Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicRNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacteria, AerobicDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Expectorants: Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Respiratory Tract DiseasesBacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
... pertussis and whooping cough as a zoonotic disease since around 1910 but in the 1930s, knowledge was gained that the bacteria ... Vomiting after a coughing spell or an inspiratory whooping sound on coughing, almost doubles the likelihood that the illness is ... Following a fit of coughing, a high-pitched whoop sound or gasp may occur as the person breathes in. The coughing may last for ... Pertussis (also known as whooping cough or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease. Initially, symptoms are ...
... they believed was associated with whooping cough. In 1909, it was not yet established that the coccobacillus was solely the ... Bordetella bacteria were difficult to culture; Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou invented the first version to isolate the ...
In this lecture, Bordet also concluded that bacteriophages, the bacteria-killing "invisible viruses" discovered by Felix ... who had just discovered phagocytosis of bacteria by white blood cells, an expression of cellular immunity. In 1895 Bordet made ... With Octave Gengou, he isolated Bordetella pertussis in pure culture in 1906 and posited it as the cause of whooping cough. He ... d'Herelle did not exist and that bacteria destroyed themselves using a process of autolysis. This theory collapsed in 1941 with ...
... pertussis and develop clinical whooping cough in high incidence when exposed to low inoculation doses.[25][26] The bacteria may ... and mild cough.[1] This is followed by weeks of severe coughing fits.[1] Following a fit of coughing, a high-pitched whoop ... Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.[1][10] Initially, symptoms ... The classic symptoms of pertussis are a paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whoop, and fainting, or vomiting after coughing.[18] The ...
Rat studies showed the development of paroxysmal coughing, a characteristic for whooping cough, occurred in rats infected with ... Pertussis toxin (PT) is a protein-based AB5-type exotoxin produced by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping ... The earliest mention of pertussis, or whooping cough, is of an outbreak in Paris in 1414. This was published in Moulton's The ... Eventually, PT causes lymphocytosis, one of the systemic manifestations of whooping cough. PT, a decisive virulence determinant ...
It produced the 'triple vaccine' for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (commonly called whooping cough) and vaccines for ... The bacteria causing gas gangrene of infected wounds were identified. The discovery of co-enzymes by Sir Arthur Harden FRS and ... Emmy Klieneberger-Nobel pioneered the study of mycoplasma and in 1935 discovered and cultured unusual strains of bacteria that ... Other major achievements include: These included the physiology of diving; the lethal effect of ultraviolet light on bacteria; ...
... whooping cough, meningococcal infections, and pneumonia), and found a 56% decline over the same period. Notable among these was ... Ehrlich, noting both the general toxicity of arsenic and the selective absorption of certain dyes by bacteria, hypothesized ... This was followed in 1906 by the Pure Food and Drugs Act, which forbade the interstate distribution of adulterated or ...
"United States mortality rate from measles, scarlet fever, typhoid, whooping cough, and diphtheria from 1900-1965". ... In 1883, Edwin Klebs identified the bacterium and named it Klebs-Loeffler bacterium. The club shape of this bacterium helped ... This can block the airway and create a barking cough as in croup. The neck may swell in part due to enlarged lymph nodes. A ... The bacterium was discovered in 1882 by Edwin Klebs. The symptoms of diphtheria usually begin two to seven days after infection ...
... whooping cough, scarlet fever, malaria, mumps etc. The trail people were already exposed to these diseases before they left and ... Cholera causes vomiting and severe diarrhea, and in places where human wastes contaminate water supplies the causal bacteria, ... The Feather River Route built down the Feather River canyon between 1906 and 1909 by the Western Pacific Railroad parallels ...
... whooping cough, meningococcal infections, and pneumonia), and found a 56% decline over the same period.[34] Notable among these ... noting both the general toxicity of arsenic and the selective absorption of certain dyes by bacteria, hypothesized that an ... This was followed in 1906 by the Pure Food and Drugs Act, which forbade the interstate distribution of adulterated or ...
Pertussis, or whooping cough, is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Outbreaks of ... Infants younger than age 6 months may not have the strength to have a whoop, but they can have paroxysms of coughing. ... Paroxysmal stage: More severe cough and may experience paroxysms of numerous, rapid coughs *1-6 weeks ... occasional cough similar to the common cold. The cough gradually becomes more severe and after 1 to 2 weeks, the second, or ...
Joanne Faryon of KPBS in San Diego reports on the resurgence of whooping cough in California after decades of the diseases ... The bacterium that causes whooping cough was first isolated in Belgium in 1906. At the time, the illness was one of the leading ... For adults, whooping cough may only be a nuisance. But to infants, whooping cough can be deadly, especially if not diagnosed ... The diagnosis was whooping cough.. Pertussis is a respiratory illness caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. At first, ...
How Is Whooping Cough Spread?. Pertussis bacteria can live in saliva in the mouth and mucus in the nose. Kids usually catch ... Whooping cough got its name because kids who had it would cough a lot, and in between coughs theyd make a "whoop" sound when ... The Woes of Whooping Cough. Everyones had a cough before, right? Coughs often come with a cold. And they usually go away ... The coughing can be so bad that the person throws up.. Most of the time, symptoms of whooping cough - especially the cough - ...
Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory disease mainly transmitted by aerosolized respiratory droplets. ... The causative agent is a gram‐negative bacterium first reported in 1906 and later named Bordetella pertussis. ... Macrolides have been used to treat and prevent whooping cough for ≈50 years, but there have been multiple reports of ... It is conceivable that macrolide treatment could not eliminate the resistant bacteria. More rigorous comparisons should be ...
Inhaling droplets from the sneeze or cough of a person infected with whooping cough *Whooping cough is caused by the bacterium ... Causes of Whooping Cough The common Causes of Whooping Cough : *Whooping cough really refers to infections caused by the ... Symptoms of Whooping Cough Some common Symptoms of Whooping Cough : *Gagging or vomiting may occur after severe coughing spells ... Treatment of Whooping Cough Here is the list of the methods for treating Whooping Cough : ...
... pertussis and whooping cough as a zoonotic disease since around 1910 but in the 1930s, knowledge was gained that the bacteria ... Vomiting after a coughing spell or an inspiratory whooping sound on coughing, almost doubles the likelihood that the illness is ... Following a fit of coughing, a high-pitched whoop sound or gasp may occur as the person breathes in. The coughing may last for ... Pertussis (also known as whooping cough or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease. Initially, symptoms are ...
... pertussis and develop clinical whooping cough in high incidence when exposed to low inoculation doses.[25][26] The bacteria may ... and mild cough.[1] This is followed by weeks of severe coughing fits.[1] Following a fit of coughing, a high-pitched whoop ... Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.[1][10] Initially, symptoms ... The classic symptoms of pertussis are a paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whoop, and fainting, or vomiting after coughing.[18] The ...
... they believed was associated with whooping cough. In 1909, it was not yet established that the coccobacillus was solely the ... Bordetella bacteria were difficult to culture; Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou invented the first version to isolate the ...
... he isolated the bacterium responsible for whooping cough, which is named after him - Bordetella (Haemophilus) pertussis - for ... Quotations about: Atomic Bomb Biology Chemistry Deforestation Engineering Anatomy Astronomy Bacteria Biochemistry Botany ... He also isolated a number of other pathogenic bacteria. For his discovery of immunity factors in blood serum, he received the ...
... was also a distinguished bacteriologist who worked on bacteriophages and discovered the causative bacterium of whooping cough, ... Identification of the Agent of Whooping Cough. While in Paris, Bordets 5 month-old baby girl got whooping-cough. Bordet ... whooping cough). Citation: Cavaillon J-M, Sansonetti P and Goldman M (2019) 100th Anniversary of Jules Bordets Nobel Prize: ... also got whooping-cough. Bordet and Gengou then developed an appropriate culture medium allowing them to isolate the bacillus. ...
Another quick test consists of using monoclonal antibodies against the bacteriums virulence factors: lipo-oligosaccharide and ... "whooping cough," had its first epidemic in Paris, France in 1578. Thomas Sydenham named it "pertussis," meaning "violent cough ... Any suspicion of symptoms of whooping cough should be a sign to excuse children from school and receive antibiotic treatments ... This is important for B. pertussiss survival in its host [[#References,[6]]]. ==Clinical features== [[Image:Whooping_Cough ...
Pertussis (whooping cough) is a conundrum. It is a disease that was described hundreds of years ago and the bacteria that ... Whooping cough vaccine works well despite its imperfections. ... causes it (Bordetella pertussis) isolated in 1906. We have had ...
Pertussis (whooping cough) is a conundrum. It is a disease that was described hundreds of years ago and the bacteria that ... Whooping cough vaccine works well despite its imperfections. ... cough, jobs summit and was part of his, cough, rolling maul ... causes it (Bordetella pertussis) isolated in 1906. We have had vaccines for about 80 years but this disease is defiant in the ...
When red cells were added to a normal serum mixed with a specific form of bacteria in a test tube, the bacteriaremained active ... Hence, it was possible to visually determine the presence of bacteria in a patients blood serum. This process became known as ... This bacteriolysis, Bordet discovered, did not occur when the bacteria was injected into a non-immunized guinea pig, but did so ... However, when Bordet heated the antiserum to 55 degrees centigrade, it lost its power to kill bacteria. Finding that he could ...
Pertussis, better known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis bacterium. It is a ... After coughing, inhalation is marked by a tell-tale whistling or whooping sound. Breathing can be difficult and even labored ... If a parent suspects his or her child has been exposed to the bacteria or is exhibiting symptoms related to the disease, he or ... Coughing spasms become less frequent and breathing becomes easier, however lingering affects of pertussis can still cause some ...
Whooping cough is caused by bacteria. However, it is the toxins produced by the bacteria, rather than the bacteria themselves, ... Many early "patent" medicines claimed to ease the symptoms of whooping cough, or even cure it. Often, whooping cough was only ... The Antibody Initiative -- Suppressing Whooping Cough. Suppressing Whooping Cough. h1.title { margin-top: 1em; } .photo-caption ... For coughs, colds, sore throat, hoarseness, croup and whooping cough.. Location. Currently not on view. date made. after 1906. ...
In the same year, B. and Zhang have used new techniques to isolate the bacteria Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping ... cough. A year later, B. was appointed professor of bacteriology of Brussels University, a post he held for 28 years. Further ... After the First World War B. begins to study interactions between bacteria and bacteriophage (a virus that attacks bacteria). ... Now we know that when it enters the body of an alien substance (antigen), whether protein, bacterium or toxin, are formed in ...
Microscopic view of the pertussis (whooping cough) bacteria. Source: Sanofi Pasteur, "Pertussis Bacteria (Bordetella Pertussis ... 5. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Cases, 1950-2013. 6. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Deaths, 1950-2013. 7. DTaP Vaccination Rates for ... PERTUSSIS (WHOOPING COUGH). Pertussis (whooping cough), according to the CDC, "is a highly contagious respiratory tract ... Diphtheria, Tetanus (Lockjaw), and Pertussis (Whooping Cough). Cases and Deaths, and DTaP Vaccination Rates. DIPHTHERIA. ...
... he identified the bacteria that causes whooping cough, which was named for him (Bordetellapertussis). Bordet was awarded the ...
Whooping Cough/diagnosis , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/etiology , Whooping Cough/pathology , Whooping Cough/ ... The first vaccine was formulated with heat-killed B. pertussis bacteria, which was later combined with tetanus and diphtheria ... Whooping Cough/history , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Argentina , Bordetella pertussis , Pertussis Vaccine , Whooping Cough/ ... Epidemiological Monitoring , Whooping Cough/etiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/therapy ...
Whooping Cough/history , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Argentina , Bordetella pertussis , Pertussis Vaccine , Whooping Cough/ ... The first vaccine was formulated with heat-killed B. pertussis bacteria, which was later combined with tetanus and diphtheria ... Whooping Cough/diagnosis , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/pathology , Pertussis Vaccine , Recurrence ... Whooping Cough/diagnosis , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Intensive Care ...
1943 Routine immunization against pertussis (whooping cough) is approved in Canada.. 1953 9,000 cases of polio were reported; ... Pertussis (whooping cough) outbreaks continue to occur in some communities with low vaccination rates. ...
1. Nutritional medium is infected with bacteria; the medium turns opaque.. 2. The bacteria are infected with phages and die, ... This severe respiratory illness is knocking the wind out of Midwesterners, sending hundreds of children coughing and wheezing ... that were already present in bacteria, and only trigger the release of similar proteins, killing the bacteria in the process. ... He extracted bacteria pathogenic to locusts from their guts. This innovative approach to locust plagues anticipated modern ...
Pertussis is a contagious infection of the respiratory tract caused by the bacteria Bordatella Pertussis. ... Bordetella pertussis is a gram-negative coccobacillus bacterium, which causes whooping cough in humans (1, 41). The bacterium ... More commonly known as whooping cough, Pertussis is a contagious infection of the respiratory tract caused by the bacteria ... The infected person may sneeze or cough and the tiny germ droplets may be inhaled by any bystander. Whooping cough was seen ...
Whooping cough, also known as the hundred-day cough, is a highly contagious disease that is caused by bacteria (Bordetella ... Coughing fits, whooping, and vomiting after coughing fits occur less often. *The percentage of children with apnea (long pause ... Like diphtheria, it is spread through coughing, speaking, and sneezing. Most people who get whooping cough and recover acquire ... "whooping" sound. This extreme coughing can cause you to throw up and be very tired. The "whoop" is often not there and the ...
  • Many people associate stepping on a rusty nail with getting a tetanus shot, because the tetanus bacteria typically enter the body through a wound, including lacerations, punctures, scratches, animal bites, and cuts, especially those made by dirty or rusty objects. (drgreenmom.com)
  • Because tetanus bacteria cannot live in the presence of oxygen, they thrive in deep wounds. (drgreenmom.com)
  • B. pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough ( 8 ), which is responsible for up to 500,000 annual deaths worldwide in unvaccinated populations ( 52 ) and is increasing in incidence in some countries with established vaccination programs, including the United States (e.g., see references 15 , 30 , and 38 ). (asm.org)
  • But it wasn't until the late 1940s, scientists developed a vaccine effective enough to prevent whooping cough. (pbs.org)
  • Macrolides have been used to treat and prevent whooping cough for ≈50 years, but there have been multiple reports of erythromycin resistance ( 3 , 8 , 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Just whether that mutation is to blame, at least in part for the California epidemic and outbreaks elsewhere in the world, is at the heart of the whooping cough debate. (pbs.org)
  • Pertussis (whooping cough) outbreaks continue to occur in some communities with low vaccination rates. (cpha.ca)
  • It's not known how many people died in L.A. County from the bacteria, but previous outbreaks have shown a 35% death rate, according to an article published in 2008 in the Journal of the American Medical Association . (cnn.com)
  • but they retained potential side effects, such as low-level fever and soreness at the injection site, caused by those same toxins present with the bacteria in the vaccine. (si.edu)
  • Mullein is used for a number of respiratory diseases, including sinus congestion, hacking and whooping coughs, swollen glands, bronchitis, hay fever and asthma. (nasodren.com)
  • We think we have the flu anytime we fall ill with an ailment that brings on headache, malaise, fever, coughing, sneezing, and that achy feeling as if we've been sleeping on a bed of rocks, but researchers have found that at most half, and perhaps as few as 7 or 8 percent, of such cases are actually caused by an influenza virus in any given year. (blogspot.com)
  • Nosebleeds and subconjunctival haemorrhages (bleeding into the white of the eye) may occur with intense coughing. (health-disease.org)
  • Coughing attacks may occur up to 40 times a day and the disease can last for up to eight weeks. (health-disease.org)
  • This stage is marked by a decrease in paroxysms of coughing, although paroxysms may occur with subsequent respiratory infection for many months after the onset of pertussis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bacteriolysis, Bordet discovered, did not occur when the bacteria was injected into a non-immunized guinea pig, but did so when the same animal received the antiserum from an immunized animal. (faqs.org)
  • Very soon, Jules Bordet joined the Metchnikoff's laboratory in which he developed an independent line of research which culminated in the seminal demonstration that killing of bacteria depends on interactions between antigens, antibodies, and complement. (frontiersin.org)
  • B. pertussis has several antigens, capsular polysaccharide antigen, somatic antigen thermostable corresponding to the endotoxin of gram-negative bacteria. (medical-actu.com)
  • In 1894 Richard Pfeiffer, a German scientist, had discovered that when cholera bacteria was injected into the peritoneum of a guinea pig immunized against the infection, thepig would rapidly die. (faqs.org)
  • Scientists had observed that cholera bacteria would clump together when injected into animals that had been immunized against the disease. (si.edu)
  • Dental or tooth abscess is a collection of pus (infection) caused due to bacteria, which accumulates in the centre (soft pulp) of the tooth. (medical-wiki.com)
  • Bordet was also responsible for developing complement fixation tests,which made possible the early detection of many disease-causing bacteria in human and animal blood. (faqs.org)
  • Characteristically, the patient might have bursts, or paroxysms, of numerous, rapid coughs, apparently due to difficulty expelling thick mucus from the tracheobronchial tree. (cdc.gov)
  • If a doctor thinks a kid might have whooping cough, he or she might take a sample of mucus (snot) from the back of the kid's nose. (rchsd.org)
  • It's common for sufferers to experience bursts of coughing spasms triggered by the body's failed attempts to dispel the mucus build up in the respiratory track. (wisegeek.com)
  • Thick mucus accumulates in the airways, provoking heavy coughing spells. (studymode.com)