring. JAMA ...
Pandemic Influenza and Hospital Resources - Volume 13, Number 11-November 2007 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Pandemic influenza-implications for critical care resources in Australia and New Zealand. J Crit Care. 2003;18:173-80. DOI ... Modelling the impact of an influenza pandemic on critical care services in England. Anaesthesia. 2005;60:952-4. DOIPubMed ... For a new pandemic, the important issues to factor in are magnitude and duration, calculation of staff shortages, and the ... How prepared is Europe for pandemic influenza? Analysis of national plans. Lancet. 2006;367:1405-11. DOIPubMed ...
Table 4 - Risk Factors for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Seroconversion among Hospital Staff, Singapore - Volume 16, Number 10...
Risk Factors for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Seroconversion among Hospital Staff, Singapore Mark I.C. Chen. , Vernon J.M. Lee, ... Contact with colleague(s) who had pandemic (H1N1) 2009. 2 (0-6). 15 (9-23). 14 (10-20). ,0.01. ,0.01. 0.86. ... Contact with patients who had pandemic (H1N1) 2009. 14 (9-21). 19 (13-28). 41 (34-48). 0.28. ,0.01. ,0.01. ... Comparison of risk factors among allied health staff, ward-based nurses, and non-ward-based nurses for exposures to pandemic ( ...
Genesis and pathogenesis of the 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus | PNAS
Pandemic Paradox: Early Life H2N2 Pandemic Influenza Infection Enhanced Susceptibility to Death during the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic ... 2008) Predominant role of bacterial pneumonia as a cause of death in pandemic influenza: Implications for pandemic influenza ... S10). This finding suggests that during the pandemic, reassortment occurred between the pandemic lineage and a cocirculating, ... The influenza pandemic of 1918-1920 killed an estimated 50 million people, most during a single wave late in 1918 (1, 2). Its ...
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Download the app and start listening to Pandemic: Level 6 today - Free with a 30 day Trial! Keep your audiobook forever, even ... In Level 6, book three of The Pandemic Series, the pandemic has hit a brick wall, but not because its burned itself out. ... Every pandemic begins small, subtle, and in faraway places. When it arrives, it spreads across oceans and continents, like the ... Level 6 is the third book in the Pandemic Series by Bobby Akart. It tells the story of the continued die-off on Earth and what ...
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1918 Flu Pandemic That Killed 50 Million Originated in China, Historians Say
The worldwide flu pandemic that killed 50 million people in 1918 may have originated with transported Chinese laborers, ... "These records answer a lot of questions about the pandemic.". Last of the Great Plagues. The 1918 flu pandemic struck in three ... Related: Heres how coronavirus could become a pandemic-and why it matters.) ... Even as the pandemics origins have remained a mystery, the Chinese laborers have previously been suggested as a source of the ...
Influenza (Spanish Flu) Pandemic 1918-1920 in Historical Contect: a Select Bibliography
Americas Forgotten Pandemic. London: Allison and Busby, 1996.. ____. The Plague of the Spanish Lady: The Influenza Pandemic of ... Flu: The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus That Caused It. New York: Farrar, Straus ... The 1918-1919 Pandemic of Influenza: The Urban Impact in the Western World. Lewiston, NY: E. Mellen Press, 1992.. Weinstein, L ... Pandemic Influenza, 1700-1900: A Study in Historical Epidemiology. Totowa, NJ: Rowan & Littlefield, 1986.. Pershing, John J. My ...
Transcript: Show #19 | Feb 15, 2000 | TVO.org
PANDEMIC AND ALL IT NEEDED. TO BE THE NEXT PANDEMIC. WAS TO BE EASILY. TRANSMISSIBLE PERSON TO. PERSON.. IT REALLY WAS ONLY. ... FLU PANDEMIC WILL EMERGE.. Maureen says BUT SINCE 1917 A LOT HAS. HAPPENED IN MEDICINE.. WHY ARE WE OVERDUE?. A caption reads " ... THE NEXT FLU PANDEMIC IS. WHAT DR. KEVIN KAIN IS. CONCERNED, THAT AND OTHER. EMERGING DISEASES IN CANADA.. DR. KAIN IS ... BUT A PANDEMIC WILL BE A. BRAND NEW COMBINATION AND. WILL NOT NECESSARILY BE. SOMETHING WE CAN PREDICT,. IT WILL NOT ...
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... online lectures being presented by the International Committee of the Fourth International to mark the centenary of the 1917 ... The COVID-19 pandemic: A trigger event in world history. Lectures and Essays by David North. *Trotskys Last Year (20/08/2020) ... The 1917 October Revolution. * Part 2: Stalinism, communism and anti-Semitism * Paul Hanebrinks A Specter Haunting Europe: The ... Now, after March 1917, only the blind can fail to see that it is a correct slogan. Transformation of the imperialist war is ...
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coronavirus / COVID-19 / covid19 / donald trump / News / pandemic / trump / us news / world war 2 / World War II / WWII. ... Trump says 1917 pandemic ended Second World War (nope, Spanish Flu was in 1918, before WWII). On Monday, August 10, U.S. ... President Donald Trump rewrite history -- he says in this video clip that the "1917 pandemic" ended the Second World War. Read ...
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Estimation of potential global pandemic influenza mortality on the basis of vital registry data from the 1918-20 pandemic: a ... Analysis of the three pandemics from the 20th century show that five features characterize influenza pandemics: 1) emergence of ... The W-Shaped Pandemic Season Curve. The mean seasonal P&I age-specific mortality curve for 1910-1914 exhibits the classic U- ... The 1918/1919 pandemic rippled across the globe in three recognized waves . In the United States, these were experienced as a ...
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H1N12020CoronavirusSuggest that the 1918 pandemic virusEpidemicDied during the 1918 influenza pEstimated 50 millionClaimed at least 50 millionSpring and fall of1916Least 50 millionEpidemics191920thPlagueImpact of the 1918Evolution of pandemic influenzaOutbreakLate 1917COVID-19 PANDEMICOutbreaksDeadlyDeadliestCaused by an influenza virusTypical of pandemicNext influenzaWorst pandemicGlobal pandemicAnother pandemicVirulenceVaccinesFuture influenzaSkipPreparednessVirusTimelineVirusesAvian influenza1918-19DeathsH5N1StrainThreatMortality ratesAmerica'sWartimePeopleQuarantineAggregateRussian RevolutionSpanishMillionEarlyAmericansCatastrophicNarcolepsy2018Respiratory
- Pandemic subsides, but virus (H1N1) continues to circulate seasonally for 38 years. (cdc.gov)
- H2N2 flu virus emerges to trigger a pandemic, replacing the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus. (cdc.gov)
- H1N1 viruses distantly related to the 1918 virus emerge to trigger a pandemic. (cdc.gov)
- Objective To determine whether any association exists between exposure to 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccination during pregnancy and negative health outcomes in early childhood. (bmj.com)
- Here, we reconstruct the origins of the pandemic virus and the classic swine influenza and (postpandemic) seasonal H1N1 lineages using a host-specific molecular clock approach that is demonstrably more accurate than previous methods. (pnas.org)
- Hence, although the swine lineage was a direct descendent of the pandemic virus, the post-1918 seasonal H1N1 lineage evidently was not, at least for HA. (pnas.org)
- The 1918 flu pandemic struck in three waves across the globe, starting in the spring of that year, and is tied to a strain of H1N1 influenza ancestral to ones still virulent today. (nationalgeographic.com)
- While the 1918/1919 H1N1 influenza pandemic is widely recognized as a "worst-case scenario" for the emergence of a new influenza strain, relatively little is known about the origin of the responsible virus and its pattern of spread. (plos.org)
- These results provide one of the first confirmations of the existence of a "herald wave" of influenza activity in the United States prior to the recognized start of the H1N1 pandemic in Spring 1918. (plos.org)
- The 1918-1920 H1N1 influenza A pandemic caused unprecedented morbidity and mortality on a global basis. (plos.org)
- Seroarchaeology first indicated the cause of the 1918/1919 pandemic as an H1N1 influenza A virus  . (plos.org)
- We address unresolved questions of why the 1918 influenza H1N1 virus was more virulent than other influenza pandemics and why some people survived the 1918 pandemic and others succumbed to the infection. (frontiersin.org)
- On 11 June 2009, a new strain of H1N1 influenza was declared to be a global pandemic (Stage 6) by the WHO after evidence of spreading in the southern hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
- Do you think this year's H1N1 pandemic could turn extremely deadly like the Spanish Flu of 1917? (cafemom.com)
- The H1N1 flu is worrisome because it is believed to be the type responsible for the great Flu Pandemic of 1917-1918. (abovetopsecret.com)
- We still don't know what made that pandemic so deadly, but when authorities see an H1N1 variety, they get nervous. (abovetopsecret.com)
- A significant increase in narcolepsy cases was also observed following the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic, but the findings now available in Annals of Neurology , a journal of the American Neurological Association and the Child Neurology Society, report flu vaccination was unlikely the cause of the increase. (bio-medicine.org)
- Following the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic, studies reported increased incidence in narcolepsy and increased risk of narcolepsy in patients receiving the Pandemrix vaccine. (bio-medicine.org)
- Researchers also studied year-to-year variations, identifying 173 cases of narcolepsy following the 2009-2010 H1N1 flu pandemic which represented a 3-fold increase in the disorder. (bio-medicine.org)
- That two-wave pattern is typical of pandemic flu viruses, which is why many scientists worry that the 2009 H1N1 ("swine") flu virus might evolve into a deadlier form. (scienceblog.com)
- On June 11, 2009, about three months after the H1N1 virus first appeared, the World Health Organization declared a level 6 pandemic alert (the highest level). (scienceblog.com)
- In July 2009, a team of researchers from MIT, led by Sasisekharan, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in the journal Science that the H1N1 virus was much less easily passed from person to person than seasonal flu viruses and earlier pandemic flu viruses such as the second wave of the 1918 strain. (scienceblog.com)
- Considering the long and confusing track record of pandemic influenza,' the scientists wrote Wednesday in JAMA , 'it is difficult to predict the future course of the present H1N1 pandemic. (wired.com)
- In the decades that followed, though, it was recognized that the pandemic was caused by an influenza A virus of the H1N1 subtype. (statnews.com)
- Philippines, April 28, 2020 - With the entire country on quarantine because of the COVID-19 Pandemic, mobility in the country is practically at a standstill. (blogarama.com)
- Heading into 2020, the last thing most of us expected was a worldwide pandemic. (blogarama.com)
- The 2020 pandemic followed (nearly) thirty years of uninterrupted economic growth. (fnarena.com)
- 2020) show that areas in the US that were hit by the pandemic experienced a sharp decline in economic activity, and that the effects persisted until at least 1923. (voxeu.org)
- JAMIE RICHARDSON: The spread and severity of the coronavirus may be unlike anything seen in our lifetimes, but it was just over 100 years ago that another deadly flu pandemic swept over the globe. (jfklibrary.org)
- As we face the current coronavirus pandemic, my co-host, Matt Porter, and I were excited to have a chance to talk to Hemingway scholar Susan Beegle on Ernest Hemingway's experience during the 1918 flu pandemic. (jfklibrary.org)
- The immediate economic fallout for the US economy from the coronavirus pandemic is predicted to be disastrous. (voxeu.org)
- 2018). In light of the sizable immediate contraction in economic activity created by the coronavirus outbreak, there is renewed interest in assessing the economic impact of the 1918 influenza pandemic. (voxeu.org)
Suggest that the 1918 pandemic virus2
- Our results suggest that the 1918 pandemic virus originated shortly before 1918 when a human H1 virus, which we infer emerged before ∼1907, acquired avian N1 neuraminidase and internal protein genes. (pnas.org)
- Fanning TG, Slemons RD, Reid AH, Janczewski TA, Dean J, Taubenberger JK (2002) 1917 avian influenza virus sequences suggest that the 1918 pandemic virus did not acquire its hemagglutinin directly from birds. (springer.com)
- The intensity of the 1918 pandemic, whether assessed as total excess deaths, the rate of increase in the epidemic curve, or peak death rates, varied widely among U.S. cities. (pnas.org)
- Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a high death toll, typically over a relatively short period of time. (frontiersin.org)
- Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. (frontiersin.org)
- With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic. (frontiersin.org)
- An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population . (wikipedia.org)
- These findings are reminiscent of the encephalitis lethargica epidemic that followed the great Spanish influenza pandemic of 1917-1918. (bio-medicine.org)
- The main difference between an epidemic and a pandemic is the geographic (territorial or continental) extent and incidence (referring to the population density) of both an infectious and a non-infectious disease. (k-state.edu)
- On the other hand, a pandemic (Greek " pan " or "all" and, " demos " or "people") is an extended epidemic that includes multiple outbreaks directly or indirectly, connected one to each other and threatening the entire population of one or more continents. (k-state.edu)
- Population density, mobility, and immunity are the three factors underlying the equation of epidemic risk, and ultimately, the threat of pandemic risk. (k-state.edu)
- 1918 was a flu pandemic, meaning an epidemic that spreads right across the planet, ignoring the usual seasonal winter rhythms. (futurelearn.com)
- Very different public responses can be seen by comparing the 1881-82 smallpox epidemic (163 cases, with 41 fatalities) and the 1890-91 Asiatic flu pandemic (tens of thousands of cases, with 234 deaths). (dictionaryofsydney.org)
- A regional epidemic is shorter lived than a pandemic, lasting only several weeks. (encyclopedia.com)
Died during the 1918 influenza p1
- It has been suggested that the reason far more men than women died during the 1918 influenza pandemic is that men were typically the family breadwinners, so had to go out to work instead of staying home when sick to recover. (teara.govt.nz)
Estimated 50 million4
- The influenza pandemic of 1918-1920 killed an estimated 50 million people, most during a single wave late in 1918 ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
- First, the often-mentioned flu pandemic of 1917-1918, when an estimated 50 million died, or 2.8 percent of the world's population. (dailycamera.com)
- The 1918 flu pandemic infected half a billion people worldwide, or nearly a third of the world's population, and killed an estimated 50 million people around the globe. (jfklibrary.org)
- The 1918 influenza pandemic killed an estimated 50 million people, and the origin of this virulent strain continues to be of interest ( 10 ). (asm.org)
Claimed at least 50 million1
- The infamous 1917-18 influenza contagion claimed at least 50 million lives. (livablefutureblog.com)
Spring and fall of1
- Hundreds exhibited symptoms of the pandemic flu during the spring and fall of 1917, a fact later identified by army pathologists. (toptenz.net)
- That occurred in 1916, 1917 and 1918, a period that included the worst flu pandemic in modern history. (dailyherald.com)
- U.S. Public opinion reacted with outrage to the suspected German sabotage of Black Tom in Jersey City, New Jersey on 30 July 1916, and to the Kingsland explosion on 11 January 1917 in present-day Lyndhurst, New Jersey. (wikipedia.org)
- Deaths associated with the seasonal influenza of 1916, 1917 and 1921 represented 19·7%, 12·5% and 21·0% of all deaths respectively, whereas during the rawest moments of the Spanish influenza, in 1918, the proportion of deaths due to flu for those aged between 15 and 44 years of age reached 68·2% in Paris and 66·3% in Madrid. (wiley.com)
- A three-year decline happened in 1916, 1917 and 1918, which included the worst flu pandemic in modern history. (winknews.com)
Least 50 million3
- Estimates vary on the exact number of deaths caused by the disease, but it is thought to have infected a third of the world's population and killed at least 50 million people, making it the deadliest pandemic in modern history. (livescience.com)
- In total, the pandemic killed at least 50 million people - about 3 percent of the world's population at the time. (scienceblog.com)
- We got serological samples, she is the first patient we know that might have gone through the 'Spanish flu' since she was born in 1917," Sicbaldi explained, referring to the 1918/1919 flu pandemic that killed at least 50 million people worldwide, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cnn.com)
- Pregnant women are considered to be at high risk for serious illness due to influenza related mortality and morbidity documented during influenza pandemics and seasonal epidemics. (bmj.com)
- Our findings suggest that better understanding of how initial exposure shapes lifetime immunity may enhance the prediction and control of future IAV pandemics and seasonal epidemics. (pnas.org)
- Increased human mobility facilitated epidemics and pandemics that could affect vast areas. (historylink.org)
- In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly - there have been about 9 influenza pandemics during the last 300 years. (wikipedia.org)
- The 1890s to the 1920s were dominated by two influenza pandemics (1890-94 and 1918), with annual epidemics in between. (teara.govt.nz)
- and in the South Atlantic, 1917-1919. (navy.mil)
- However, the 1918/1919 pandemic occurred before the cause of influenza was known, and virological evidence of influenza A evolution prior to 1930 is severely limited. (plos.org)
- This was then combined with terrible influenza or flu pandemic of 1918 to 1919, which was the deadliest in modern history. (sott.net)
- Influenza ward at Walter Reed Hospital , in Washington, D.C. during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918-1919. (wikipedia.org)
- The mortality rate was reduced significantly following the use of closed tube drainage which became popular during the influenza pandemic of 1917-1919. (springer.com)
- The GHQ article concentrated on the 6,520 recorded deaths in Savannah-Chatham County during a three-year period, Jan. 1, 1917, to Dec. 31, 1919. (savannahnow.com)
- In the 1918 - 1919 Spanish flu pandemic, the death toll reached a staggering 20-40 million worldwide. (encyclopedia.com)
- The 1918 - 1919 influenza outbreak serves as the primary example of an influenza pandemic. (encyclopedia.com)
- They also include autopsies he conducted during the Spanish Flu Pandemic at Camp Grant, Illinois (1918-1919). (uchicago.edu)
- In 1917-1919, he worked as a doctor at Camp Grant, a U.S. Army facility that was located near Rockford, Illinois. (uchicago.edu)
- Yet the stock market recovered substantially during the pandemic, with the Dow index increasing by 10.5% in 1918 and by 30.5% in 1919. (voxeu.org)
- We completely rebounded from the 1917-1919 Spanish Flu pandemic without any of the modern medical therapies or equipment that we have now. (talkers.com)
- Somehow, he survived the Spanish Flu pandemic of 1918-1919, but an outbreak of whooping cough in 1923 claimed his baby sister, Clementina. (warisacrime.org)
- Therefore, almost all assumptions in the models published to date have drawn on the knowledge obtained from the large 20th-century pandemics ( 12 - 14 ). (cdc.gov)
- Influenza pandemics have occurred periodically in human populations, with three pandemics in the 20th century. (pnas.org)
- Three influenza pandemics occurred in the 20th century and killed tens of millions of people, with each of these pandemics being caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans. (wikipedia.org)
- MATT PORTER: Let's start, before we get into the Hemingway portion of this, Susan, can you tell us a little more about the 1918 pandemic as it was, because a lot of people have sort of kind of forgotten about what was the major pandemic in the early part of the 20th century. (jfklibrary.org)
- The Spanish flu outbreak is the worst pandemic in the 20th century. (247wallst.com)
- Therefore, it will follow the red line of pathogen emergence from the fundamental domains of a pandemic origin, sustained by some exemplary ones, and how we can be prepared for "The Coming Plague" (Garett, 1994). (k-state.edu)
- The next pandemic that quickly comes to mind is the bubonic plague in the 14th century, when up to 120 million died out of a world population of 475 million, or 28 percent. (dailycamera.com)
- One should not forget the flu pandemic of 1889-1890, or the Russian plague of 1770-1772, or the plague of London, where losses were possibly as high as 15 percent of the population. (dailycamera.com)
Impact of the 19181
- Location-specific studies of the impact of the 1918 pandemic strain in the United States have been confined primarily to large cities on the East Coast or West Coast. (plos.org)
Evolution of pandemic influenza2
- Using estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, and published models of the expected evolution of pandemic influenza, we modeled the surge capacity of healthcare facility and intensive care unit (ICU) requirements over time in northern Netherlands (≈1.7 million population). (cdc.gov)
- Conclusion Victim age is an important criterion that can be used to evaluate the phase and evolution of pandemic influenza. (wiley.com)
- Influenza-like illnesses had been documented in Europe since at least Charlemagne, with 1357's outbreak the first to be called influenza, but the 1510 flu pandemic is the first to be pathologically described following communication advances brought about by the printing press. (wikipedia.org)
- The responsibility for management of the national and regional risks due to pandemic influenza was underscored by the outbreak of avian influenza (H7N7) in 2003 in the Netherlands, which led to culling one third of domestic poultry (including 30 million chickens), with 1 human casualty, a veterinary surgeon who died from acute lung injury after infection with the virus ( 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
- The misnamed "Spanish Flu" pandemic peaked in late 1918 and remains the most widespread and lethal outbreak of disease to afflict humankind worldwide in recorded history. (historylink.org)
- Another earlier outbreak occurred at a British Army base in Aldershot in the early spring of 1917. (toptenz.net)
- 2:12 Skip to 2 minutes and 12 seconds Even the most conservative of those estimates would make that flu pandemic outbreak of 1918 deadlier than the First World War, and possibly even up to five times deadlier. (futurelearn.com)
- T he Spanish flu pandemic, which swept the globe in a series of waves from 1918 to 1920, is the deadliest infectious disease outbreak in known history. (statnews.com)
- By contrast, the influenza outbreak in the spring of 1918 occurred right after a downturn: the Dow Jones Industrial Average had actually declined 21.7% in 1917. (voxeu.org)
- The illness spread 300 miles (500 kilometers) in six weeks' time in late 1917. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Although outbreaks of mild flu occurred in late 1917 and early 1918, the researchers say there's no convincing evidence that the spring outbreaks were caused by the same virus responsible for the pandemic later in the year. (wired.com)
- Routine vaccination of pregnant women and children must remain a priority during the covid-19 pandemic response. (bmj.com)
- 6 Children risk becoming unseen victims of the covid-19 pandemic. (bmj.com)
- I'm starting a new blogchain to track the COVID-19 pandemic, in a new, modular, block-based format. (ribbonfarm.com)
- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today continued to take action in the ongoing response to the COVID-19 pandemic: FDA has updated its. (prnewswire.com)
- Warren Hern apparently believes that the COVID-19 pandemic "promises to be one of the great public health disasters in history," as he wrote in his guest opinion in this newspaper last month. (dailycamera.com)
- Influenza A viruses can occasionally be transmitted from wild birds to other species causing outbreaks in domestic poultry and may give rise to human influenza pandemics. (wikipedia.org)
- There were outbreaks of measles and whooping cough in 1907, and diphtheria in 1917. (teara.govt.nz)
- Preparing for a new influenza pandemic involves increasing global influenza surveillance and developing practical strategies for containing outbreaks at the source. (aafp.org)
- The most serious outbreaks are pandemics, which affect millions of people worldwide and last for several months. (encyclopedia.com)
- The deadly "Spanish flu" claimed more lives than World War I, which ended the same year the pandemic struck. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Next came the pandemic of 1918, by far the most widespread and deadly, a dismal distinction that stands to the present day. (historylink.org)
- These days, government health officials are trying to build their case for school closings and similar steps during a future flu pandemic by showcasing new research that suggests such measures seemed to work during the deadly Spanish flu of 1918. (forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl)
- The unusually deadly influenza pandemic shortened the overall life expectancy by 12 years. (sott.net)
- No other recorded influenza pandemic has been so deadly - and nobody knows why it was so lethal. (teara.govt.nz)
- They also found no reason to believe that the 1918 flu virus became progressively more deadly as the pandemic continued. (wired.com)
- Because swine flu isn't spreading very fast, and because it surfaced in the Northern Hemisphere just as the weather started to warm up, the researchers say there's plenty of hope that this pandemic won't be as deadly as those in the past. (wired.com)
- Spanish flu, the deadliest pandemic of the 20 th century , struck the world in a series of waves, and left between 50 and 100 million people dead in its wake. (toptenz.net)
Caused by an influenza virus1
- The first recorded pandemic likely caused by an influenza virus came in 1580 and ravaged an area stretching from Asia Minor to as far north as today's Netherlands. (historylink.org)
Typical of pandemic1
- In February 1918, an age-shift typical of pandemic strains of virus was seen, as the burden of mortality shifted to young adults, a characteristic of the 1918 pandemic virus. (plos.org)
- Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) intended to reduce infectious contacts between persons form an integral part of plans to mitigate the impact of the next influenza pandemic. (pnas.org)
- Setting aside HIV/AIDS, which may be regarded as a "continuing" (since 1981) pandemic, the worst pandemic of modern times was the 1918/19 Spanish flu that killed 40-50 million people globally. (theconversation.com)
- The Saker by Ramin Mazaheri for The Saker Blog Eight months into the modern, digitised world?s first-ever global pandemic the results are in: Every government has failed miserably. (indymedia.ie)
- In 1918, a strain of influenza known as Spanish flu caused a global pandemic , spreading rapidly and killing indiscriminately. (livescience.com)
- And we know that it is not a question of if we will have another pandemic, but a question of when. (cdc.gov)
- Virological evidence collected during the last three pandemics has contributed greatly to our knowledge of the bases of their virulence and evolution. (plos.org)
- The health consequences of a pandemic depend on the virulence and infectiousness of the pathogen, its impact on the health system, and the population vulnerability. (k-state.edu)
- This information should help elucidate how pandemic influenza virus strains emerge and what genetic features contribute to virulence in humans. (springer.com)
- In September 1918, the influenza pandemic spread with tremendous virulence, presenting itself simultaneously during the month of October in South Western European countries. (wiley.com)
- Abstract Despite the best efforts of influenza scientists, companies and health officials to prepare for the next pandemic, most of the world's people will not have access to affordable supplies of vaccines and antiviral agents. (wiley.com)
- 9 In a few developed countries, stockpiling pre-pandemic vaccines is being considered. (wiley.com)
- 10 Nonetheless, if a pandemic virus should emerge within the next few years, the world would have to depend on a limited supply of egg-based inactivated vaccines. (wiley.com)
- Currently, there is no logistical plan for distributing supplies of pandemic vaccines to the 'have not' countries that will not be able to produce them. (wiley.com)
- Additionally, we also discuss the new challenges, such as changing population demographics, antibiotic resistance and climate change, which we will face in the context of any future influenza virus pandemic. (frontiersin.org)
- Background Studies of the Spanish Influenza pandemic (1918-1920) provide interesting information that may improve our preparation for present and future influenza pandemic threats. (wiley.com)
- 2:52 Skip to 2 minutes and 52 seconds But the first fact that we have about the 1918 pandemic is that cases started to appear at allied military bases in the USA and France. (futurelearn.com)
- Such a model should be integral to a preparedness plan for a pandemic with a new human-transmissible agent. (cdc.gov)
- The threat of an avian influenza A (e.g., subtypes H5N1, H7N7) pandemic has forced healthcare authorities and health services to draft and discuss preparedness plans ( 1 - 5 ). (cdc.gov)
- Because the question is not whether a pandemic will occur but, rather, when ( 9 ), policymakers have been urged to take action in preparedness planning. (cdc.gov)
- In summary, a model for preparedness of the healthcare system should be highly adaptable and flexible to factor in new information emerging in the early stages of the pandemic. (cdc.gov)
- Here, we review the viral, genetic and immune factors that contributed to the severity of the 1918 pandemic and discuss the implications for modern pandemic preparedness. (frontiersin.org)
- Until 1917, Wilson made minimal preparations for a land war and kept the United States Army on a small peacetime footing, despite increasing demands for enhanced preparedness. (wikipedia.org)
- And then talk a little bit about where we are with pandemic readiness like Dr. Messonnier mentioned and then get input from you on the 1918 commemoration activities that are being planned, but also ways that the information that we talk about today can be incorporated into influenza messages and into the activities that you're doing with regard to pandemic and other readiness and preparedness issues. (cdc.gov)
- Genome of the 1918 pandemic flu virus is fully sequenced. (cdc.gov)
- The 1918 flu pandemic virus kills an estimated 195,000 Americans during October alone. (cdc.gov)
- The origin of the 1918 pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) and the reasons for its unusual severity are two of the foremost biomedical mysteries of the past century. (pnas.org)
- The source, timing, and geographical origin of the 1918-1920 pandemic influenza A virus have remained tenaciously obscure for nearly a century, as have the reasons for its unusual severity among young adults. (pnas.org)
- We find that the resulting pandemic virus jumped directly to swine but was likely displaced in humans by ∼1922 by a reassortant with an antigenically distinct H1 HA. (pnas.org)
- Virus of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Era: New Evidence About Its Antigenic Character. (navy.mil)
- An understanding of past influenza virus pandemics and the lessons that we have learnt from them has therefore never been more pertinent. (frontiersin.org)
- While these studies have been enormously informative, they have been unable to explain the system-wide effects of influenza on the host, the increased mortality of younger adults in the 1918 influenza pandemic and the much lower mortality rates in children who were more commonly infected with the 1918 virus. (wiley.com)
- Two years ago it was estimated that all of the world's influenza vaccine companies could produce in a 6-month period (i.e., approximately 9 months after the emergence of the pandemic virus) enough doses of a new pandemic vaccine to vaccinate with two doses approximately 750 million people. (wiley.com)
- 11,12 More recently, a report sponsored by the World Health Organization in collaboration with virtually all influenza vaccine companies estimated that 6 months after the emergence of a new pandemic virus, the companies could produce 860 million doses of vaccine. (wiley.com)
- During these early months, the pandemic virus will probably have already spread throughout the world. (wiley.com)
- Influenza pandemics occur when a new strain of the influenza virus is transmitted to humans from another animal species. (wikipedia.org)
- The World Health Organization (WHO) has produced a six-stage classification that describes the process by which a novel influenza virus moves from the first few infections in humans through to a pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
- This starts with the virus mostly infecting animals, with a few cases where animals infect people, then moves through the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people, and ends with a pandemic when infections from the new virus have spread worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
- One strain of virus that may produce a pandemic in the future is a highly pathogenic variation of the H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus . (wikipedia.org)
- To spark a pandemic, an influenza virus in another species must evolve the ability to infect humans and then spread quickly. (livablefutureblog.com)
- But some say that's because we've only experienced the 'spring wave' of influenza that foreshadows a more devastating stage of pandemic virus in the fall. (wired.com)
- His "lay" books Sentinel Chickens: what birds tell us about our health and our world (MUP, Melbourne, 2012) and Pandemics: what everyone needs to know (OUP, New York, 2013) contain much more detailed accounts of virus infections and immunity. (theconversation.com)
- Here, we show that the hemagglutinin (HA) of the virus that caused the 1918 influenza pandemic has strain-specific differences in its receptor binding specificity. (asm.org)
- This article documents the timeline of transmission of COVID-19 during the pandemic in Belarus. (wikipedia.org)
- Philadelphia is hit hard with the pandemic flu viruses-more than 500 corpses await burial, some for more than a week. (cdc.gov)
- The "signature age-shift" of pandemic viruses was evident in 1918   . (plos.org)
- Several developments have made this more likely to occur, though - including the serious threats introduced by the industrialization of food animal production, which selects for genes that may allow influenza viruses to reach pandemic proportions. (livablefutureblog.com)
- Under Dutch law, UMCG has an important role in the event of an avian influenza pandemic, not only for the patient population that it serves but also as a regional coordinating center ( 15 ). (cdc.gov)
- The spread of H5N1 avian influenza has provoked public concern ( 4 ) and accelerated efforts to plan for the next pandemic. (pnas.org)
- Avian influenza A (H5N1) presents a serious and possibly imminent pandemic threat. (wiley.com)
- Although various strains of avian influenza have been recognized for decades, the scope, lethality, and mutability of the Asian H5N1 subtype make it a likely source of the next human influenza pandemic-an event that could kill millions. (aafp.org)
- The influenza pandemic of 1918-19 appeared suddenly at the end of the First World War and with explosive impact took the lives of at least 30 million people worldwide. (bfwpub.com)
- This second wave is highly fatal, and responsible for most of the deaths attributed to the pandemic. (cdc.gov)
- The increasing pandemic threat of influenza A (H5N1) is reflected by 291 cases of human disease reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) as of April 11, 2007, with 172 human deaths ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
- The 1918 influenza pandemic resulted in unprecedented mortality, with an estimated 500,000-675,000 deaths in the U.S. and 50-100 million deaths worldwide ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (pnas.org)
- this pandemic was estimated to be responsible for the deaths of approximately 50-100 million people. (wikipedia.org)
- There were no influenza-related deaths at the school during the second wave of the pandemic. (forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl)
- Of the 2,433 deaths in 1918, 223 - 9% of the aggregate total - perished during the pandemic. (savannahnow.com)
- We saw in the 1917 pandemic that during the Spring there were not a lot of deaths, but in the Fall, people died in 24 hours. (blacksunjournal.com)
- Research is urgently needed to determine whether these and other agents that modify the host response might be useful in managing H5N1 influenza and the next pandemic. (wiley.com)
- Although H5N1 is not yet capable of efficient human-to-human transmission, the protean nature of its genome could transform it into the source of the next human influenza pandemic. (aafp.org)
- CAMBRIDGE, Mass. - In the fall of 1917, a new strain of influenza swirled around the globe. (scienceblog.com)
- The threat of pandemic influenza may not be imminent, but it is real. (livablefutureblog.com)
- It was "very similar to today," said Sara Plaspohl, one of the authors of "The Effect of the 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic on Mortality Rates in Savannah, Georgia," a 2016 article in the Georgia Historical Quarterly. (savannahnow.com)
- When the pandemic spread rapidly across Europe in 1918, wartime censorship conditions affected most news reports. (toptenz.net)
- It is interesting that Barry does not treat the possibility the disease originated in China as suggested by Canadian historian Mark Humphries in 2014, who unearthed medical records of sick Chinese workers traveling across Canada in 1917 on trains bound for wartime industries and trench building in Europe. (dianeravitch.net)
- Nationwide, posters presented mask-wearing as a civic duty-social responsibility had been embedded into the social fabric by a massive wartime federal propaganda campaign launched in early 1917 when the U.S. entered the Great War. (fastcompany.com)
- 2018 marks the 100-year anniversary of the 1918 influenza pandemic, which killed ~50 million people worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
- From 1817 to 1917, it's estimated over 25 million people died of cholera in India alone. (wnd.com)
- By the time the pandemic had subsided, at least 30,000 people had become ill and 3,000 had died in the city. (forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl)
- This pandemic infected an estimated 500 million people worldwide or about one-third of the entire planet's population. (sott.net)
- This pandemic wiped out millions of people - some estimates go as high as 100 million people. (abovetopsecret.com)
- During those 31 days, the 1918 Spanish Flu Pandemic stormed through Savannah, killing 114 people and leaving a swath of despair and a sense of desperation in its wake. (savannahnow.com)
- New Zealand's worst disease disaster to date is the influenza pandemic of November 1918, which killed more than 50 million people worldwide, and 9,000 in New Zealand. (teara.govt.nz)
- The 1918 influenza pandemic caused acute illness in 25-30% of the World's population and resulted in the death of up to 40 million people. (springer.com)
- People hated masks during the 1918 pandemic, too. (fastcompany.com)
- The 1918 Flu Pandemic was a historic global event that killed more people than World War I, II and the Korean and Vietnam Wars combined. (cdc.gov)
- He also found medical records indicating that more than 3,000 of the 25,000 Chinese Labor Corps workers who were transported across Canada en route to Europe starting in 1917 ended up in medical quarantine, many with flu-like symptoms. (nationalgeographic.com)
- American Samoa was the only organized society on the planet to entirely escape the 1918 pandemic, thanks to an early, rigorous, and lengthy quarantine. (historylink.org)
- Early implementation of certain interventions, including closure of schools, churches, and theaters, was associated with lower peak death rates, but no single intervention showed an association with improved aggregate outcomes for the 1918 phase of the pandemic. (pnas.org)
- That the impact of the influenza pandemic on the aggregate US economy was mild should be surprising. (voxeu.org)
- This is the third in a series of five international online lectures being presented by the International Committee of the Fourth International to mark the centenary of the 1917 Russian Revolution. (wsws.org)
- In 1917, with the Russian Revolution and widespread disillusionment over the war, and with Britain and France low on credit, Germany appeared to have the upper hand in Europe, while the Ottoman Empire clung to its possessions in the Middle East. (wikipedia.org)
- In the new report, Humphries finds archival evidence that a respiratory illness that struck northern China in November 1917 was identified a year later by Chinese health officials as identical to the Spanish flu. (nationalgeographic.com)
- A police officer conducts traffic in New York during the Spanish flu pandemic, 1918. (livescience.com)
- Have you ever read about the Spanish Flu of 1917? (cafemom.com)
- Rolland, a pathologist, had written a report in 1917, the year before the start of the Spanish flu. (statnews.com)
- The camp was a training facility during World War I, and was badly affected by the Spanish Influenza Pandemic in 1918, which killed 1,055 soldiers in the camp. (uchicago.edu)
- Worldwide, it's estimated that the 1918 pandemic ended 50 million lives. (savannahnow.com)
- Flu became more widely referred to as coqueluche and coccolucio in France and Sicily during this pandemic, variations of which became the most popular names for flu in early modern Europe. (wikipedia.org)
- We obtained data on the timing of 19 classes of NPI in 17 U.S. cities during the 1918 pandemic and tested the hypothesis that early implementation of multiple interventions was associated with reduced disease transmission. (pnas.org)
- Early in the pandemic, school officials announced that visitors would not be allowed to enter the school nor students allowed to go home for weekends. (forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl)
- A government-issued poster encouraging Americans to grow war gardens, 1917. (goodhousekeeping.com)
- They were able to accomplish this because, unlike many other cities, counties and communities that went through the catastrophic whirlwind of the 1918 pandemic, Chatham County has maintained its individual paper death certificates. (savannahnow.com)
- After analyzing 15 pandemics from the last 500 years, including the catastrophic influenza pandemic of 1918, they say the pattern doesn't hold up. (wired.com)
- A national steering committee was convened to examine the association between narcolepsy and pandemic vaccination. (flutrackers.com)
- Dr. Jernigan will also share information on CDC's commemoration objectives and resources to hopefully facilitate your organization's involvement in commemorating 2018 as the century of the 1918 pandemic should you be interested in doing so. (cdc.gov)
- In 1510, an acute respiratory disease emerged in Asia before spreading through North Africa and Europe during the first chronicled, inter-regional flu pandemic generally recognized by medical historians and epidemiologists. (wikipedia.org)