A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
The sudden collapse and disappearance or diminution of a colony of organisms.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The etiological agent of contagious pleuropneumonia (PLEUROPNEUMONIA, CONTAGIOUS) of cattle and goats.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Bacterial variants, unable to form a complete cell wall, which are formed in cultures by various bacteria; granules (L bodies) appear, unite, and grow into amorphous bodies which multiply and give rise to bacterial cells morphologically indistinguishable from the parent strain.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Techniques used in microbiology.
A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Nosematidae. Some species are pathogenic for invertebrates of economic importance while others are being researched for possible roles in controlling pest INSECTS. They are also pathogenic in humans.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A pleuropneumonia of cattle and goats caused by species of MYCOPLASMA.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Sexual activities of animals.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of ... Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of ... Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of ... Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of ...
Since 1959, there have been no incorporated U.S. territories formally organized by an Organic Act. When Hawaii was admitted as a state in 1959, the Hawaii Admission Act specifically excluded Palmyra Island which had been part of the Territory of Hawaii, and Palmyra remains today as the only incorporated U.S. territory, the United States Territory of Palmyra Island. Although it still has private landowners, Palmyra is uninhabited, and no Palmyra Island government has been organized under an act of Congress. Palmyra is currently governed as a territory by the United States Department of the Interior.[2] All other U. S. territories except Palmyra are unincorporated (meaning that they are not fully part of the United States and that not all aspects of the United States Constitution automatically apply), whereas other former incorporated territories (excepting only Palmyra Island) are now states. While the District of Columbia functions similarly to an organized incorporated territory, it is governed ...
Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was the first of the 13 colonies that declared ... State of South Carolina since 1776 * *Adopts a constitution for an independent State of South Carolina, March 15, 1776 ... United States Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. *Cherokee-American wars, 1776-1794 *Second state to ratify the ...
"The New Colony Six". Oldies.com. Retrieved March 24, 2015. Voger, Mark (October 10, 2011). "Gary Puckett interview: A perfect ... The British Invasion also drew a backlash from some American bands, e.g., Paul Revere & the Raiders and New Colony Six dressed ... England lost her American colonies. Last week the Beatles took them back." - Life magazine The Beatles soon incited contrasting ...
Born in the American colonies. Enlisted in British forces and was their last survivor of the Battle of Havana (1762). László ... Arthur Dardenne (1776-1872) - France. Last surviving person to have taken part in the Storming of the Bastille. Nicolas Savin ( ... Giovanni Battista Campanella (1776?-1884) - France. Served in Italy during the French Revolutionary Wars and later in the 1812 ...
Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19 ...
online Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford University Press. ISBN ... Japan, meanwhile, grew increasingly assertive in the Pacific, demanding that the French and British colonies close their ...
In 1975, the left-wing Fretilin party seized power after a civil war in East Timor (now Timor-Leste), a former colony of ... ISBN 0-7006-0639-4. Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford University ...
Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19 ... The Kennedy administration believed that the British African colonies would soon achieve independence. According to Nigerian ... Alfred E. Eckes, Opening America's market: US foreign trade policy since 1776 (1999) pp 184-90 online. Burton I. Kaufman, "John ...
George C. Herring, From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776 (2008) pp 844-845. Andrew J. DeRoche, Andrew ... From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507822-0. Kaufman, Burton ...
Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford UP. ISBN 978-0-19-507822-0. ...
Tojo sent his military to take control of lightly-defended French colonies in Indochina, which provided important resources as ... From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507822-0. Hoopes, Townsend ...
George Herring, From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776 (2008), pp. 730-732 Schwartz, Thomas Alan (2003). ... ISBN 978-0-19-513238-0. Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford ...
1996) Eisenhower's New-Look National Security Policy, 1953-61 excerpt Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S ... Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507822-0. Hitchcock, William I. The Age of Eisenhower: ...
Herring, George C. From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776 (2009) pp 702-29. Hilsman, Roger. To move a ... ISBN 978-0-7867-1982-2. Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford ...
ISBN 978-0-7006-2079-1. Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford ...
p. 9. ISBN 9781349219018.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) George C. Herring, From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign ... At Tojo's insistence, Japan moved to take control of lightly-defended European colonies in Southeast Asia, which provided ... Japan, meanwhile, grew increasingly assertive in the Pacific, demanding that the French and British colonies close their ... Whether or not self-determination applied to the British colonies became a highly controversial debate. Naval confrontations ...
In the opening weeks of the war, Japan conquered the Philippines and the British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia. The ... With the war in Europe occupying the attention of the major colonial powers, Japanese leaders eyed vulnerable colonies such as ... ISBN 978-0-679-60463-1. Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford ...
ISBN 0-375-50847-3. Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford University ...
From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507822-0. Hyland, William ...
Following World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union occupied Korea, which had been a colony of the Japanese Empire. ... ISBN 978-0-19-504546-8. Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford ...
ISBN 978-0-415-40619-2. Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford ...
ISBN 978-0-19-513238-0. Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford ...
From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507822-0. Hoffman, Abraham ...
The U.S. Navy helped the ACS establish a colony in West Africa, which would be adjacent to Sierra Leone, another colony that ... The new colony was named Liberia, and Liberia's capital took the name of Monrovia in honor of President Monroe. By the 1860s, ... At the same time, Monroe avowed non-interference with existing European colonies in the Americas. The Monroe Doctrine was well ... Though initially intended to be a permanent U.S. colony, Liberia would declare independence in 1847. Monroe took a close ...
The Committee on Colonies was formed in March 1790 to deal with escalating problems arising from slavery unrest in the colonies ... The Amis advocated freedom in the French colonies, arguing that the ideas of the Revolution should extend to the colonies. The ... violence would ensue in the colonies. Because of the increasing conflict in the colonies, as well as the growing influence of ... This was a class, generally in the French colonies, of persons of mixed French and African ancestry, generally born to French ...
The colonies were used as bargaining counters to secure American friendship and to minimize creeping American influence. 1941: ... British gain them in 1815 and designate a new colony, United States of the Ionian Islands. It was ceded to Greece in 1864. 1812 ... In 1914 Britain annexed Cyprus and made it a crown colony in 1927. Disraeli boasts that he secured "Peace with honour" as well ... Britain gains the German colony of Zanzibar while giving up a small strategic island off the German coast, and agrees on ...
... names for the colonies varied significantly; they included "Twelve United English Colonies of North America", "United Colonies ... In the early days of the American Revolution, the colonies as a unit were most commonly referred to as the "United Colonies". ... The newly formed union was first known as the "United Colonies", and the earliest known usage of the modern full name dates ... "United Colonies", "American states", and "FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES OF AMERICA", but never "United States of America". " ...
Knox, William (1769). The controversy between Great Britain and her colonies reviewed :the several pleas of the colonies, in ... it was renounced by the colonies, and even by the Assembly of the Colony which first proposed it, as utterly impracticable." ... He thought he did so, when he regulated the colonies over and over again: he thought he did so, when he formed two general ... He said if it was necessary, as ministers claimed, to tax the colonies, the latter should be permitted to elect some part of ...
volume= has extra text (help) Smith, Justin H (1907). Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony. Volumes 1 and 2. New York: G.P. ... Due to the army's retreat, the two men were not tried until August 1, 1776, at Fort Ticonderoga. Both were convicted and ... Jones, Charles Henry (1882). History of the Campaign for the Conquest of Canada in 1776: From the Death of Montgomery to the ... The skirmishes, which involved limited combat, occurred in May 1776 at and around the Cedars, 45 km (28 mi) west of Montreal, ...
The People of New Sweden: Our Colony on the Delaware River, 1638-1655. (Natur & Kultur, 1988). ISBN 91-27-01909-8. ... Dutch settlers also founded a colony at present-day Lewes, Delaware on June 3, 1631 and named it Zwaanendael (Swan Valley).[43] ... His new colony effectively displaced many Lenape and forced others to adapt to new cultural demands. Penn gained a reputation ... Although Penn endeavored to live peaceably with the Lenape and to create a colony that would do the same, he also expected his ...
"Hampden-Sydney Colony of Delta Kappa Epsilon at Hampden-Sydney College - Hampden-Sydney Colony, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Hampden- ... Since the college was founded before the proclamation of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, it was eligible for ... moving into its three-story brick building early in 1776. The college has been in continuous operation since that date, ...
The League of Nations had mandates to support many of the former colonies of the Western European colonial powers during their ... transition from colony to independent state. Established as an agency of the League of Nations, and now part of United Nations ... Additionally, the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 encoded into law a number of fundamental civil rights and civil ... U.S. Declaration of Independence ratified by the Continental Congress on 4 July 1776 ...
Some colonies along the banks of the Po River in Italy will dive for mollusks,[29][30] a practice demonstrating social learning ... From here, they crossed the strait and occupied Eysturoy during the years 1776 to 1779. In 1779, they reached Vagar. Whether ...
... who was a leading figure in the colony of artists who resided in St Ives, Cornwall during World War II.[140] ... 1776-1837) and J. M. W. Turner (1775-1851), who is credited with elevating landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history ...
Encyclopedia of the North American colonies (3 vol 1992) 1:214. *^ Carl Bridenbaugh, Cities in the Wilderness: The First ... In most of the American colonies, medicine was rudimentary for the first few generations, as few upper-class British physicians ... The disease environment was very hostile to European settlers, especially in all the Southern colonies. Malaria was endemic in ... but most physicians learned as apprentices in the colonies.[10] In Philadelphia, the Medical College of Philadelphia was ...
European colonization brought Dutch and English settlers, as a part of the New Netherland colony. First settlements occurred in ... After the capture of the colony by the English and its renaming as New York in 1664, the area (and all of Long Island) became ... all counties in the Colony of New York were redefined. Queens gained North and South Brother Islands as well as Huletts Island ... remained under British occupation after the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and was occupied throughout most of the rest of the ...
The island supports a breeding colony of about 35,000 seabirds, including some 25,000 least auklets and crested auklets.[3] In ... colony on Fairway Rock larger than that on Little Diomede.[15] ...
The Chola Empire had conquered the Sriwijaya colonies, such as the Nicobar Islands region and at the same time succeeded in ... The reign of Sultan Muhammad Bahauddin (1776-1803) was also known as the golden era of the Palembang Sultanate which was quite ...
ColoniesEdit. Further information: English overseas possessions. In 1607 England built an establishment at Jamestown. This was ... ISBN 0-7868-6675-6; TV series A History of Britain, Volume 2: The Wars of the British 1603-1776 BBC/Miramax, 2001 ISBN 0-7868- ...
In 1776, Pedro Font's map applied the name to the range currently known as the Sierra Nevada.[41] ...
Kupperman, Karen Ordahl (June 1995). Providence Island, 1630-1641: The Other Puritan Colony. Cambridge University Press. p. 17 ... Providence was settled in June 1636 by Roger Williams and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies. Williams and his company ... and Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4, 1776.[11] It ... a Reformed Baptist theologian and religious exile from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He named the area in honor of "God's ...
1901 - The British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and Western Australia federate ... 1890 - Eritrea is consolidated into a colony by the Italian government.. *1892 - Ellis Island opens to begin processing ... England, Ireland and the British colonies changed the start of the year to January 1 in 1752. Later that year in September, the ... 1776 - American Revolutionary War: Norfolk, Virginia is burned by combined Royal Navy and Continental Army action. ...
... the English Parliament preferred a relatively inexpensive naval attack on Spanish colonies in the New World, hoping for the ... Schama, Simon (2001), A History of Britain: The British Wars 1603-1776, London: BBC Worldwide, ISBN 0-563-53747-7. ...
Millward pointed out that the Qing agricultural colonies in reality had nothing to do with Uyghur and their land, since the ... peasants suffering from drought to move into Manchuria despite him issuing edicts in favor of banning them from 1740-1776.[15] ...
Scottish colony (1629-1632)[edit]. From 1629-1632, Nova Scotia briefly became a Scottish colony. Sir William Alexander of ... At the beginning, there was ambivalence in Nova Scotia, "the 14th American Colony" as some called it, over whether the colony ... English colony (1654-1670)[edit]. Portrait of John Leverett. Leverett launched an expedition against Acadia on behalf of ... John Brebner, The Neutral Yankees of Nova Scotia: A Marginal Colony During the Revolutionary Years (1937) ...
The village of Maidstone was the centre of the Irish community, and an area known as the "Scotch Colony" appeared along the ... 1776) and Pennsylvania Dutch pacifists (ethnic German Mennonites, many from Pennsylvania). ...
"Persistent arthralgia induced by Chikungunya virus infection is associated with interleukin-6 and granulocyte macrophage colony ... 112 (12): 1776-84. doi:10.1172/JCI20530. PMC 297008. PMID 14679171.. *. Hurle RA, Davies G, Parr C, Mason MD, Jenkins SA, ...
Thirteen Colonies 1657 measles 24,148[22]. Netherlands 1663-1664 plague 100,000[23]. England 1665-1666 Great Plague of London ...
1621 - Myles Standish was elected the first commander of the Plymouth Colony militia. ... 1776 - American Revolutionary War: A Patriot victory at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge resulted in the arrests of 850 ...
... and whose knowledge of the Indian languages enabled him to render important services to the colony, as a negotiator with the ... and Montgomery and Washington from Frederick in 1776.[8] ...
seealso,Native Americans in the United States,European colonization of the Americas,Thirteen Colonies}} ... British Convicts Shipped to American Colonies,publisher=Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History,work= ... ಅವರು 4 ಜುಲೈ 1776ರಂದು ಗ್ರೇಟ್ ಬ್ರಿಟನ್ನಿನಿಂದ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಹಾಗೂ ತಮ್ಮದೇ ಆದ ಸಹಕಾರೀ ಒಕ್ಕೂಟದ ರಚನೆಯನ್ನು ಘೋಷಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವ ಮೂಲಕ ತಮ್ಮ [[ಸಂಯುಕ್ತ ... ಅವರು 4 ಜುಲೈ 1776ರಂದು ಗ್ರೇಟ್ ಬ್ರಿಟನ್ನಿನಿಂದ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಹಾಗೂ ತಮ್ಮದೇ ಆದ ಸಹಕಾರೀ ಒಕ್ಕೂಟದ ರಚನೆಯನ್ನು ಘೋಷಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವ ಮೂಲಕ ತಮ್ಮ [[ಸಂಯುಕ್ತ ...
Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.[49] Plymouth was ... Main articles: Mayflower Compact, Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony, New England Confederation, Dominion of New England ... Unlike the Plymouth colony, the bay colony was founded under a royal charter in 1629.[91] Both religious dissent and ... "Popham Colony". October 9, 2018 - via Wikipedia.. *^ "The 1692 Salem Witch Trials". Salem Witch Trials Museum. Retrieved April ...
The station was originally called Crescent Avenue or Crescent Avenue Depot[27] as an Old Colony Railroad station, then called ... John White has been referred to as the unheralded champion of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, because despite his heroic efforts ... In 1765, chocolate was first introduced in the American colonies when Irish chocolate maker John Hannon (or alternatively ... In 1845, the Old Colony Railroad ran through the area and connected Boston and Plymouth, Massachusetts. ...
"British Convicts Shipped to American Colonies". American Historical Review 2. Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of ... See also: Native Americans in the United States, European colonization of the Americas, and Thirteen Colonies ... ಅವರು 4 ಜುಲೈ 1776ರಂದು ಗ್ರೇಟ್ ಬ್ರಿಟನ್ನಿನಿಂದ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಹಾಗೂ ತಮ್ಮದೇ ಆದ ಸಹಕಾರೀ ಒಕ್ಕೂಟದ ರಚನೆಯನ್ನು ಘೋಷಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವ ಮೂಲಕ ತಮ್ಮ ... ಈ ಕರಡನ್ನು ಜುಲೈ 4, 1776ರಲ್ಲಿ ಥಾಮಸ್ ಜೆಫರ್‌ಸನ್ ಸಿದ್ಧಪಡಿಸಿದರು. ಈ ದಿನವನ್ನು ಈಗ ಪ್ರತೀವರ್ಷವೂ ಅಮೆರಿಕದ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ದಿನ ಎಂದು ...
... in a dispute for the dominion of that part of the Portuguese colony of Brazil. ...
In writing the Virginia Charter of 1606, he enabled the King in Parliament to give those to be born in the colonies all rights ... Continental Congress were chosen largely through the action of committees of correspondence in various colonies rather than ... Billias, George (2009). American Constitutionalism Heard Round the World, 1776-1989: A Global Perspective. New York: New York ... Wood, Gordon (1998). The Creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN ...
Such colonies are no longer found on the main island. Fossil evidence indicates six species of landbirds (two rails, two ... Easter Island had vast seabird colonies containing probably over 30 resident species, perhaps the world's richest.[67] ... A View of the Monuments of Easter Island, Rapanui, c. 1775-1776 by William Hodges.[24] The earliest known painting of Easter ... On 10 April 1776 French Admiral Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse anchored at Hanga Roa at the start of a ...
Such colonies are no longer found on the main island. Fossil evidence indicates five species of landbirds (two rails, two ... Easter Island had vast seabird colonies containing probably over 30 resident species, perhaps the world's richest.[63] ... A View of the Monuments of Easter Island, Rapanui, c. 1775-1776 by William Hodges.[23] The earliest known painting of Easter ...
Life and Death in the British Mainland Colonies, 1585-1776. A lecture from Dr. Thomas Humphrey. Department of History. Tuesday ... Tisquantum embodies nearly all aspects of life and death in the British North American mainland colonies before 1776. As an ...
Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of ... Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of ... Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of ... Gold Coast Colony; President of the Provincial Council of Chiefs, Eastern Province, Gold Coast Colony; Member of the Board of ...
Since 1959, there have been no incorporated U.S. territories formally organized by an Organic Act. When Hawaii was admitted as a state in 1959, the Hawaii Admission Act specifically excluded Palmyra Island which had been part of the Territory of Hawaii, and Palmyra remains today as the only incorporated U.S. territory, the United States Territory of Palmyra Island. Although it still has private landowners, Palmyra is uninhabited, and no Palmyra Island government has been organized under an act of Congress. Palmyra is currently governed as a territory by the United States Department of the Interior.[2] All other U. S. territories except Palmyra are unincorporated (meaning that they are not fully part of the United States and that not all aspects of the United States Constitution automatically apply), whereas other former incorporated territories (excepting only Palmyra Island) are now states. While the District of Columbia functions similarly to an organized incorporated territory, it is governed ...
1. "These United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states..." 2. Motion was adopted on July 2, 1776 ... a. Britain lost colonies and other territories b. France got revenge but became bankrupt which caused French Revolution. c. ... 2. New World colonies were Englands most valuable overseas possessions B. Secret supply to the Americans 1. France worried ... 1. This was tantamount to a declaration of war against the colonies.. 2. 18,000 Hessians (German mercenary soldiers) hired by ...
How did the colony became a state ? Introduction : The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the ... a -A Technical Card for The Colony of Rhode Island b-Etymology c-Geography. -The Founding of The Rhode Island Colony :. 1-Who ... The Economy of The Rhode Island Colony :. 1-What kind of economy did the colony have ? 2-Did slavery play a role in the economy ... The Economy of The Rhode Island Colony :. What kind of economy did the Rhode Island colony have?. Did slavery play a role in ...
These original 13 colonies would eventually become the United States of America. Spain founded a colony at Saint Augustine, ... They established Plymouth Colony.. After the Pilgrims, many more people flocked to the new colonies for religious reasons: ... In 1607, England sent 100 men to America to found a new colony. The colony was named Jamestown after King James I and was ... The colony of Maryland was founded in 1634 as a refuge for Catholics, who were persecuted in England in the 17th century. In ...
These original 13 colonies would eventually become the United States of America. Spain founded a colony at Saint Augustine, ... They established Plymouth Colony.. After the Pilgrims, many more people flocked to the new colonies for religious reasons: ... In 1607, England sent 100 men to America to found a new colony. The colony was named Jamestown after King James I and was ... The colony of Maryland was founded in 1634 as a refuge for Catholics, who were persecuted in England in the 17th century. In ...
colony from Africa and the Caribbean. In particular. , the African regions of the . Bight of Biafra. (. modern [[. ... The majority were brought into the colony from Africa and the Caribbean. In particular, the African regions of the Bight of ... The majority were brought into the colony from Africa and the Caribbean. In particular. , the African regions of the Bight ... Virginia headright grants identify some slave importations into the colony, see Appendix C: Africans in Virginia, 1619-1650 in ...
... the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare. That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free ... It declared, in part, that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states, that they are ... Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their ... The Declaration of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies. In CONGRESS, July 4, 1776. The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen ...
HIST 3083 The American Colonies. HIST 3093 The U.S.: Revolution and New Nation to 1815. HIST 3430 U.S. Constitution 1776-1791. ... LTRS 3510 Law in American Life, 1776-2000 (4). LTRS 3510 After Philadelphia: Constitutional Controversies before 1801. LTRS ...
Taylors Revolution builds like a ground fire overspreading Britains mainland colonies, fueled by local conditions, ... uses foreign relations as the lens through which to tell the story of Americas dramatic rise from 13 disparate colonies ... and economic consequences of 1776. In The Radicalism of the American Revolution, Wood depicts not just a break with England, ...
The British colonies in North America carry over the practice of "civil death," a disenfranchisement stemming from ancient ... Lawmakers in the British colonies of North America debate whether voting is a right or a privilege under the law. Voting, like ... The concept continues into the British colonies that will become Canada and the United States. [ProCon, 10/19/2010]. ... History and social policy professor Alexander Keyssar will later write that the various colonies have "no firm principles ...
... and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of ... and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and Declare, That these United Colonies are, and of ... and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of ... The first set of charges recalled somewhat obscure grievances suffered by a specific colony or group of colonies; then, under a ...
1776). Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Declaration of Independence (1776) and what it ... The colonies have suffered 27 at the hands of the King George III. Each of these abuses has been directed at the colonies for ... Legislation has been passed to quarter troops in the colonies, to shut off trade with other parts of the world, to levy taxes ... The last 5 abuses, 23 through 27, refer to specific actions that the King of Great Britain took to abandon the colonies and to ...
Denmark made the island a colony in 1776. And though it was granted home rule in 1979, Greenlands head of state remains ...
It thus appears that, in at least twelve of the thirteen colonies, the rule of the English common law, in the respect now under ... But to the credit of her American colonies, let it be said that so oppressive a doctrine had never obtained a foothold there." ... when our Constitution was formed, was rejected in this country by the Colonies before the Declaration of Independence, and is ... The rule was rejected by the colonies. Before the adoption of the federal Constitution, the Constitution of Maryland had ...
... chartered as royal colony in 1662 Saybrook Colony, established in 1635; merged with Connecticut Colony in 1644 New Haven Colony ... The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of British ... Massachusetts became a crown colony at the end of the 17th century. Proprietary colonies were governed much as royal colonies, ... Province of Georgia, established as a proprietary colony in 1732; royal colony from 1752. The first successful English colony ...
... and children in the Bay Colony; American Jewry, about 200,000 strong-but, unlike the Bay Colony settlers, scattered over the ... No books were to be used in the school and colony he had in mind. Every man in the settlement is to own five acres of land; ... That same year Mordecai M. Noah announced the establishment of a colony in western New York State. Levy, then in London on a ... Before 1812, numerous different works on the Holy Tongue had already been printed in the colonies and in the new republic. ...
Emigrants from England to the American Colonies, 1773-1776. 189. Indexes to Seamens Protection Certificate Applications and ... Denizations and Naturalizations in the British Colonies in America, 1607-1775. 365. ...
... colony at Boston and the "first landing" colony, Plymouth Colony at Plymouth, Massachusetts, with its famous "Mayflower Compact ... Colonial government in the Thirteen Colonies Colonial history of the United States Proprietary colony State constitution ( ... most colonies eventually surrendered their charters to the Crown by 1763 and became royal colonies, as the King and his ... The American Colonies and the British Empire, 1607-1763. New York: Crowell, 1968. Kemp, Roger L., "Model Government Charters: A ...
This replaced the term "United Colonies," which had been in general use. In the Congressional declaration dated September 9, ... 1776. Congress renames the nation "United States of America". On September 9, 1776, the Continental Congress formally declares ...
Plymouth Colony Records, as cited in Burke, 1899). This policy was retained when Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies formed ... Had it not failed to receive ratification in London, it would have been the earliest compensation legislation in the colonies ( ... To encourage service in the Pequot War, the Plymouth colony provides for the maintenance of disabled soldiers; the first ... The promise of monetary compensation for war-related disability served not only to attract enlistments in the Colonies-where ...
Thirteen colonies became thirteen independent states, the United States of America. The Continental Congress was its governing ... As relations between the colonies and England began to deteriorate, the colonists realized that they needed to coordinate their ... British merchants were not feeling especially charitable towards their former colonies and hence demanded payment in species ( ... In mid-1776, the Congress began drafting the Articles of Confederation. An approved version was sent to the states for ...
1900-1910 Orange River Colony. 1900-1910 Transvaal Colony. 1906-1954 Nigeria Colony. 1910-1931 South Africa. 1911-1964 Northern ... Categories: States and territories established in 1795 , Former Dutch colonies , Cape Colony , 1910 disestablishments ... 1795-1803 Cape Colony. 19th century. 1806-1910 Cape Colony. 1816-1965 Gambia. 1856-1910 Natal. 1868-1966 Basutoland (Lesotho). ... Malarial fever is practically non-existent in Cape Colony, and diseases of the chest are rare. (F. R. C.) Geology. - The colony ...
Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19 ... In the opening weeks of the war, Japan conquered the Philippines and the British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia. The ... Japanese leaders eyed vulnerable colonies such as the Dutch East Indies, French Indochina, and British Malaya.[249] After ...
Twelve Colonies*. 100.0%. Thirteen Colonies. 100.0%. Thirteen Colonies. 100.0%. Source:[25][26][27]*Province of Georgia was ... The second successful colony was Plymouth Colony, founded in 1620 by people who later became known as the Pilgrims. Fleeing ... Main article: Cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies. *Apple pie - New England was the first region to experience large-scale English ... "The Split - One Colony Becomes Two". Carolana.com. Retrieved 21 August 2017.. ...
The quest for power; the lower houses of assembly in the Southern Royal colonies, 1689-1776 by Jack P Greene( Book ) ... Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America( ). * Annual report of Jared I. Whitaker, Commissary General of ...
The United States of America formed after the colonies decided.... Nearly 3 Billion Birds Have Disappeared From North America ... The United States became an independent country on July 4, 1776. This means the country turned 243 years old in 2019. ...
The American colonies in the seventeenth century by Herbert Levi Osgood - 1957 ... The American correspondence of a Bristol merchant, 1766-1776 by Richard Champion - 1934 - 71 pages. ...
1900-1910 Orange River Colony. 1900-1910 Transvaal Colony. 1906-1954 Nigeria Colony. 1910-1931 South Africa. 1911-1964 Northern ... 1795-1803 Cape Colony. 19th century. 1806-1910 Cape Colony. 1816-1965 Gambia. 1856-1910 Natal. 1868-1966 Basutoland (Lesotho). ... 1829-1901 Swan River Colony/Western Australia. 1836-1901 South Australia. since 1838 Pitcairn Islands. 1841-1907 Colony of New ... 1620-1691 Plymouth Colony. 1629-1691 Massachusetts Bay Colony. 1632-1776 Maryland. 1636-1776 Connecticut. 1636-1776 Rhode ...
  • 1. This was tantamount to a declaration of war against the colonies. . (angelfire.com)
  • The Declaration, which explained why the Colonies (now States) declared their independence, was adopted by the Continental Congress July 4, 1776. (serendipity.li)
  • The United States Declaration of Independence is signed July 4, 1776. (wikipedia.org)
  • On July 2, 1776, the delegates unanimously passed the Declaration of Independence. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Although the Declaration does not name the specific legislation passed by Parliament, its listing of the abuses and usurpation effectively covers the history of the King and Parliament's attempts to gain more power and control over the colonies. (sparknotes.com)
  • Many of the acts that the Declaration criticizes were intended to tighten royal control over the colonies. (sparknotes.com)
  • when our Constitution was formed, was rejected in this country by the Colonies before the Declaration of Independence, and is not a test of whether the right to counsel in such cases is embraced in the guarantee of "due process of law. (justia.com)
  • July 4, 1776 - The colonies publish a formal declaration of their independence from Britain. (pbs.org)
  • The Declaration of Independence was approved on July 4th, 1776 therefore this is the day of celebration for Americans. (prweb.com)
  • In this document are the seeds of the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights as well as the declaration of the split of the American colonies from England. (lubbockonline.com)
  • 1776 The Continental Congress adopts a resolution severing ties with Great Britain, though a formal Declaration of Independence is not adopted until July 4. (k-talk.com)
  • Founded originally as 13 colonies in the British Empire , Britain's American colonies formally broke with the mother country on July 4, 1776, with the Declaration of Independence . (conservapedia.com)
  • On July 4, 1776, the colonies adopted the Declaration of Independence . (thoughtco.com)
  • Declaration of Independence , in U.S. history, document that was approved by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, and that announced the separation of 13 North American British colonies from Great Britain. (britannica.com)
  • The declaration was created to announce the separation of the American colonies from Britain. (preceden.com)
  • During the Second Continental Congress in 1776 Jefferson was selected, due to his strong writing skills, to draft the Declaration of Independence. (fayobserver.com)
  • On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence, setting the 13 colonies on the road to freedom as a sovereign nation. (commerce.gov)
  • The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original English Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of North America. (prezi.com)
  • These original 13 colonies would eventually become the United States of America. (scholastic.com)
  • In 1607, England sent 100 men to America to found a new colony. (scholastic.com)
  • It would become the first English colony to succeed in America, but its beginning was exceptionally difficult. (scholastic.com)
  • The British colonies in North America carry over the practice of "civil death," a disenfranchisement stemming from ancient Greek, Roman, Germanic, and Anglo-Saxon law and enforced against some convicted criminals. (historycommons.org)
  • Lawmakers in the British colonies of North America debate whether voting is a right or a privilege under the law. (historycommons.org)
  • The original thirteen British colonies of mainland North America moved toward independence slowly and reluctantly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thirteen colonies became thirteen independent states, the United States of America. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Each of these abuses has been directed at the colonies for the purpose of establishing a tyrannical government in North America. (sparknotes.com)
  • On September 9, 1776, the Continental Congress formally declares the name of the new nation to be the "United States" of America. (history.com)
  • The United States of America formed after the colonies decided. (reference.com)
  • The earliest legislation that specifically included a provision for the care and maintenance of persons with mental disabilities was authorized in 1751 in the Pennsylvania colony as part of the law establishing the first general hospital in America (Braddock and Parish, 2001). (nap.edu)
  • Independence Day is celebrated in memory of the thirteen colonies in North America that declared independence from Great Britain. (prweb.com)
  • Still a colony of Britain, America was run by men who considered themselves British, loyal to the king, and for whom there were strong economic and military advantages to remaining linked with Britain. (socialistreviewindex.org.uk)
  • 2. (Historical Terms) history US the 13 states forming the original United States of America when they declared their independence (1776). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In America THE LAW IS KING", but under England the colonies must respect the "King as law" (98). (bartleby.com)
  • It should be noted that, although the practice of providing pensions for veterans with disabilities began in the English colonies in North America, the first national pension law in the United States was adopted by the Continental Congress on August 26, 1776. (nap.edu)
  • Another precedent was set in 1636, when the Plymouth Colony enacted the first law in the English colonies in North America, which provided money to veterans who acquired disabilities as a result of battles with Pequot Indians (VA, 2007a). (nap.edu)
  • Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. (exchangerate.com)
  • In his very engaging and accessible book, The Right to Be Wrong: Ending the Culture War Over Religion in America (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2005), Kevin Seamus Hasson-founder of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty-has a helpful way to summarize the different approaches to religious toleration among the refuge colonies. (thegospelcoalition.org)
  • C. Following Bunker Hill, King formally proclaimed the colonies in rebellion (Aug. 23, 1775). (angelfire.com)
  • Phillips argues 1775-not 1776-is the more important year of the American Revolution. (democracynow.org)
  • Such was the arousal and spirit of 1775 that rage militaire- a patriotic furor, a passion for arms- swept the thirteen colonies that spring and summer, giving the American Revolution its martial assurance and its vital, if somewhat delusionary, early momentum. (democracynow.org)
  • On April 19, 1775, when the Battles of Lexington and Concord initiated armed conflict between Britain and the 13 colonies (the nucleus of the future United States), the Americans claimed that they sought only their rights within the British Empire . (britannica.com)
  • The Gold Coast was a British Crown Colony on the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa from 1821 to its independence as part of the nation of Ghana in 1957. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. All 13 colonies present -- delegates still not interested in independence but rather redressing of grievances (conservative position). (angelfire.com)
  • On July 2, 1776, in Philadelphia, the Continental Congress adopted the resolution, introduced by Richard Henry Lee and John Adams, which actually declared independence from Great Britain. (serendipity.li)
  • The American colonies declare their independence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colonies should negotiate agreements with potential European allies before declaring independence, they said. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While the American colonies challenge Britain for independence, American slavery is challenged from within, as men and women fight to define what the country will be. (pbs.org)
  • In 1777, one year after the colonies' independence, the first Fourth of July was celebrated in Philadelphia. (prweb.com)
  • American colonies declared their independence from England. (ohiohistorycentral.org)
  • Rhode Island is the first American colony to declare Independence from Britain. (hmdb.org)
  • The 13 stripes on the American flag represent the original 13 colonies that declared independence from Britain in 1776. (reference.com)
  • After the colonies declared independence from Britain in 1776, the Articles of Confederation were created as the first constitution of the United States. (history.com)
  • On April 12, 1776, the revolutionary convention of North Carolina specifically authorized its delegates in the Congress to vote for independence. (britannica.com)
  • In 1776, North Carolina's Fourth Provincial Congress authorized the colony's delegates to the Continental Congress to support independence from Britain. (goerie.com)
  • This document, which the Second Continental Congress adopted on 4 July 1776, proclaimed the original thirteen American colonies independent of Great Britain and provided an explanation and justification of that step. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 1776 Continental Congress resolves "these United Colonies are and of right. (k-talk.com)
  • He was granted permission to sign the document even though he arrived at the Second Continental Congress three months after the formal signing on August 2, 1776. (dar.org)
  • The Continental Congress passed the new country's first pension law in 1776 to encourage enlistments and curtail desertions (VA, 2007a,b). (nap.edu)
  • From the moment the 33-year-old Thomas Jefferson arrived at the Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1776, he was on the radical side. (glennbeck.com)
  • [15] Britain steadily expanded its colony through the invasion and subjection of local kingdoms as well, particularly the Ashanti and Fante confederacies . (wikipedia.org)
  • It declared, in part, 'that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. (serendipity.li)
  • The last 5 abuses, 23 through 27, refer to specific actions that the King of Great Britain took to abandon the colonies and to wage war against them. (sparknotes.com)
  • After graduation, Madison took an interest in the relationship between the American colonies and Britain, which had grown tumultuous over the issue of British taxation. (history.com)
  • Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, those 13 colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about one-third that of Britain. (amazonaws.com)
  • London printer Robert Morden published this rare map of Britain's American colonies in 1684-85, based on cartographer Richard Daniel's rendering of the region. (nj.gov)
  • Rhode Island is the last of the thirteen colonies to join the Union, the United States Revenue Service (forerunner of the Coast Guard) is established. (hmdb.org)
  • News of the speech arrived at Philadelphia in January 1776, just when Thomas Paine's Common Sense appeared. (encyclopedia.com)
  • All the money that would have been used for militias, forts, and armaments in Pennsylvania was available, for better or worse, to build Philadelphia (remember what its name means) and develop the colony. (counterpunch.org)
  • The colony had 4,000 people within 3 years , and by 1776 Philadelphia surpassed Boston and New York in size. (counterpunch.org)
  • On August 30, 1790, Washington left New York City for the last time en route to the nation's new capital, Philadelphia. (mountvernon.org)
  • New Hampshire delegates voted first because they were from the northernmost colony. (dar.org)
  • History and social policy professor Alexander Keyssar will later write that the various colonies have "no firm principles governing colonial voting rights, and suffrage [voting] laws accordingly were quite varied. (historycommons.org)
  • King George III interfered with that process by rejecting legislation proposed by the colonies, dissolving colonial bodies of representation, replacing colonial governments with his appointed ministers, and interfering with the naturalization of citizens in new regions. (sparknotes.com)
  • Legislation has been passed to quarter troops in the colonies, to shut off trade with other parts of the world, to levy taxes without the consent of colonial legislatures, to take away the right to trial by jury, and to force colonists to be tried in England. (sparknotes.com)
  • 2. The Colonial Period: 1647-1776. (textbooks.com)
  • With the victory, the British adopted a new colonial poicy for her North American colonies. (google.com)
  • Grand Union Flag , also called Great Union Flag , or Cambridge Flag , American colonial banner first displayed by George Washington on Jan. 1, 1776. (britannica.com)
  • On May 15 the Virginia convention instructed its deputies to offer the motion-"that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States"-which was brought forward in the Congress by Richard Henry Lee on June 7. (britannica.com)
  • Tisquantum embodies nearly all aspects of life and death in the British North American mainland colonies before 1776. (csuohio.edu)
  • 3. Founding the English Mainland Colonies, 1585-1732. (fishpond.com.au)
  • The people who lived in the colonies were called colonists. (scholastic.com)
  • As relations between the colonies and England began to deteriorate, the colonists realized that they needed to coordinate their response to English hostility. (globalresearch.ca)
  • The King is a tyrant, because he keeps standing armies in the colonies during a time of peace, makes the military power superior to the civil government, and forces the colonists to support the military presence through increased taxes. (sparknotes.com)
  • He kidnapped American sailors to force them into British military service, refused to protect the colonies from Native American attack, and has caused colonists to fight against each other. (sparknotes.com)
  • Legislation in 1774 referred to by colonists as the "Intolerable Acts" struck especially hard at the civil rights of the colony of Massachusetts. (sparknotes.com)
  • During this time, tensions between the American colonies and the British government began to rise, as the American colonists were subject to British taxation without representation in the British Parliament. (thoughtco.com)
  • Within six weeks, more than 15,000 white and black colonists perished of this terrible disease, and its ravages did not stop until the government, the magistrates, and the inhabitants themselves had joined all of their efforts to repel the scourge introduced into the colony by Spanish greed. (cdc.gov)
  • Rhode Island was founded by Roger Williams in 1636, who had been banished from the Massachusetts colony for his advocacy of religious tolerance and the separation of church and state. (prezi.com)
  • How Did The Rhode Island Colony Get Its Name? (prezi.com)
  • Who founded the colony of Rhode Island? (prezi.com)
  • The Rhode Island colony was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a theologian, independent preacher, and linguist.on land gifted by the Narragansett sachem, Canonicus. (prezi.com)
  • What kind of economy did the Rhode Island colony have? (prezi.com)
  • Black slaves were in Rhode Island by 1652, and by the end of that century Rhode Island had become the only New England colony to use slaves for both labor and trade .Slave-based economies existed in the Narragansett plantation family, the Middletown crop workers, and the indentured and slave craftsmen of Newport. (prezi.com)
  • 1730s - Venture Smith is captured in West Africa and sold to Robert Rumford of Rhode Island, making Smith one of 41,000 Africans brought to the colonies as slaves. (pbs.org)
  • Learn about the people and motives that led to the founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony, as well as the growth and internal dissent that led to the establishment of Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Hampshire. (study.com)
  • The colony was named Jamestown after King James I and was located on the coast of what is now Virginia. (scholastic.com)
  • No clearer and more distinctly American example of this tension can be offered than the election of the first legislative assembly in the colony of Virginia in 1619. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1776, he represented Orange County at the Virginia Constitution Convention to organize a new state government no longer under British rule. (history.com)
  • Most black slaves were imported into Virginia in the 100 year period between 1676 and 1776 , though they were present as early as 1619. (familysearch.org)
  • In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh began a colony he named Virginia, in honor of the "Virgin Queen Elizabeth. (constantcontact.com)
  • Jefferson became a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, where he became a more vocal opponent of British rule over the American colonies. (fayobserver.com)
  • Finally, on 10 and 15 May 1776, Congress passed a resolution written by John Adams with a radical preface that called for the total suppression of "every kind of authority under the … crown" and the establishment of new state governments "under the authority of the people. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lee also moved that Congress "take the most effectual measures for forming foreign Alliances" and prepare "a plan of confederation" for the colonies' consideration. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In mid-1776, the Congress began drafting the Articles of Confederation. (globalresearch.ca)
  • It explained why the Congress on July 2 "unanimously" by the votes of 12 colonies (with New York abstaining) had resolved that "these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be Free and Independent States. (britannica.com)
  • The American colonies begin selling hemp textiles directly to France and using the proceeds to buy weapons for the Revolutionary War. (manitobaharvest.com)
  • John Harfield Tredgold who helped slaves in the Cape Colony in the 19th century, was also a chemist ? (thefullwiki.org)
  • The colony also imported slaves. (thefullwiki.org)
  • But the numerous and rapid deaths caused by the disease were not all: at least 15,000 Negroes perished of hunger, and the escape of slaves increased in the northern dependency, causing serious fear for the security of the colony…" (1) . (cdc.gov)
  • The first settlement in New England was Plymouth Colony. (study.com)
  • The Cape Colony , part of modern South Africa , was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652, with the founding of Cape Town . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Since the founding of the American colonies, definition of the breadth of suffrage has reflected a tension between the desire to legitimize political authority by permitting expressions of consent through public acts of voting and the desires and demands of various groups and individuals for public recognition and the opportunity to participate in the selection of political representatives and governmental policies. (encyclopedia.com)
  • He played a crucial role in the American Revolution of 1776 and experienced the Great French Revolution of 1789 first hand. (socialistreviewindex.org.uk)
  • 2-Did slavery play a role in the economy of the colony? (prezi.com)
  • The Cape Colony subsequently remained in the British Empire until the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, when it was renamed the Cape of Good Hope Province . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The repercussions of this change will eventually result in a revolution of 13 of those North American colonies against the mighty British Empire. (google.com)
  • In that year, 20 African people were brought to the Jamestown colony aboard a Dutch warship. (scholastic.com)
  • The first British colony at Jamestown is established. (manitobaharvest.com)
  • Voting, like many other civil rights, can be denied to convicted criminals under the ancient concept of "civil death" and the English legal concept of "attainder" (see 1607-1776 ). (historycommons.org)
  • In the 1600s, England founded colonies along the Atlantic seaboard, from what is now New Hampshire to Georgia. (scholastic.com)
  • I have done this because I believe that final conclusions must always rest upon the experiences England had with all, not a part, of her colonies. (worldcat.org)
  • The work portrays the unjust treatment received by the colonies from the mother country, England. (bartleby.com)
  • The King, as well as England, begins to forget the colonies are inhabited by English men. (bartleby.com)
  • England gives excuses for the taxes and rulings because of the safety factor they preserve for the colonies. (bartleby.com)
  • 84) England is protecting the colonies when it is convenient for Her. (bartleby.com)
  • In 1776, he issued the initial orders to have the fort reoccupied and repaired by the Americans. (nps.gov)
  • The Cape Colony was coextensive with the later Cape Province , stretching from the Atlantic coast inland and eastward along the southern coast, constituting about half of modern South Africa: the final eastern boundary, after several wars against the Xhosa , stood at the Fish River . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The majority were brought into the colony from Africa and the Caribbean. (familysearch.org)
  • We have 1776 at home and I asked my wife, who's a big McCullough fan and reads more history than I do if it was any good, and her answer was a hesitant, "No, not really. (theincidentaleconomist.com)
  • An obscure report claims that an explosive 1770 epidemic duced into the colony by Spanish greed. (cdc.gov)
  • From 1683 to 1755 Pennsylvania's European settlers had no major wars with the native nations, in stark contrasts with other British colonies. (counterpunch.org)
  • Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. (amazonaws.com)
  • 4. The English Colonies in the Eighteenth Century, 1689-1763. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Finally, Thomas Paine gives confidence to the unity of the colonies, and details a forceful removal of English authority. (bartleby.com)
  • King George III prevented the establishment of judicial powers in the colonies and made judges dependent on him for their jobs and salaries. (sparknotes.com)
  • A 1776 judicial decision in Pennsylvania established what seems to have been the first municipally mandated institutional provision for the mentally ill in the colonies. (nap.edu)
  • Spain's plan was to establish a colony at a place they called el río de San Francisco . (nps.gov)
  • Seventh - get rid of bond markets ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bond_market ) - Hereafter the governemnt pays for it's expenses through a national sales tax on consumables other than staple (needed for life) consumables like food and shelter. (occupywallst.org)
  • 4. Colonies The British colonies that became the original 13 states of the United States. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The original 13 colonies of the United States were formed in 1732. (thoughtco.com)
  • Dutch governor-general Jan Willem Janssens surrendered both the Cape Colony and the Dutch East Indies in separate incidents during the Napoleonic Wars ? (thefullwiki.org)
  • The country's money supply did not exceed $30 million, which was less than $6.00 per citizen and only $20 million more than the combined amount held between all of the colonies twenty-five years earlier. (247wallst.com)
  • But just a few years later a second Northeast colony was chartered, overwhelming Plymouth in 1628. (study.com)
  • The trail commemorates, protects, marks, and interprets the route traveled by Anza during the years 1774 - 1776. (nps.gov)
  • Shortly after the proclamation, Parliament decided that the colonies would help repay the war debts, and enacted laws such as the Sugar Act (1764), the Stamp Tax (1765), the Townshend Acts (1767) and the Tea Act (1773). (sparknotes.com)
  • In January 1776 Paine's pamphlet Common Sense was published. (socialistreviewindex.org.uk)
  • After reading excerpts from the pamphlet "Common Sense", written by Thomas Paine in 1776, I developed a sense of understanding for many different aspects of the article. (bartleby.com)
  • Common Sense was written by Thomas Paine and published in 1776. (bartleby.com)
  • 1. "These United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states. (angelfire.com)
  • The United States became an independent country on July 4, 1776. (reference.com)
  • The British had abolished the Atlantic slave trade but kept the institution in its colonies until 1834. (wikipedia.org)
  • Denmark made the island a colony in 1776. (spiegel.de)
  • In June 1776, Washington brought his army south to New York City to head off the British after forcing their retreat from Boston. (mountvernon.org)