Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.North CarolinaNewspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Silk: A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.South CarolinaAtrial Appendage: Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Wool: The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.MarylandEarthquakes: Sudden slips on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slips, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth. Faults are fractures along which the blocks of EARTH crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Crush Syndrome: Severe systemic manifestation of trauma and ischemia involving soft tissues, principally skeletal muscle, due to prolonged severe crushing. It leads to increased permeability of the cell membrane and to the release of potassium, enzymes, and myoglobin from within cells. Ischemic renal dysfunction secondary to hypotension and diminished renal perfusion results in acute tubular necrosis and uremia.Bionics: The study of systems, particularly electronic systems, which function after the manner of, in a manner characteristic of, or resembling living systems. Also, the science of applying biological techniques and principles to the design of electronic systems.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.MoldovaSlovenia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Puerto Rico: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)ArgentinaBlood Buffy Coat: The fraction of a blood sample, following CENTRIFUGATION, that is distinguished as a thin light-colored layer between the RED BLOOD CELLS, underneath it, and the PLASMA, above it. It is composed mostly of WHITE BLOOD CELLS and PLATELETS.Peer Review, Health Care: The concurrent or retrospective review by practicing physicians or other health professionals of the quality and efficiency of patient care practices or services ordered or performed by other physicians or other health professionals (From The Facts On File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988).IcelandHelminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Expeditions: Usually refers to planned scientific data-gathering excursions.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sulfur Hexafluoride: Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Chenopodium: A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Suburban Population: The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Suburban Health: The status of health in suburban populations.Bibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Automobile Driver Examination: Government required written and driving test given to individuals prior to obtaining an operator's license.
The most fatal volcanic eruption of Iceland's history was the so-called Skaftáreldar (fires of Skaftá) in 1783-84. The eruption ... but after the 2010 eruption no signs of an imminent eruption of Katla were seen. The eruption in May 2011 at Grímsvötn under ... The eruption under Eyjafjallajökull ("glacier of Eyjafjöll") in 2010 was notable because the volcanic ash plume disrupted air ... In the past, eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull have been followed by eruption of the larger volcano Katla, ...
The major of these catastrophes, the so-called "Skaftá Fires" - volcanic eruptions in the Laki volcanic rifts which lasted for ... "Fire Sermon". Bishop Hannes Finnsson of Skálholt moved to Reykjavík in 1785 because an earthquake that followed the Skaftá ... Fires destroyed all buildings at his see. This change of the episcopal see was declared permanent in 1796. The Diocese of Hólar ... and the famine which followed it caused the death of more than 9,000 people in 1783 and 1784. Literature has maintained many ...
The eruption, also known as the Skaftáreldar ("Skaftá fires") or Síðueldur, produced an estimated 14 km3 (3.4 cu mi) of basalt ... Laki or Lakagígar (Craters of Laki) is a volcanic fissure in the south of Iceland, not far from the canyon of Eldgjá and the ... Jón Steingrímsson; Keneva Kunz (December 1998). Fires of the earth: the Laki eruption, 1783-1784. University of Iceland Press. ... its previous eruption was in 1766. The Laki fissure eruption was 45 miles (72 km) to the east and the Grímsvötn volcano was ...
... may be inspired by the volcanic eruptions on Iceland. Records of eruptions on Iceland bear strong similarities to the sequence ... men will be scoured by hot water and burned by fire"). Surtr's fire receives a mention in stanza 10. John Lindow says that the ... The fire jötnar inhabitants of Muspelheim come forth. The völva continues that Jötunheimr, the land of the jötnar, is aroar, ... In both sources, the word is used to signify the end of the world through fire. Old Norse forms of the term also appear ...
... the eruption broke the ice cover of the glacier and started spewing volcanic ash into the air. The eruption plume quickly rose ... residents were permitted to claim for losses and additional costs for those who possess household fire insurance. A study based ... The Grímsvötn eruption was the largest eruption in Iceland for 50 years. The eruption is estimated to have started under the ... December 2013). "Volcanic Ash and Daily Mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic Volcano Eruption of May 2011". International ...
These damages were made worse by an eruption of clay-mud, water and gas which occurred some hours later that same day. For ... The mining was accompanied by various misfortunes: on the 27th of April 1867 47 people died due to a fire-damp explosion in the ... the top of which is similar in appearance to a volcanic crater. These formations remains soft for some time, unlike the igneous ... On August 19, the first manifestations of further Maccalube eruptions appeared on top of the mud layer, where water and mud had ...
A section in that book entitled "Nuclear Bombs and the Weather" states: "The dust raised in severe volcanic eruptions, such as ... fires occurred within a few months of each other in 1945, the Hamburg mass fire occurred in 1943. These five fires potentially ... fires occurred within a few months of each other in 1945, the Hamburg mass fire occurred in 1943. These five fires potentially ... Toba catastrophe theory, a controversial hypothesis that a volcanic winter produced by the eruption of a volcano in Toba, ...
Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), ... Fired about 6 km (3.7 mi) from the nearest island, the waves there were no higher than 3-4 m (9.8-13.1 ft) upon reaching the ... This displacement of water is usually attributed to either earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, glacier calvings or ... volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, and the weather when the ...
An eruption here some 66 mya is thought to have laid down the Deccan Traps, a vast bed of basalt lava that covers parts of ... This volcanic activity resulted in the formation of basaltic outcrops, such as the Gilbert Hill, that are seen at various ... On 17 February 1803, a fire raged through the town, razing many localities around the Old Fort, subsequently the British had to ... Soon after its detachment, the peninsular region of the Indian plate drifted over the Réunion hotspot, a volcanic hotspot in ...
This timeline of volcanism on Earth is a list of major volcanic eruptions of approximately at least magnitude 6 on the Volcanic ... Pacific Ring of Fire Robock, A., C.M. Ammann, L. Oman, D. Shindell, S. Levis, and G. Stenchikov (2009). "Did the Toba volcanic ... It is aligned as a Crater Flat volcanic field, Réveille Range, Lunar Crater volcanic field, Zone (CFLC). The Marysvale Volcanic ... Tumalo volcanic center; with eruptions from 600 - 700 to 170 ka years ago Uinkaret volcanic field, Arizona, USA; the Colorado ...
Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations, landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite ... Fired about 6 km (3.7 mi) from the nearest island, the waves there were no higher than 3-4 m (9.8-13.1 ft) upon reaching the ... volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, and the weather when the ... volcanic eruptions, glacier calvings or more rarely by meteorites and nuclear tests.[28][29] ...
Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), ... Fired about 6 km (3.7 mi) from the nearest island, the waves there were no higher than 3-4 m (9.8-13.1 ft) upon reaching the ... volcanic eruptions, glacier calvings or more rarely by meteorites and nuclear tests.[27][28] The waves formed in this way are ... volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, and the weather when the ...
... the eruption continued for a few years, it would receive the island name Fogo (Portuguese for fire). 1681 - Inácio de Franca ... "Geological Observations on the Volcanic Islands During the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle" (PDF). 1844. "Discurso PM, Dr. José Maria ... A small eruption affected the island of Fogo in the area of Pico do Fogo, the next eruption in 94 years 1952 - The Portuguese ... The last eruption on the main cone on Fogo that would later create a larger eruption 1676 April 30: João Cardoso Pássaro became ...
The 1815 eruption of the Mount Tambora volcano in Indonesia caused crop failures and famines worldwide and caused the worst ... possibly because of volcanic activity.[89] ... Fire whirl. *Gustnado. *Dust devil. *Whirlwind. *Lightning ... According to Bryson (1974), there were thirty-seven famine years in Iceland between 1500 and 1804.[94] In 1783 the volcano Laki ...
No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the energies released in ... during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic energy derives from two sources: (1) the strain energy stored in the ... during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic energy derives from two sources: (1) the strain energy stored in the ... it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ...
The most fatal volcanic eruption of Icelands history was the so-called Skaftáreldar (fires of Skaftá) in 1783-84. The eruption ... but after the 2010 eruption no signs of an imminent eruption of Katla were seen. The eruption in May 2011 at Grímsvötn under ... The eruption under Eyjafjallajökull ("glacier of Eyjafjöll") in 2010 was notable because the volcanic ash plume disrupted air ... In the past, eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull have been followed by eruption of the larger volcano Katla, ...
... which in this case are volcanic eruptions, in their desperation to explain the so-called pause in global warming thats ... volcanic eruptions are too short-lived to affect climate over long periods of times, (2) volcanic eruptions are sporadic, not ... Laki literally rained FIRE and ash and magma on its location for 8 months. It caused famines and droughts and lowered the ... Solomon is wrong to attribute the "pause" to volcanic eruptions since there is no big eruption since 1998. But Im afraid you ...
The major of these catastrophes, the so-called "Skaftá Fires" - volcanic eruptions in the Laki volcanic rifts which lasted for ... "Fire Sermon". Bishop Hannes Finnsson of Skálholt moved to Reykjavík in 1785 because an earthquake that followed the Skaftá ... Fires destroyed all buildings at his see. This change of the episcopal see was declared permanent in 1796. The Diocese of Hólar ... and the famine which followed it caused the death of more than 9,000 people in 1783 and 1784. Literature has maintained many ...
Volcanoes are no unusual sight on Iceland and yet the eruption that started June 8, 1783 in the southern district of [...] ... Island on Fire: The extraordinary story of Laki, the volcano that turned eighteenth-century Europe dark By Witze, A. & Kanipe, ... Recent volcanic eruptions with marked cooling effects, like Pinatubo in 1991, are situated near to the tropics, where wind ... Already the, in volcanic dimensions quite moderate, eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 became a political and financial ...
... which have been of utility in eruption forecastingefforts. During the last decade the traditionally used correlation ... In Fire and mud: eruptions and lahars of Mount Pinatubo Philippines; Newhall, C.G., Punongbayan, R.S., Eds.; University of ... Helens eruption.. Whilst SO2 fluxes in isolation have utility in the understanding and parameterisation of volcanic phenomena, ... Robock, A. Volcanic eruptions and climate. Rev. Geophys. 2000, 38, 191-219. [Google Scholar] ...
05 - Petrology - Igneous, Metamorphic and Volcanic Studies. Divisions:. 05 - Petrology - Igneous, Metamorphic and Volcanic ... Skaftár Fires) eruption. The trace element composition of olivine-hosted melt inclusions indicates that concurrent mixing and ... whether similar processes also occur in the magmas that feed the large fissure eruptions characteristic of the Eastern Volcanic ... Crystal-Melt Relationships and the Record of Deep Mixing and Crystallization in the ad 1783 Laki Eruption, Iceland ...
Mývatn Fire. 220. 1721. Katla. 190. 1693. Hekla. 250. Team 4 - Volcanic Eruptions (samples 6000.0 - 7800.0) Mark the ... Team 1 - Volcanic Eruptions (samples 0.0 - 1999.0). Mark the conductivity anomaly associated with the eruption of the Icelandic ... Team 3 - Volcanic Eruptions (samples 4000.0 - 5999.0) Mark the conductivity anomaly associated with the eruption of the ... Team 2 - Volcanic Eruptions (samples 2000.0 - 3999.0) None of the volcanoes in the table below are nearby, Icelandic volcanoes ...
... and notorious for frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The ring of fire is a horseshoe shaped area in the Pacific Ocean ... This eruption lasted five months and although the village was practically destroyed by lava, ash and fire, two-thirds of ... This eruption was one of the deadliest and most destructive volcanic events recorded in history. The destruction culminated in ... The earliest known recording of a volcanic eruption may be on a wall painting dated to about 7,000 BCE found at the Neolithic ...
Even a large volcanic eruption and a short-term cooling, similar to the Pinatubo eruption of 1991, would not change this ... Fires of the Earth. The Laki Eruption 1783-1784, translated by Keneva Kunz, 25-26. Reykjavík: University of Iceland Press and ... A series of volcanic eruptions coincided with the massive 1257 Samalas eruption in todays Indonesia, for example, and the 1458 ... "Pinatubo Eruption: The Climatic Aftermath." Science 295 (2002):1242-1244.. Robock, Alan, "The Latest on Volcanic Eruptions and ...
Skaftár Fires) eruption in Iceland, Bulletin of Volcanology, 58, 205-225. ... Most of the sulfur in the stratosphere (an upper region of the atmosphere) today comes from volcanic eruptions. However, ... Background on volcanic volatile and aerosol production. Sulfur aerosols form when sulfur gas reacts with oxygen and water in ... The first is the Deccan Traps volcanic rocks themselves, which hold clues to sulfur release 66 million years ago. These clues ...
Categories Breaking news, PhysicsTags Breaking news, Japan, Mount Asama Eruption, Volcanic plume, Volcano 4 thoughts on "Mount ... As @LouisS remarked on Twitter just now, there does seem to be a lot of activity around the Ring Of Fire these days. So lets ... "There are prospects for an eruption that could throw volcanic rocks to a distance of around 4 kilometres," said Sadayuki ... Mount Asama Eruption Imminent, Japan on High Alert (Update). In 2004, smoke rises from Mount Asama in Tsumagoi, 140 km ...
In China, the volcanic winter effect of the Thera eruption corresponds to the collapse of the Xia dynasty, thus allowing the ... People outside the city thought it was on fire. According to historians, "Flames engulfed the dome of the Hagia Sophia, and ... the Mount Awu eruption of 1812 (Indonesia), the Suwanosejima eruption of 1813 (Japan), and the Mount Mayon eruption of 1814 ( ... A spate of volcanic eruptions in AD 535, 540, and 547 at the Rabaul caldera, Krakatoa, and Ilopango caldera in central El ...
Volcanic eruptions. The emissions can stay in the atmosphere blocking the sun which, depending on the season, may have a ... Podcast: Fired For Telling The Truth About Climate Alarmism (Guest: Peter Ridd). ... This is not to say that severe volcanic eruptions have no impact on weather, but that their impact may be overstated at times ... These, amongst other records, can give a good indication of the likely real world impact of a major volcanic eruption, although ...
But by the 1820s it had become clear that you did not have to be nearby to feel the effects of great eruptions. The eruption of ... while prehistoric cave dwellers drew fountains of red droplets to mimic volcanic fires. In the sixth century BCE, the ... Such volumes of fire bursting out from the sea!. With lava, and ashes, and sulphurous smell.. Im surprisd that the sailors ... "Earthquake and Eruption of the Mountain of Asayama" in Japan in 1783, from an account by Isaac Titsingh, 1822. Oxford in late ...
For many of the people who live in the Pacific Ring of Fire, the reality of a volcanic eruption or earthquake is commonplace ... Its historic 1980 eruption lasted 9 hours and covered 11 U.S. states with tons of volcanic ash. The eruption caused the deaths ... An infamous eruption in 1883 destroyed the entire island, sending volcanic gas, volcanic ash, and rocks as high as 80 ... Volcanic Activity:. Most of the active volcanoes on The Ring of Fire are found on its western edge, from the Kamchatka ...
... volcanic eruption, with an... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and ... Volcanic eruptions are classified using the Volcanic Explosivity Index, or VEI. VEI - 8 eruptions are colossal events that ... Harris, Stephen (1988) Fire Mountains of the West: The Cascade and Mono Lake Volcanoes, Missoula, Mountain Press. ... Hatepe eruption 181 CE 1,800 120 km³. [19] Thera South Aegean Volcanic Arc Santorini, Greece Minoan eruption ca. 1610 BC 3,600 ...
... decades of ridicule for arguing that the fifth extinction was caused not by an asteroid but by a series of colossal volcanic ... Keller posits that even the iridium layers could be linked to Deccans eruptions, given that volcanic dust can carry high ... momentous ball of fire. Big rock from sky hits the humans, and boom they go. But Kellers vision of the sixth extinction, given ... She had a promising lead: The Earths four prior mass extinctions are each associated with enormous volcanic eruptions that ...
The eruption of Tambora on the island of Sumbawa in the Indonesian archipelago on 10 April 1815 was the most powerful volcanic ... In a short time, the whole mountain … appeared like a body of liquid fire … The fire and columns of flame continued to rage ... with a ranking of 7 on the logarithmic Volcanic Explosivity Index. There have been only five confirmed eruptions with a vei of ... Tambora: The Eruption that Changed the World by Gillen DArcy Wood.. Princeton, 293 pp., £19.95, April 2014, 978 0 691 15054 3 ...
Atmospheric processes affecting the separation of volcanic ash and SO2 in volcanic eruptions: inferences from the May 2011 ... and high-temperature fires represented by PAHs. The lack of human FeSts excludes local human influence on fire and vegetation ... Slawinska, J. and Robock, A.: Impact of volcanic eruptions on decadal to centennial fluctuations of Arctic sea ice extent ... This paper investigates the separation of gases and particles that frequently occurs during violent volcanic eruptions. This ...
Volcanic eruptions. A volcanic eruption is the release of molten rock and volcanic gases through Earths crust to the surface. ... god of fire.. So volcanic XVIII. - F. volcanique. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography ... See HAWAIIAN ERUPTION; PELÉEAN ERUPTION; PLINIAN ERUPTION; STROMBOLIAN ERUPTION; SURTSEYAN ERUPTION; VESUVIAN ERUPTION; and ... Volcanic Eruptions. Volcanic eruptions in different parts of the world have caused immense and unquantifiable catastrophes and ...
A section in that book entitled "Nuclear Bombs and the Weather" states: "The dust raised in severe volcanic eruptions, such as ... fires occurred within a few months of each other in 1945, the Hamburg mass fire occurred in 1943. These five fires potentially ... fires occurred within a few months of each other in 1945, the Hamburg mass fire occurred in 1943. These five fires potentially ... Toba catastrophe theory, a controversial hypothesis that a volcanic winter produced by the eruption of a volcano in Toba, ...
Tags: Antarctica, Greenland, Ice core, Large Eruptions, Millennium Volcanoes, Missing Eruptions, volcanic ash Related posts. ... Also larger eruptions will also occur, if historical patterns continue. By large I mean stuff like the Myvatn fires of the ... First, it shows a relevant comparison of recent large eruptions to past large volcanic eruptions. Second, and most important is ... Well, you can just add Hekla3 eruption to the 5200 BC eruption. Iceland is very near Greenland, so any huge eruption will show ...
WHY WE LOVE IT Island on Fire explores the role of volcanic eruptions in changing the course of history - resulting in climate ... August 14 • Island on Fire. BOOK. WHAT ITS ABOUT Island on Fire is the story of Laki, Icelands largest volcano. Its eruption ... Spewing out sun-blocking ash and poisonous fog for eight long months, the effects of the eruption lingered across the world for ... The authors look at how an eruption on a similar scale might affect our modern world, presenting volcano science, and posing ...
79J. W. Judd, On the Volcanic Phenomena of the Eruption, in Eruption of Krakatoa, ed. by Symons, p. 20. These descriptions ... the convenience of the analogy of fire as a description of volcanic phenomena meant that the use of terms synonymous with fire ... the eruption that destroyed a city in an instant - reminded the world of the violence of volcanic eruptions. In contrast to the ... Specific styles of volcanic activity likewise attract fiery names: from the fire fountains that light up the most vigorous ...
  • Volcanoes are no unusual sight on Iceland and yet the eruption that started June 8, 1783 in the southern district of Síða was something never seen before. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Plato and Aristotle too, wrote of volcanoes-underground rivers of fire, and subterranean winds-while much later, in Roman poetry, the dramatic eruptions of Etna in 122 BC and 44 BC found a place in the poetry of Virgil and Ovid. (nybooks.com)
  • We attempt to understand why volcanic ash grains found 100s of km from their source volcanoes (cryptotephra), which are typically 20-125 microns in length, are much larger than the size distributions measured by satellite remote sensing, which are centred at less than 10 microns. (clim-past.net)
  • Generally, volcanoes are labeled extinct when no eruption has been noted in recorded history. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The long nineteenth century marked an important transition in the understanding of the nature of combustion and fire, and of volcanoes and the interior of the earth. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • This article explores written and visual representations of volcanoes and volcanic activity during the period, with the particular perspective of writers from the non-volcanic regions of northern Europe. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • I explore how the language of 'fire' was used in both first-hand and fictionalized accounts of peoples' interactions with volcanoes and experiences of volcanic phenomena, and see how the routine or implicit linkage of 'fire' with 'combustion' as an explanation for the deep forces at play within and beneath volcanoes slowly changed as the formal scientific study of volcanoes developed. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • 1 'Fire mountains' are found around the world, from Fogo (the Azores and Cape Verde Islands) to Fuego (Guatemala, Mexico, and the Canary Islands) and Gunung Api (multiple volcanoes in Indonesia). (bbk.ac.uk)
  • However, as became clear to nineteenth-century observers, the action of eruption is not usually associated with combustion: the materials ejected from volcanoes are not usually burning, but glow red or orange because they are hot, and it is this radiant heat that provides the illumination during eruptions. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • By the end of the long nineteenth century, the scientific field of geology had become well established, and contemporary understanding of the behaviour of volcanoes and the nature of their products had moved away from the idea of combustion playing any role in the formation of volcanic rocks. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • I show how the language of fire was used in both first-hand and fictionalized accounts of people's interactions with volcanoes and experiences of volcanic phenomena, and how the routine and often implicit linkage of 'fire' with 'combustion', as an explanation for the deep forces at play within and beneath volcanoes, slowly changed as the formal scientific study of volcanoes developed. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • 2019) 'Character of community response to volcanic crises at Sinabung and Kelud volcanoes', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research , 382, pp. 298-310. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Do not Etna and Vesuvius, the Peak of Teneriffe, the great cluster of terrible volcanoes in Iceland, Stromboli, Ischia Island, Bandaisan and Fujiyama in Japan, and literally hundreds of other volcanic cones in the Atlantic and Pacific and Indian Oceans, owe their existence to exactly the same cause? (twelvearound1.com)
  • Could aliens be setting off volcanoes to put volcanic dust into the atmosphere to slow down global warming temperature rise? (revelation13.net)
  • There will be upheavals in the Arctic and in the Antarctic that will make for the eruption of volcanoes in the Torrid areas, and there will be the shifting then of the poles --- so that where there have been those of a frigid or semitropical [climate] it will become more tropical, and moss and fern will grow. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • The island has 30 active volcanic systems, of which 13 have erupted since the settlement of Iceland in AD 874. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was very limited ash output from this eruption unlike numerous glacial eruptions which are common in Iceland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary concern with this eruption was the large plumes of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the atmosphere which adversely affected breathing conditions across Iceland, depending on wind direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the resulting famine (1783-1784) estimated nine thousand people, one-fifth of the population of Iceland, died. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Authors Alexandra Witze and Jeff Kanipe have closed this gap with " Island on Fire ", where they present Laki's extraordinary story based on their research in contemporary documents, letters, newspaper articles and diaries, describing both the terrifying sight of the lava fountains and ash clouds In Iceland, as the years of anomalous weather and increased death rates in Europe. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In 1783, the news of a volcanic eruption in Iceland reached Europe only in September, after the fog had vanished. (historicalclimatology.com)
  • Large igneous provinces (LIP) such as Iceland , the Siberian Traps , Deccan Traps , and the Ontong Java Plateau are extensive regions of basalts on a continental scale resulting from flood basalt eruptions. (netlibrary.net)
  • I have serious doubts these came from Iceland for various reasons, and the fact that they dwarf other enormous eruptions is crazy to me. (wordpress.com)
  • Volcanic activity in Iceland can affect the weather in the North Atlantic, but the way the winds blow means the rest of the planet is unaffected. (lrb.co.uk)
  • A sketch map of Iceland showing geological features including the location of Grímsvötn, Vatnajökull glacier, Eyjafjallajökull, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge [MAR], and selected volcanic, seismic, and cultural features such as Keflavík airport [K. Airport]. (si.edu)
  • According to scientists from the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland (IES) and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), a GPS-station on the rim of the Grímsvötn caldera recorded continuous inflation of several centimeters per year since the 2004 eruption, interpreted as inflow of magma to a shallow chamber. (si.edu)
  • At noon on February 28, the Scientific Advisory Board for Iceland´s recent volcanic activity officially declared that the eruption at Holuhraun had come to an end. (iceagenow.info)
  • In the sixth century BCE, the philosophers Heraclitus and Pythagoras were discussing the existence of a core of fire in the earth, and a century later Empedocles brooded on a molten layer rising to the surface in nearby Etna, the supposed scene of his later suicide. (nybooks.com)
  • It is currently unknown whether similar processes also occur in the magmas that feed the large fissure eruptions characteristic of the Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ). (cam.ac.uk)
  • There is, therefore, considerable interest in the development and implementation of novel technologies for better monitoring volcanic activity, with a view to improving the accuracy of hazard assessments and eruption forewarnings. (mdpi.com)
  • I see that Susan Solomon and her climate police have rounded up the usual suspects , which in this case are volcanic eruptions, in their desperation to explain the so-called "pause" in global warming that's stretching towards two decades now. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Most died not because of the lava flow or other direct effects of the eruption, but from indirect effects, including changes in climate and illnesses in livestock in the following years caused by the ash and poisonous gases from the eruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the years after the eruption the climate in Europe deteriorated and the exceptional hot summer of 1783 was followed by long and harsh winters. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Volcanic eruptions can cause climate change if they release large amounts of sulfur dioxide high into the stratosphere. (historicalclimatology.com)
  • It is well known that the Justician plague (black plague) was helped by the famines/crop loses, caused by the 536 eruption that triggered worldwide climate disruption, possibly significantly more than Tambora with its year without a summer. (wordpress.com)
  • Consequently, ensemble simulations spanning different phases of background multidecadal and longer climate variability are necessary to constrain the range of possible post-eruption decadal evolution of NH regional winter climates. (globalchange.gov)
  • Abdullah, Mikrajuddin (2012) 'Interpretation of Past Kingdoms Poems to Reconstruct the Physical Phenomena in the Past: Case of Great Tambora Eruption 1815. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Tephra fall was concentrated to the S and to a lesser extent N and E. Earthquake data as well as limited observations recorded during an initial overflight placed the vent location in the SW part Grímsvötn's caldera, the same site as the 2004 eruption ( BGVN 29:10). (si.edu)
  • It is, as the evidence proves, in the case of the island off Saigon, and the isles 'thrown up' by the Tokio earthquake, still a phenomenon associated with seismic and volcanic forces. (twelvearound1.com)
  • After the failure of the predictions on the effects of the 1991 Kuwait oil fires , that were made by the primary team of climatologists that advocate the hypothesis, over a decade passed without any new published papers on the topic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last two hundred years have witnessed a number of spectacular eruptions, foremost among which was Tambora in Indonesia during 1815, which ejected 50 cubic kilometres of magma, resulting in over 71,000 fatalities in the immediately impacted region as a consequence of the blast itself, and the subsequent ash fall, which smothered and contaminated crops and water supplies, leading to starvation and disease [ Oppenheimer, 2003 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • As recently as twenty years ago, Tambora's 1815 eruption could be dismissed as not especially consequential. (lrb.co.uk)
  • The volcanic explosion and resulting tsunamis wiped out many communities in Akrotiri, Crete (Minoan), Cyprus, Canaan, ancient Greece, Egypt, and most areas of the Aegean Sea. (listverse.com)
  • In Blown to Bits , R. M. Ballantyne interwove a detailed, factual account of Krakatoa's destruction with an invented tale of exploration, revenge, and romance, centered on fictional characters who narrowly escape the eruption and tsunamis. (branchcollective.org)
  • There's a sound of rushing wind and crackling fire, visions of flames, almost a whiff of sulphur. (nybooks.com)
  • Classical scholars identified the mudpots and sulphur pits in the volcanic system of the Campi Flegrei around Naples as the site of the rivers Phlegethon and Styx and of Lake Avernus, where Virgil's Aeneas descended to the underworld. (nybooks.com)
  • Luckily, the recent eruption was not as poisonous, although it did emit huge amounts of sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere. (iceagenow.info)
  • Here I provide a new measure of the elastic energy (the potential mechanical energy) associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage) during an eruption. (frontiersin.org)
  • From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the elastic energy released or transformed ( dU ) during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure ( p e ) in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (− dV c ) of the chamber, so that dU = − p e dV c . (frontiersin.org)
  • 2019a) 'The effects of the Avellino Pumice eruption on the population of the Early Bronze age Campanian plain (Southern Italy)', Quaternary International , 499, pp. 205-220. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Although there are only a handful of Quaternary supervolcanoes, supervolcanic eruptions typically cover huge areas with lava and volcanic ash and cause a long-lasting change to weather (such as the triggering of a small ice age ) sufficient to threaten species with extinction . (netlibrary.net)
  • This problem is important because atmospheric winds spread volcanic aerosols at great distances from the source, and wind shear then causes the aerosols to spread in different directions at different altitudes. (clim-past.net)
  • Post-eruption oceanic and atmospheric anomalies coherently describe a fluctuation in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system with an average length of 20-25 years. (globalchange.gov)
  • This was Grímsvötn's first eruption since 2004, when it sent ash as far as Finland ( BGVN 29:10). (si.edu)
  • The eruption was between 6 and 7 on the VEI, pushing some 60 cubic kilometers (14 mi 3 ) of dust and rock into the atmosphere. (listverse.com)
  • Most of the sulfur in the stratosphere (an upper region of the atmosphere) today comes from volcanic eruptions. (berkeley.edu)
  • During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438−1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. (pnas.org)
  • The origin of the term "supervolcano" is linked to an early 20th-century scientific debate about the geological history and features of the Three Sisters volcanic region of Oregon , United States. (netlibrary.net)
  • Many other accounts for droughts, exceptional cold winters and floods are known from North America to Japan spanning the years 1783 to 1785. (scientificamerican.com)
  • une the 9th [1783] was a day of clear weather, during which the cloud [north of the mountains] quickly rose higher and higher. (historicalclimatology.com)
  • This paper elucidates whether a causal link from the tidal forces to a variation in the volcanic degassing can be traced analytically. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
  • We model the response of a simplified magmatic system to the local tidal gravity variations, find that the tide-induced dynamics may significantly alter the bubble coalescence rate, and discuss the consequences for volcanic degassing behaviour. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
  • That being said, the massive volcanic so2 spikes around 9000-10,000 B.C are mind boggling, and we have no clue where these came from. (wordpress.com)
  • the dark gravel-sized fragments ejected during eruptions are often called cinders, and the finest grain sizes of ejecta are called ash. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • The timing of the eruption is also closely linked to the migration of early humans from Africa 60,000-70,000 years ago and is quite possibly the disaster that started our epic journey. (listverse.com)
  • The first is the Deccan Traps volcanic rocks themselves, which hold clues to sulfur release 66 million years ago. (berkeley.edu)
  • Available at: https://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21647958-two-hundred-years-ago-most-powerful-eruption-modern-history-made-itself-felt-around. (aber.ac.uk)
  • There are prospects for an eruption that could throw volcanic rocks to a distance of around 4 kilometres ," said Sadayuki Kitagawa, a senior coordinator for volcanic affairs at Japan's Meteorological Agency. (astroengine.com)
  • In accordance to the theory of German geologist Leopold von Buch (1774-1835) of " volcanic bubbles " the profile shows the Pyrenees as a result of uplift by a core of magmatic rocks, bending the sedimentary layers of sandstone and limestone formations. (fieldofscience.com)
  • Available at: https://whel-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=TN_arxiv1609.09225&context=PC&vid=44WHELF_ABW_VU1&lang=en_US&search_scope=Blended&adaptor=primo_central_multiple_fe&tab=blended&query=any,contains,tambora&offset=0. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. (flagcounter.com)
  • If a foreign nation had launched an attack on America to destroy its coal-fired plants, to shut down its coal mines, and to thwart its ability to drill for oil and natural gas, we would be at war with it. (iceagenow.info)