The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ALIIVIBRIO, which exhibits LUMINESCENCE. A. fischeri is found in a symbiotic relationship with the SQUID Euprymna scolopes.
Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.
A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.
A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.
A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.
A species of gram-negative, halophilic bacteria, in the genus VIBRIO. It is considered part of normal marine flora and commonly associated with ear infections and superficial wounds exposed to contaminated water sources.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, isolated from SHELLFISH, as well as from human diarrheal stools and ear infections.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Organisms that live in water.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
NCBI: Vibrio cholerae O1 (serogroup) NCBI: Vibrio cholerae O139 (serogroup) Harris, Jason B.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Qadri, ... Vibrio cholerae is a species of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe and comma-shaped bacteria. The bacteria naturally live in ... Copepods and cholera in untreated water Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 Genome Page [hmepage] Type strain of Vibrio cholerae at ... Diagram of the bacterium, V. cholerae Yellow colored (sucrose-fermenting) colonies of Vibrio cholerae on TCBS agar. ...
... and identification of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae by Filippo Pacini and Robert Koch. After a long hiatus, a seventh cholera ... In 1992 a new strain appeared in Asia, a non-O1, nonagglutinable vibrio (NAG), which was named O139 Bengal. It was first ... "Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection , Cholera , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2017-05-16. Archived from the original on 2015-03-17. ... Vibrio cholerae has shown to be a very potent pathogenic bacterium causing many pandemics and epidemics over the past three ...
... is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may range from none, ... If an epidemic of cholera is suspected, the most common causative agent is V. cholerae O1. If V. cholerae serogroup O1 is not ... Finkelstein R (1996). "Cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, and Other Pathogenic Vibrios". Medical microbiology. University of ... Society and Politics in the Cholera Years, 1830-1910. London 1987 "Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection , Cholera , CDC". www. ...
Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that when ingested can cause diarrhea and vomiting within several hours to 2 ... tests showed that the specific strain of cholera found in samples taken from Haitian patients was Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 ... Without proper treatment including oral rehydration, cholera can be fatal. The suspected source of Vibrio cholerae in Haiti was ... therefore resulting in high rates of exposure to Vibrio cholerae.[18] The cholera outbreak began ten months after the January ...
NCBI: Vibrio cholerae O1 (serogroup) NCBI: Vibrio cholerae O139 (serogroup) Harris, Jason B.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Qadri, ... Vibrio cholerae is a species of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe and comma-shaped bacteria. The bacteria naturally live in ... Copepods and cholera in untreated water Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 Genome Page [hmepage] Type strain of Vibrio cholerae at ... Diagram of the bacterium, V. cholerae Yellow colored (sucrose-fermenting) colonies of Vibrio cholerae on TCBS agar. ...
Insight into the resilience and susceptibility of marine bacteria to T6SS attack by Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio coralliilyticus ... Mourino-Perez, R. R., Worden, A. Z., & Azam, F. (2003). Growth of Vibrio cholerae O1 in red tide waters off California. Applied ... Antagonistic interactions among marine bacteria impede the proliferation of Vibrio cholerae. Applied and Environmental ... Mueller, R. S., McDougald, D., Cusumano, D., Sodhi, N., Kjelleberg, S., Azam, F., & Bartlett, D. H. (2007). Vibrio cholerae ...
Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 El Tor N16961 strain that causes the pandemic disease cholera.,sup>2,/sup> The latest pathogenic ... Vibrio cholerae ==Description and significance== [[Image:Gram_stain.jpg,thumb,250px,Gram-stain of Vibrio comma bacteria, ... Vibrio cholerae with its single polar flagellum. Electron Micrograph of Vibrio cholerae by Leodotia Pope, Department of ... DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Nature. (2000);406 (6795), 477-483. 2. Center for ...
Vibrio; Vibrionaceae; Vibrionales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria. General Information: Vibrio cholerae O395 is a classical O1 ... Query: NC_012582:2626786 Vibrio cholerae O395 chromosome chromosome I, complete sequence. Lineage: Vibrio cholerae; ... Vibrio cholerae can colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestines of humans where it will cause cholera, a severe and ... Vibrio can affect shellfish, finfish, and other marine animals and a number of species are pathogenic for humans. ...
Though cholera has been around for many centuries, the disease came to prominence in the 19th century, when a lethal outbreak ... What Is Cholera? Cholera is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae. The bacteria typically live in ... of the cholera bacteria: V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 are the only two strains of the bacteria known to cause outbreaks ... Cholera studies. 1. History of the Disease. Bulletin of the World Health Organization.. Non-O1 and Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae ...
Gram-stain of Vibrio comma bacteria, a strain of V. cholerae. CDC Public Health Image Library (PHIL). 1979. Click to enlarge. ... The most wide sweeping pathogenic strain is the Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 El Tor N16961 strain that causes the pandemic ... A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Vibrio cholerae Vibrio cholerae with its single polar flagellum. Electron Micrograph of ... Vibrio cholerae is a "comma" shaped Gram-negative1 bacteria with a single, polar flagellum for movement. There are numerous ...
... and identification of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae by Filippo Pacini and Robert Koch. After a long hiatus, a seventh cholera ... In 1992 a new strain appeared in Asia, a non-O1, nonagglutinable vibrio (NAG), which was named O139 Bengal. It was first ... "Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection , Cholera , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2017-05-16. Archived from the original on 2015-03-17. ... Vibrio cholerae has shown to be a very potent pathogenic bacterium causing many pandemics and epidemics over the past three ...
Bhatia, guides you about the homeopathy treatment of Cholera - Homeopathy Treatment and Homeopathic Remedies. Find the best ... homeopathic medicines for treating Cholera - Homeopathy Treatment and Homeopathic Remedies. ... Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that produces cholera toxin, an enterotoxin, whose action on the mucosal ... In 1992 a new strain appeared in Asia, a non-O1, nonagglutinable vibrio (NAG) named O139 Bengal. It was first identified in ...
Cholera, an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by extreme ... Cholera has often risen to epidemic proportions in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, particularly in India and ... cholerae-O1 and O139 (sometimes called the Bengal serogroup)-are known to cause cholera. Pathogenic O1 and O139 V. cholerae ... Cholera, an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by extreme ...
... external resources Vibrio cholerae: The bacterium that causes cholera (SEM image) ICD-10 A00. ICD-9 001 DiseasesDB 2546 ... In 1992 a new strain appeared in Asia, a non-O1, nonagglutinable vibrio (NAG) named O139 Bengal. It was first identified in ... Cholera (sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium ... Biochemistry of the V. cholerae bacterium Most of the V. cholerae bacteria in the contaminated water that a host drinks do not ...
... is an acute diarrheal infection caused by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The ... A global strategy on cholera control with a target to reduce cholera deaths by 90% was launched in 2017. Before 1817, cholera ... Cholera remains a global threat to public health and an indicator of inequity and lack of social development. ... It is estimated that each year there are 1.3 million to 4 million cases of cholera, and 21 000 to 143 000 deaths worldwide from ...
Vibrio - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online ... Vibrio cholerae. BACKGROUND. Cholera, is a Greek word, which means the. gutter of the roof. It is caused by bacteria:. Vibrio ... by biochemical and other test, agglutinated by O1. antisera.. Classical vibrio cholerae. Eltor vibrio cholerae. The Eltor ... Cholera". - 1965: Bacterium named. Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854. Discovery. • Robert Koch (1843-. 1910) ...
Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... In 1992 a new strain appeared in Asia, a non-O1, nonagglutinable vibrio (NAG) named O139 Bengal. It was first identified in ... Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...
Jasraj Kaur Introduction Vibrio cholerae is a member of the Vibrionaceae family and exists as a facultative anaerobic bacterium ... V. cholerae was first isolated as the cause of cholera by an Italian anatomist in 1854 but his research was not broadly… ... Baron, S., & Finkelstein, R. A. (1996). Cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, and Other Pathogenic Vibrio. ... Vibrio cholerae is a member of the Vibrionaceae family and exists as a facultative anaerobic bacterium characterized by its non ...
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium. Some strains of V. cholerae cause the disease cholera. V. cholerae ... The genus Vibrio comprises Gram-negative, mostly curved rods with a length of 1.5-2 m m and .... *Cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1 ... Vibrio cholerae. Vibrio cholerae treatment and symptoms ... Vibrio cholerae morphology and culture Vibrio cholerae belonging to ... 2. 非O1/O139ビブリオコレラによる感染症 infections due to non o1 o139 vibrio cholerae ...
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.[4][3] Symptoms may range from ... If an epidemic of cholera is suspected, the most common causative agent is V. cholerae O1. If V. cholerae serogroup O1 is not ... "Choleras seven pandemics". CBC. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ... Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. *‹See Tfd›. "Cholera" . Encyclopædia Britannica ...
Hybrid El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1, Kuwait [PDF - 261 KB - 2 pages] R. M. Joshi and M. Albert Cite This Article. Email this ... Joshi, R. M., & Albert, M. (2009). Hybrid El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1, Kuwait. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1879-1880. ... Joshi RM, Albert M. Hybrid El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1, Kuwait. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1879-1880. doi:10.3201/ ... Joshi RM, Albert M. Hybrid El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1, Kuwait. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1879-1880. https://dx.doi.org/ ...
Cholera is an infectious disease that can cause severe watery diarrhea, dehydration, and death. Read about symptoms, treatment ... Cholera is an acute infectious disease caused by a bacterium, Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae), which usually results in a ... Although there are many V. cholerae serotypes that can produce cholera symptoms, the O groups O1 and O139, which also produce a ... Cholera -- Vibrio cholerae Infection: Sources of Infection & Risk Factors, CDC. Cholera -- Vibrio cholerae Infection: ...
Vibrio cholera O12. human feces. 9-72 hours. Profuse, watery diarrhea, vomiting, rapid dehydration ... And heterotrophic bacteria introduced by natural or human sources can consume the increased dissolved organic matter, thereby ... Robert Koch identifies Vibrio cholera as the causal agent of cholera and describes the germ theory of disease. ... King Cholera: The Biography of a Disease. London: Hamish Hamilton.. MacKenzie, W. R., N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus ...
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.[4][3] Symptoms may range from ... If an epidemic of cholera is suspected, the most common causative agent is V. cholerae O1. If V. cholerae serogroup O1 is not ... Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. *. "Cholera" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ... Finkelstein R (1996). "Cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, and Other Pathogenic Vibrios". Medical microbiology. University of ...
... presumably to the benefit of the bacterium. Ten effector domains are found in the various Vibrio MARTX toxins, although any one ... examines the conserved structural elements of the MARTX toxins and details the different toxin arrangements carried by Vibrio ... toxins are a heterogeneous group of toxins found in a number of Vibrio species and other Gram-negative bacteria. The toxins are ... Genome sequence of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae PS15. Genome Announc 1:e00227-12. [PubMed][CrossRef]. ...
Vibrio cholerae, , , , ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the ... Diagram of the bacterium, V. cholerae Gallery V. cholerae O1 has 2 biotypes, classical and El Tor, and each biotype has 2 ... Cholera, Haiti cholera outbreak, Pathogenic bacteria, El Tor, Gammaproteobacteria Collection: Bacteria with Sequenced Genomes, ... Two serogroups of V. cholerae, O1 and O139, cause outbreaks of cholera. O1 causes the majority of outbreaks, while O139 - first ...
Cholera is an acute bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal tract caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. There are lots ... cholerae but most cholera is caused by either O1 (Classical and El Tor biotypes) or O139. Classical O1 causes the most severe ... How is cholera diagnosed?. In the developed world cholera is diagnosed by culturing V. cholerae from a stool sample. Specific ... Intermittent shedding of bacteria can occur for months after infection in a small number of people.. Most cases of cholera ...
Viable but non-culturable Vibrio cholerae O1 revert to a cultivable state in the human intestine. World J. Microbiol. ... The bacterium is a member of the γ-Proteobacteria, as identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence (47). The bacteria have not been ... cholerae in transmission of cholera, p. 327-343. In R. B. Sack and Y. Zinnaka (ed.), Advances in research on cholera and ... The bacteria live in the trophosome, a specialized feeding sac inside the worm (32). The bacteria and trophosome constitute ...
Vibrio anguillarum strain NB10 serotype O1 is a Gram-negative, motile, curved rod-shaped bacterium, isolated from a diseased ... Distinct replication requirements for the two Vibrio cholerae chromosomes. Cell. 2003;114:521-30.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ... Vibrio anguillarum Fish pathogenVibriosisMarine fishGenome comparisons. Introduction. Vibrio anguillarum is a marine pathogen ... Li G, Mo Z, Li J, Xiao P, Hao B. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio anguillarum M3, a serotype O1 strain isolated from Japanese ...
Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor galU and galE mutants: influence on lipopolysaccharide structure, colonization ... In other bacteria, such as many enteric bacteria, including S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, only GalE exists with a unique UDP ... like in Vibrio cholerae (32). The presence of GalE and Gne homologues in the same genome can be deduced from the Vibrio genomes ... are ubiquitous waterborne bacteria and pathogens of reptiles, amphibians, and fish (3). They can be isolated as a part of the ...
... cholerae non-O1, non-O139, mortality rates were lower for quinolone (0 %, 0-2.0) or tetracycline (4.3 %, 1.2-14.5) compared to ... The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Cholera and Other Vibrio Illness Surveillance (COVIS) ... Considering all Vibrio species, use of quinolones is associated with lower mortality and penicillin alone is not particularly ... Considering all Vibrio species, the only class of antibiotic associated with reduced odds of mortality was quinolone (odds ...
Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that when ingested can cause diarrhea and vomiting within several hours to 2 ... tests showed that the specific strain of cholera found in samples taken from Haitian patients was Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 ... Without proper treatment including oral rehydration, cholera can be fatal. The suspected source of Vibrio cholerae in Haiti was ... therefore resulting in high rates of exposure to Vibrio cholerae.[18] The cholera outbreak began ten months after the January ...
... and 7 Vibrio parahaemolyticus genomic islands (VPaI-1 to VPaI-7). Comparative genomic analysis of our fifth genome, V. ... versus the genomes of four published Vibrio species and constructed genome BLAST atlases. We identified 24 regions, gaps in the ... Vibrio parahaemolyticus is abundant in the aquatic environment particularly in warmer waters and is the leading cause of ... of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae NRT36S demonstrates the presence of pathogenic mechanisms that are distinct from O1 Vibrio cholerae. ...
  • Filippo Pacini correctly identified its as a bacterium and from him, the scientific name is adopted. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Italian physician, Filippo Pacini, while investigating cholera outbreak in Florence in the late 1854, identified the causative pathogen as a new type of bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Filippo Pacini first discovered ''V. cholerae'' in Italy in 1854, though it was originally believed to be Robert Koch who discovered it thirty years later in Berlin in 1884.Italians at that time believed that diseases like cholera came from "bad air" or the greek term "miasma. (kenyon.edu)
  • Late in this period (particularly 1879-1883), major scientific breakthroughs toward the treatment of cholera develop: the first immunization by Pasteur, the development of the first cholera vaccine, and identification of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae by Filippo Pacini and Robert Koch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The causative agent of this disease was originally described by Filippo Pacini in 1854, and afterwards further analyzed by Robert Koch in 1884. (ijtmgh.com)
  • V. cholerae was first isolated as the cause of cholera by Italian anatomist Filippo Pacini in 1854, but his discovery was not widely known until Robert Koch, working independently 30 years later, publicized the knowledge and the means of fighting the disease. (meddic.jp)
  • Some strains of V. cholerae are pathogenic to humans and cause a deadly disease cholera, which can be derived from the consumption of undercooked or raw marine life species. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are numerous strains of ''V. cholerae,'' some of which are pathogenic and some of which are not. (kenyon.edu)
  • V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 are the only two strains of the bacteria known to cause outbreaks and epidemics. (history.com)
  • These strains produce the cholera toxin that cause cells lining the intestines to release increased amounts of water, leading to diarrhea and rapid loss of fluids and electrolytes (salts). (history.com)
  • In addition, tetracycline is typically used as the primary antibiotic, although some strains of V. cholerae exist that have shown resistance. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Cholera due to altered El Tor strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladesh. (ijtmgh.com)
  • It is important to note that most strains are 'free - living' (can live independently without a host) and only a few such as the O1 and O139 are responsible for causing disease. (mechpath.com)
  • Some strains of V. cholerae cause the disease cholera. (meddic.jp)
  • Many other serogroups of V. cholerae , with or without the cholera toxin gene (including the nontoxigenic strains of the O1 and O139 serogroups), can cause a cholera-like illness. (meddic.jp)
  • Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae . (wikipedia.org)
  • This review examines the conserved structural elements of the MARTX toxins and details the different toxin arrangements carried by Vibrio species and strains. (asmscience.org)
  • Observations suggest that these strains cause more severe cholera with higher case fatality rates. (gutenberg.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae is indigenous to the aquatic environment, and serotype non-O1 strains are readily isolated from coastal waters. (gutenberg.org)
  • Recently, the complete genome sequences of two V. anguillarum serotype O1 strains have been determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, only Ogawa expresses cholera antigen B and only Inaba expresses cholera antigen C. There also exist multiple strains of Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. (britannica.com)
  • Two serotypes called O1 and O139 are responsible for cholera outbreaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • There have since been numerous outbreaks and seven global pandemics of cholera. (history.com)
  • Additionally, there have been many documented cholera outbreaks, such as a 1991-1994 outbreak in South America and, more recently, the 2016-2021 Yemen cholera outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although much is known about the mechanisms behind the spread of cholera, this has not led to a full understanding of what makes cholera outbreaks happen in some places and not others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, Cholera was widespread throughout third world countries, however more recently outbreaks have occurred in more rural parts of England and the United States' mid-west region. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Almost every developing country faces cholera outbreaks or the threat of a cholera epidemic. (allbest.ru)
  • August 2010 - Nigeria is reaching epidemic proportions after wide spread confirmation of the Cholera outbreaks in 12 of its 36 states. (allbest.ru)
  • Azizi M, Azizi F. History of Cholera Outbreaks in Iran during the 19(th) and 20(th) Centuries. (ijtmgh.com)
  • Two serogroups of V. cholerae , O1 and O139, cause outbreaks of cholera. (meddic.jp)
  • O1 causes the majority of outbreaks, while O139 - first identified in Bangladesh in 1992 - is confined to South-East Asia. (meddic.jp)
  • [2] [11] Cholera occurs as both outbreaks and chronically in certain areas . (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has maps of current and past areas with cholera outbreaks (see WHO reference). (medicinenet.com)
  • Outbreaks of cholera in 2015-2016 include South Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, and Kenya, with over 216 deaths and most recently, 121 people diagnosed with cholera in Iraq, their first outbreak since 2012 and in Cuba, the first outbreak in over 130 years. (medicinenet.com)
  • [11] In terms of total infections, the outbreak has since been surpassed by the war-fueled 2016-2021 Yemen cholera outbreak , although the Haiti outbreak is still one of the most deadly modern outbreaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • A molecular and epidemiological study of Vibrio cholerae isolates from cholera outbreaks in southern Ghana. (stopcholera.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae is a member of the family Vibrionaceae, which includes three medically important genera of water-dwelling bacteria. (britannica.com)
  • a genus of gram-negative, short, motile, curved or straight rods in the family Vibrionaceae of bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sambhu Nath De isolated the cholera toxin and demonstrated the toxin as the cause of cholera in 1959. (wikipedia.org)
  • But the DNA does not directly code for the toxin as the genes for cholera toxin are carried by CTXphi (CTXφ), a temperate bacteriophage (virus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that produces cholera toxin, an enterotoxin, whose action on the mucosal epithelium lining of the small intestine is responsible for the characteristic massive diarrhoea of the disease. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • It secretes a protein polymer known as cholera toxin which binds to epithelial cells. (mechpath.com)
  • Figure 1: Schematic illustration of events that take place upon binding of cholera toxin to epithelial cells of the intestine. (mechpath.com)
  • During infection, V. cholerae secretes cholera toxin, a protein that causes profuse, watery diarrhea. (meddic.jp)
  • [ 4 ] The genes for cholera toxin are carried by CTXphi (CTXφ), a temperate bacteriophage inserted into the V. cholerae genome. (meddic.jp)
  • CTXφ can transmit cholera toxin genes from one V. cholerae strain to another, one form of horizontal gene transfer. (meddic.jp)
  • CTXφ (also called CTXphi) is a filamentous phage that contains the genes for cholera toxin. (meddic.jp)
  • In addition to the ctxA and ctxB genes encoding cholera toxin, CTXφ contains eight genes involved in phage reproduction, packaging, secretion, integration, and regulation. (meddic.jp)
  • The Vibrio pathogenicity island (VPI) contains genes primarily involved in the production of toxin coregulated pilus (TCP). (meddic.jp)
  • Multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins are a heterogeneous group of toxins found in a number of Vibrio species and other Gram-negative bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • Ten effector domains are found in the various Vibrio MARTX toxins, although any one toxin carries only two to five effector domains. (asmscience.org)
  • 1999. Identification of a Vibrio cholerae RTX toxin gene cluster that is tightly linked to the cholera toxin prophage. (asmscience.org)
  • Evolutionary and functional analyses of variants of the toxin-coregulated pilus protein TcpA from toxigenic Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 serogroup isolates. (gutenberg.org)
  • Infection occurs as a result of the toxin produced by V. cholerae binding to the small bowel wall which in turn causes massive fluid and electrolyte transfer into the gastrointestinal lumen. (microbiologynutsandbolts.co.uk)
  • In early manifestations result almost entirely from action of cholera placebo-controlled studies, tetracycline reduced duration toxin, a protein enterotoxin excreted by the bacterial cell. (cdc.gov)
  • Pathogenic O1 and O139 V. cholerae have the ability to produce cholera toxin, a type of enterotoxin that affects intestinal cells. (britannica.com)
  • Currently, El Tor is the predominant cholera pathogen worldwide. (scribd.com)
  • The El Tor strain was active in the seventh and most recent pandemic of cholera from 1960's-1970's, as well as in the early 1990's along with serotype O139, both displaying resistance to multiple drugs. (kenyon.edu)
  • There are lots of different serogroups of V. cholerae but most cholera is caused by either O1 (Classical and El Tor biotypes) or O139. (microbiologynutsandbolts.co.uk)
  • For V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139, mortality rates were lower for quinolone (0 %, 0-2.0) or tetracycline (4.3 %, 1.2-14.5) compared to no antibiotic (9.3 %, 6.4-13.3). (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, only two serogroups of V. cholerae -O1 and O139 (sometimes called the Bengal serogroup)-are known to cause cholera. (britannica.com)
  • From samples of vomit that I have been able to examined in the second and third cases of cholera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early texts from India (by Sushruta Samhita in the 5th century B.C.) and Greece (Hippocrates in the 4th century B.C. and Aretaeus of Cappadocia in the 1st century A.D.) describe isolated cases of cholera-like illnesses. (history.com)
  • January 2009 - The Mpumalanga province of South Africa has confirmed over 381 new cases of Cholera, bringing the total number of cases treated since November 2008 to 2276. (allbest.ru)
  • It is estimated that each year there are 1.3 million to 4 million cases of cholera, and 21 000 to 143 000 deaths worldwide from the disease. (ijtmgh.com)
  • Most cases of cholera occur in the context of either extreme poverty with poor sanitation or humanitarian crises leading to large numbers of refugees living in poor sanitary conditions. (microbiologynutsandbolts.co.uk)
  • Before the outbreak, no cases of cholera had been identified in Haiti for more than a century, and the Caribbean region as a whole had not been affected by the cholera outbreak originating in Peru in 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diarrhea associated with cholera is acute and so severe that, unless oral rehydration therapy is started promptly, the diarrhea may within hours result in severe dehydration (a medical emergency), or even death. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (allbest.ru)
  • Cholera is an acute state whereby a person suffers from severe watery diarrhea which leads to dehydration and even death if untreated. (mechpath.com)
  • Cholera is an acute infectious disease caused by a bacterium, Vibrio cholerae ( V. cholerae ), which usually results in a painless, watery diarrhea in humans. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cholera is an acute bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal tract caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae . (microbiologynutsandbolts.co.uk)
  • Cholera , an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by extreme diarrhea with rapid and severe depletion of body fluids and salts. (britannica.com)
  • Methods: Clinical, epidemiological, descriptive and prospective study from 2013 to 2017 in patients with confirmed V. cholerae by stool culture as a cause of acute diarrheal disease in the Pediatric Hospital of Centro Habana municipality.Qualitative and quantitative variables were analyzed. (bvsalud.org)
  • About 80 percent of people who contract the bacteria don't develop cholera symptoms and the infection resolves on its own. (history.com)
  • By 12 February 2009, the number of cases of infection by cholera in sub-Saharan Africa had reached 128,548 and the number of fatalities, 4,053. (allbest.ru)
  • Although a person may be no longer contagious for cholera, the infection does not provide enough immunity to prevent the person from coming down with cholera again if reexposed to the bacteria. (medicinenet.com)
  • Classical O1 causes the most severe infection. (microbiologynutsandbolts.co.uk)
  • Infection occurs after drinking water contaminated with V. cholerae (usually due to faecal contamination of water supplies) or eating faecally contaminated food. (microbiologynutsandbolts.co.uk)
  • Intermittent shedding of bacteria can occur for months after infection in a small number of people. (microbiologynutsandbolts.co.uk)
  • It spreads by the fecal-oral route: infection spreads through a population when feces containing the bacterium contaminate water that is then ingested by individuals. (britannica.com)
  • in fact I found a genus of Bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, straight or curved rod-shaped bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A genus of motile (occasionally nonmotile), nonsporeforming, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria (family Spirillaceae) containing short (0.5-3.0 mcm), curved or straight rods that occur singly or which are occasionally united into S-shapes or spirals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vib·rio/ ( vib´re-o ) a genus of gram-negative bacteria (family Spirillaceae). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Any of various short, motile, S-shaped or comma-shaped bacteria of the genus Vibrio, especially V. cholerae, which causes cholera. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cholera and several other epidemic forms of gastroenteritis are caused by members of the genus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A genus of curved, motile, GRAM NEGATIVE organisms that contains the bacillus, Vibrio cholerae that causes CHOLERA . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A genus of Gram-negative bacteria (see GRAM'S STAIN that are FACULTATIVE anaerobes and include some important PATHOGENS , such as Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of CHOLERA . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One famous outbreak was traced to a contaminated well in London in 1854 by John Snow, and epidemics, which can occur with extreme rapidity, are often associated with conditions of poor sanitation. (up.ac.za)
  • Though cholera has been around for many centuries, the disease came to prominence in the 19th century, when a lethal outbreak occurred in India. (history.com)
  • One of the first detailed accounts of a cholera epidemic comes from Gaspar Correa-Portuguese historian and author of Legendary India-who described an outbreak in the spring of 1543 of a disease in the Ganges Delta, which is located in the south Asia area of Bangladesh and India. (history.com)
  • The first cholera pandemic emerged out of the Ganges Delta with an outbreak in Jessore, India, in 1817, stemming from contaminated rice. (history.com)
  • The cholera outbreak extended as far as China, Indonesia (where more than 100,000 people succumbed on the island of Java alone) and the Caspian Sea in Europe, before receding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last major outbreak of cholera in the United States occurred in 1911. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • The last major outbreak of cholera in the United States occurred in 1910-1911.Effective sanitation practices, if instituted and adhered to in time, are usually sufficient to stop an epidemic. (allbest.ru)
  • October 2010 - In late October a cholera outbreak was reported in Haiti and as of November 16th the Haitian Health Ministry reported that the number of dead has surpassed 1000. (allbest.ru)
  • Vibrio cholerae, which was discovered in 1884 by Robert Koch during a diarrheal outbreak in Egypt. (scribd.com)
  • some protection can be obtained from oral vaccines while avoiding areas where cholera commonly occurs or has had a recent outbreak. (medicinenet.com)
  • Most Microbiologists are aware of the story of Dr Jon Snow, who in 1854 in Soho, London, traced the cause of a cholera outbreak to the Broad Street water pump and abolished the outbreak by removing the handle of the pump to stop people consuming contaminated water. (microbiologynutsandbolts.co.uk)
  • The 2010s Haiti cholera outbreak is the first modern large-scale outbreak of cholera -a disease once considered beaten back largely due to the invention of modern sanitation . (wikipedia.org)
  • The cholera outbreak began ten months after the January 2010 earthquake, leading some observers to wrongly suspect it was a result of the natural disaster. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most wide sweeping pathogenic strain is the ''Vibrio cholerae'' serotype O1 El Tor N16961 strain that causes the pandemic disease cholera. (kenyon.edu)
  • General Information: Vibrio cholerae O395 is a classical O1 serotype strain of the Ogawa biotype. (up.ac.za)
  • Vibrio anguillarum strain NB10 serotype O1 is a Gram-negative, motile, curved rod-shaped bacterium, isolated from a diseased fish on the Swedish coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, and is slightly halophilic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are more than 200 different serogroups of V. cholerae , which are distinguished based on the structure of a protein called the O antigen in the bacterium's cell wall. (britannica.com)
  • Reporting his discovery before the Società Medico-Fisica Fiorentina (Medico-Physician Society of Florence) on 10 December, and published in the 12 December issue of the Gazzetta Medica Italiana (Medical Gazette of Italy), Pacini stated: Le poche materia del vomito che ho potuto esaminare seconde e terzo caso di cholera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera , sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae . (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Asiatic Cholera Pandemic of 1846- 63. (ijtmgh.com)
  • The bacterium as the cause of cholera was discovered by Robert Koch in 1884. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medical importance and relationship of the bacterium and cholera was discovered by a German physician Robert Koch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Howard-Jones N. Robert Koch and the cholera vibrio: a centenary. (ijtmgh.com)
  • Vibrio cholerae can colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestines of humans where it will cause cholera, a severe and sudden onset diarrheal disease. (up.ac.za)
  • And of the people who do develop cholera, 20 percent come down with severe symptoms, which includes severe diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. (history.com)
  • People who contract non-01 or non-1039 V. cholerae can also acquire a diarrheal disease, but it is less severe than actual cholera. (history.com)
  • The pandemic died out 6 years after it began, likely thanks to a severe winter in 1823-1824, which may have killed the bacteria living in water supplies. (history.com)
  • Less than 20% of ill persons develop typical cholera with signs of moderate or severe dehydration. (allbest.ru)
  • A person with severe dehydration due to cholera causing sunken eyes and wrinkled hands and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae , with some types producing more severe disease than others. (wikipedia.org)
  • [14] Severe cholera, without treatment, kills about half of affected individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person with severe dehydration due to cholera. (gutenberg.us)
  • John Snow, a doctor known as the father of epidemiology, did a study during the London cholera epidemic of 1854 from which he concluded that cholera was not passed by bad air but by contaminated water, and discovered that a well that provided water to the public was collecting the leachings of a bacteria laden cesspit. (kenyon.edu)
  • [5] The study of cholera in England by John Snow between 1849 and 1854 led to significant advances in the field of epidemiology . (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemiology, genetics, and ecology of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. (gutenberg.org)
  • The bacteria naturally live in brackish or saltwater where they attach themselves easily to the chitin-containing shells of crabs, shrimps, and other shellfish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vibrio can affect shellfish, finfish, and other marine animals and a number of species are pathogenic for humans. (up.ac.za)
  • People contract V. cholerae after drinking liquids or eating foods contaminated with the bacteria, such as raw or undercooked shellfish. (history.com)
  • Cholera has been found in only two other animal populations: shellfish and plankton. (allbest.ru)
  • The main reservoirs of V. cholerae are people and aquatic sources such as brackish water and estuaries, often in association with copepods or other zooplankton, shellfish, and aquatic plants. (meddic.jp)
  • Cholera is most frequently transmitted by water sources contaminated with the causative bacterium Vibrio cholerae , although contaminated foods, especially raw shellfish, may also transmit the cholera-causing bacteria. (medicinenet.com)
  • V. cholerae O1 has 2 biotypes, classical and El Tor , and each biotype has 2 distinct serotypes, Inaba and Ogawa. (gutenberg.org)
  • In recent years, infections with the classical biotype of V. cholerae O1 have become rare and are limited to parts of Bangladesh and India . (gutenberg.org)
  • Cholera has affected humans for at least a millennium We are currently in the throes of the seventh pandemic and persists as a major cause of illness and death worldwide, (caused by V. cholerae of the El Tor biotype), which with recent epidemics in Zimbabwe (2008-2009) and Haiti originated almost 50 years ago in the Celebes. (cdc.gov)
  • The classical biotype was responsible for most, if not all, of the six great cholera pandemics that swept through the world in the 19th and early 20th centuries. (britannica.com)
  • Vibrio cholerae is a species of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe and comma-shaped bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • But he made a mistake in believing that the organisms were infusoria, a name then used for microscopic protists, thereby attributing them as Vibrio rigula, a species of protozoan described by Danish naturalist Otto Friedrich Müller in 1786. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a paucity of data on the in vivo efficacy of antibiotics for lethal Vibrio species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Considering all Vibrio species, the only class of antibiotic associated with reduced odds of mortality was quinolone (odds ratio 0.56, 95 % CI 0.46-0.67). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Considering all Vibrio species, use of quinolones is associated with lower mortality and penicillin alone is not particularly effective. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We performed a four-way BLAST analysis on the genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633, an O3:K6 isolate from Japan recovered in 1996, versus the genomes of four published Vibrio species and constructed genome BLAST atlases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The type species is Vibrio cholerae . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The type species is V. cholerae. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Epidemics occurred after wars, civil unrest, or natural disasters, when water and food supplies become contaminated with Vibrio cholerae, and also due to crowded living conditions and poor sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These epidemics were less fatal due to a greater understanding of the cholera bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also discussed are global efforts to address cholera, particularly the International Health Regulations, the 1969 and 2005 version of which stipulated that cholera epidemics require mandatory reporting to the IHR. (ijtmgh.com)
  • In the past two centuries, seven pandemics (global epidemics) of cholera have carried the disease to countries around the world. (britannica.com)
  • Since water treatment and sanitation is more advanced in the United States, cholera is not nearly as high of a public health threat in the US as it is in densely populated, economically reduced areas like India or sub-Saharan Africa where water and sewage treatment technology is low. (kenyon.edu)
  • Although cholera can be life-threatening, prevention of the disease is straightforward if proper sanitation practices are followed. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • In the first world , due to advanced water treatment and sanitation systems, cholera is no longer a major health threat. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Although cholera can be life-threatening, the disease is relatively simple to prevent, in principle, if proper sanitation practices are followed. (chemeurope.com)
  • In developed countries, due to nearly universal advanced water treatment and sanitation practices, cholera is no longer a major health threat. (allbest.ru)
  • Prevention methods against cholera include improved sanitation and access to clean water . (wikipedia.org)
  • Over two billion people worldwide still lack access to safe water and sanitation putting them potentially at risk of cholera. (microbiologynutsandbolts.co.uk)
  • In the intervening 2 centuries, cholera has sanitation and health infrastructure, often in the setting continued to ebb and fl ow from southern Asia to other parts of natural and complex disasters. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae . (history.com)
  • Infectious CTXφ particles are produced when V. cholerae infects humans. (meddic.jp)
  • Furthermore, the way by which the bacterium induces excessive leakage of fluid from the cells is described in the following virulence mechanism. (mechpath.com)
  • V. cholerae pathogenicity genes code for proteins directly or indirectly involved in the virulence of the bacteria. (meddic.jp)
  • V. cholerae is a facultative anaerobic organism [ 1 ] and has a flagellum at one cell pole. (meddic.jp)
  • Vibrio cholerae is a "comma" shaped Gram-negative 1 bacteria with a single, polar flagellum for movement. (kenyon.edu)
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus is abundant in the aquatic environment particularly in warmer waters and is the leading cause of seafood borne gastroenteritis worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These 24 regions included an integron, f237 phage, 2 type III secretion systems (T3SS), a type VI secretion system (T6SS) and 7 Vibrio parahaemolyticus genomic islands (VPaI-1 to VPaI-7). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic, aerobic bacterium that is distributed in marine and estuarine environments worldwide [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bacteria infects the intestine and increases mucous production causing diarrhea and vomiting which result in extreme dehydration and, if not treated, death. (kenyon.edu)
  • Once the bacterium infects the intestine, it secretes the enterotoxin from its external coating. (britannica.com)
  • Water and electrolyte replacement are essential treatments for cholera, as dehydration and electrolyte depletion occur rapidly. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Cholera is a disease caused by bacteria that produce a watery diarrhea that can rapidly lead to dehydration . (medicinenet.com)
  • Cholera symptoms and signs include a rapid onset of copious, smelly diarrhea that resembles rice water and may lead to signs of dehydration (for example, vomiting , wrinkled skin, low blood pressure , dry mouth , rapid heart rate). (medicinenet.com)
  • The major reservoir for cholera was long assumed to be humans themselves, but considerable evidence exists that aquatic environments can serve as reservoirs of the bacteria. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • In 2009, the most recent year for which data are to increases in V. cholerae in environmental reservoirs, available, 221,226 cholera cases were reported to the with spillover into human populations. (cdc.gov)
  • Most cholera cases occur in children under 5 years old and pregnant women. (mechpath.com)
  • Introduction: It is estimated that 1.4 billion people are at risk of being infected by cholera and half of them are children under 5 years old. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results: There was a record of 115 children over 5 years and 44 children under 5 years affected by cholera. (bvsalud.org)
  • was first isolated as the cause of cholera by an Italian anatomist in 1854 but his research was not broadly recognized until later in 1884. (mechpath.com)
  • The producing of the first cholera vaccine. (allbest.ru)
  • He went on … " This could be cholera, the WHO have just announced a mass vaccination campaign sending 900,000 doses of oral cholera vaccine to the region for Rohingya refugees" . (microbiologynutsandbolts.co.uk)
  • Drinking water contaminated with V. Cholerae or with faeces of an infected person are the most common ways to acquire Cholera. (mechpath.com)
  • The second cholera pandemic began around 1829. (history.com)
  • Ecology, serology, and enterotoxin production of Vibrio cholerae in Chesapeake Bay. (gutenberg.org)
  • Electron Micrograph of Vibrio cholerae by Leodotia Pope, Department of Microbiology, University of Texas at Austin. (kenyon.edu)
  • The primary symptoms of cholera are profuse diarrhea and vomiting of clear fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most commonly isolated from clinical specimens are- V. cholerae, V. parahemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus & V. alginoliticus. (scribd.com)
  • An English physician John Snow was the first to give convincing evidence in London in 1854 that cholera was spread from drinking water - a contagion, not miasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera infections are most commonly acquired from drinking water in which V. cholerae is found naturally or into which it has been introduced from the feces of an infected person. (meddic.jp)
  • [17] Each year, tens of thousands of Haitians bathe, wash their clothes and dishes, obtain drinking water, and recreate in this river, therefore resulting in high rates of exposure to Vibrio cholerae . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera remains a global threat and is one of the key indicators of social development. (allbest.ru)
  • Cholera remains a global threat to public health and an indicator of inequity and lack of social development. (ijtmgh.com)
  • Boiling, filtering, and chlorination of water kill the bacteria produced by cholera patients and prevent infections from spreading. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Recent epidemiologic research suggests that an individual's susceptibility to cholera (and other diarrheal infections) is affected by their blood type: Those with type O blood are the most susceptible, [9] [10] while those with type AB are the most resistant. (chemeurope.com)
  • Cholera was one of the earliest infections to be studied by epidemiological methods. (gutenberg.us)
  • In 1849, Pouchet examined the stool samples of four people having cholera. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. Monsur's gelatin taurocholate trypticase tellurite agar (G.T.T.A)-ph-8.5, useful for cholera and other vibrios isolation from stool. (scribd.com)
  • [2] Cholera can be diagnosed by a stool test . (wikipedia.org)
  • definitive diagnosis is done by isolation and identification of V. cholerae from stool samples. (medicinenet.com)
  • [14] An untreated person with cholera may produce 10 to 20 litres (3 to 5 US gal) of diarrhea a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although symptoms may be mild, some previously healthy people will develop a copious diarrhea within about one to five days after ingesting the bacteria. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that when ingested can cause diarrhea and vomiting within several hours to 2-3 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • V. cholerae'' contains a genomic island of pathogenicity and is lysogenized with phage DNA. (kenyon.edu)
  • The second chromosome is determined to be different from a plasmid or megaplasmid due to the inclusion of housekeeping and other essential genes in the genome, including essential genes for metabolism, heat-shock proteins and 16S rRNA genes, which are ribosomal sub-unit genes used to track evolutionary relationships between bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • That means that the genes of a virus has become integrated into the bacterial genome and made the bacteria pathogenic. (kenyon.edu)
  • Here, the features of this bacterium are described and the annotation and analysis of its complete genome sequence is presented. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromosome 1 (bottom) and chromosome 2 (top) of ''V. cholerae'' El Tor N16961 strain. (kenyon.edu)
  • 1961-Present - Seventh cholera pandemic began in Indonesia, called El Torafter the strain, and reached East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1963, India in 1964, and the USSR in 1966. (allbest.ru)
  • The discovery of the new bacterium was not regarded as medically important as the bacterium was not directly attributed to cholera. (wikipedia.org)