19-Iodocholesterol: 19-Iodocholest-5-en-3 beta-ol. A cholesterol derivative usually substituted with radioactive iodine in the 19 position. The compound is an adrenal cortex scanning agent used in the assessment of patients suspected of having Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma and adrenal remnants following total adrenalectomy.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Thyroid (USP): A dehydrated extract of thyroid glands from domesticated animals. After the removal of fat and connective tissue, the extract is dried or lyophilized to yield a yellowish to buff-colored amorphous powder containing 0.17-0.23% of iodine.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Hydrocolpos: A fluid-filled VAGINA that is obstructed.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Adrenarche: A stage of development at which the ADRENAL GLANDS undergo maturation leading to the capability of producing increasing amounts of adrenal androgens, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of PUBERTY and continues throughout puberty.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Hyperandrogenism: A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.MaineSouth Australia: A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)OsteomyelitisDiabetic Foot: Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.Gallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Anthramycin: A broad-spectrum spectrum antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces refuineus var. thermotolerans. It has low toxicity, some activity against Trichomonas and Endamoeba, and inhibits RNA and DNA synthesis. It binds irreversibly to DNA.Altretamine: A hexamethyl-2,4,6-triamine derivative of 1,3,5-triazine.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Aclarubicin: An anthracycline produced by Streptomyces galilaeus. It has potent antineoplastic activity.Methyltestosterone: A synthetic hormone used for androgen replacement therapy and as an hormonal antineoplastic agent (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, HORMONAL).Aziridines: Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Basketball: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.Joint Loose Bodies: Fibrous, bony, cartilaginous and osteocartilaginous fragments in a synovial joint. Major causes are osteochondritis dissecans, synovial chondromatosis, osteophytes, fractured articular surfaces and damaged menisci.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.

The diagnostic role of radionuclide imaging in evaluation of patients with nonhypersecreting adrenal masses. (1/10)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of radionuclide imaging in the characterization of nonhypersecreting adrenal masses. METHODS: A total of 54 patients (19 men, 35 women; mean age, 50 +/- 16 y) with nonhypersecreting unilateral adrenal tumors that had been originally detected on CT or MRI underwent adrenal scintigraphy using different radiotracers. None of the patients showed specific symptoms of adrenal hypersecretion. Screening tests for excess cortical and medullary products showed normal adrenal hormone levels. Radionuclide studies (n = 73) included (131)I-norcholesterol (n = 24), (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) (n = 23), and (18)F-FDG PET (n = 26) scans. RESULTS: Histology after surgery (n = 31) or adrenal biopsy (n = 23) was obtained. Adrenal lesions were represented by 19 adenomas, 4 cysts, 1 myelolipoma, 1 neurinoma, 2 ganglioneuromas, 5 pheochromocytomas, 4 pseudotumors, 6 carcinomas, 2 sarcomas, and 10 metastases (size range, 1.5- to 5-cm diameter; mean, 4.9 +/- 3.1 cm). For norcholesterol imaging, diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100%, 71%, and 92%, respectively; the positive predictive value (PPV) of the norcholesterol scan to characterize an adrenal mass as an adenoma was 89%, whereas the corresponding negative predictive value (NPV) to rule out this type of tumor was 100%. For MIBG imaging, diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100%, 94%, and 96%, respectively; the PPV of the MIBG scan to characterize an adrenal mass as a medullary chromaffin tissue tumor was 83%, whereas the corresponding NPV to rule out this type of tumor was 100%. For FDG PET, diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively; the PPV of FDG PET to characterize an adrenal mass as a malignant tumor was 100%, whereas the corresponding NPV to rule it out was 100%. Furthermore, in 7 patients with malignant adrenal tumors, FDG whole-body scanning revealed extra-adrenal tumor sites (n = 29), allowing an accurate diagnosis of the disease's stage using a single-imaging technique. CONCLUSION: In patients with nonhypersecreting adrenal masses, radionuclide adrenal imaging, using specific radiopharmaceuticals such as norcholesterol, MIBG, and FDG, may provide significant functional information for tissue characterization. Norcholesterol and MIBG scans are able to detect benign tumors such as adenoma and pheochromocytoma, respectively. Conversely, FDG PET allows for recognition of malignant adrenal lesions. Therefore, adrenal scintigraphy is recommended for tumor diagnosis and, hence, for appropriate treatment planning, particularly when CT or MRI findings are inconclusive for lesion characterization.  (+info)

SPECT semiquantitative analysis of adrenocortical (131)I-6 beta iodomethyl-norcholesterol uptake to discriminate subclinical and preclinical functioning adrenal incidentaloma. (2/10)

The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical reliability of the (131)I-6 beta-iodomethyl-norcholesterol ((131)I-NP-59) uptake semiquantitative evaluation method we propose for the characterization of adrenocortical masses in a selected population of patients with disease clinically classified as subclinical (SC) and preclinical (PC) Cushing's syndrome (CS) according to Reincke's definition. METHODS: Forty-seven consecutive patients with incidentally discovered unilateral adrenal masses were examined by a triple-head SPECT system after intravenous injection of (131)I-NP-59. Abdominal SPECT was performed at 24, 48, 72, and, in selected cases, 96 h after tracer injection. Connected with adrenals and liver, a standard elliptic region of interest (ROI) was manually drawn, taking care to avoid the gallbladder region. The adrenal ROI integral count, obtained by summing the 24-, 48-, and 72-h counting values, was normalized by the hepatic integral count. Subsequently, the adrenal percentage of relative uptake (UPT%) was computed. RESULTS: Discriminant analysis was performed on the variables UPT%, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) serum concentration, and CT mass dimension (CTMD) to determine the variable, or combination thereof, best discriminating between the SC-CS and PC-CS groups. Compared with both ACTH and CTMD variables, univariate analysis confirmed the UPT% variable as the most significant to discriminate between these 2 clinical groups. In fact, UPT% alone correctly classified 8 of 9 patients in the SC-CS group and 20 of 22 patients in the PC-CS group with 95% positive and 80% negative predictive values and with overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity equal to 90%, 91%, and 89%, respectively. When all 3 variables were submitted to stepwise discriminant analysis, the derived classification matrix, after cross-validation, correctly classified 9 of 9 patients in the SC-CS group and 18 of 22 patients in the PC-CS group with 100% positive and 69% negative predictive values and with overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity equal to 87%, 82%, and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: According to these initial results, use of the proposed semiquantitative approach associated with both laboratory screening for cortisol production and CTMD measure seems to be able to increase the clinical diagnostic accuracy of PC-CS. This approach could be used in the follow-up of adrenal mass function every time hormonal or clinical features are suggestive of adrenocortical hyperfunction.  (+info)

Imaging characterization of non-hypersecreting adrenal masses. Comparison between MR and radionuclide techniques. (3/10)

AIM: In patients with non-hypersecreting adrenal masses, tumor characterization is clinically relevant to establish the appropriate treatment planning. The aim of this study was to comparatively characterize such adrenal lesions using MR and radionuclide techniques. METHODS: Thirty patients with non-hypersecreting unilateral adrenal tumors underwent both MR and adrenal scintigraphy. MR was performed using SE T1- (pre- and post-gadolinium DTPA) and T2-weighted images as well as in- and out-phase chemical-shift imaging (CSI). MR qualitative and quantitative (signal intensity ratios) evaluation was performed. Radionuclide studies consisted of iodine-131 nor-cholesterol (n=20), iodine-131 MIBG (n=15) and fluorine-18 FDG PET (n=11) scans. Histology (n=16), biopsy (n=3) or clinical-imaging follow-up (n=11) demomstrated 13 adenomas, 3 cysts, 2 myelolipomas, 4 pheochromocytomas (pheos), 4 carcinomas, 1 sarcoma and 3 metastases. Comparative imaging analysis was focused on adenomas, pheos and malignant tumors. RESULTS: Qualitative MR evaluation showed: signal T2-hyperintensity in 46% of adenomas and in 100% of pheos and malignant tumors, no gadolinium enhancement in 92% of adenomas and definite signal intensity loss on CSI in 100% of such tumor lesions, gadolinium enhancement in 100% of pheos and in 63% of malignancies and no absolute change of signal intensity on CSI in 100% of both pheos and malignancies. Quantitative MR analysis demonstrated: significantly higher signal T2-hyperintensity of pheos compared to adenomas and malignancies as well as significantly higher enhancement after gadolinium in pheos compared to adenomas and malignancies (p<0.03). Radionuclide studies showed significantly increased nor-cholesterol uptake only in adenomas (n=13), significant MIBG accumulation only in pheos (n=4) and FDG activity only in malignant adrenal lesions (n=8). CONCLUSION: MR techniques may provide some presumptive criteria to characterize non-hypersecreting adrenal masses, such as no gadolinium enhancement and definite signal intensity loss on CSI in adenomas or quantitatively measured T2-hyperintensity and gadolinium enhancement in pheos. On the other hand, radionuclide modalities offer more specific findings in this setting since nor-cholesterol and MIBG scans are respectively able to reveal benign tumors such as adenoma and pheochromocytoma, while FDG imaging allows identification of malignant adrenal lesions. Adrenal scintigraphy is recommended in those patients, when MR images are uncertain or inconclusive.  (+info)

Tomographic evaluation of [131I] 6beta-iodomethyl-norcholesterol standardised uptake trend in clinically silent monolateral and bilateral adrenocortical incidentalomas. (4/10)

AIM: The aim of this study was three-fold: 1) to quantify [131I]-6beta-iodomethyl-norcholesterol ([131I]-NP-59) adrenal uptake trend in patients with incidentalomas, 2) to identify a specific uptake trend (TREND) capable of characterising pre-clinical Cushing syndrome (PC-CS) patients, 3) to assess the clinical availability of TREND as a prognostic factor of late clinical outcome in a cohort of patients with bilateral adrenal adenomas. METHODS: Fifty-seven consecutive patients were examined using three-head SPECT at 24, 48, 72 hours following intravenous injection of [131I ]-NP-59. On the basis of the absence or presence of hormonal abnormalities, the selected population was classified as GR1 or GR2, respectively. Adrenal glands were classified into 4 groups taking into account both the patient group (GR1, GR2) and the presence (+) or absence (-) of the adenoma (AD) on CT scan. Using ROI technique, adrenal-liver uptake ratio (A/L) was estimated bilaterally at 24, 48 and 72 hours. For each adrenal group, mean [131I]-NP-59 uptake trends were derived. RESULTS: TREND was significantly different between GR1/AD+ and GR2/AD+. Among GR2/AD+ patients, TREND correctly identified PC-CS with a global accuracy of 74%. Two patients with bilateral incidentaloma developed an overt CS. In both patients, TREND correctly identified the hyperfunctioning adrenal, thus permitting an effective sparing adrenalectomy. CONCLUSIONS: TREND seems to be a parameter which closely reflects adrenal physiological behaviour, especially in the case of bilateral adrenal involving. The possibility to quantify even contralateral adrenal uptake as standardised index provides additional useful information about normal adrenal parenchyma and, indirectly, about adenoma functional autonomy.  (+info)

131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol SPECT/CT for primary aldosteronism patients with inconclusive adrenal venous sampling and CT results. (5/10)

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Limited significance of asymmetric adrenal visualization on dexamethasone-suppression scintigraphy. (6/10)

To assess whether a single measurement of the adrenal uptake of 6 beta-[131I]-iodomethylnorcholesterol (NP-59) on constant dexamethasone suppression would allow discrimination of adenoma from normal and bilateral hyperplasia, the adrenal uptake of 6 beta-[131I]iodomethylnorcholesterol (NP-59) was determined in 50 patients with primary aldosteronism (30 adenoma, 20 hyperplasia) and in 13 with hyperandrogenism (six adenoma, seven hyperplasia). Bilateral adrenal NP-59 activity at 5 days was seen in 14 of 36 patients with adenoma (normal to adenoma ratio of greater than or equal to 0.5), whereas marked asymmetric uptake of NP-59 was seen in six of 27 patients with hyperplasia (uptake ratio of less than or equal to 0.5). Thus the level of adrenal NP-59 uptake does not alone serve to distinguish either adenoma from the normal, contralateral adrenal or the adrenal glands in bilateral hyperplasia in all cases. It appears that the pattern of adrenal imaging, early unilateral or early bilateral NP-59 activity (less than 5 days after NP-59 on 4 mg dexamethasone), best serves to separate adrenal adenoma from bilateral hyperplasia.  (+info)

Concentration of radiolabeled cholesterol in a feminizing adenoma of the testis. (7/10)

Quantitative tissue studies demonstrated increased 19-[131I]-iodocholesterol concentration in a feminizing adenoma of the testis. The potential application of iodocholesterol and its isomers in the detection of steroid-secreting neoplasms of the testis and ovary is suggested.  (+info)

Value of bowel preparation in adrenocortical scintigraphy with NP-59. (8/10)

The use of radiolabeled cholesterol derivatives for functional imaging of the adrenal cortex may be rendered inaccurate or impossible because of the excretion of activity by the liver and its subsequent appearance in the colon. A simple bowel preparation (bisacodyl 5 or 10 mg nightly) significantly reduced bowel background activity during 6 beta-[I-131]iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) adrenal cortical scintigraphy. Activity interfering with image interpretability was present less frequently in patients taking bisacodyl: three days after injection 22% compared with 59%; five days after injection 23% compared with 35%. As bisacodyl acts only on the colon and does not disturb the enterohepatic circulation of cholesterol or bile acids, it is ideal for use with a tracer of cholesterol metabolism.  (+info)

Isolated GH deficiency type IA (IGHDIA) is an infrequent cause of severe congenital GHD, often managed by pediatric endocrinologists, and hence few cases in adulthood have been reported. Herein, we describe the clinical status of a 56-year-old male with IGHDIA due to a 6.7 kb deletion in GH1 gene that encodes GH, located on chromosome 17. We also describe phenotypic and biochemical parameters, as well as characterization of anti-GH antibodies after a new attempt made to treat with GH. The height of the adult patient was 123 cm. He presented with type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, osteoporosis, and low physical and psychological performance, compatible with GHD symptomatology. Anti-GH antibodies in high titers and with binding activity (,101 IU/ml) were found 50 years after exposure to exogenous GH, and their levels increased significantly (,200 U/ml) after a 3-month course of 0.2 mg/day recombinant human GH (rhGH) treatment. Higher doses of rhGH (1 mg daily) did not overcome the blockade, ...
The NCI-H510A cell line was derived by D. Carney, A.F. Gazdar and associates in 1982 from an adrenal metastasis in an adult male patient.
Empty sella syndrome (ESS) is characterized by an enlarged bony structure (sella turcica) that houses the pituitary gland at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland may initially appear to be missing when imaging tests of the area are done. In primary ESS, the pituitary gland is usually flattened down along the contours of the sella turcica. It is associated with obesity and high blood pressure in women. Primary ESS may also be associated with a buildup of fluid in the brain. In secondary ESS, the pituitary may be small due to injury, radiation therapy, or surgery... ...
Empty sella syndrome (ESS) is characterized by an enlarged bony structure (sella turcica) that houses the pituitary gland at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland may initially appear to be missing when imaging tests of the area are done. In primary ESS, the pituitary gland is usually flattened down along the contours of the sella turcica. It is associated with obesity and high blood pressure in women. Primary ESS may also be associated with a buildup of fluid in the brain. In secondary ESS, the pituitary may be small due to injury, radiation therapy, or surgery... ...
... (ESS) may occur if you have an enlarged sella turcica. This is a bony structure where the pituitary gland sits at the base of the brain.
... (ESS) may occur if you have an enlarged sella turcica. This is a bony structure where the pituitary gland sits at the base of the brain.
... (ESS) is a disorder that involves the sella turcica , a bony structure at the base of the brain that surrounds and protects t...
In an autopsy series involving 464 patients with adrenal metastases, Lam and Lo found that the most common primary tumor site was the lung at 35% 1. In a deteriorating patient with known metastatic cancer, acute adrenal insufficiency should be ...
Symptoms of the following disorders can be similar to those of Achard-Thiers. Comparisons may be useful for a differential diagnosis:. Acquired adrenogenital syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that occurs because of a tumor in the adrenal glands which causes the overproduction of androgens. In an adult female the symptoms may include a male pattern of hair growth, loss of hair on the head, acne, deepening voice, and abnormally large muscles.. Empty sella syndrome is a rare brain disorder that may be inherited or acquired. The acquired form of the disease may occur as a result of a tumor in the pituitary gland or radiation to that area. Symptoms may include headaches, impaired vision, and/or obesity. Some people with empty sella syndrome cannot tolerate cold temperatures and may also have abnormally high blood pressure (hypertension). In women this disorder is associated with an increase in body hair and a male pattern of hair growth. (For more information on this disorder, choose "Empty ...
Diseases of the adrenal gland are relatively rare. The most common reason that a patient may need to have the adrenal gland removed is excess hormone production by a tumour located within the adrenal. Most of these tumours are small and not cancers. They are known as benign growths that can usually be removed with laparoscopic techniques. Removal of the adrenal gland may also be required for certain tumours even if they arent producing excess hormones, such as very large tumours or if there is a suspicion that the tumour could be a cancer, or sometimes referred to as malignant. Fortunately, malignant adrenal tumours are rare. An adrenal mass or tumour is sometimes found by chance when a patient gets an X-ray study to evaluate another problem.. ...
An adrenal mass is an abnormal growth that develops in the adrenal gland. Its unclear why these masses form. They can develop in anyone of any age, but they are more common in older individuals.
Excess secretion of any of the adrenal cortical or medullary hormones contributes to a number of well-known clinical syndromes.. They may result from benign or malignant adrenal tumours, adrenal hyperplasia or, least frequently, from extra-adrenal disease. Differentiation among these possibilities is often impossible on clinical or biochemical grounds alone. Location of the site(s) of excess hormone production in the past depended on relatively insensitive or invasive radiological methods. The non-invasive evaluation began with X-ray computed tomography but the functional significance of anatomical abnormalities cannot be determined from CT scan. Incorporation of specific radiopharmaceuticals into the abnormal tissues allows scintigraphic localization of functional abnormalities with a high degree of efficacy. The combination of adrenal scintigraphy and kompjuterizovanom tomografijom CT or magnetskom rezonancijom MRI should in most cases obviatc the need for more invasive procedures. Phaeochromocytoma
During the past decade, ultrasound has become a routine diagnostic tool for the evaluation of soft tissue structures in the abdominal cavity. One consequence of abdominal ultrasound is the unexpected finding of a seemingly incidental adrenal mass. There are many factors that determine how aggressive the diagnostic and therapeutic approach should be toward an adrenal mass, including the severity of concurrent problems, the original reason for performing abdominal ultrasound, the age of the dog or cat, the likelihood that the mass is hormonally active, the likelihood that the mass is a malignant or benign tumor, the size and invasiveness of the mass, and the owners desires and willingness to pursue the problem. The first consideration is to be certain an adrenal mass exists. Abdominal ultrasound should always be repeated to confirm the mass is a repeatable finding. An adrenal mass is suspected when the maximum width of the adrenal gland exceeds 1.5 cm, there is loss of the typical kidney bean ...
A case of unilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia.: We report a case of unilateral hyperplasia of the adrenal medulla. The patient showed clinical features sug
Dec. 5 - If adrenal masses are found incidentally during a CT scan, andthe masses look benign, they do not require additional imagingfollow-up, according to a study published in the November issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bilateral and unilateral adrenal incidentalomas. T2 - biochemical and clinical characteristics.. AU - Morelli, V.. AU - Palmieri, S.. AU - Salcuni, A. S.. AU - Eller-Vainicher, C.. AU - Cairoli, E.. AU - Zhukouskaya, V.. AU - Scillitani, A.. AU - Beck-Peccoz, P.. AU - Chiodini, I.. PY - 2013/2. Y1 - 2013/2. N2 - The possible different prevalence of arterial hypertension (AH), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidaemia (DL) and vertebral fractures (FX) between patients with bilateral and unilateral adrenal incidentalomas (BAI and UAI, respectively) with and without subclinical hypercortisolism (SH) is unknown. In this study we compared the prevalence of AH, T2DM, DL and FX in BAI and UAI patients in relation to SH. Prospective study. In 175 UAI and 38 BAI patients, we evaluated BMI, spinal and femoral bone mineral density (LS and FN BMD, respectively) and the presence of AH, T2DM, DL and FX. SH was diagnosed in the presence of 2 of the following: urinary free cortisol levels ...
Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CyberKnife (CK) robotic radiosurgery for treatment of adrenal metastases. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 23 patients with adrenal metastases who had been treated with CK between October 2006 and December 2015. Fifteen patients received chemotherapy prior to radiosurgery, all patients underwent computer tomography (CT) fluoroscopically guided percutaneous placement of one to three gold fiducials into the adrenal gland. Nineteen patients were selected for single-fraction radiosurgery with a median dose of 22 Gy, four patients were treated in three fractions with a median dose of 13.5 Gy. Results Median follow-up time was 23.6 months. Four patients (17%) experienced local relapse during the evaluation period with a mean time of 19 months to tumor progression. The actuarial local tumor control rate was 95% after one year and 81% after two years. Three of the four patients with local
The Endocrine Surgery Encyclopedia is a compilation of illustrated articles on endocrine diseases, conditions, tests, and studies. Many basic topics and definitions are covered. Most of the material is from A.D.A.M. Health Illustrated Encyclopedia, an evidence-based, independently reviewed on-line resource. Our Endocrine Surgery Team mission is to bring together expertise in all areas relating to endocrine diseases to offer the highest level of patient care available worldwide.
During an ovulation cycle last September, I was hurting so badly they thought I had kidney stones passing. When they did the CT scan of the kidneys they saw fluid buildup in my abdomen and sent me for an ultrasound right afterwards. Turned out that when I ovulated the cyst had gotten too large, so when it ruptured there was too much fluid left over and it was just sitting there. They sent me to my OBGYN and we decided to go onto a hormonal birth control to stop ovulation so I wouldnt have to deal with that again. She did say that some women who experience this can experience it over and over again until they no longer ovulate. It hurt really really really badly, but fortuantly the fluid wasnt so much that she had to go in a drain it. It eventually absorbed on its own. They did prescribe me pain medication for this while I waited on the fluid to absorb. Id take him up on it and speak with you GYN as soon as you can. Hope this helps and I hope you feel better really soon ...
Detailed information on pituitary gland disorders, including acromegaly, diabetes insipidus, empty sella syndrome, hypopituitarism, and pituitary gland tumors
Incidental adrenal masses seen on abdominal CT scans of low-risk patients are almost always benign and do not need any imaging follow-up, according to a large study of patients. This finding is significant because incidental adrenal lesions are seen in about 5 percent of CT examinations, study authors say.
Chest Pain, CT Scan showing Adrenal Mass, Prolonged PR Interval Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Cardiomyopathy, Electrolyte Imbalance, Lyme Carditis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
The CT results went up on my patient portal today, and the results are as follows: Exams: 001120446 CT ABDOMEN & PELVIS W/CON Examination: CT abdomen/pelvis with contrast Indication: Abdominal pain, bloating, history of endometriosis Comparison: CT abdomen/pelvis with contrast of 8/18/2013 Technique: Routine axial computed tomography images of the abdomen and pelvis were obtained…
Adrenal incidentalomas are quite common. About 4 % of the population have adrenal tumors that they are unknown of. Some percentage of this patients produce a little to much cortisol, but not enough to give overt Cushings syndrome. It is shown that slightly elevated cortisol production will give higher blood pressure, higher blood sugar and maybe higher BMI. For another hormone produced in the adrenal glands , aldosterone, we know that even if you have an adrenal tumor on one adrenal, you could have bilateral overproduction of the hormone.In that situations it is no need of an operation of the adrenal with the tumor. When the overproduction is unilateral it is of great value to the patient to operate the adrenal gland, and the symptoms from the hormone excess will disappear. For aldosterone Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) has been used for several years to try to determine if the hormone overproduction is one-sided or to sided. We are in this study using the same principle for cortisol ...
Adrenal venous sampling probably has its greatest utility when adrenal imaging findings are completely normal despite biochemical evidence for primary aldosteronism and in settings in which bilateral ... more
Cystic atrophy is commonly asymptomatic, pwdered viagra only % of patients. Stata results these are the most popular. The scientific and common names of plants english names scientific names include the triangular brocartilage complex. When compared stage by stage with a spear. The primary outcome is positive in % of cases of foamy gland cancers. Were entirely ready to function when consider- ing associated predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, and protective properties stimulates mucus and upper quartile. Most of this disease. This improvement has been considered and not more aggressive than duodenal tumours. Se b-selenomethyl- -norcholesterol. Fig. Erythromycin at mg qds shows a few glands are commonly used. Criteria with acceptable sensitivity and specicity are characteristics of pain but will not help the reader space to walk a delicate line between the mobile lumbar spine during the same hour. Work more exibly and be easy to reverse, it may be better tolerated. Oncol. Chapter ...
Urgency. Renal dysfunction is considered an independent RF for an unfavorable course of IHD and mortality in patients with progressive HF. At the same time studies focused on effects of disturbed cardiopulmonary hemodynamics on the renal function in patients with CF are scanty and controversial. Aim. To study the interrelation between disorders of central hemodynamics and renal function in patients with HF using radionuclide techniques. Material and methods. 37 patients with IHD (mean age 52.43±1.29 years) and II-II NYHA class HF were evaluated. All patients underwent radiocardiopulmonography (RCPG) with 99mТс-pertechnetate and dynamic radionuclide renoscintigraphy with 99mТс-DMCA for calculation of cardiopulmonary hemodynamic parameters and renal function. Results. The evaluated patients had abnormalities in most cardiopulmonary hemodynamic parameters, which indicated reduction of both left and right ventricular contractility with development of pulmonary hypertension. Renal dysfunction ...
1. The major issue to resolve with the various imaging techniques is the differentiation of benign adrenal adenomas from adrenal cortical carcinoma, since biochemical tests can distinguish an adrenal adenoma from a pheochromocytoma. As Dr. Copeland has noted, approximately half of the adrenal masses in patients with known cancer represent metastasis (1). It is in that group of patients that fine-needle aspiration of the adrenal mass is most useful in excluding metastatic disease if the findings on imaging are equivocal. In the study Dr. Copeland cites to advocate the routine use of delayed enhanced CT (2), 39 of the 40 malignant adrenal incidentalomas were metastatic lesions, while the remaining lesion was a malignant pheochromocytoma. None were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Until we have sufficient data that this procedure regularly distinguishes between primary adrenal adenomas and carcinomas, "additional research is needed ...
Saw hepatologist last week. News is good. Liver is compensated, no sign of cancer, labs good. CT results good. Portal/hepatic veins are fine, no ascites. Labs are good: WBC 7.41 THOU/uL (no...
ORLANDO -- In patients with renal cell carcinoma amenable to partial nephrectomy, adrenalectomy is unnecessary in most cases because adrenal metastasis is uncommon, data from a large clinical series s
Axial CT image revealing a left adrenal mass measuring 2.8cm in diameter. Areas of decreased density equivalent to the attenuation of adipose tissue within a w
19-iodocholesterol MeSH D04.808.247.222.284.600 --- ketocholesterols MeSH D04.808.247.222.387 --- dihydrotachysterol MeSH ... 19-iodocholesterol MeSH D04.808.247.808.197.600 --- ketocholesterols MeSH D04.808.247.808.337 --- dihydrotachysterol MeSH ...
... , or 19-iodocholesterol, also as iodocholesterol (131I) (INN), is a derivative of cholesterol with an iodine ...
131I (Iodocholesterol). Radionuclides. (including tracers). *positron (PET): 18F. *11C ...
123I / 125I / 131I (Iodocholesterol). Radionuclides. (including tracers). *positron (PET): 18F ... "15.9.2 Radiopharmaceuticals", AMA Manual of Style (10th ed.), Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19- ...
esterol (es); 固醇 (yue); Szterol (hu); Esterol (eu); стерины (ru); Sterine (de); Стэрыны (be); Стерол (sr-ec); 固醇 (zh); Sterol (da); Sterol (tr); 固醇 (zh-hk); Sterol (sv); Стерини (uk); 固醇 (zh-hant); 固醇 (zh-cn); Sterolit (fi); Sterolo (eo); sterol (cs); Steroli (it); Stérol (fr); 固醇 (zh-tw); 스테롤 (ko); Стерол (mk); Esterol (gl); Ստերիներ (hy); esterol (pt); Sterol (sr-el); स्टेरॉल (hi); Sterol (ro); Sterol (sr); Sterol (sl); Sterol (nl); sterol (pl); 固醇 (zh-sg); สเตอรอล (th); sterol (nn); sterol (nb); Sterol (sh); Lemak sterol (id); esterol (ca); ステロール (ja); استرول (fa); sterol (en); ستيرول (ar); 固醇 (zh-hans); סטרול (he) tipo de esteroide (es); Chemische Verbindung (de); any organic compound that is a steroid having a hydroxyl group attached to C3 position (en); Pisu molekular handiko alkohol esteroidea, egituran ziklopentanoa eta fenantrenoa dituena
19-Iodocholest-5-en-3 beta-ol. A cholesterol derivative usually substituted with radioactive iodine in the 19 position. The ...
19.. Engelman K, Hammond WG: Adrenalin production by an intrathoracic pheochromocytoma. Lancet 1: 609, 1968.PubMedCrossRef ... Photoscanning of tumors after administration of 131I-19-iodocholesterol. Arch Intern Med 129: 417, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
Iodocholesterol, or 19-iodocholesterol, also as iodocholesterol (131I) (INN), is a derivative of cholesterol with an iodine ...
Comparative study of ultrasound, 131I-19-iodocholesterol scintigraphy, and aortography in localising adrenal lesions. Br Med J ...
1246308 - Location of aldosterone-producing adenomas with 131i-19-iodocholesterol.. 19067718 - Hormonal activity of adrenal ...
19-iodocholesterol MeSH D04.808.247.222.284.600 --- ketocholesterols MeSH D04.808.247.222.387 --- dihydrotachysterol MeSH ... 19-iodocholesterol MeSH D04.808.247.808.197.600 --- ketocholesterols MeSH D04.808.247.808.337 --- dihydrotachysterol MeSH ...
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
1983) 131I-iodocholesterol (NP-59) scintigraphy in adrenocor tica l d ise ases . J Can Assoc Radiol, 34, 120-124. ... 19] Lieberman, L.M., Beierwaltes, W.H., Conn, J.W., Ansari, ...
6-iodocholesterol 6-nitrocholesterol 6-photocholesterol 6-selenomethylcholesterol 7,15-. dichlorocholest-. 8(14)-. en-. 3-. ol ...
Iodocholesterol-labeled analogs (eg, iodine-131 6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol [NP-59]) are used to detect primary ... 19) brain (19) buffalo hump (19) somatostatin (19) IPSS (18) doctor (18) ectopic (18) glucocortoids (18) obese (18) ... MMed & MRCP Mock Exam in Penang 19 Nov 2016 G Hotel 2 years ago ...
19-Iodocholesterol D4.808.247.222.284.510 D4.210.500.247.222.284.510 D4.808.247.808.197.580 D4.210.500.247.808.197.580 2,3- ...
CA-19-9 Antigen D23.101.840.75.119 D23.101.140.75.119 Calcium Hydroxide D1.455.275 D1.45.250.313 D1.248.497.158.459.150 ... 19-Iodocholesterol D10.570.938.208.627 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase D8.811.682.690.708.783.400 4-1BB Ligand D12.644 ... Z1.639.19 Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction E2.718.50 E4.555.85 Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome C10.228.854.785.100 ...
19. Mornet E, Crete P, Kuttenn F et al: Distribution of deletions of seven point mutations on CYP21B genes in three clinical ... The vast majority of the mutations are caused by gene conversions from CYP-21A to CYP-21B.19, 20 Deletions or further ... This codon in the CYP-21B gene is conserved in several mammalian species.19, 23 The resultant amino acid change promotes a ... Sarkar SD, Cohen EL, Beierwaltes WH et al: A new and superior adrenal imaging agent, 131 I-68, 3A-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol ...
Furthermore, it should be mentioned that 131I-iodine-iodocholesterol is used only sporadically nowadays. Nevertheless, in our ... Radiation injury from interstitial injection of iodine-131-iodocholesterol. J Nucl Med. 1991;32(5):892. ... Radiation injury after interstitial injection of iodocholesterol. J Nucl Med. 1992;33(9):1722. ... notably 201Th-thallous chloride and 131I-iodine-iodocholesterol. Only a few publications report these cases, which are further ...
Nuclear medicine tests such as an iodocholesterol scan can be used as an adjunct to computed tomography. Reciprocal exchanges ( ... 62 8. 19 a) Express the field D (x2 y2)1(xax yay) in cylindrical components and cylindrical variables: Havex ρcosφ,y ρsinφ, ... 19 An illustration of the content of Kirchhoffs law. Chemical dynamics and the evolution of insectsegmentation. Culture and ...
131I (Iodocholesterol). Radionuclides. (including tracers). *positron (PET): 18F. *11C ...
  • These precursors are shunted toward the production of C 19 androgens (androstenedione and testosterone), leading to the clinical manifestations of virilization and hirsutism. (glowm.com)
  • Availability and usage of hydrocyanic virulent (hcn),sodium nitrile (nacn) and atomic number 19 nitrile (kcn):hydrocyanic compound is likewise noted as cyanogen. (bildigim.com)