ParisEuropeAfrica, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Northern IrelandMandatory Reporting: A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.GermanyCommunicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.BelgiumAlgeria: A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.ItalyCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Reunion: One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Saint-Denis. It was discovered in 1507 by the Portuguese and claimed by France in 1638. It was first colonized in 1662 as Isle de Bourbon but renamed Reunion in 1793. In 1946 it was made an overseas department of France. The name commemorates the reunion of the revolutionaries from Marseilles with the National Guard in Paris in 1792. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1011; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p454; French Embassy)Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Andorra: A principality in the Pyrenees between France and Spain. Its capital is also called Andorra. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p50)Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.ArtDrug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Microsporea: A class of parasitic FUNGI. Characteristics include spores that are spherical, oval, or tubular in shape and sporoplasm which is uninuclear or binuclear.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Tunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Encephalopathy, Bovine Spongiform: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Thelazioidea: A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which includes three genera: Thelazia, Spirocerca, and GNATHOSTOMA. Only Thelazia and GNATHOSTOMA occasionally occur in man.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Great BritainEuropean Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Insectivora: An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Channel Islands: A group of four British islands and several islets in the English Channel off the coast of France. They are known to have been occupied prehistorically. They were a part of Normandy in 933 but were united to the British crown at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066. Guernsey and Jersey originated noted breeds of cattle. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p242)Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Neanderthals: Common name for an extinct species of the Homo genus. Fossils have been found in Europe and Asia. Genetic evidence suggests that limited interbreeding with modern HUMANS (Homo sapiens) took place.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Islam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.Crassostrea: A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.Comoros: A group of Indian Ocean Islands, the islands of Great Comoro, Anjouan, Mayotte, and Moheli, lying between northeast Mozambique and northwest Madagascar. The capital is Moroni. In 1914 they became a colony attached to Madagascar administratively and were made a French overseas territory in 1947. Except for Mayotte which remained French, Comoros became an independent republic in 1975. Comoros represents the Arabic qamar, moon, said by some scholars to be linked with the mystical Mountains of the Moon said to be somewhere in equatorial Africa. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p283 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p122)Perinatology: The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Agaricus: A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Geography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Amber: A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.IrelandChromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).PaintingsOccupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Spirurida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order SPIRURIDA.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Rooming-in Care: Care of the newborn infant in a crib near the mother's bed, instead of in a nursery, during the hospital stay.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Cannibalism: Eating other individuals of one's own species.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Martinique: An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Windward Islands. Its capital is Fort-de-France. It was discovered by Columbus in 1502 and from its settlement in 1635 by the French it passed into and out of Dutch and British hands. It was made a French overseas department in 1946. One account of the name tells of native women on the shore calling "Madinina" as Columbus approached the island. The meaning was never discovered but was entered on early charts as Martinique, influenced by the name of St. Martin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p734 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p339)Genealogy and HeraldrySensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)International Educational Exchange: The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Toxoplasmosis, Congenital: Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Hares: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Mortality, Premature: Deaths that occur before LIFE EXPECTANCY is reached within a given population.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Legionnaires' Disease: An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bunyaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.Regression (Psychology): A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Paramphistomatidae: A family of flukes of the class Trematoda found in the intestinal tract and liver of animals and man. Some of the genera are Homalagaster, Gastrodiscus, Paramphistomum, Watsonius, Nilocotyle, Gigantocotyle, Gastrothylax, Macropotrema, Ceylonocotyle, Zygocotyle, Cotylophoron, and Calicophoron.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.PortugalGuadeloupe: The name of two islands of the West Indies, separated by a narrow channel. Their capital is Basse-Terre. They were discovered by Columbus in 1493, occupied by the French in 1635, held by the British at various times between 1759 and 1813, transferred to Sweden in 1813, and restored to France in 1816. Its status was changed from colony to a French overseas department in 1946. Columbus named it in honor of the monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe in Spain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p470 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p221)Argas: A genus of softbacked TICKS in the family ARGASIDAE. Most infect birds or bats but a few parasitize terrestrial mammals.Shellfish Poisoning: Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.Ostreidae: A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Homeopathy: A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Duodenoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the duodenum.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.LymphangitisAesculus: A plant genus of the family HIPPOCASTANACEAE (or SAPINDACEAE by some) that contains antimicrobial protein 1 and escin. A. hippocastanum is used in folk medicine for treating chronic venous insufficiency.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Suntan: An induced skin pigment (MELANIN) darkening after exposure to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. The degree of tanning depends on the intensity and duration of UV exposure, and genetic factors.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Holidays: Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Ostrea: A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, which includes the edible true oyster, Ostrea edulis.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Post-Exposure Prophylaxis: The prevention of infection or disease following exposure to a pathogen.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Anaplasmataceae: A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.
Narrative of the negotiation between France and Spain in 1790. 1790. Alfred's letters: a review of the political state of ... Meray, of the French Army. Clara Maria (d. 4 February 1821). Emilia Charlotte, who married Major-General Sir Hugh Halkett on 25 ... He then served as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between 1789 and 1795 before becoming a Baronet on 21 October ... 2 vols, 1801. The exodiad [with Richard Cumberland]. 1807, 1808. Riches, or the wife and brother: a play. 1810. Songs, duets, ...
United States Department of State. Retrieved 2017-06-21. Thomas Jefferson, then U.S. Minister to France ... "Lore of the Corps ... In the United States, beginning in 1798, "one stock of black leather and clasp" was issued to each Marine every year. Its use ... Leatherneck is a military slang term for a member of the United States Marine Corps, or of the British Royal Marines. It is ... The leather stock was adopted three years prior to the Barbary War in which United States Marines first fought African troops ...
In 1884 he told French bishops not to act in a hostile manner to the State. In 1892 he issued an encyclical advising French ... The absolute French State used Gallicanism to gain control of virtually all major Church appointments as well as many of the ... In France, a series of conflicts termed the French Wars of Religion was fought from 1562 to 1598 between the Huguenots and the ... State, and Education in France From the Falloux to the Ferry Laws: A Reassessment," Canadian Journal of History, April 2001, 36 ...
In 1884 he told French bishops not to act in a hostile manner to the State. In 1892 he issued an encyclical advising French ... Papal States ceased to exist. 1871 - Henry Stanley finds David Livingstone in central Africa 1871 Pontmain, France was saved ... State, and Education in France From the Falloux to the Ferry Laws: A Reassessment," Canadian Journal of History, April 2001, 36 ... "Catholic Christianity in France from the Restoration to the separation of church and state, 1815-1905." in Sheridan Gilley and ...
The Constitution of Haiti (French: Constitution d'Haïti) was modeled after the constitutions of the United States and France. ... Granted the executive had the power to dissolve the Chambers and to establish a Council of State to aid the Government. Power ... Constitution of 1807 formalized a northern State of Haiti with Christophe as its President for Life and a small appointed ... Constitution of 1811 for the northern State of Haiti, establishing a hereditary monarchy under Christophe. Again, prohibition ...
... is part of the Austrian state Vorarlberg since its founding in 1861. From 1945 to 1955 the municipality was in the ... French occupation zone in Austria. Statistik Austria - Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn 2002-2016 nach Gemeinden (Gebietsstand 1.1. ... Altach is a municipality in Feldkirch district in the Austrian state of Vorarlberg. Five other municipalities are surrounding ... In 1801 Altach was separated from neighboring Götzis. From 1805 to 1814 Altach belonged to Bavaria, then to Austria again. ...
... the German lands on the Rhine's left bank were annexed by France. Niederalben found itself within the French state in 1801. ... After French rule, the Congress of Vienna drew new boundaries yet again. In 1816, Niederalben passed to the Principality of ... As part of this state, it passed in 1834 by sale to the Kingdom of Prussia, which made this area into the Sankt Wendel district ... In the Thirty Years' War and French King Louis XIV's wars of conquest, there was great loss of life. Nevertheless, by the 18th ...
It stated that France would recognize Haiti as an independent country in return for 150 million francs paid within five years. ... At the time, the United States supported French efforts to re-establish control, although it sent 20,000 troops. Boyer traveled ... He was sent to France by his father to become educated. During the French Revolution, he fought as a battalion commander, and ... After going into exile in France, Boyer and Alexandre Pétion, returned in 1802 with the French troops led by General Charles ...
1796 - 4 June: Siege of Mantua (1796-97) by French forces begins. 1797 2 February: Siege of Mantua ends; French win. City ... 1868 - Archivio di Stato di Mantova (it) (state archives) established. 1871 - Banca Agricola Mantovana (bank) in business. 1873 ... French in power again per Treaty of Lunéville. 1809 - Economic unrest. 1814 - Austrians in power again. 1822 - Teatro Sociale ( ...
1858 - State of Campeche established. 1864 - 26 January: French in power. 1871 - Telegraph begins operating. 1879 - Population ... History of San Francisco de Campeche (es) Campeche history (state) History of Campeche (es) (state) "Campeche: Cronología de ... 1914 - Joaquín Mucel Acereto (es) becomes Governor of Campeche state. 1950 - Population: 31,279. 1958 - Estadio Venustiano ... 1801 - Fuerte de San Miguel (Campeche) (es) (fort) built. 1821 - 5 November: Campeche secedes from Yucatán. 1840 - June: ...
A United States Department of State official observed in 1967 that, "the basic provisions of the 1787 treaty [have] never been ... In 1781, when it became clear that William Palfrey, who had been named consul to France, was lost at sea, the Continental ... He was the first American diplomat to die in a foreign country in the service of the United States. Barclay was born in ... He was told to wait, which he did, reporting to Secretary of State Jefferson often and in detail with news from Morocco and ...
Following the end of hostilities with France as a result of the Treaty of Mortefontaine, Trumbull returned to the United States ... Weddell stated that some ship-masters were alarmed by Jewett's appearance, fearing being robbed or captured and said that one ... United States v. Schooner Peggy, 5 U.S. 103 (1801). DANFS Allen, Gardner Weld (1909). Our naval war with France. Houghton ... He was an American naval commander in the Quasi-War with France and following the end of that conflict he offered his services ...
It was heavily dependent on France and was never really independent as it was under French military occupation. The state was ... The kingdom suffered a first French invasion in 1796, which led to the Treaty of Paris and the loss of Savoy and Nice. After a ... The republic used the motto Libertà, Virtù, Eguaglianza, echoing the French motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité, on its coins. ... The Subalpine Republic lasted until 11 September 1802, when it was divided between the French and Italian Republics. Republic ...
The Parish clergy are to take an oath of loyalty to the French state." The relaxation of the harsh Civil Constitution lead to ... Seafield Convent's history began in France in 1789. The French Revolution of that year, whilst having immense repercussions for ... passed on 12 July 1790 subordinated the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government. Under the Law all remaining ... The newly formed French National Assembly began imposing its will over the Church with the abolition of the Church's right to ...
"State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 7, 2015. "Find a County". National Association of ... It takes its name from the French for "beautiful mountain". Belmont County is part of the Wheeling, WV-OH Metropolitan ... Belmont County is a county located in the U.S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 70,400. Its county seat ... Played basketball for Ohio State and the Boston Celtics in the NBA. Hall of Famer. Don Fleming, Graduate of Shadyside High ...
He facilitated Spanish acquiescence in the transfer of Louisiana from France to the United States in 1803 by the Louisiana ... Interesting also was that the final blow to states requiring office holders to swear to God was fought in his home state of ... United States Congress. "Charles Pinckney (id: P000354)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. SCIway ... From 1789 to 1792, the state legislature elected him as governor of South Carolina, and in 1790 he chaired the state ...
Therefore, the French concept of laïcité, a rigid separation of church and state, does not apply in this region. Several French ... This makes France the only country in the world where some Catholic bishops are still appointed by the head of state. The ... "Church-state tie opens door for mosque". New York Times. 2008-10-07. Retrieved 2013-11-02. "French challenge to exception of ... In 2012, this was said to be costing the French state 54 million euros per year. They also qualify for unemployment benefits. ...
During the French Revolution it was confiscated as property of the state, the monks were expelled and the imperial tombs were ... Later, a 42 m high turret was constructed during the Second French Empire, to observe the maneuvers of artillery on Mont Saint- ... During the French Revolution an artillery and engineering school moved into the monastery buildings. ... It was transferred to the province of Besançon from 1801. ...
1789: John Carroll becomes the Bishop of Baltimore, the first bishop in the United States. 1793: French Revolution institutes ... The Catholic Church re-established in France. December 2, 1804: Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of the French in the Cathedral ... Problems with France. He was the most recent Pope to be canonized a saint until the canonization of Pope John XXIII and Pope ... 1305: French influence causes the Pope to move from Rome to Avignon. August 12, 1308: Pope Clement V issues the Bull Regnans in ...
Spain was invaded by the First French Empire in 1808, becoming a client state of the French Empire. A series of sermons that ... Ramón José de Arce y Rebollar (1757 - 1844) was a Spanish churchman who served as Archbishop of Burgos from 1797 to 1801; as ... He was translated to the Archbishopric of Zaragoza on July 20, 1801. He was appointed Patriarch of the West Indies on August 26 ... Arce delivered during the occupation were widely believed to be pro-French. As such, after Spain regained its independence ...
Most of his time as Foreign secretary was spent dealing with the nations of France and the United States. He continued to serve ... Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Leader of the House of Commons Lord Bathurst - Secretary of State for War and the ... France was defeated in the Napoleonic Wars, and Liverpool was appointed to the Order of the Garter. At the peace negotiations ... Important events during his tenure as Prime Minister included the War of 1812 with the United States, the Sixth and Seventh ...
No date is known for her return to the United States; however, she was laid up at the Gosport Shipyard by mid-March 1801. She ... On the 3rd, she fell in with two French schooners, La Jeanne and La Victoire, off Jacmel. She captured both vessels and sent ... Her last captures in the undeclared war with France came on 28 July 1800 near the town of Cayes, Haiti. In cooperation with ... Later that spring, she cruised the coast of what is now Haiti operating against the French in conjunction with the forces under ...
1794 - The French legislature abolishes slavery throughout all territories of the French First Republic. It will be ... states meet and form the Confederate States of America. 1899 - The Philippine-American War begins with the Battle of Manila. ... French cardinal and theologian, founded the French school of spirituality (d. 1629) 1646 - Hans Erasmus Aßmann, German poet and ... French poet, author, and playwright (d. 1921) 1849 - Jean Richepin, French poet, author, and playwright (d. 1926) 1862 - ...
WA state govt. Some of the bridges have had earlier forms that were demolished to make way for the newer bridges Smythe, Phil; ... A French expedition under Nicholas Baudin also sailed up the river in 1801. Governor Stirling's intention was that the name ' ... Perth streets were often sandy bogs which caused Governor James Stirling in 1837 to report to the Secretary of State for ... The Swan River Trust is a state government body, within the ambit of the Department of Environment and Conservation (Western ...
Born in France. Member of Louisiana state senate, 1845; U.S. Senator from Louisiana, 1847, 1849-53; U.S. Minister to Spain, ... State Militia, at the Battle of New Orleans. Pierre Soulé (1801-1870) of New Orleans, Orleans Parish, La. ... He seized power with the help of the United States, and declared himself "President for Life" at age 87 in January 1908, and ... He served in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He was appointed to colonel of Chalmette Regiment, ...
Wells, Martin J.; Wells, J. (1972). "Optic glands and the state of the testis in Octopus". Marine Behaviour and Physiology. 1 ( ... It was described in 1829 by the French zoologist Georges Cuvier, who supposed it to be a parasitic worm, naming it as a new ... Fowler's Modern English Usage states that the only acceptable plural in English is "octopuses", that "octopi" is misconceived, ... Pen and wash drawing of an imagined colossal octopus attacking a ship, by the malacologist Pierre de Montfort, 1801 ...
Dangers of Subversion in an American Education: A French View, 1801. The Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 39, No. 1 (April, ... died 1846) May 16 - William H. Seward, United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869 (died 1872) June 1 - Brigham Young, ... United States Senator from South Carolina from 1862 till 1865. (died 1882) August 31 - Pierre Soule, United States Senator from ... United States Senator from Mississippi from 1838 till 1839. (died 1851) March 27 - Alexander Barrow, United States Senator from ...
Origin and Foundations of the French Language When the Romans became masters of Gaul, they imposed their language on that ... French Catholics in the United States. The first Bishop of Burlington, the Right Reverend Louis de Goesbriand, in a letter ... French Revolution. The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the .... French, ... French Academy, The. The French Academy was founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635. For several years a number of .... ...
Narrative of the negotiation between France and Spain in 1790. 1790. Alfreds letters: a review of the political state of ... Meray, of the French Army. Clara Maria (d. 4 February 1821). Emilia Charlotte, who married Major-General Sir Hugh Halkett on 25 ... He then served as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between 1789 and 1795 before becoming a Baronet on 21 October ... 2 vols, 1801. The exodiad [with Richard Cumberland]. 1807, 1808. Riches, or the wife and brother: a play. 1810. Songs, duets, ...
Through secret diplomatic channels, Napoleon asked Jefferson if the United States would help a French army traveling by sea to ... and its profits helped build many of the grandest cities of France.. But the human price was unspeakably high. The French had ... One French method for executing troublesome slaves was to insert explosives into their rectums and detonate the bomb.. So, when ... Indeed, perhaps no nation has done more for the United States than Haiti and been treated as badly in return.. If not for Haiti ...
United States Department of State: Chiefs of Mission for France. *United States Department of State: Background notes on France ... The United States Ambassador to France is the official representative of the President of the United States to the President of ... As the United States grew in population and economic strength, it followed the French example. In 1893, the United States ... Ambassador of the United States of America to France. Ambassadeur des États-Unis en France. ...
FRANCE) Concordat between pius vii and Napoleon Bonaparte (see napoleon i), which regulated Church-State relations in France ... Source for information on Concordat of 1801 (France): New Catholic Encyclopedia dictionary. ... FRANCE). Concordat between pius vii and Napoleon Bonaparte (see napoleon i), which regulated Church-State relations in France ... Histoire du catholicisme en France, v.3 (Paris 1962). s. delacroix, La Réorganisation de lÉglise de France après la Rèvolution ...
A French fleet sails north to Spains Atlantic port of Cadiz. Napoleon orders his French and Spanish ships out of Cadiz to do ... 1803 Ohio becomes the 17th US state. (Mar 1). 1803 President Jefferson and others support an investment of $15 million for the ... When Toussaint shows up for the meeting, the French take and ship him to France, to a prison near the Swiss border. ... 1804 In the wartime atmosphere and as a defense against French royalty, the Senate in France votes in favor of Napoleon ...
James Madison (1751-1836) was a founding father of the United States and the fourth American president, serving in office from ... When Jefferson became the third president of the United States, he appointed Madison as secretary of state. In this position, ... In this role, he oversaw the Louisiana Purchase from the French in 1803. During his presidency, Madison led the U.S. into the ... Once the new constitution was written, it needed to be ratified by nine of the 13 states. This was not an easy process, as many ...
Grew, Raymond, Harrigan, Patrick J. School, State, and Society: The Growth of Elementary Schooling in Nineteenth-Century France ... A machine-readable French language codebook, describing the data items as well as the sources from which they were obtained, is ... A machine-readable French language codebook, describing the data items as well as the sources from which they were obtained, is ... Beck, Thomas D. A data bank: France 1800-1847. Social Science History. . 4, (3), 347-356. Full Text Options: Original Source ...
Put in practice, many of the French philosophers and physiocrats ideas-pro-individual, anti-state-led directly to the French ... then it blossomed in France, where its ideas rebelled against the more feudalistic French institutions of state and church. The ... French theologian Felicite Robert de Lamennais (1782-1854) linked the idea of freedom of religion with the goal of state ... Deeply opposed to the protectionism practiced on behalf of some industries by the French state, Bastiat wrote to limit ...
Study French Revolution/Napoleon flashcards from Nadia Linton ... that established a new relationship between church and state 20 ... was first a french general then became Emperor of France. Wanted to control the rest of Europe and reassert French power in the ... A French Congress established by representatives of the third estate to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people ... King of France during the time when Frances government was deeply in debt. Paid little attention to government advisors and ...
United States Secretary of State (22 March 1790 - 31 December 1793). *United States Ambassador to France ... the 1st Secretary of State, the 2nd Vice President of the United States, and the 3rd President of the United States. ... English: Thomas Jefferson was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, ... Vice President of the United States (4 March 1797 - 4 March 1801) ... 3rd President of the United States of America (en); الرئيس ...
French West Indies, 1650-1733 *France wrests Saint Croix from Spain, 1650 ... Theatre in the United States Virgin Islands. Sports in the United States Virgin Islands. Sports in the United States ... Crime in the United States Virgin Islands. *Human rights in the United States Virgin Islands *LGBT rights in the United States ... Superfund sites in the United States Virgin Islands. *Wildlife of the United States Virgin Islands *Fauna of the United States ...
French & Indian War. Boston Massacre. Boston Tea Party. American Revolutionary War . Declaration of Independence written. ... French Revolution. 1787 - 1799 French Revolution, also called Revolution of 1789, the revolutionary movement that shook France ... The 13 states were free to make their own rules and create their own state and national government without British interference ... denoting the end of the ancien régime in France and serving also to distinguish that event from the later French revolutions of ...
French Revolution. 1787 - 1799 French Revolution, also called Revolution of 1789, the revolutionary movement that shook France ... The 13 states were free to make their own rules and create their own state and national government without British interference ... denoting the end of the ancien régime in France and serving also to distinguish that event from the later French revolutions of ... was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its ...
A decade earlier, during the early stages of the French Revolution, the National Assembly tried to subordinate the Church to ... the state. In 1801, Pius and Napoleon negotiated an end to the breach, but relations remained strained. In one notable incident ...
... helping to draft the state constitution, designing the state seal, and holding state-level offices including speaker of the ... During the winter of 1780-81, while a French regiment was stationed in Lebanon, he moved out of his home and turned it over to ... Waltons continued state and national service included serving as chief justice of the state superior court, delegate to the ... He continued his service to Pennsylvania after leaving Congress by serving in the state assembly and as a judge in the state ...
United States Secretary of State (22 March 1790 - 31 December 1793). *United States Ambassador to France ... The unequalled collection of engraved portraits of the Presidents of the United States, belonging to Hon. James T. Mitchell - ... To the Citizens of the Southern States from a Southern Planter, 1796.jpg 626 × 1,008; 156 KB. ... Vice President of the United States (4 March 1797 - 4 March 1801) ... Presidents of the United States by name. *Vice Presidents of ...
But as the country stabilized in the mid-1990s under Shevardnadze, who had by then become its head of state, destitute writers ... A generation of Georgian Romantic poets was inspired by French and German literature and philosophy. Aleksandre Chavchavadze, ... From 1918 to 1921 Georgia was an independent state; despite war and destitution, the period witnessed an explosion of poetry, ... but contact with Italian and French missionaries and ambassadors in Tbilisi slowly crystallized into fresh ideas. ...
Haan Settlers in United States in the 18th Century. *Johan Jurg Haan, who arrived in New York in 1709 CITATION[CLOSE]. Filby ... France) ... Haan Settlers in United States in the 19th Century. *Thysen ... A multitude of prestigious family names, such as the surname Haan, were formed in the lands which became the modern state of ... In the medieval era, many different cultural groups lived in the German states. There are thus many regional variations of ...
Binnys offers shipping within the state of Illinois for select items. Our web site will not allow orders placed for shipment ... new French oak) reveals terrific, meaty, savory notes of black fruits, smoked earth, chocolate and caramelized meats. Rich, ... Please check your browser settings or enter your zip code or city and state into the search box. ... which are complemented very well with subtle vanilla flavours of French Oak." Reviewed by: Producer ...
LeDncs Periodical Pills, from Paris, France. Established - Europe 1839 • England 1850 ; Canada 1878; United States im 52 or ... THROUGH SEVEN STATES, Commencing March satli, the Northern Pa- culc will resume its double daily passenger train service ... The build tllfr lri « llt to JOHN GAFFUKY ) ,, , J- I LLOYD }- Com, C. B. HUTCHINSJ GREAT FRENCH REMEDY. LADIES try Dr. ... seven states, viz; Wisconsin, Minnesota. North. DaKftta Montana, Idaho. Oregon and Washington. st Passenger Agents o* theN« wW ...
Several editions were published, including a pirated French version and two German editions. United States President Thomas ... Mackenzies book, Voyages from Montreal to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans (1801), would inspire and guide other explorers. ... In 1801, Mackenzie published his Voyages from Montreal to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans (1801), which garnered him considerable ...
Delegate to Pennsylvania state constitutional convention, 1790; member of Pennsylvania state house of representatives, 1790-92 ... Minister to France, 1815-23; U.S. Minister to Great Britain, 1826-27. His portrait appeared on the $500 U.S. Note in the 1860s ... 1993 - United States Federal agents battled it out with members of an armed religious cult in Waco, Texas. Four agents from the ... Wheeler stated that despite the heavy casualties incurred during the Tet Offensive, North Vietnam and Viet Cong forces had the ...
18051800Thomas Jefferson1797Napoleon17981803Barbary War182517901851PresidentsHaitiSecretaryGreat BritainPinckneyToussaintNorth AmericaPresident JeffersonParisColony18121799Slaves1818Britain and FranceGovernorJosephFrance'sAssembly180717761781Sovereign stateLouisiana TerritoryMinister to FranceConstitution18th18021840sLegislatureAfricansSenateSlaveNavalIndiaPeoplePopulous1787NicknameEmpireDutchLatinRegimeAmbassadors182118431796QuarterDiplomatic
- He sent the U.S. Marines "to the shores of Tripoli" to defeat the Barbary Pirates in the Mediterranean Sea, 1801-1805. (baltimoresun.com)
- Protecting American merchant vessels from them was a major impetus for the creation of the United States Navy and led to the first Barbary War from 1801 to 1805. (penobscotmarinemuseum.org)
- The Society of the Sacred Heart was founded in France in 1800 by St. Madeleine Sophie Barat . (britannica.com)
- Natchez in the extreme south-western corner of the United States was threatened by Spain in 1800 and later by France and Great Britain. (hmdb.org)
- Elected president in what Jefferson called the Revolution of 1800, he oversaw the purchase of the vast Louisiana Territory from France (1803), and sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) to explore the new west. (primidi.com)
- At first, American shipping was almost defenseless against French privateers, but by 1800 armed merchantmen and U.S. warships were clearing the sea-lanes. (whitehouse.gov)
- The coverage extends to items printed in all languages in the British Isles and beyond, to Colonial America, United States of America (1776-1800), Canada, or territories governed by Britain before 1801. (blogspot.com)
- The Spanish ruled rather successfully until 1800, when it was returned to the French in the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso. (orlandosentinel.com)
- The Banque de France was established in 1800. (globalfinancialdata.com)
- In 1801, Thomas Jefferson - an owner of 180 slaves himself - became the third President of the United States. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
- During his work in the Virginia legislature, Madison met lifelong friend Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), author of the Declaration of Independence and the third president of the United States. (history.com)
- France-003121 - Thomas Jefferson! (wikimedia.org)
- Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 (April 2, 1743 O.S.) - July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the third President of the United States (1801-1809). (primidi.com)
- President Thomas Jefferson decided, once he got wind of the secret treaty in 1801, that the Louisiana territory should belong to the United States. (orlandosentinel.com)
- In 1797, Spain ceded the entire island to France. (coha.org)
- John Adams, a remarkable political philosopher, served as the second President of the United States (1797-1801), after serving as the first Vice President under President George Washington. (whitehouse.gov)
- Washington appointed (1794) him minister to the Netherlands, and in his father's administration he was minister to Prussia (1797-1801). (thefreedictionary.com)
- The chaos and excesses of the French Revolution led to the ascendance of Napoleon Bonaparte, a brilliant military commander possessed of legendary ambition. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
- As he expanded his power across Europe, Napoleon also dreamed of rebuilding a French empire in the Americas. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
- So, in 1801, the interests of Napoleon and Jefferson temporarily intersected. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
- Napoleon was determined to restore French control of St. Domingue and Jefferson was eager to see the slave rebellion crushed. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
- Through secret diplomatic channels, Napoleon asked Jefferson if the United States would help a French army traveling by sea to St. Domingue. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
- Once a French army had subdued L'Ouverture and his slave army, Napoleon intended to move his forces to the North American mainland, basing a new French empire in New Orleans and settling the vast territory west of the Mississippi River. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
- Since Versailles had been stripped of its furnishings during the French Revolution, Napoleon I returned the French court to its pre-1682 home at the Tuilleries. (wikipedia.org)
- Concordat between pius vii and Napoleon Bonaparte (see napoleon i), which regulated Church-State relations in France for more than a century. (encyclopedia.com)
- Before returning to France Napoleon stopped at Vercelli in Italy, where he exposed his plan to Cardinal Carlo della Martiniana, whom he delegated to transmit his overtures to the pope. (encyclopedia.com)
- 1801 Napoleon of France has defeated Austria. (fsmitha.com)
- 1804 In the wartime atmosphere and as a defense against French royalty, the Senate in France votes in favor of Napoleon Bonaparte becoming Napoleon I, 'Emperor of the French. (fsmitha.com)
- Napoleon orders his French and Spanish ships out of Cadiz to do battle with the British. (fsmitha.com)
- Napoleon Bonaparte, also known as Napoleon I, was a French military leader and emperor who conquered much of Europe in the early 19th century. (preceden.com)
- Born on the island of Corsica, Napoleon rapidly rose through the ranks of the military during the French Revolution (1789-1799). (preceden.com)
- In 1801, Pius and Napoleon negotiated an end to the breach, but relations remained strained. (thefreedictionary.com)
- As he entered Cairo, however, Napoleon learned that his naval fleet had been completely destroyed by Nelson in the Battle of Aboukir (Battle of the Nile), and therefore, he was prisoner in Egypt, with no means of returning home and with no news from France. (stanford.edu)
- In August 1799 Napoleon, learning that the French had lost Italy, returned to France after sailing for home in two frigates and succeeding in evading the British Frigates. (stanford.edu)
- I have chosen specifically this period since in 1803, because of the fear of French invasion, more Anti-Napoleon satire was produced than in the next five years, 1803-1808. (stanford.edu)
- In 1801, First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte invited Paine to dinner. (jonathanturley.org)
- It was Paine who encouraged Jefferson to offer Napoleon money for the French-controlled territory of Louisiana. (jonathanturley.org)
- In May 1803, Napoleon sold the Louisiana territory to the United States for $15 million. (jonathanturley.org)
- In the United States, beginning in 1798, "one stock of black leather and clasp" was issued to each Marine every year. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1798 it became part of the United States. (hmdb.org)
- Adams sent three commissioners to France, but in the spring of 1798 word arrived that the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand and the Directory had refused to negotiate with them unless they would first pay a substantial bribe. (whitehouse.gov)
- In the spring of 1798, General Bonaparte s "Army of England" massed on the Channel coast of France, sending waves of fear across the channel. (stanford.edu)
- James Monroe was accredited Minister Plenipotentiary to the French Republic in 1803 to negotiate the Louisiana Purchase . (wikipedia.org)
- 1803 Ohio becomes the 17th US state. (fsmitha.com)
- 1803 The treaty between Britain and France has broken down. (fsmitha.com)
- In this role, he oversaw the Louisiana Purchase from the French in 1803. (history.com)
- In 1803 he became a U.S. senator as a Federalist, but his independence led him to approve Jeffersonian policies in the Louisiana Purchase Louisiana Purchase, 1803, American acquisition from France of the formerly Spanish region of Louisiana. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Nevertheless, in England of 1803, the fear of an invasion was higher that ever, and public opinion and the government were in a state of panic as to whether the French really had the resources to invade. (stanford.edu)
- 1790. Narrative of the negotiation between France and Spain in 1790. (wikipedia.org)
- 1790. Alfred's letters: a review of the political state of Europe. (wikipedia.org)
- From 1789 to 1792 he held the governorship of South Carolina, and in 1790 chaired the state constitutional convention. (archives.gov)
- Jefferson was the first United States Secretary of State (1790-1793) serving under President George Washington. (primidi.com)
- Indeed, perhaps no nation has done more for the United States than Haiti and been treated as badly in return. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
- Haiti had exported 9,250 tons of raw sugar in 1801, but this fell to only 16 tons in 1826. (beck.org)
- [ii] Eventually, a "white is prime" ideal flourished during the United States' occupation of Hispaniola beginning in 1915 in Haiti, then 1916 in the Dominican Republic. (coha.org)
- He then served as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between 1789 and 1795 before becoming a Baronet on 21 October 1795 and Knight Marshal of his majesty's household in November of the same year, where he played an important role in the coronation of George IV. (wikipedia.org)
- Cacault saved the situation by advising Cardinal consalvi, the papal secretary of state, to go to Paris and reopen the negotiations. (encyclopedia.com)
- When Jefferson became the third U.S. president, Madison served as his secretary of state. (history.com)
- He'd been entangled in one of the most notorious scandals ever to hit Britain, having introduced that country's secretary of state for war, John Profumo, to an attractive young woman named Christine Keeler. (sandiegoreader.com)
- The popular tabloid New York Post was originally established in 1801 as a Federalist newspaper called the New York Evening Post by Alexander Hamilton, an author of the Federalist papers and the nation's first secretary of the treasury. (history.com)
- As secretary of state (1817-25) under James Monroe Monroe, James, 1758-1831, 5th President of the United States (1817-25), b. (thefreedictionary.com)
- He then helped to draw up the Treaty of Ghent Ghent, Treaty of, 1814, agreement ending the War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain. (thefreedictionary.com)
- King George III (Born George William Frederick 4 June 1738 - 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801. (wikipedia.org)
- Also during his reign, Great Britain and its successor the United Kingdom were at war with republican and Napoleonic France. (wikipedia.org)
- These four countries together form the sovereign state of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, which is also described as a country. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- The Republic of Ireland-United Kingdom border is the boundary between the sovereign states of the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- After the Directory refused to accept Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 's credentials, a commission was appointed to negotiate with the French Republic. (wikipedia.org)
- Pinckney had also begun a political career, serving in the Continental Congress (1777-78 and 1784-87) and in the state legislature (1779-80, 1786-89, and 1792-96). (archives.gov)
- M on, under date of July 29, 1801, wrote to Mr. Pinckney, minister at Madrid , instructing him to obtain information and to use what influence he ations, however, became acrimonious. (tufts.edu)
- 1802 Leader of Haitian independence, Toussaint L'Ouverture, receives a message from the French General Brunet to meet for negotiations. (fsmitha.com)
- Brunet assures Toussaint that he will be perfectly safe with the French, whom he says are gentlemen. (fsmitha.com)
- When Toussaint shows up for the meeting, the French take and ship him to France, to a prison near the Swiss border. (fsmitha.com)
- On February 4, 1801, the seventh anniversary of the abolition of slavery by the National Assembly, Toussaint Louverture convoked a Constitutional Assembly to write a constitution for Saint-Domingue, though it was still a colony of France. (edu.au)
- Toussaint signed it in July 1801. (edu.au)
- It covers Portuguese printing from India, German printing from North America, Gaelic printing from Scotland, and French printing from both France and the Netherlands. (blogspot.com)
- The Bank of North America was established in 1784 and the Bank of the United States was incorporated in 1791. (globalfinancialdata.com)
- Art 1 - The entire extent of Saint-Domingue, and Samana, Tortuga, Gonave, the Cayemites, Ile-a-Vache, the Saone and other adjacent islands, form the territory of one colony, that is part of the French Empire, but is subject to particular laws. (edu.au)
- Finally in 1697, the Spanish recognised the western part of the island as a French colony which the French renamed as Sainte Dominique. (marxist.com)
- It was the most prosperous French colony in the Americas and the high quality sugar competed with that produced in Brazil. (marxist.com)
- Natchez became a French colony in 1716. (hmdb.org)
- Database is a collection of genealogically important records taken from the Bibles of colony and state residents. (familysearch.org)
- One French method for executing troublesome slaves was to insert explosives into their rectums and detonate the bomb. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
- With a limited population, immigrants began to intermingle, eventually producing Creole -- a mixture of Spanish, French and Africans who had come either as slaves and bought their freedom or were free people of color from the Caribbean. (orlandosentinel.com)
- Although he returned to state service and was elected president, and then governor, of New Hampshire, Bartlett never lost his interest in medicine. (dar.org)
- The first Governor of the new state was John Miller. (northdakotaonline.us)
- He quarreled with Joseph-François, Marquis Dupleix who was in charge of all French possessions in India, over the surrender terms and also learnt Dupliex had been appointed Governor of Mauritius. (calflora.net)
- In 1776, he represented Orange County at the Virginia Constitution Convention to organize a new state government no longer under British rule. (history.com)
- After the colonies declared independence from Britain in 1776, the Articles of Confederation were created as the first constitution of the United States. (history.com)
- Madison stated the Constitution was not "the off-spring of a single brain," but instead, "the work of many heads and many hangs. (history.com)
- Once the new constitution was written, it needed to be ratified by nine of the 13 states. (history.com)
- This was not an easy process, as many states felt the Constitution gave the federal government too much power. (history.com)
- As early as the English Civil War (1642-1651), political groups such as the Levellers wanted to take the ancient constitution concept a step further and develop a written constitution to mirror the idealized political compact between the people and their state. (encyclopedia.com)
- New York City was the first capital of the United States after the Constitution was ratified in 1788. (history.com)
- The French legislature approved the concordat, along with the Organic Articles, on April 8,1802. (encyclopedia.com)
- 1802 The war-weary British sign a treaty ending their war against France - The Treaty of Amiens. (fsmitha.com)
- However, Nicholas Bonneville and his wife, friends who accompanied Paine on his 1802 trip from France, tell a different story. (jonathanturley.org)
- With scarcely any gold the French colonizers opted to produce sugar cane and coffee worked by slave labour brought from Africa. (marxist.com)
- Tracing Jefferson's philosophical development from youth to old age, the authors explore what they call the "empire" of Jefferson's imagination-an expansive state of mind born of his origins in a slave society, his intellectual influences, and the vaulting ambition that propelled him into public life as a modern avatar of the Enlightenment who, at the same time, likened himself to a figure of old-"the most blessed of the patriarchs. (goodreads.com)
- The United States Navy ( USN ) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States . (wikipedia.org)
- Returning to the States in 1820 he passed his Naval examination and served in the Mosquito Fleet against the pirates in the Caribbean Sea. (phoenixmasonry.org)
- The French had its own East India Company (Compagnie des Indes) which traded in all parts of the world. (globalfinancialdata.com)
- While part of the French East India Company, he became a lieutenant in 1718, a captain in 1824, and participated in the capture of Mahé, also known as Mayyazhi, off the Malabar coast (Southwestern India). (calflora.net)
- In the month that followed the news of Ward's suicide, 1801 people killed themselves in the United States. (sandiegoreader.com)
- People inhabiting parts of France and Spain, on the western edge of the Pyrenees, near the Bay of Biscay. (penobscotmarinemuseum.org)
- Governors, and Senators, and Judges will be forgotten, but the work which he has done for the people 5 of this State in vindicating the memory of their calumni-ated dead will be remembered to his honor "far, far on in Summers which we shall not see. (ncdcr.gov)
- In May 1787, delegates from each state came together at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, and Madison was able to present his ideas for an effective government system in his "Virginia Plan," which detailed a government with three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. (history.com)
- Eventually a remarkably capable and carismatic genneral seized control of the Revolutionary armies and the Republic merged into the new French Empire. (histclo.com)
- The disorders and violence in France were to engulf all Europe in war, first with the new French Republic and then with Napoleon's Empire. (histclo.com)
- automatically, lead Smartphone-Based s and irrational states that Did the Ottoman Empire. (firefightersforchrist.org)
- These are the breakup of the Spanish Empire in the nineteenth century, of the Austrian and Ottoman Empires at around the time of World War I, of the British, French, German, Italian and American Empires in the wake of World War II, and of the Russian Soviet Empire following the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. (thefullwiki.org)
- And, it took time and discussion to work out the other details of the treaty, if not to the satisfaction, at least to the acceptance of the other parties involved who had fought on the side of the American colonists - the French, the Spanish, and the Dutch, each of whom had their own national interests. (preceden.com)
- As such, it played an important role in the incursions of Dutch and French buccaneers into Spanish territory. (scribd.com)
- Society of the Sacred Heart , also called Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus , French Religieuses du Sacré-Cœur de Jésus , or Latin Religiosa Sanctissimi Cordis Jesu , Roman Catholic religious congregation of women devoted to the education of girls. (britannica.com)
- The first publicly supported secondary school in the United States was the Boston Latin School, established in 1635. (buffalo.edu)
- from Old French variation , from Latin variationem (nominative variatio ) "a difference, variation, change," from past participle stem of variare "to change" (see vary ). (dictionary.com)
- The United States under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who had been a supporter of the Trujillo regime, called the massacre a "systematic campaign of extermination," and required the Dominican government to pay reparations. (coha.org)
- The rise of the bourgeoisie in France signaled the deathnell for Ancien Regime, the old aristocracy. (histclo.com)
- The Niagara River produces enough hydroelectric power to supply more than a quarter of all power used in the state of New York and Ontario. (history.com)
- In 1718, the first settlement, called 'La Nouvelle Orleans' after Philippe II, Duc d'Orleans, was established on the site that is today the Vieux Carre, or French Quarter. (orlandosentinel.com)
- After the Congress of Vienna standardized the system of diplomatic ranks , the United States continued to send a Minister , who was officially credentialed as an Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary . (wikipedia.org)
- During the Revolutionary War he served in France and Holland in diplomatic roles, and helped negotiate the treaty of peace. (whitehouse.gov)