Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Medical Staff: Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Life Tables: Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.Job Application: Process of applying for employment. It includes written application for employment or personal appearance.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Hydrocolpos: A fluid-filled VAGINA that is obstructed.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Adrenarche: A stage of development at which the ADRENAL GLANDS undergo maturation leading to the capability of producing increasing amounts of adrenal androgens, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of PUBERTY and continues throughout puberty.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Hyperandrogenism: A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.Virilism: Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Hyperprolactinemia: Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)Clitoris: An erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.Anthramycin: A broad-spectrum spectrum antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces refuineus var. thermotolerans. It has low toxicity, some activity against Trichomonas and Endamoeba, and inhibits RNA and DNA synthesis. It binds irreversibly to DNA.Altretamine: A hexamethyl-2,4,6-triamine derivative of 1,3,5-triazine.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Aclarubicin: An anthracycline produced by Streptomyces galilaeus. It has potent antineoplastic activity.Methyltestosterone: A synthetic hormone used for androgen replacement therapy and as an hormonal antineoplastic agent (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, HORMONAL).Aziridines: Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Azirines: Unsaturated azacyclopropane compounds that are three-membered heterocycles of a nitrogen and two carbon atoms.Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Carubicin: A very toxic anthracycline-type antineoplastic related to DAUNORUBICIN, obtained from Actinomadura carminata.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Basketball: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.Joint Loose Bodies: Fibrous, bony, cartilaginous and osteocartilaginous fragments in a synovial joint. Major causes are osteochondritis dissecans, synovial chondromatosis, osteophytes, fractured articular surfaces and damaged menisci.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Radiochemistry: The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Radioactive Tracers: Radioactive substances added in minute amounts to the reacting elements or compounds in a chemical process and traced through the process by appropriate detection methods, e.g., Geiger counter. Compounds containing tracers are often said to be tagged or labeled. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
(1/10) The diagnostic role of radionuclide imaging in evaluation of patients with nonhypersecreting adrenal masses.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of radionuclide imaging in the characterization of nonhypersecreting adrenal masses. METHODS: A total of 54 patients (19 men, 35 women; mean age, 50 +/- 16 y) with nonhypersecreting unilateral adrenal tumors that had been originally detected on CT or MRI underwent adrenal scintigraphy using different radiotracers. None of the patients showed specific symptoms of adrenal hypersecretion. Screening tests for excess cortical and medullary products showed normal adrenal hormone levels. Radionuclide studies (n = 73) included (131)I-norcholesterol (n = 24), (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) (n = 23), and (18)F-FDG PET (n = 26) scans. RESULTS: Histology after surgery (n = 31) or adrenal biopsy (n = 23) was obtained. Adrenal lesions were represented by 19 adenomas, 4 cysts, 1 myelolipoma, 1 neurinoma, 2 ganglioneuromas, 5 pheochromocytomas, 4 pseudotumors, 6 carcinomas, 2 sarcomas, and 10 metastases (size range, 1.5- to 5-cm diameter; mean, 4.9 +/- 3.1 cm). For norcholesterol imaging, diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100%, 71%, and 92%, respectively; the positive predictive value (PPV) of the norcholesterol scan to characterize an adrenal mass as an adenoma was 89%, whereas the corresponding negative predictive value (NPV) to rule out this type of tumor was 100%. For MIBG imaging, diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100%, 94%, and 96%, respectively; the PPV of the MIBG scan to characterize an adrenal mass as a medullary chromaffin tissue tumor was 83%, whereas the corresponding NPV to rule out this type of tumor was 100%. For FDG PET, diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively; the PPV of FDG PET to characterize an adrenal mass as a malignant tumor was 100%, whereas the corresponding NPV to rule it out was 100%. Furthermore, in 7 patients with malignant adrenal tumors, FDG whole-body scanning revealed extra-adrenal tumor sites (n = 29), allowing an accurate diagnosis of the disease's stage using a single-imaging technique. CONCLUSION: In patients with nonhypersecreting adrenal masses, radionuclide adrenal imaging, using specific radiopharmaceuticals such as norcholesterol, MIBG, and FDG, may provide significant functional information for tissue characterization. Norcholesterol and MIBG scans are able to detect benign tumors such as adenoma and pheochromocytoma, respectively. Conversely, FDG PET allows for recognition of malignant adrenal lesions. Therefore, adrenal scintigraphy is recommended for tumor diagnosis and, hence, for appropriate treatment planning, particularly when CT or MRI findings are inconclusive for lesion characterization.  (+info)

(2/10) SPECT semiquantitative analysis of adrenocortical (131)I-6 beta iodomethyl-norcholesterol uptake to discriminate subclinical and preclinical functioning adrenal incidentaloma.

The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical reliability of the (131)I-6 beta-iodomethyl-norcholesterol ((131)I-NP-59) uptake semiquantitative evaluation method we propose for the characterization of adrenocortical masses in a selected population of patients with disease clinically classified as subclinical (SC) and preclinical (PC) Cushing's syndrome (CS) according to Reincke's definition. METHODS: Forty-seven consecutive patients with incidentally discovered unilateral adrenal masses were examined by a triple-head SPECT system after intravenous injection of (131)I-NP-59. Abdominal SPECT was performed at 24, 48, 72, and, in selected cases, 96 h after tracer injection. Connected with adrenals and liver, a standard elliptic region of interest (ROI) was manually drawn, taking care to avoid the gallbladder region. The adrenal ROI integral count, obtained by summing the 24-, 48-, and 72-h counting values, was normalized by the hepatic integral count. Subsequently, the adrenal percentage of relative uptake (UPT%) was computed. RESULTS: Discriminant analysis was performed on the variables UPT%, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) serum concentration, and CT mass dimension (CTMD) to determine the variable, or combination thereof, best discriminating between the SC-CS and PC-CS groups. Compared with both ACTH and CTMD variables, univariate analysis confirmed the UPT% variable as the most significant to discriminate between these 2 clinical groups. In fact, UPT% alone correctly classified 8 of 9 patients in the SC-CS group and 20 of 22 patients in the PC-CS group with 95% positive and 80% negative predictive values and with overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity equal to 90%, 91%, and 89%, respectively. When all 3 variables were submitted to stepwise discriminant analysis, the derived classification matrix, after cross-validation, correctly classified 9 of 9 patients in the SC-CS group and 18 of 22 patients in the PC-CS group with 100% positive and 69% negative predictive values and with overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity equal to 87%, 82%, and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: According to these initial results, use of the proposed semiquantitative approach associated with both laboratory screening for cortisol production and CTMD measure seems to be able to increase the clinical diagnostic accuracy of PC-CS. This approach could be used in the follow-up of adrenal mass function every time hormonal or clinical features are suggestive of adrenocortical hyperfunction.  (+info)

(3/10) Imaging characterization of non-hypersecreting adrenal masses. Comparison between MR and radionuclide techniques.

AIM: In patients with non-hypersecreting adrenal masses, tumor characterization is clinically relevant to establish the appropriate treatment planning. The aim of this study was to comparatively characterize such adrenal lesions using MR and radionuclide techniques. METHODS: Thirty patients with non-hypersecreting unilateral adrenal tumors underwent both MR and adrenal scintigraphy. MR was performed using SE T1- (pre- and post-gadolinium DTPA) and T2-weighted images as well as in- and out-phase chemical-shift imaging (CSI). MR qualitative and quantitative (signal intensity ratios) evaluation was performed. Radionuclide studies consisted of iodine-131 nor-cholesterol (n=20), iodine-131 MIBG (n=15) and fluorine-18 FDG PET (n=11) scans. Histology (n=16), biopsy (n=3) or clinical-imaging follow-up (n=11) demomstrated 13 adenomas, 3 cysts, 2 myelolipomas, 4 pheochromocytomas (pheos), 4 carcinomas, 1 sarcoma and 3 metastases. Comparative imaging analysis was focused on adenomas, pheos and malignant tumors. RESULTS: Qualitative MR evaluation showed: signal T2-hyperintensity in 46% of adenomas and in 100% of pheos and malignant tumors, no gadolinium enhancement in 92% of adenomas and definite signal intensity loss on CSI in 100% of such tumor lesions, gadolinium enhancement in 100% of pheos and in 63% of malignancies and no absolute change of signal intensity on CSI in 100% of both pheos and malignancies. Quantitative MR analysis demonstrated: significantly higher signal T2-hyperintensity of pheos compared to adenomas and malignancies as well as significantly higher enhancement after gadolinium in pheos compared to adenomas and malignancies (p<0.03). Radionuclide studies showed significantly increased nor-cholesterol uptake only in adenomas (n=13), significant MIBG accumulation only in pheos (n=4) and FDG activity only in malignant adrenal lesions (n=8). CONCLUSION: MR techniques may provide some presumptive criteria to characterize non-hypersecreting adrenal masses, such as no gadolinium enhancement and definite signal intensity loss on CSI in adenomas or quantitatively measured T2-hyperintensity and gadolinium enhancement in pheos. On the other hand, radionuclide modalities offer more specific findings in this setting since nor-cholesterol and MIBG scans are respectively able to reveal benign tumors such as adenoma and pheochromocytoma, while FDG imaging allows identification of malignant adrenal lesions. Adrenal scintigraphy is recommended in those patients, when MR images are uncertain or inconclusive.  (+info)

(4/10) Tomographic evaluation of [131I] 6beta-iodomethyl-norcholesterol standardised uptake trend in clinically silent monolateral and bilateral adrenocortical incidentalomas.

AIM: The aim of this study was three-fold: 1) to quantify [131I]-6beta-iodomethyl-norcholesterol ([131I]-NP-59) adrenal uptake trend in patients with incidentalomas, 2) to identify a specific uptake trend (TREND) capable of characterising pre-clinical Cushing syndrome (PC-CS) patients, 3) to assess the clinical availability of TREND as a prognostic factor of late clinical outcome in a cohort of patients with bilateral adrenal adenomas. METHODS: Fifty-seven consecutive patients were examined using three-head SPECT at 24, 48, 72 hours following intravenous injection of [131I ]-NP-59. On the basis of the absence or presence of hormonal abnormalities, the selected population was classified as GR1 or GR2, respectively. Adrenal glands were classified into 4 groups taking into account both the patient group (GR1, GR2) and the presence (+) or absence (-) of the adenoma (AD) on CT scan. Using ROI technique, adrenal-liver uptake ratio (A/L) was estimated bilaterally at 24, 48 and 72 hours. For each adrenal group, mean [131I]-NP-59 uptake trends were derived. RESULTS: TREND was significantly different between GR1/AD+ and GR2/AD+. Among GR2/AD+ patients, TREND correctly identified PC-CS with a global accuracy of 74%. Two patients with bilateral incidentaloma developed an overt CS. In both patients, TREND correctly identified the hyperfunctioning adrenal, thus permitting an effective sparing adrenalectomy. CONCLUSIONS: TREND seems to be a parameter which closely reflects adrenal physiological behaviour, especially in the case of bilateral adrenal involving. The possibility to quantify even contralateral adrenal uptake as standardised index provides additional useful information about normal adrenal parenchyma and, indirectly, about adenoma functional autonomy.  (+info)

(5/10) 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol SPECT/CT for primary aldosteronism patients with inconclusive adrenal venous sampling and CT results.

 (+info)

(6/10) Limited significance of asymmetric adrenal visualization on dexamethasone-suppression scintigraphy.

To assess whether a single measurement of the adrenal uptake of 6 beta-[131I]-iodomethylnorcholesterol (NP-59) on constant dexamethasone suppression would allow discrimination of adenoma from normal and bilateral hyperplasia, the adrenal uptake of 6 beta-[131I]iodomethylnorcholesterol (NP-59) was determined in 50 patients with primary aldosteronism (30 adenoma, 20 hyperplasia) and in 13 with hyperandrogenism (six adenoma, seven hyperplasia). Bilateral adrenal NP-59 activity at 5 days was seen in 14 of 36 patients with adenoma (normal to adenoma ratio of greater than or equal to 0.5), whereas marked asymmetric uptake of NP-59 was seen in six of 27 patients with hyperplasia (uptake ratio of less than or equal to 0.5). Thus the level of adrenal NP-59 uptake does not alone serve to distinguish either adenoma from the normal, contralateral adrenal or the adrenal glands in bilateral hyperplasia in all cases. It appears that the pattern of adrenal imaging, early unilateral or early bilateral NP-59 activity (less than 5 days after NP-59 on 4 mg dexamethasone), best serves to separate adrenal adenoma from bilateral hyperplasia.  (+info)

(7/10) Concentration of radiolabeled cholesterol in a feminizing adenoma of the testis.

Quantitative tissue studies demonstrated increased 19-[131I]-iodocholesterol concentration in a feminizing adenoma of the testis. The potential application of iodocholesterol and its isomers in the detection of steroid-secreting neoplasms of the testis and ovary is suggested.  (+info)

(8/10) Value of bowel preparation in adrenocortical scintigraphy with NP-59.

The use of radiolabeled cholesterol derivatives for functional imaging of the adrenal cortex may be rendered inaccurate or impossible because of the excretion of activity by the liver and its subsequent appearance in the colon. A simple bowel preparation (bisacodyl 5 or 10 mg nightly) significantly reduced bowel background activity during 6 beta-[I-131]iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) adrenal cortical scintigraphy. Activity interfering with image interpretability was present less frequently in patients taking bisacodyl: three days after injection 22% compared with 59%; five days after injection 23% compared with 35%. As bisacodyl acts only on the colon and does not disturb the enterohepatic circulation of cholesterol or bile acids, it is ideal for use with a tracer of cholesterol metabolism.  (+info)

Aldosteronoma causing Conns syndrome: a case report and literature review  Aldosteronoma causing Conn's syndrome: a case report and literature review
1983) 131I-iodocholesterol (NP-59) scintigraphy in adrenocor tica l d ise ases . J Can Assoc Radiol, 34, 120-124. ... 19] Lieberman, L.M., Beierwaltes, W.H., Conn, J.W., Ansari, ...
more infohttps://file.scirp.org/Html/1102.html
ganglioneuroma  ganglioneuroma
2002;19:63-7 pubmed ..Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the intrasellar gangliocytoma promoted the growth of the ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/topics/neoplasms/neoplasms/germ/neuroectodermal/neuroepithelial/ganglioneuroma-5628.html
Changes in polyribosomes and polyadenylated messenger RNA in ageing so by Louise Elizabeth. Barakett  "Changes in polyribosomes and polyadenylated messenger RNA in ageing so" by Louise Elizabeth. Barakett
Dept. of Biological Sciences. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1981 .B372. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 40-07, page: . Thesis (M.Sc.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1981.
mRNA Poly(A) tail: a 3 Enhancer of Translational Initiation: a Thesis by David Munroe  "mRNA Poly(A) tail: a 3' Enhancer of Translational Initiation: a Thesis" by David Munroe
Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid [poly(A)] at their 3'-termini. Although it has been almost two decades since the discovery of these poly(A) tracts, their function(s) have yet to be clarified. Earlier results from our laboratory led us to propose that poly(A) has a role in translation. More specifically, we proposed that an interaction of the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) with a critical minimum length of poly(A) facilitates the initiation of translation of poly(A)+, but not poly(A)-, mRNAs. The results of several different experimental approaches have provided evidence which indirectly supports this hypothesis. These results include: 1) the correlation of specific changes in mRNA poly(A) tail length with translational efficiency in vivo and in vitro; 2) correlations between the abundance and stability of PABPs and the rate of translational initiation in vivo and in vitro; and 3) the demonstration that exogenous poly(A) is a potent and specific inhibitor of the in
Oskar allows nanos mRNA translation in Drosophila embryos by preventing its deadenylation by Smaug/CCR4 | Development  Oskar allows nanos mRNA translation in Drosophila embryos by preventing its deadenylation by Smaug/CCR4 | Development
Post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene regulation play a prominent role during early development. Because the oocyte and developing embryo go through a phase in which no transcription takes place, gene expression relies on a pool of maternal mRNAs accumulated during oogenesis and is regulated at the level of translation or mRNA stability. It has been shown in several biological systems that poly(A) tail shortening contributes to translational silencing, whereas translational activation requires poly(A) tail extension (Richter, 2000; Tadros and Lipshitz, 2005). Poly(A) tail shortening, or deadenylation, is also the first step in mRNA decay. Subsequent steps occur only after the poly(A) tail has been shortened beyond a critical limit (Meyer et al., 2004; Parker and Song, 2004). Rapid deadenylation of unstable RNAs is caused by destabilizing elements, for example AU-rich elements (AREs) found in the 3′ UTRs of several mRNAs. A number of proteins have been identified that bind to destabilizing ...
转基因大动物常用载体频数分析及筛查策略  转基因大动物常用载体频数分析及筛查策略
摘要 构建重组表达载体是转基因动物生产制备研究中非常关键的一步,包括构建完整的外源基因表达盒,包含目的基因、调控序列(启动子、终止子)和筛选报告基因等。本文概述了转基因大动物制备技术,归纳统计了近10年转基因猪、牛、羊制备过程中常用的载体和频数,统计结果表明,转基因猪中启动子频数从多到少依次为酪蛋白、CAG、CMV启动子,终止子频数依次为兔β-globin poly A、酪蛋白poly A、SV40 poly A和BGH poly A;转基因羊中启动子频数从多到少依次为酪蛋白、BLG和CMV启动子,终止子依次为酪蛋白poly A、BLG poly A、BGH poly A、SV40 poly A和兔β-globin poly A;转基因牛中启动子频数从多到少依次为酪蛋白、CMV、人乳清白蛋白启动子等,终止子依次为SV40 poly A、BGH poly A和酪蛋白poly ...
Transducin beta-like protein 3  Transducin beta-like protein 3
The protein encoded by this gene has sequence similarity with members of the WD40 repeat-containing protein family. The WD40 group is a large family of proteins, which appear to have a regulatory function. It is believed that the WD40 repeats mediate protein-protein interactions and members of the family are involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, gene regulation, vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal assembly and may play a role in the control of cytotypic differentiation. This gene has multiple polyadenylation sites. It might have multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants but the variants have not been fully described yet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Current Medicinal Chemistry (v.16, #8) | www.chemweb.com  Current Medicinal Chemistry (v.16, #8) | www.chemweb.com
The use of small molecules to specifically control important cellular functions is an area of major current interest at the interface of chemical biology and medicinal chemistry. Recognition of ribonucleic acids (RNA) has emerged more recently as a critical event in many biological pathways of eukaryotic cells and consequently the opportunity of drugs targeting to diverse structures of RNA is abundant. Such RNA targeting molecules must be able to specifically bind to unique structural organizations in RNA to regulate the gene expression. One particular example in this context is the modulation of the mRNA through its polyadenylic acid [poly(A)] tail. All mRNAs in eukaryotic cells have a poly(A) tail at the 3'-end This tail of about 200-250 or so adenine residues is an important determinant in maturation, stability of poly(A) and in initiation of translation process. Small molecules that could bind to this poly(A) tail could influence and possibly inhibit mRNA function and subsequent protein ...
Positive and negative regulation of poly(A) nuclease by David A. Mangus, Matthew C. Evans et al.  "Positive and negative regulation of poly(A) nuclease" by David A. Mangus, Matthew C. Evans et al.
PAN, a yeast poly(A) nuclease, plays an important nuclear role in the posttranscriptional maturation of mRNA poly(A) tails. The activity of this enzyme is dependent on its Pan2p and Pan3p subunits, as well as the presence of poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1p). We have identified and characterized the associated network of factors controlling the maturation of mRNA poly(A) tails in yeast and defined its relevant protein-protein interactions. Pan3p, a positive regulator of PAN activity, interacts with Pab1p, thus providing substrate specificity for this nuclease. Pab1p also regulates poly(A) tail trimming by interacting with Pbp1p, a factor that appears to negatively regulate PAN. Pan3p and Pbp1p both interact with themselves and with the C terminus of Pab1p. However, the domains required for Pan3p and Pbp1p binding on Pab1p are distinct. Single amino acid changes that disrupt Pan3p interaction with Pab1p have been identified and define a binding pocket in helices 2 and 3 of Pab1p's carboxy terminus. The
250w Poly Solar Pv Module, 250w Poly Solar Pv Module Suppliers and Manufacturers at Alibaba.com  250w Poly Solar Pv Module, 250w Poly Solar Pv Module Suppliers and Manufacturers at Alibaba.com
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Poly Woven Factory, China Poly Woven Factory Manufacturers & Suppliers | Made-in-China.com  Poly Woven Factory, China Poly Woven Factory Manufacturers & Suppliers | Made-in-China.com
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poly portables toilets for sale, poly portables toilets for sale wholesale for sale page1 in Tradezz.com  poly portables toilets for sale, poly portables toilets for sale wholesale for sale page1 in Tradezz.com
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Cardinal® 11x17 Poly Portfolio with Fasteners, Black | Staples  Cardinal® 11'x17' Poly Portfolio with Fasteners, Black | Staples
Shop Cardinal® 11'x17' Poly Portfolio with Fasteners, Black at Staples. Choose from our wide selection of Cardinal® 11'x17' Poly Portfolio with Fasteners, Black and get fast & free shipping on select orders.
Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines  Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.
Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines  Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.
Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines  Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.
Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines  Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.
Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines  Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.
Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines  Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.
Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines  Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.
Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines  Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.
Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines  Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.
Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines  Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.
Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines  Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.
Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines  Poly A+ RNA, mRNA from Human Tumors and Cell Lines
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.

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