25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).Milk Substitutes: Food BEVERAGES that are used as nutritional substitutes for MILK.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Phenylalanine Hydroxylase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC 188.8.131.52.Tryptophan Hydroxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 184.108.40.206.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Benzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 220.127.116.11.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.4-Hydroxybenzoate-3-Monooxygenase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC 18.104.22.168.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases: Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Mice, Inbred C57BLBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin: Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Trans-Cinnamate 4-Monooxygenase: A member of the P450 superfamily, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxidative step of the phenylpropanoid pathway in higher PLANTS by transforming trans-cinnamate into p-coumarate.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.gamma-Butyrobetaine Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROXYLATION of gamma-butyrobetaine to L-CARNITINE. It is the last enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of L-CARNITINE and is dependent on alpha-ketoglutarate; IRON; ASCORBIC ACID; and OXYGEN.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pterins: Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseAdrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Androstanes: The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.Xanthomatosis, Cerebrotendinous: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder due to mutation of the gene CYP27A1 encoding a CHOLESTANETRIOL 26-MONOOXYGENASE. It is characterized by large deposits of CHOLESTEROL and CHOLESTANOL in various tissues resulting in xanthomatous swelling of tendons, early CATARACT, and progressive neurological symptoms.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Adrenal Cortex Hormones
List of MeSH codes (D08)
... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.737 --- steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.748 --- steroid 17- ... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915.737 --- steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170 ... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.737 --- steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.745 ... alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.760 --- steroid 21-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.957 --- trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase ...
bile acid biosynthesis 7-alpha hydroxylase of steroid nucleus. 2 subfamilies, 2 genes. CYP7A1, CYP7B1 ... found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of adrenal cortex has steroid 11β-hydroxylase, steroid 18-hydroxylase, and steroid 18 ... has steroid 11β-hydroxylase, steroid 18-hydroxylase, and steroid 18-methyloxidase activities. ... steroid 20α-hydroxylase, steroid 22-hydroxylase, cholesterol side-chain scission).. *CYP11B1 (encoding the protein P450c11β) ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.737 - steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.748 ... 25-hydroxyvitamin d3 1-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.720 - steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220. ... alpha 1-antichymotrypsin MeSH D12.776.377.715.085.085 - alpha 1-antitrypsin MeSH D12.776.377.715.085.100 - alpha-macroglobulins ... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.212 - cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D12.776.422.220. ...
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency
The hydroxylase reactions are part of the synthetic pathway to cortisol as well as sex steroids, but the lyase reaction is only ... "Mutation of cytochrome P-45017 alpha gene (CYP17) in a Japanese patient previously reported as having glucocorticoid-responsive ... In these people the defect had the effect of an isolated impairment of sex steroid (e.g., DHEA in the adrenal, but also gonadal ... The sex steroid deficiency produces effects similar to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. Severely affected genetic females (XX) are ...
"Action of a non-steroid anti-androgen, RU 23908, in peripheral and central tissues". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 11 (1): ... Raynaud JP, Bonne C, Bouton MM, Lagace L, Labrie F (1979). "Action of a non-steroid anti-androgen, RU 23908, in peripheral and ... Gooren, L.; Spinder, T.; Spijkstra, J. J.; Van Kessel, H.; Smals, A.; Rao, B. R.; Hoogslag, M. (1987). "Sex Steroids and ... Moguilewsky M, Bertagna C, Hucher M (1987). "Pharmacological and clinical studies of the antiandrogen Anandron". J. Steroid ...
Since progestins have relatively little effect on sexual differentiation compared to the other sex steroids, potent ones such ... and progestogen sex steroids in the body. Antigonadotropins are used for a variety of purposes, including for the treatment ... as well as steroid synthesis inhibitors such as danazol and gestrinone. Some antigonadotropins have a multimodal action, such ... Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 33 (4B): 757-61. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(89)90488-3. PMID 2689784. Jonathan S. Berek; Emil Novak ...
Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase
In the early 1960s, P450 was thought to be one enzyme, and by the mid 1960s it was associated with drug and steroid metabolism ... Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase also known as cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase or cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) is an enzyme ... Cholesterol 7 alpha hydroxylase consists of 491 amino acids, which on folding forms 23 alpha helices and 26 beta sheets. ... The enzyme cholesterol 7 alpha hydroxylase catalyzes the reaction that converts cholesterol into cholesterol 7 alpha ...
"Distribution and percentages of non-protein bound contraceptive steroids in human serum". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 17 ( ... Rabe T, Kowald A, Ortmann J, Rehberger-Schneider S (August 2000). "Inhibition of skin 5 alpha-reductase by oral contraceptive ... and 21-hydroxylase CPA does not have significant affinity for the estrogen receptor (ER) or for the mineralocorticoid receptor ... CPA is also reportedly the most potent of the steroidal antiandrogens, out of hundreds of other steroids. CPA is a potent ...
Complement component 4B
... steroid 21-hydroxylase CYP21, and tenascin TNX (the RCCX module). A mechanism for gene deletions and disease associations". The ... The alpha chain may be cleaved to release C4 anaphylatoxin, a mediator of local inflammation. Deficiency of this protein is ... Blom AM, Webb J, Villoutreix BO, Dahlbäck B (Jul 1999). "A cluster of positively charged amino acids in the C4BP alpha-chain is ... The protein is expressed as a single chain precursor which is proteolytically cleaved into a trimer of alpha, beta, and gamma ...
"DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta". Steroids. 78 (1): 15-25. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.10.002. PMC ... steroid 7α-hydroxylase) in tissues such as the prostate gland and by CYP3A4 in the liver. The major metabolic pathway of DHEA ... Steroids. 70 (14): 970-3. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2005.07.006. PMID 16143359. he major metabolic pathway for DHEA in extra- ... "Increased total 7 alpha-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone in serum of patients with Alzheimer's disease". J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci ...
A. Jaworski; L. Sedlaczek; J. Dlugoński; Ewa Zajaczkowska (1985). "Inducible nature of the steroid 11-hydroxylases in spores of ... Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase from Cunninghamella elegans on www.uniprot.org Cha, C. J.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Stingley, R ... C. elegans can be used for phenanthrene bioconversion or for steroid transformation. It has been used to produce isoapocodeine ... C. elegans also possesses a lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase, another enzyme in the cytochrome P450 family. C. elegans also ...
Heavy alcohol use Steroid use Nicotine use. Malformed aorta, slow pulse, ischemia: these cause reduced blood flow to the renal ... 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, aka apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome, involves a defect in the gene for 11β- ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a group of autosomal recessive disorders of the enzymes responsible for steroid hormone ... Certain medications, including NSAIDs (Motrin/Ibuprofen) and steroids can cause hypertension. Other medications include ...
Increased levels of 11β-OHP occur in 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Along with its epimer 11α-hydroxyprogesterone (11α-OHP), 11β- ... Souness GW, Latif SA, Laurenzo JL, Morris DJ (1995). "11 alpha- and 11 beta-hydroxyprogesterone, potent inhibitors of 11 beta- ... endogenous steroid and derivative of progesterone. It is a potent mineralocorticoid. ... Souness GW, Morris DJ (1996). "11 alpha- and 11 beta-hydroxyprogesterone, potent inhibitors of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid ...
Facile synthesis and inhibition of CYP17A1 catalytic activity". Steroids. 115: 114-122. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2016.06.002. ... but both the hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities of CYP17A1 are required for the production of androgenic and oestrogenic ... "Mutation of cytochrome P-45017 alpha gene (CYP17) in a Japanese patient previously reported as having glucocorticoid-responsive ... "CYP17A1 - Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase - Homo sapiens (Human) - CYP17A1 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved ...
Defects in the sterol 5-6 desaturase enzyme reduce the toxic effects of azole inhibition of the 14-alpha demethylation step. ... The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 56 (1-6 Spec No): 133-43. doi:10.1016/0960-0760(95)00230-8. PMID ... and in inhibiting 11β-hydroxylase (IC50 values of 0.152 and 0.608 μM, respectively). Both isomers were relatively weak ... which are involved in the synthesis and degradation of steroids, including the precursors of testosterone. Due to its efficacy ...
... multi-subunit enzymes prolyl 4-hydroxylase, prolyl 3-hydroxylase and lysyl 5-hydroxylase, respectively. These reactions require ... Some drugs (for example, steroids) are activated or deactivated by hydroxylation. The hydroxylation process involves conversion ... In biochemistry, hydroxylation reactions are often facilitated by enzymes called hydroxylases. Hydroxylation is the first step ... 17α-Hydroxylase Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase Dopamine β-hydroxylase Phenylalanine hydroxylase Tyrosine hydroxylase Nelson, D ...
Tamaya T, Fujimoto J, Watanabe Y, Arahori K, Okada H (1986). "Gestrinone (R2323) binding to steroid receptors in human uterine ... Hydroxylase and 17, 20 Lyase by Progestins and Danazol". Endocrinologia Japonica. 36 (3): 387-394. doi:10.1507/endocrj1954.36. ... Gestrinone, sold under the brand names Dimetriose, Dimetrose, and Nemestran among others, is a synthetic steroid that is used ... a designer steroid which is far more potent as both an AAS and progestogen in comparison. THG was banned by the Food and Drug ...
... is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands. It is of minor ... Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, ... Dictionary of Steroids. CRC Press. pp. 189-. ISBN 978-0-412-27060-4. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117140-overview#a5 " ... except in the very rare case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. In many species, ...
In rodents, the lack of 17alpha-hydroxylase results in the synthesis of corticosterone instead of cortisol as in the human.[ ... Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 108 (3-5): 281-6. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2007.09.015. PMC 2699571 . PMID 17945481. Pediatric Adrenal ... In humans the reticularis layer does contain 17 alpha-hydroxylase; this hydroxylates pregnenolone, which is then converted to ...
The steroid is known to compete with catecholamines for binding to catechol O-methyltransferase and tyrosine hydroxylase and to ... "Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta". ... The steroid is only very weakly estrogenic, and is able to antagonize the estrogenic effects of estradiol, indicating that its ... is an endogenous steroid, catechol estrogen, and metabolite of estradiol, as well as a positional isomer of estriol. ...
... namely 21-hydroxylase and 11β-hydroxylase, lead to a build-up of 17α-OHP. In contrast, the rare patient with 17α-hydroxylase ... This steroid is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and to some degree in the gonads, specifically the corpus luteum of ... 2015). "Adrenal Steroid Metabolites Accumulating in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia lead to Transactivation of the ... It is also a chemical intermediate in the biosynthesis of many other endogenous steroids, including androgens, estrogens, ...
List of 5α-reductase inhibitors
"Inhibition of steroid 5 alpha-reductase by specific aliphatic unsaturated fatty acids". The Biochemical Journal. 285 (Pt 2): ... "Comparison of the effects of new specific azasteroid inhibitors of steroid 5 alpha-reductase on canine hyperplastic prostate: ... "Steroid 5α α α α-Reductase Inhibitors" (PDF). ResearchGate. 2014-05-21. Retrieved 2014-06-08. Hartmann, R. W.; Hector, M.; ... Cabeza M, Bratoeff E, Heuze I, Ramírez E, Sánchez M, Flores E (2003). "Effect of beta-sitosterol as inhibitor of 5 alpha- ...
"DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta". Steroids. 78 (1): 15-25. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.10.002. PMC ... The estrogen steroid hormones are estrane steroids. In 1929, Adolf Butenandt and Edward Adelbert Doisy independently isolated ... Baker ME (March 2013). "What are the physiological estrogens?". Steroids. 78 (3): 337-40. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.12.011. ... The estrane steroid estradiol is the most potent and prevalent of these. Estrogens are synthesized in all vertebrates as well ...
Lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase
Oxidoreductases: dioxygenases, including steroid hydroxylases (EC 1.14). 1.14.11: 2-oxoglutarate. *Prolyl hydroxylase ... Tuck SF, Patel H, Safi E, Robinson CH (June 1991). "Lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (P45014DM): effects of P45014DM inhibitors ... alpha helix and the β4 loop. Finally, the active site contains a heme prosthetic group in which the iron is tethered to a ... This steroid then makes its way throughout the cell, where it alters the permeability and rigidity of plasma membranes much as ...
Lifelong, continuous steroid replacement therapy is required, with regular follow-up treatment and monitoring for other health ... The subunit ACTH undergoes further cleavage to produce alpha-MSH, the most important MSH for skin pigmentation. In secondary ... Autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex is caused by an immune reaction against the enzyme 21-hydroxylase (a phenomenon ... Addison's disease arises from problems with the adrenal gland such that not enough of the steroid hormone cortisol and possibly ...
"A new electron transport mechanism in mitochondrial steroid hydroxylase systems based on structural changes upon the reduction ... Members of the 2Fe-2S ferredoxin family have a general core structure consisting of beta(2)-alpha-beta(2), which includes ... 38 (17): 5666-5675. doi:10.1021/bi983063r. PMID 10220356. Ruterjans H, Beilke D, Weiss R, Lohr F, Pristovsek P, Hannemann F, ...
Steroid sulfotransferase (SST) inhibitors prevent the conversion of steroid hormones such as estrone and DHEA into hormonally ... Metabolism of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one after intravenous administration to bile duct-cannulated rats". J. Biol ... 11β-Hydroxylase (CYP11B1) inhibitors such as amphenone B, etomidate, ketoconazole, metyrapone, mitotane, and osilodrostat ... the biosynthesis of endogenous steroids and steroid hormones. They may inhibit the production of cholesterol and other sterols ...
... is the addition of a hydroxyl group on position 7 of the steroid nucleus by the enzyme cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. This ... Minor pathways initiated by 25-hydroxylase in the liver and 24-hydroxylase in the brain also may contribute to bile acid ... 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7B1) generates oxysterols, which may be further converted in the liver to CDCA. Cholic acid, 3α,7α,12α- ... The 5β in the name denotes the orientation of the junction between rings A and B of the steroid nucleus (in this case, they are ...
doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2008.10.016. PMID 19028512. Many synthetic steroids with high myotrophic activity exhibit myotrophic- ... 21-hydroxylase, or 11β-hydroxylase. Since it is not aromatized (and hence cannot be transformed into an estrogenic metabolite ... Chu YH, Li QA, Zhao ZF, Zhou YP, Cao DC (1985). "[Antiprogestational action of 5 alpha-dihydronorethisterone]". Zhongguo Yao Li ... Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 60 (1-2): 121-9. doi:10.1016/s0960-0760(96)00172-0. PMID 9182866. Yamamoto T, Tamura T, Kitawaki J ...
Genetics and clinical presentation of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency
This conversion is mediated by 21-hydroxylase, the enzyme encoded by theCYP21A2gene.Patients with c ... Defective conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol accounts for more than 90 percent of cases of congenital ... Two genes encoding steroid 21-hydroxylase are located near the genes encoding the fourth component of complement in man. Proc ... Mapping of steroid 21-hydroxylase genes adjacent to complement component C4 genes in HLA, the major histocompatibility complex ...
CYP17A1 - Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase - Capra hircus (Goat) - CYP17A1 gene & protein
Has 16-alpha hydroxylase activity. Catalyzes 16-alpha hydroxylation of 17-alpha hydroxy pregnenolone, followed by the cleavage ... Hydroxylates steroid hormones, pregnenolone and progesterone to form 17-alpha hydroxy metabolites, followed by the cleavage of ... Also 16-alpha hydroxylates androgens, relevant for estriol synthesis. Mechanistically, uses molecular oxygen inserting one ... Catalyzes 17-alpha hydroxylation of C21 steroids, which is common for both pathways. A second oxidative step, required only for ...
Steroid 17 Alpha Hydroxylase/17,20 Lyase 17 Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Aldolase or Cytochrome P450 17A1 or Cytochrome P450 C17...
Steroid 17 Alpha Hydroxylase/17,20 Lyase 17 Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Aldolase or Cytochrome P450 17A1 or Cytochrome P450 C17 ... Cytochrome P450 11B2 Mitochondrial Aldosterone Synthase or Cytochrome P450Aldo or Cytochrome P450C18 or Steroid 18 Hydroxylase ... Cytochrome P450 11B2 Mitochondrial Aldosterone Synthase or Cytochrome P450Aldo or Cytochrome P450C18 or Steroid 18 Hydroxylase ... Steroid 17 Alpha Hydroxylase/17,20 Lyase 17 Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Aldolase or Cytochrome P450 17A1 or Cytochrome P450 C17 ...
C-17 Hydroxylase Deficiency Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Surgical Care, Consultations
... known as 17-hydroxylase deficiency was first described in the 1960s in patients with sexual infantilism and hypertension. It ... Steroid 17,20-desmolase deficiency: a new cause of male pseudohermaphroditism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1972 Oct. 1(4):369-85. [ ... A compound heterozygous mutation in the CYP17 (17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) gene in a Chinese subject with congenital ... Novel mutation in cytochrome P450c17 causes complete combined 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. J Pediatr Endocrinol ...
C-17 Hydroxylase Deficiency Medication: Glucocorticoids, Estrogens, Progestogens, Androgens, Antihypertensive agents,...
... known as 17-hydroxylase deficiency was first described in the 1960s in patients with sexual infantilism and hypertension. It ... DHEA is a C-19 steroid also known as 5-androsten-3 beta-ol-17-one. DHEA and DHEA-S (an active sulfated form of DHEA) are ... A compound heterozygous mutation in the CYP17 (17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) gene in a Chinese subject with congenital ... Novel mutation in cytochrome P450c17 causes complete combined 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. J Pediatr Endocrinol ...
Primary amenorrhoea with hypertension: undiagnosed 17-α-hydroxylase deficiency | The Medical Journal of Australia
Steroid 17alpha-hydroxylase deficiency: first Australian case report. J Paediatr Child Health 1997; 33: 259-261. ... Mutation of cytochrome P-45017 alpha gene (CYP17) in a Japanese patient previously reported as having glucocorticoid-responsive ... Phenotype-genotype correlation in eight Chinese 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase-deficiency patients with five novel mutations ... Rare hypertension as a result of 17alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2011; 24: 333-337. ...
Developmentally Regulated Expression of Adrenal 17 Alpha-Hydroxylase Cytochrome P450 in the Mouse Embryo
... by the absence of 17 alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) in adrenal glands of these rodents. During embryonic ... Adrenal glands from adult mice contain mRNAs encoding steroid hydroxylases required to produce corticosterone and aldosterone ... encoding all of the steroid hydroxylases required to produce cortisol and corticosterone but little aldosterone synthase mRNA. ... and species-specific expression of these steroid hydroxylases during embryonic development. ...
Dysregulation of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase messenger ribonucleic acid stability in theca cells isolated from women...
... steroid 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (P450c17)], a steroidogenic enzyme obligatory for the biosynthesis of androgens. ... Dysregulation of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase messenger ribonucleic acid stability in theca cells isolated from women ... isolated from the ovaries of women with PCOS are characterized by increased expression of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase ( ... 0/3 Untranslated Regions; 0/5 Untranslated Regions; 0/RNA, Messenger; EC 22.214.171.124/Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase ...
Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase - 11 beta-Hydroxylase Summary Report | CureHunter
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen ... Steroid 11 Hydroxylase; Steroid 11-Hydroxylase; Steroid-11-Hydroxylase; 11 beta Hydroxylase; Cytochrome P 450 CYP11B1; Steroid ... Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase (11 beta-Hydroxylase). Subscribe to New Research on Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase ... 11 beta-Hydroxylase; Steroid 11 beta Hydroxylase; CYP11B1; CYP 11B1; Cytochrome P450 11B1; ...
Experts and Doctors on steroid hydroxylases in Dallas, Texas, United States
Genomes and Genes about Experts and Doctors on steroid hydroxylases in Dallas, Texas, United States ... steroid hydroxylases*cholesterol 7 alpha hydroxylase*hydroxycholesterols*steroid 17 alpha hydroxylase*25 hydroxyvitamin d3 1 ... These results suggest that bile acids and sterols are able to alter the transcription of the 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene and that ... Experts and Doctors on steroid hydroxylases in Dallas, Texas, United States. Summary. Locale: Dallas, Texas, United States ...
CYP17A1 gene: MedlinePlus Genetics
Differential inhibition of 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities by three novel missense CYP17 mutations identified in ... Steroid hormones are synthesized through a series of chemical reactions. The CYP17A1 enzyme performs two important reactions in ... genetic and functional characteristics of three novel CYP17A1 mutations causing combined 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase ... Like other cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP17A1 is involved in the formation (synthesis) of steroid hormones. This group of ...
Cytochrome P450 - Wikipedia
bile acid biosynthesis 7-alpha hydroxylase of steroid nucleus. 2 subfamilies, 2 genes. CYP7A1, CYP7B1 ... found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of adrenal cortex has steroid 11β-hydroxylase, steroid 18-hydroxylase, and steroid 18 ... has steroid 11β-hydroxylase, steroid 18-hydroxylase, and steroid 18-methyloxidase activities. ... steroid 20α-hydroxylase, steroid 22-hydroxylase, cholesterol side-chain scission).. *CYP11B1 (encoding the protein P450c11β) ...
Dysregulation of cytochrome P450c 17 alpha as the cause of polycystic ovarian syndrome
Steroid Hydroxylases * Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase Grant support * HD-06308/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States ... It appears that PCOS typically arises from masculinized regulation of the androgen-forming enzyme (cytochrome P450c17 alpha) ... may be due to a similar type of dysregulation of adrenocortical P450c17 alpha. ... Dysregulation of cytochrome P450c 17 alpha as the cause of polycystic ovarian syndrome Fertil Steril. 1990 May;53(5):785-91. ...
KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Tupaia chinensis (Chinese tree shrew)
102500370 SRD5A1; steroid 5 alpha-reductase 1 102478179 SRD5A2; steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 102493739 SRD5A3; steroid 5 alpha- ... steroid 17alpha-monooxygenase / 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone deacetylase [EC:126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52] K01131 STS; steryl-sulfatase ... 102491327 steroid 21-hydroxylase 102482734 NPR1; natriuretic peptide receptor 1 102487602 PDE2A; phosphodiesterase 2A K04166 ... 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 2 [EC:184.108.40.206] K12345 SRD5A3; 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 3 [EC:220.127.116.11 1.3. ...
Frontiers | Oxidative Stress-Mediated Brain Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Formation in Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis |...
... independent of the cytochrome P450 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) enzyme activity found in the periphery. This ... Neurosteroids are steroids made by brain cells independently of peripheral steroidogenic sources. The biosynthesis of most ... Neurosteroids are steroids made by brain cells independently of peripheral steroidogenic sources. The biosynthesis of most ... independent of the cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) enzyme activity found in the periphery. This ...
MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
These data indicate that exposure to isoliquiritigenin inhibits growth and disrupts steroid production in antral follicles.. ... 0 (AR protein, human); 0 (Androgens); 0 (Estrogen Receptor alpha); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (Receptors, Androgen); 0 (estrogen ... Additionally, isoliquiritigenin altered the mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 steroid 17-α-hydroxylase 1, aromatase, 17 - ... 0 (Steroidogenic Factor 1); 0 (Steroids); 3XMK78S47O (Testosterone); 4TI98Z838E (Estradiol); 53GH7MZT1R (Mercuric Chloride); EC ...
MedlinePlus: Genetic Conditions: D
deficiency of steroid 11-beta-monooxygenase, see Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency ... deficiency of alpha-mannosidase, see Alpha-mannosidosis. *deficiency of aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, see Aromatic l- ... deficiency disease, phenylalanine hydroxylase, see Phenylketonuria. *deficiency mutase phosphoglycerate, see Phosphoglycerate ... deficiency of steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase, see 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency ...
LH: The Test | Luteinizing Hormone
Steroid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium
The most common defect is in steroid 21-hydroxylase. Other defects occur in steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase, steroid 17-alpha- ... The steroid receptor proteins are generally specific for each steroid class, binding tightly only to the one steroid, but weak ... Abuse of anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids are steroids related to testosterone which encourage muscle development. They ... Steroids enter cells freely since they are lipid soluble and so can pass through cell membranes. All steroid hormone receptors ...
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia - Hyperplasia, Congenital Adrenal Summary Report | CureHunter
STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES ... TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders. ... 12/01/2003 - "Extremely high levels of basal serum 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone as well as an exaggerated response of 17alpha- ... Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid ...
Reproductive Flashcards by Melanie Bray | Brainscape
Aldosterone - DrugBank
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the ... Delta-4-steroids / Cyclohexenones / Alpha-hydroxy ketones / Secondary alcohols / Cyclic alcohols and derivatives / Primary ... 3-oxo steroid, 11beta-hydroxy steroid, 20-oxo steroid, mineralocorticoid, 21-hydroxy steroid, C21-steroid hormone, 18-oxo ... These are steroids carrying a hydroxyl group at the 21-position of the steroid backbone.. Kingdom. Organic compounds. Super ...
Anti-Cytochrome P450 17A1/CYP17A1 antibody (ab125876) | Abcam
Cytochrome p450 subfamily XVII (steroid 17 alpha hydroxylase) adrenal hyperplasia antibody. *Cytochrome p450 XVIIA1 antibody ... Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and the 17,20-lyase reaction. Involved in sexual development during fetal life and at ... Conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone ... Phosphorylation is necessary for 17,20-lyase, but not for 17-alpha-hydroxylase activity. ...
KEGG ENZYME: 18.104.22.168
steroid 17alpha-hydroxylase;. cytochrome P-450 17alpha;. cytochrome P-450 (P-450 17alpha,lyase);. 17alpha-hydroxylase-C17,20 ... a C21-steroid + [reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = a 17alpha-hydroxy-C21-steroid + [oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein ... 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone deacetylase). The ratio of the 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities is an important ... 17alpha-hydroxy-C21-steroid;. [oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] [CPD:C03161];. H2O [CPD:C00001]. ...
Testicular Signaling: Team Work in Sperm Production | Springer for Research & Development
Steroids 103:3-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2015.08.001CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase. AKT1S1. Proline-rich AKT1 substrate 1 ... Marti N, Galván JA, Pandey AV et al (2017) Genes and proteins of the alternative steroid backdoor pathway for ... J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 53:61-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-0760(95)00022-RCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Rabbit Anti-Cytochrome P450 17A1 Polyclonal Antibody - Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) WB, IF, IHC-P - Buy Now! ...
CD8 Alpha, Leu-2a. Ga. Human/Mouse Chimeric. Recombinant. Canine. Monkey. Bovine. No. 1. ... CPT7; CYP17; S17AH; P450C17; Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17, 20 lyase; 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone aldolase; CYPXVII; ... alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Catalyzes both the 17-alpha- ... Cytochrome P450 17A1; Cytochrome P450-C17; Cytochrome P450c17; Steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase; CYP17A1. ...
Reproductive Flashcards by Tali M | Brainscape
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (21-hydroxylase or 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency) -Exogenous steroids during pregnancy ... alpha-1-blocker, selective for receptors on prostate (so does not lower BP, etc...; only affects prostate) inhibits smooth ... alpha-1-blocker, selective for receptors on prostate (so does not lower BP, etc...; only affects prostate) inhibits smooth ... antiandrogen: inhibits 5-alpha-reductase (so cant convert testosterone DHT). *Treats:. -BPH. -Male baldness ...
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for 17a,20a-Dihydroxycholesterol (HMDB0006764)
17alpha,20alpha-Dihydroxycholesterol is an intermediate in C21-Steroid hormone metabolism. 17alpha,20alpha-Dihydroxycholesterol ... Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 3 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase Deficiency. Not Available. ... 2. Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase. General function:. Involved in monooxygenase activity. Specific function:. ... It is then converted to 17alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone via the enzyme cytochrome P450 (EC22.214.171.124).. ...
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Dehydroepiandrosterone (HMDB0000077)
Schwarz S, Pohl P: Steroid hormones and steroid hormone binding globulins in cerebrospinal fluid studied in individuals with ... 21-Hydroxylase deficiency. *Gmyrek GA, New MI, Sosa RE, Poppas DP: Bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy as a treatment for ... 3. Cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase. General function:. Involved in monooxygenase activity. Specific function:. Catalyzes a ... Conversion of sulfated steroid precursors to estrogens during pregnancy. Gene Name:. STS. Uniprot ID:. P08842 Molecular weight: ...
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Progesterone (HMDB0001830)
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the ... The bile acid intermediates 7-alpha,12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one can also act as ... C16 and C17 substituted derivatives of pregnenolone and progesterone as inhibitors of 17alpha-hydroxylase-C17, 20-lyase: ... Schwarz S, Pohl P: Steroid hormones and steroid hormone binding globulins in cerebrospinal fluid studied in individuals with ...
- The report provides comprehensive information on the Steroid 17 Alpha Hydroxylase/17,20 Lyase 17 Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Aldolase or Cytochrome P450 17A1 or Cytochrome P450 C17 or Steroid 17 Alpha Monooxygenase or CYP17 or CYP17A1 or EC 126.96.36.199 or EC 188.8.131.52, targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action MoA, route of administration RoA and molecule type. (bioportfolio.com)
- Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Steroid 17 Alpha Hydroxylase/17,20 Lyase 17 Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Aldolase or Cytochrome P450 17A1 or Cytochrome P450 C17 or Steroid 17 Alpha Monooxygenase or CYP17 or CYP17A1 or EC 184.108.40.206 or EC 220.127.116.11 targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (bioportfolio.com)
- Theca interna cells isolated from the ovaries of women with PCOS are characterized by increased expression of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase (CYP17) [steroid 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (P450c17)], a steroidogenic enzyme obligatory for the biosynthesis of androgens. (biomedsearch.com)
- Yanase T, Sanders D, Shibata A, Matsui N, Simpson E, Waterman M. Combined 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency due to a 7-basepair duplication in the N-terminal region of the cytochrome P45017 alpha (CYP17) gene. (labome.org)
- To determine whether polymorphisms in 17 hydroxylase (CYP17) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes have an association to prostate volume/histology and endocrine patterns in elderly men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). (cdc.gov)
- 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone is a 21-carbon steroid that is converted from pregnenolone by cytochrome P450 17alpha hydroxylase/C17,20 lyase (CYP17, EC 18.104.22.168). (hmdb.ca)
- 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone is converted to dehydroepiandrosterone by the 17,20 lyase activity of CYP17. (hmdb.ca)
- The ratio of the 17,20 lyase to 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity of CYP17 determines the ratio of C21 to C19 steroids produced. (hmdb.ca)
- Abiraterone acetate is administered as a prodrug to patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and is readily metabolized into the potent 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17) enzyme inhibitor and androgen receptor inhibitor abiraterone and Δ(4)-abiraterone (D4A), respectively. (edu.au)
- 17α-Hydroxylase deficiency is a rare disease caused by mutation of the CYP17 gene, resulting in hypertension, hypokalemia, female sexual infantilism or male pseudohermaphroditism, low blood cortisol and low plasma renin activity. (elsevier.com)
- Abiraterone acetate is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of CYP17, an enzyme that catalyzes two key serial reactions (17 alpha hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase) in androgen and estrogen biosynthesis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Steroid hormone synthesis is dependent on CYP17, a key enzyme in the generation of both androgens and estrogens ( Fig. 1 A ). Inhibition of CYP17 can be induced by the nonspecific, weak, inhibitor of several CYP enzymes, ketoconazole ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Moreover, attachment of heterocyclic moieties at diverse positions of the steroid core has provided novel compounds with a diverse range of biological activities including inhibition of cytochrome 17α-hydroxylase-C 17,20 -lyase (CYP17), one of the enzymes involved in androgen biosynthesis in the human body and a valuable target for prostate cancer (PC) treatment (3). (strath.ac.uk)
- Steroidal CYP17 inhibitors bearing N - containing heterocyclic moieties linked to the steroid core directly through the nitrogen atom have been shown to have antiandrogenic properties against the androgen-dependent LAPC4 human prostate tumor xenograft, actually being more effective than castration in suppressing its growth (4). (strath.ac.uk)
- Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and the 17,20-lyase reaction. (uniprot.org)
- CYP17A1 also has 17,20-lyase activity, which converts 17-hydroxypregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). (medlineplus.gov)
- Mutations associated with this condition reduce or eliminate both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activity. (medlineplus.gov)
- A loss of 17,20-lyase activity impairs sex hormone production. (medlineplus.gov)
- These mutations alter a region of the CYP17A1 protein that plays a role in the enzyme's 17,20-lyase function but not its 17α-hydroxylase function. (medlineplus.gov)
- As a result, 17,20-lyase activity is severely reduced but 17α-hydroxylase activity is normal. (medlineplus.gov)
- Over the years we have reported that, unlike other neurosteroids, DHEA biosynthesis in rat, bovine, and human brain is mediated by an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism, independent of the cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) enzyme activity found in the periphery. (frontiersin.org)
- A microsomal hemeprotein that catalyses two independent reactions at the same active site - the 17alpha-hydroxylation of pregnenolone and progesterone, which is part of glucocorticoid hormones biosynthesis, and the conversion of the 17alpha-hydroxylated products via a 17,20-lyase reaction to form androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone, leading to sex hormone biosynthesis (EC 22.214.171.124 , 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone deacetylase). (kegg.jp)
- The ratio of the 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities is an important factor in determining the directions of steroid hormone biosynthesis towards biosynthesis of glucocorticoid or sex hormones. (kegg.jp)
- It has both 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities and is a key enzyme in the steroidogenic pathway that produces progestins, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. (thermofisher.com)
- These 11 missense mutations, plus 10 others found in databases or reported elsewhere, were recreated by site-directed mutagenesis and were assessed by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of NADPH, support of 17α-hydroxylase activity, and support of 17,20 lyase using human P450c17. (elsevier.com)
- Testes were weighed and testicular parenchyma was recovered for determination of histology and detergent-resistant spermatid numbers, and for determination of Sertoli cell number and Leydig cell volume by staining for GATA-4 and 17-α hydroxylase/17-20 lyase respectively. (elsevier.com)
- R496L] resulted in complete loss of 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activity. (elsevier.com)
- 17,20-Lyase inhibitors. (elsevier.com)
- The 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ 5 - Δ 4 isomerase (3β-HSD) and 17α-hydroxylase/17,20- lyase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) enzymes are important in determining the balance of the synthesis of different steroids such as progesterone (P4), glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. (elsevier.com)
- In addition, the P450c17 enzyme exhibits different substrate specificities among species, particularly with respect to the 17,20-lyase activity. (elsevier.com)
- Corticosterone is the major circulating glucocorticoid in adult mice and rats, and this is explained, in part, by the absence of 17 alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) in adrenal glands of these rodents. (nih.gov)
- Adrenal glands from adult mice contain mRNAs encoding steroid hydroxylases required to produce corticosterone and aldosterone but not cortisol (little P450c17 mRNA). (nih.gov)
- The spatial and temporal expression patterns of P450c17 and aldosterone synthase mRNA, which differ from those of cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 and adrenodoxin, suggest that multiple factors must be required to program cell type- and species-specific expression of these steroid hydroxylases during embryonic development. (nih.gov)
- It appears that PCOS typically arises from masculinized regulation of the androgen-forming enzyme (cytochrome P450c17 alpha) within ovarian thecal cells. (nih.gov)
- We review evidence which is compatible with the concept that the latter situation may result from an intrinsic intraovarian flaw in the paracrine feedback mechanism by which thecal androgen biosynthesis is inhibited and that coexistent adrenal 17-ketosteroid hyper-responsiveness to corticotropin (ACTH) may be due to a similar type of dysregulation of adrenocortical P450c17 alpha. (nih.gov)
- The mathematical model developed in this study simulates the network of reactions catalyzed by 3β-HSD and P450c17 that characterizes steroid synthesis in human, non-human primate, ovine, and bovine species. (elsevier.com)
- We genotyped 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP17A1 and IFIT1 genes including SNP rs743572 previously associated with endometriosis in 768 endometriosis cases and 768 unrelated controls. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Two candidate genes on chromosome 10q, which have previously been implicated in endometriosis and uterine function, are cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 ( CYP17A1 , MIM #609300) and interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 ( IFIT1 , MIM #147690) [ 7 - 9 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A subsequent study on 119 endometriosis cases and 108 normal controls demonstrated that the CYP17A1 allele was associated with an increased risk of endometriosis in a Chinese population [ 8 ], but lack of association between endometriosis and the CYP17A1 polymorphism was observed in UK and Japanese populations [ 17 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The enzyme has 17 alpha(α)-hydroxylase activity, converting pregnenalone to 17-hydroxypregnenolone and progesterone to 17-hydroxyprogesterone. (medlineplus.gov)
- Without 17α-hydroxylase activity, pregnenolone and progesterone are not converted to 17-hydroxypregnenolone or 17-hydroxyprogesterone, impairing production of glucocorticoids. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cortisol , the major glucocorticoid, is produced when progesterone is hydroxylated at three positions, C-11, C-17 and C21. (citizendium.org)
- Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. (hmdb.ca)
- Basically all steroids convert to progesterone from cholesterol. (anabolicminds.com)
- Also, transcription of genes such as TMPRSS2 could be activated by other steroid receptors, for example the estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR). (aacrjournals.org)
- A gene on chromosome 10q24.3 that encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes, which catalyse reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Disclosed are methods and compositions for the preparation of steroid 5α-reductases by recombinant means, as well as for the use of these enzymes in screening assays for the identification of compounds which have the ability to inhibit or otherwise alter the enzymatic function of these enzymes. (google.co.uk)
- The present invention relates generally to enzymes, termed steroid 5α-reductases, which function biologically to catalyse the conversion of testosterone to dihydroxytestosterone. (google.co.uk)
- Neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels and CYP21 genotypes in preterm infants. (cdc.gov)
- Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: additional steroid profile using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (cdc.gov)
- Classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (salt-wasting and simple virilizing forms ) was diagnosed by an increase in 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels as confirmed in the retest, clinical evaluation, and genotype determined by SNaPshot and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification . (bvsalud.org)
- On retest, increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were found in classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients and showed significant correlation with genotype -related classical genital adrenal hyperplasia . (bvsalud.org)
- Lund E, Xie C, Kotti T, Turley S, Dietschy J, Russell D. Knockout of the cholesterol 24-hydroxylase gene in mice reveals a brain-specific mechanism of cholesterol turnover. (labome.org)
- The latter comprise a subset of the cytochrome P450 " Cyp " gene family that metabolize fatty acids, steroids, as well as endogenous and exogenous toxicants. (biomedcentral.com)
- 50 ng/dL, has remained the most effective treatment for this disease for more than 60 years, recent studies indicate that prostate cancers may generate intracrine androgenic steroids or become "hypersensitive" to low steroid levels through AR gene mutations or amplification supporting continued tumor growth ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- They are normally produced by three glands, the adrenal cortex , the testes , and the ovaries , but are also produced by the placenta during pregnancy, and some steroids (" neurosteroids ") are produced within the brain. (citizendium.org)
- In addition, for the absence of conversion of corticosterone to cortisol, it used a statement from the Kyoto University Bioinformatics Center that "there is no appreciable conversion of corticosterone to cortisol in the adrenal cortex as 21-OH steroids are poor substrates for 17-alpha hydroxylase. (wikiversity.org)
- 17alpha,20alpha-Dihydroxycholesterol is an intermediate in C21-Steroid hormone metabolism. (hmdb.ca)
- The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. (thermofisher.com)
- How do disorders of steroid metabolism and mineralocorticoid receptors cause hyperkalemia (high serum potassium level)? (medscape.com)
- The increase in synthesis of cytochrome P-450C21 was associated with an increase (3-6 fold) in both total cytochrome P-450 content and in the type I absorbance change induced by 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in microsomes prepared from ACTH-treated cells, as compared with that in microsomes from control cells. (eurekamag.com)
- Ramirez D, Andersson S, Russell D. Neuronal expression and subcellular localization of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase in the mouse brain. (labome.org)
- These findings reveal the microsomal localization of 24-hydroxylase and provide subcellular insight into cholesterol turnover in the brain. (labome.org)
- Because all steroids are derived from cholesterol, the numbering and nomenclature follow that of cholesterol . (citizendium.org)
- Pregnenolone is the first steroid derived from cholesterol. (citizendium.org)
- Because of this, all steroid numbering and nomenclature follow that of cholesterol. (citizendium.org)
- Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a natural steroid hormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands. (hmdb.ca)
- Steroidogenesis is the biological process by which steroids are generated from cholesterol and transformed into other steroids. (wikiversity.org)
- The oxidation of the C-17 carbon must occur before the hydroxylation at C-21 to synthesize cortisol, otherwise corticosterone is formed. (citizendium.org)
- By contrast, ACTH did not act to increase steroid 21-hydroxylase activity in cultured intact cells, as determined by the rate of secretion of cortisol and 11-deoxycortisol, after addition of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to the medium. (eurekamag.com)
- Synthetic adrenocortical steroid. (medscape.com)
- Effect of adrenocorticotropin on steroid 21-hydroxylase synthesis and activity in cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. (eurekamag.com)
- The action of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) to stimulate synthesis of steroid 21-hydroxylase was studied in bovine adrenocortical cells maintained in primary culture. (eurekamag.com)
- Of the remaining 16 patients, the net increment in 17-HP (17-HP 0-30 ) was within normal limits in seven (2.6%) and these women were assumed to have a normal 17-HP adrenocortical response superimposed on an elevated basal level of nonadrenal (e.g. ovarian) origin. (elsevier.com)
- Vitellogenin (Vtg), 17 -estradiol (E ), testosterone(T), gonadotropin (GtH), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (bireme.br)
- In prostatic adenocarcinoma cells, the most abundant serum androgen, testosterone, is converted into a higher-affinity ligand for AR, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), via the action of 5-alpha reductase ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Catalyzes 17-alpha hydroxylation of C21 steroids, which is common for both pathways. (uniprot.org)
- Catalyzes 16-alpha hydroxylation of 17-alpha hydroxy pregnenolone, followed by the cleavage of the C17-C20 bond to form 16-alpha-hydroxy DHEA. (uniprot.org)
- A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. (curehunter.com)
- Properties of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form)-linked 17 alpha-hydroxylation. (kegg.jp)