17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone: A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Dictionaries, MedicalHydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Radio Frequency Identification Device: Machine readable patient or equipment identification device using radio frequency from 125 kHz to 5.8 Ghz.Electromagnetic Radiation: Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Uterine Cervical Incompetence: Incompetent UTERINE CERVIX is usually diagnosed in the second trimester of PREGNANCY. It is characterized by passive painless cervical dilation in the absence of UTERINE CONTRACTION; BLEEDING; INFECTION; and sometimes with the amniotic sac (AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE) bulging through the partially dilated cervix. Left untreated, this condition may lead to premature pregnancy loss, such as HABITUAL ABORTION.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cerclage, Cervical: The surgical closure of the incompetent cervix uteri with suture material.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Singlet Oxygen: An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Trustees: Board members of an institution or organization who are entrusted with the administering of funds and the directing of policy.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Sequence Inversion: The deletion and reinsertion of a segment of a nucleic acid sequence in the same place, but flipped in an opposite orientation.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Pathology, Surgical: A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
(1/235) The treatment of insulin resistance does not improve adrenal cytochrome P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation in polycystic ovary syndrome.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin. when given to non-diabetic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), results in a reduction of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia while body weight is maintained. Also we aimed to see whether the reduction in insulin levels attenuates the activity of adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme in patients with PCOS. DESIGN: We investigated the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione responses to ACTH, insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glucose disposal rate in an insulin tolerance test before and after metformin therapy (500 mg, orally, twice daily, for 12 weeks). METHODS: The presence of hyperinsulinemia in 15 women with PCOS was demonstrated by an OGTT and results were compared with those of 10 healthy women. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the rate of endogenous glucose disposal after i.v. bolus injection of insulin. 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were measured in all the women with PCOS and the normal women. RESULTS: Women with PCOS were hyperinsulinemic (102.0+/-13.0 (S.E.M.) VS 46.2+/-4.4 pmol/l) and hyperandrogenemic (free testosterone 15.3+/-1.7 vs 7.9+/-0.6 nmol/l; androstenedione 11.8+/-0.8 vs 8.2+/-0.6 nmol/l) and more hirsute (modified Ferriman-Gallwey score, 17.7+/-1.6 vs 3.0+/-0.3) than healthy women. In addition, women with PCOS had higher 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH when compared with healthy women. Metformin therapy resulted in some improvement in insulin sensitivity and reduced the basal and post-glucose load insulin levels. But 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were unaltered in response to metformin. CONCLUSIONS: PCOS is characterized by hyperactivity of the adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme and insulin resistance. It seems that there is no direct relationship between insulin resistance and adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation.  (+info)

(2/235) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: not really a zebra.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia was once considered a rare inherited disorder with severe manifestations. Mild congenital adrenal hyperplasia, however, is common, affecting one in 100 to 1,000 persons in the United States and frequently eluding diagnosis. Both classic and nonclassic forms of the disease are caused by deficiencies in the adrenal enzymes that are used to synthesize glucocorticoids. The net result is increased production from the adrenal gland of cortisol precursors and androgens. Even mild congenital adrenal hyperplasia can result in life-threatening sinus or pulmonary infections, orthostatic syncope, shortened stature and severe acne. Women with mild congenital adrenal hyperplasia often present with hirsutism, oligomenorrhea or infertility. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is diagnosed by demonstration of excess cortisol precursors in the serum during an adrenal corticotropic hormone challenge. Diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyerplasia in fetuses that are at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be determined using human leukocyte antigen haplotype or by demonstration of excess cortisol precursors in amniotic fluid. Treatment includes carefully monitored hormone replacement therapy. Recognition of the problem and timely replacement therapy can reduce morbidity and enhance quality of life in patients that are affected by congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  (+info)

(3/235) The effect of chronic treatment with GH on gonadal function in men with isolated GH deficiency.

Eleven adult males, previously submitted to neurosurgery because of a pituitary lesion (three with craniopharyngioma, three with clinically non-functioning adenoma and five with macroprolactinoma) were treated with recombinant GH for 12 months after the diagnosis of GH deficiency was made. Circulating FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone, 17 beta-estradiol (E2), dehyroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S), androstenedione. 17-OH-progesterone (17OHP), IFG-I, and steroid hormone-binding protein (SHBG) levels were assayed before and after CG test at study entry and 6 and 12 months after GH treatment. A significant increase in plasma IGF-I levels was obtained after 6 and 12 months of GH treatment. In addition, CG-stimulated, but not baseline, testosterone levels showed a significant increase after 6 and 12 months of GH treatment when compared with study entry (9.6 +/- 0.5 and 9.9 +/- 0.5 vs 7.9 +/- 0.5 ng/ml; P < 0.05). Baseline, but not CG-stimulated, serum 17OHP levels were significantly increased only after 12 months of GH treatment (1.7 +/- 0.1 vs 1.4 +/- 0.1 ng/ml; P < 0.05). No significant difference was found as far as both basal and CG-stimulated E2, androstenedione, DHEA-S and SHBG were concerned. With regards to the semen analysis, only seminal plasma volume was significantly increased after 12 months of GH treatment (2.9 +/- 0.3 vs 1.7 +/- 0.3 ml; P < 0.05). No significant change in sperm count, motility and abnormal forms was observed. These data show that GH treatment displays a clear-cut effect upon Leydig cell function and increases the production of seminal plasma volume in fertile adult males with isolated GH deficiency.  (+info)

(4/235) Ovulatory and metabolic effects of D-chiro-inositol in the polycystic ovary syndrome.

BACKGROUND: Women with the polycystic ovary syndrome have insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, possibly because of a deficiency of a D-chiro-inositol-containing phosphoglycan that mediates the action of insulin. We hypothesized that the administration of D-chiro-inositol would replenish stores of the mediator and improve insulin sensitivity. METHODS: We measured steroids in serum and performed oral glucose-tolerance tests before and after the oral administration of 1200 mg of D-chiro-inositol or placebo once daily for six to eight weeks in 44 obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. The serum progesterone concentration was measured weekly to monitor for ovulation. RESULTS: In the 22 women given D-chiro-inositol, the mean (+/-SD) area under the plasma insulin curve after the oral administration of glucose decreased from 13,417+/-11,572 to 5158+/-6714 microU per milliliter per minute (81+/-69 to 31+/-40 nmol per liter per minute) (P=0.007; P=0.07 for the comparison of this change with the change in the placebo group); glucose tolerance did not change significantly. The serum free testosterone concentration in these 22 women decreased from 1.1+/-0.8 to 0.5+/-0.5 ng per deciliter (38+/-7 to 17+/-3 pmol per liter) (P=0.006 for the comparison with the change in the placebo group). The women's diastolic and systolic blood pressure decreased by 4 mm Hg (P<0.001 and P=0.05, respectively, for the comparisons with the changes in the placebo group), and their plasma triglyceride concentrations decreased from 184+/-88 to 110+/-61 mg per deciliter (2.1+/-0.2 to 1.2+/-0.1 mmol per liter) (P=0.002 for the comparison with the change in the placebo group). None of these variables changed appreciably in the placebo group. Nineteen of the 22 women who received D-chiro-inositol ovulated, as compared with 6 of the 22 women in the placebo group (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: D-Chiro-inositol increases the action of insulin in patients with the polycystic ovary syndrome, thereby improving ovulatory function and decreasing serum androgen concentrations, blood pressure, and plasma triglyceride concentrations.  (+info)

(5/235) Adrenal 21-hydroxylase gene mutations in Slovenian hyperandrogenic women: evaluation of corticotrophin stimulation and HLA polymorphisms in screening for carrier status.

OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in Slovenian hyperandrogenic women, at the gene level. Previous endocrine studies indicated large differences in the incidence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in hyperandrogenic women. The predictive values of the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) response to ACTH stimulation and of HLA typing in screening for carrier status were re-evaluated. DESIGN: Molecular analysis of CYP21 gene, ACTH stimulation and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing were performed in 83 consecutive Slovenian hyperandrogenic women. MEASUREMENTS: Cortisol and 17-OHP concentrations were measured at baseline and 60 min after ACTH stimulation. Basal adrenal androgen concentrations were also measured. RESULTS: None of 83 hyperandrogenic patients was affected with non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency, but 12 of 81 patients (14.8%) had high concentrations of 17-OHP after stimulation, indicative of carrier status. The increase in 17-OHP concentrations could be explained by a carrier status for CYP21 gene mutations in only three of 12 patients (25%), whereas seven of 69 patients (10. 1%) with normal concentrations of 17-OHP after stimulation were found to be carriers of CYP21 gene mutations, indicating low positive predictive values of ACTH stimulation as a screening test for carriers of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. In total, 11 carriers were identified among 83 patients: seven CYP21 gene deletions/conversions, two Gln(318)Stop and one Val(281)Leu mutation and one gene conversion extending from exon 4 to exon 7 were found. The association between Val(281)Leu mutation and HLA-B14 antigen was confirmed in this Slovenian population. CONCLUSIONS: Basal or ACTH-stimulated 17-OHP concentrations are not a good indicator of the carrier status for 21-hydroxylase deficiency among Slovenian hyperandrogenic patients. Reliable screening for carriers of 21-hydroxylase deficiency is possible only by molecular analysis of the CYP21 gene.  (+info)

(6/235) Alterations in cardiac flow parameters in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

The aim of this study was to examine the echocardiographic profiles of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Serum concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, androstenedione, free testosterone, prolactin, DHEA-SO(4) and 17-OH-progesterone, lipid profile (high and low density lipoproteins, triglyceride and total cholesterol) and basal and total insulin after a glucose tolerance test were measured in 35 patients with PCOS and 35 healthy controls matched for body mass index. Doppler, two dimensional M mode echocardiography was performed for the following indices: isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT), E wave duration time (EVT), A wave duration time (AVT), E wave deceleration time (DT), peak early diastolic flow velocity (PEV), peak late diastolic flow velocity (PAV), E wave velocity time integral (FVI-E), A wave velocity time integral (FVI-A), atrial filling fraction (AFF), ejection fraction (EF), pre-ejection time (PEP), ejection time (ET) and aortic flow velocity time integral (FVI). Androstenedione, free testosterone, low density lipoproteins and cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in patients with PCOS. There was no difference in basal and total insulin concentrations. IVRT, AVT, FVI-A, AFF, and PEP were higher in patients with PCOS, while PEV, FVI-E, EF, ET, EVT and EVT/AVT were higher in the control group. There was a positive correlation between basal insulin values and IVRT, and between total insulin values and EF. These changes are consistent with a non-restrictive type of diastolic dysfunction and left ventricular stiffness. PCOS may lead to diastolic dysfunction via hyperinsulinaemia and male type dyslipidaemia.  (+info)

(7/235) Aortic plaque size and endometrial response in cholesterol-fed rabbits treated with estrogen plus continuous or sequential progestin.

ERT is associated with a reduced incidence of coronary risk and cardiac events in postmenopausal women, but increases the risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Combined estrogen and progestin therapy protects the endometrium; however, its effects on heart disease risk factors are not completely known. In our study, 56 ovariectomized New Zealand White rabbits in 7 groups received a 0.5% cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. Controls were not treated with hormones. All other animals received (per kilogram body weight per week) intramuscular injections of either 0.3 mg estrogen (estradiol valerate) alone, 8.3 mg progestin (hydroxyprogesterone caproate) alone, estrogen and progestin continuously in 3 different dosages (0.3 and 8.3 mg; 1 and 8.3 mg; or 1 and 2.8 mg; estrogen and progestin, respectively), or 1 mg estrogen with 25 mg progestin sequentially in 2-week cycles. Eight non-ovariectomized animals served as further controls for endometrial analysis. Morphometric analysis of plaque size in the aortic arch showed that estrogen monotherapy, and the 3 combined therapies with 1 mg estrogen, significantly reduced intimal thickening (P<0.05). The application of progestin alone had no effect on plaque size. The endometrium was enlarged by 3-fold after estrogen treatment, and was decreased by half after progestin treatment, compared with control uteri (P<0.05). In all groups with combined hormone regimens, endometrial size was not significantly different from control uteri. However, these uteri showed more inflammatory reactions, especially when higher doses of hormones were given. In this animal model, doses of progestin that are able to successfully reduce the proliferative effect of estrogen on endometrium do not diminish the desirable antiatherosclerotic properties of estrogen.  (+info)

(8/235) Longitudinal measurements of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in premature infants during the first three months of life.

AIMS: To determine normal concentrations of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) for premature infants. METHODS: 17OHP was measured in 66 consecutive premature infants once a week during the first month, and once every two weeks thereafter, until the age of 3 months. The 17OHP values in 100 full term healthy neonates on the third day of life served as controls. Blood was sampled on filter paper using a neonatal radioimmunoassay kit. Findings were correlated with gestational age, birthweight, mode of delivery, Apgar scores, presence of respiratory distress syndrome and intake of maternal steroids. RESULTS: Mean 17OHP was raised at 7 days of age (138.9, 46.3, 53.3, 29.9 nmol/l, respectively, for infants whose gestational age was under 29 weeks, 29 to 30 weeks, 31 to 32 weeks, and 33 weeks and above). It fell sharply in the first two weeks after which it gradually decreased further, reaching 32.7, 23.6, 16.9, and 13.0 nmol/l, respectively, by the age of 90 days. The mean (SEM) 17OHP concentration in full term infants on day 3 of life was 17.8 (8.9) nmol/l. These values were independent of the presence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome and of prenatal maternal steroids. CONCLUSIONS: The increased 17OHP concentrations found at birth fell to those found in term infants during the first three months of life in infants over 31 weeks of gestation. Postconceptional age is the most important factor determining 17OHP concentration.  (+info)

*  11β-Hydroxyprogesterone
Souness GW, Latif SA, Laurenzo JL, Morris DJ (1995). "11 alpha- and 11 beta-hydroxyprogesterone, potent inhibitors of 11 beta- ... Souness GW, Morris DJ (1996). "11 alpha- and 11 beta-hydroxyprogesterone, potent inhibitors of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid ... 11β-Hydroxyprogesterone (11β-OHP), also known as 21-deoxycorticosterone, as well as 11β-hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, is a ... Along with its epimer 11α-hydroxyprogesterone (11α-OHP), 11β-OHP has been identified as a very potent competitive inhibitor of ...
*  17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone aldolase
In enzymology, a 17α-hydroxyprogesterone aldolase (EC 4.1.2.30) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 17α- ... hydroxyprogesterone ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } androst-4-en-3,17-dione + acetaldehyde Hence, this enzyme has one ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 17α-hydroxyprogesterone acetaldehyde-lyase (4-androstene-3,17-dione-forming). Other ... 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and two products, androst-4-en-3,17-dione and acetaldehyde. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...
*  Acetomepregenol
Note that 3,17-diacetoxy-6-methylpregna-4,6-dien-20-one (1b), a structural analog of compound 1a, is certified in Russia under ... Acetomepregenol (brand name Diamol), or mepregenol diacetate, also known as 3β,17α-diacetoxy-6-methylpregna-4,6-dien-20-one, is ... Nikitina GV, Savchenko ON, Stepanov MG (1987). "[Hormonal properties of new 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone derivatives]". ... "Investigation of the Gestagen Activity of 17α-acetoxy-3β-butanoyloxy-6-methylpregna-4,6-dien-20-one". Pharmaceutical Chemistry ...
*  Dimethisterone
Whereas hydroxyprogesterone acetate (the 6α-demethylated analogue of medroxyprogesterone acetate) is around twice as potent as ... 3-hydroxyprogesterone. * Prodox, Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, Michigan [...] It was found that 17-a-hydroxyprogesterone acetate has a ... doi:10.1210/jcem-17-10-1237. PMID 13475464. It is the purpose of this paper to introduce and describe a new steroid for oral ... Dimethisterone, also known as 6α,21-dimethylethisterone or as 6α,21-dimethyl-17α-ethynyltestosterone, as well as 17α-ethynyl-6α ...
*  Hydroxyprogesterone acetate
The first product was 17alpha-acetoxyprogesterone4 (Figure 1) marketed under the trade name of Prodox.® Prodox was introduced ... 17a-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and 17a-hydroxyprogesterone acetate, introduced in 1953, and the most potent of all new ... Hydroxyprogesterone acetate is the generic name of the drug and its INN. OHPA is or was marketed under the brand name Prodox ... of hydroxyprogesterone a c e t a te, in bottles of 25 tablets. GREENBLATT RB (1959). "Hormonal control of functional uterine ...
*  Hydroxyprogesterone caproate
... is the generic name of OHPC and its INN, USAN, BANM, and JAN, while hydroxyprogesterone hexanoate ... 17a-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and 17a-hydroxyprogesterone acetate, introduced in 1953, and the most potent of all new ... hydroxyprogesterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone heptanoate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and megestrol acetate. Along with ... Hydroxyprogesterone caproate (OHPC), sold under the brand names Proluton, Proluton Depot, and Makena among others, is a ...
*  Progestogen ester
... such as hydroxyprogesterone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and cyproterone acetate, are highly active themselves (and ... and hydroxyprogesterone caproate, the 19-norprogesterone derivative nomegestrol acetate, and the 19-nortestosterone derivatives ... hydroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone, and cyproterone, respectively). On the other hand, esters of 19-nortestosterone ... One promising ester, [17α-hydroxyprogesterone acetate], marketed as Prodox, was found. It was more active by mouth than other ...
*  Progestogen
"16α-hydroxyprogesterone: origin, biosynthesis and receptor interaction". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 336 (1-2): 92-101. doi:10.1016/ ... Other endogenous progestogens include 16α-hydroxyprogesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 20α-dihydroprogesterone, 5α- ... These progestogens, along with another steroid, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, are the precursors of all other endogenous steroids, ... Major examples of progestins include the 17α-hydroxyprogesterone derivative medroxyprogesterone acetate and the 19- ...
*  Progesterone
21-hydroxyprogesterone), respectively, and pregnanetriols are formed secondarily to 17α-hydroxylation. In addition, ... 17 (5): 367-88. doi:10.1089/neu.2000.17.367. PMID 10833057. Pan DS, Liu WG, Yang XF, Cao F (October 2007). "Inhibitory effect ... Finally, the diketone 17 undergoes an intramolecular aldol condensation by treating with aqueous potassium hydroxide to produce ... 93 (17): 4332-4. doi:10.1021/ja00746a062. PMID 5131151. Coutinho EM, Segal SJ (1999). Is Menstruation Obsolete?. Oxford ...
*  17α-Hydroxyprogesterone
... including hydroxyprogesterone caproate, as well as hydroxyprogesterone acetate and hydroxyprogesterone heptanoate to a much ... Hydroxyprogesterone is the generic name of 17α-OHP and its INN and BAN. 11α-Hydroxyprogesterone 5α-Dihydroprogesterone 20- ... Among others, this class of drugs includes chlormadinone acetate, cyproterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, ... hydroxyprogesterone caproate. 17α-OHP, also known as 17α-hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, is a naturally occurring pregnane ...
*  Ethisterone
In contrast, ethisterone and other progestogens such as progesterone and hydroxyprogesterone caproate were not associated with ... anhydro-hydroxy-progesterone; and pregneninolone. Inhoffen, H. H.; Hohlweg, W. (1938). "Neue per os-wirksame weibliche ... This substance has been referred to in the literature as Δ4 pregnen-in-20-on-3-ol-17; Δ4 pregnene-in, 17-ol, 3-one; ethinyl ... Robert J. Kurman (17 April 2013). Blaustein's Pathology of the Female Genital Tract. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 390 ...
*  Adrenal cortex
17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone → (hydroxylation at C21) → 11-Deoxycortisol → (hydroxylation at C11) → Cortisol The adrenal cortex ...
*  20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone + NAD(P)H + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 17alpha,20alpha-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, NAD+ ... Wiest WG (December 1968). "On the function of 20 alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one during parturition in the rat". Endocrinology. ... In enzymology, a 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.149) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 17alpha, ... 3β(or 20α)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase AKR1C1 Shikita M, Inano H, Tamaoki B (1967). "Further studies on 20-alpha- ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D04)
File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D04.345.051.500 --- crown ethers MeSH D04.345.103.222 --- alpha-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345. ... 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.558.050 --- alfaxalone alfadolone mixture MeSH D04.808.745.558.783 --- ... 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395 --- hydroxyprogesterones MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395.400 ... 17-diol MeSH D04.808.054.040.129 --- androsterone MeSH D04.808.054.040.248 --- dihydrotestosterone MeSH D04.808.054.040.248.450 ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D06)
... alpha subunit MeSH D06.472.351.576.463 --- luteinizing hormone MeSH D06.472.351.576.463.249 --- glycoprotein hormones, alpha ... 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.099 --- 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478 ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472. ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 ...
*  Medroxyprogesterone acetate
"6-methyl-17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, the lower fatty acid 17-acylates and methods for producing the same", published 1968-04- ... Penning TM, Sharp RB, Krieger NR (December 1985). "Purification and properties of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from rat ... selective inhibition of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 17 (2): 197-203. doi: ... On November 17, 2004, the United States Food and Drug Administration put a black box warning on the label, indicating that ...
*  16-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone dehydratase
Glass TL, Lamppa RS (1985). "Purification and properties of 16 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone dehydroxylase from Eubacterium sp. ... 16alpha-hydroxyprogesterone dehydroxylase, 16alpha-dehydroxylase, and 16alpha-hydroxyprogesterone hydro-lyase. ... In enzymology, a 16alpha-hydroxyprogesterone dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.98) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 16alpha-hydroxyprogesterone hydro-lyase (16,17-didehydroprogesterone-forming). ...
*  11α-Hydroxyprogesterone
11 alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone (11 alpha OH-P) was an order of magnitude more potent a competitive inhibitor of the 11 beta HSD-2 ... Souness GW, Latif SA, Laurenzo JL, Morris DJ (1995). "11 alpha- and 11 beta-hydroxyprogesterone, potent inhibitors of 11 beta- ... Souness GW, Morris DJ (1996). "11 alpha- and 11 beta-hydroxyprogesterone, potent inhibitors of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid ... 11α-Hydroxyprogesterone can therefore influence blood pressure regulation.12 Furthermore, 11α-hydroxyprogesterone exhibits an ...
*  Transcortin
It is an alpha-globulin. This gene encodes an alpha-globulin protein with corticosteroid-binding properties. This is the major ... "Entrez Gene: SERPINA6 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 6". E. Edward Bittar; ... allelic association and a unique haplotype associated with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency". Am J Hum Genet. 55 (1): 126-33. PMC ... Aldosterone - Approximately 17% of serum aldosterone is bound to transcortin, while another 47% is bound to serum albumin. The ...
*  Gestonorone caproate
In animals, it is approximately 25 times more potent than progesterone or hydroxyprogesterone caproate. In humans, 100 or 200 ... or 17alpha-hydroxy-19-nor-progesterone-caproate (DepostatB, Schering), 200 mg daily. These doses can be considered as ... The preparations used were Proluton Depot (17a-hydroxy-progesterone caproate) and in 3 patients SH 5132 (17a-hydroxy-19- ... Like the closely related progestins hydroxyprogesterone caproate and 19-norprogesterone, gestonorone caproate shows poor ...
*  Formebolone
Souness GW, Latif SA, Laurenzo JL, Morris DJ (1995). "11 alpha- and 11 beta-hydroxyprogesterone, potent inhibitors of 11 beta- ... Souness GW, Morris DJ (1996). "11 alpha- and 11 beta-hydroxyprogesterone, potent inhibitors of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid ... alpha)-methyl-androsta-1,4-diene-11 (alpha), 17 (beta)-diol-3-one) in humans". J. Int. Med. Res. 4 (2): 96-105. doi:10.1177/ ... Indeed, 11α- and 11β-hydroxyprogesterone (formebolone and roxibolone being 11α- and 11β-hydroxylated (respectively) similarly) ...
*  Roxibolone
Souness GW, Latif SA, Laurenzo JL, Morris DJ (1995). "11 alpha- and 11 beta-hydroxyprogesterone, potent inhibitors of 11 beta- ... Souness GW, Morris DJ (1996). "11 alpha- and 11 beta-hydroxyprogesterone, potent inhibitors of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid ... In accordance, 11α- and 11β-hydroxyprogesterone are known to be potent inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD ... Roxibolone (INN) (developmental code name BR-906), also known as 11β,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methyl-3-oxoandrosta-1,4-diene-2- ...
*  Luteinizing hormone
In contrast to the alpha gene activity, beta LH subunit gene activity is restricted to the pituitary gonadotropic cells. It is ... Each monomeric unit is a glycoprotein molecule; one alpha and one beta subunit make the full, functional protein. Its structure ... The alpha subunits of LH, FSH, TSH, and hCG are identical, and contain 92 amino acids in human but 96 amino acids in almost all ... labeled alpha and beta subunits, that are non-covalently associated (i.e., without any disulfide bridge linking them): ...
*  17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
Marcus PI, Talalay P (February 1956). "Induction and purification of alpha- and beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases". The ... 20α-Hydroxyprogesterone ↔ Progesterone DHEA ↔ Androstenediol Androstenedione ↔ Testosterone Dihydrotestosterone ↔ 5α- ... Also converts inactive 20α-hydroxyprogesterone into active progesterone. Preferential activity on androgens. Expressed widely ... Inhibitors of 17β-HSD type II are of interest for the potential treatment of osteoporosis. Some inhibitors of 17β-HSD type I ...
*  Membrane progesterone receptor
"PAQR7 - Membrane progestin receptor alpha - Homo sapiens (Human) - PAQR7 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2015-10-30 ... "PAQR7 - Membrane progestin receptor alpha - Homo sapiens (Human) - PAQR7 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2015-10-27 ... Thomas P (May 2008). "Characteristics of membrane progestin receptor alpha (mPRalpha) and progesterone membrane receptor ... Membrane progesterone receptor alpha (mPRα) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAQR7 gene. It is a steroid receptor ...
*  Estrogen insensitivity syndrome
... the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) - that results in an inability of estrogen to mediate its biological effects in the body. ... At the age of 15 years, 5 months, her bone age was 11 or 12 years, and at the age of 17 years, 8 months, her bone age was 13.5 ... Levels of progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were elevated in ...
Progesterone, 17OHP (17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone)  Progesterone, 17OHP (17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone)
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone Coated Tube RIA Kit The kit is ready to use and includes the following components: Antibody Coated ... 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone Double Antibody RIA Kit The kit is ready to use and includes the following components: Antiserum, 7 ... 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone Antiserum for 3H Assay (Sheep) Antibody is purified from sheep and is sufficient for 1,000 tubes. ...
more infohttps://www.mpbio.com/diagnostics/endocrinology/progesterone/en_analytes_detected:17ohp_17_alpha_hydroxyprogesterone
What does 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone mean?  What does 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone mean?
Meaning of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. What does 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone mean? Information and translations of 17-alpha- ... hydroxyprogesterone in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. ... Definition of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Discuss these 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone definitions with the community:. Word of the Day. Would you like us to send you a ...
more infohttp://www.definitions.net/definition/17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone
Medical cost savings associated with 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate  Medical cost savings associated with 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate
This study was undertaken to assess the impact of 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate treatment on future medical costs for ... Data on the costs of preterm birth were combined with published data on the effectiveness of 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone ... These estimates were compared with an estimate of the cost of a typical 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate treatment regimen ... Treatment is estimated to reduce initial neonatal hospitalization costs by $3800 per woman treated with 17 alpha ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/ajog/200703000/00000447-200703000-00009
17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone aldolase - Wikipedia  17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone aldolase - Wikipedia
In enzymology, a 17α-hydroxyprogesterone aldolase (EC 4.1.2.30) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 17α- ... hydroxyprogesterone ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } androst-4-en-3,17-dione + acetaldehyde Hence, this enzyme has one ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 17α-hydroxyprogesterone acetaldehyde-lyase (4-androstene-3,17-dione-forming). Other ... 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and two products, androst-4-en-3,17-dione and acetaldehyde. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone_aldolase
Maternal Characteristics Influencing the Development of Gestational Diabetes in Obese Women Receiving 17-alpha...  Maternal Characteristics Influencing the Development of Gestational Diabetes in Obese Women Receiving 17-alpha...
... alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate. Robert Egerman,1 Risa Ramsey,2 Niki Istwan,3 Debbie Rhea,3 and Gary Stanziano3 ... alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) for preterm delivery prevention. Materials and Methods. Retrospectively identified ... alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) administration to women with a singleton gestation having a history of a preterm ... α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 24, pp. 2379-2385, 2003. View at Google ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2014/563243/
Prevention of Preterm Delivery in Twin Pregnancies by 17 Alpha-hydroxyprogesterone Caproate - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...  Prevention of Preterm Delivery in Twin Pregnancies by 17 Alpha-hydroxyprogesterone Caproate - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...
11-hydroxyprogesterone. Castor Oil. Progestins. Hormones. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists. Physiological ... Prevention of Preterm Delivery in Twin Pregnancies by 17 Alpha-hydroxyprogesterone Caproate. The safety and scientific validity ... The objective of our study is to compare the effectiveness of weekly intramuscular injections of 17-alpha Hydroxyprogesterone ... Prevention of Preterm Delivery in Twin Pregnancies by 17 Alpha-hydroxyprogesterone Caproate. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00141908?recr=Open&cond=%22Obstetric+Labor+Complications%22&rank=20
17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (CHEBI:17252)  17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (CHEBI:17252)
CHEBI:17252 - 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (CHEBI:17252) is a 17α-hydroxy-C21-steroid (CHEBI:138141) 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (CHEBI:17252) is a ... 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (CHEBI:17252) has role progestin (CHEBI:59826) 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (CHEBI:17252) is a 17α-hydroxy ... 17(16). 7-. 10-. 20(18,21). 3/h12,16-. 18,24H,4-. 11H2,1-. 3H3/t16-. ,17+,18+,19+,20+,21+/m1/s1. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:17252
Steroid 17 Alpha Hydroxylase/17,20 Lyase 17 Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Aldolase or Cytochrome P450 17A1 or Cytochrome P450 C17...  Steroid 17 Alpha Hydroxylase/17,20 Lyase 17 Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Aldolase or Cytochrome P450 17A1 or Cytochrome P450 C17...
Steroid 17 Alpha Hydroxylase/17,20 Lyase 17 Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Aldolase or Cytochrome P450 17A1 or Cytochrome P450 C17 ... Impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms on P450 oxidoreductase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha on ... Steroid 17 Alpha Hydroxylase/17,20 Lyase 17 Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Aldolase or Cytochrome P450 17A1 or Cytochrome P450 C17 ... Steroid 17 Alpha Hydroxylase/17,20 Lyase 17 Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Aldolase or Cytochrome P450 17A1 or Cytochrome P450 C17 ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/news/article/3036168/Steroid-17-Alpha-Hydroxylase-17-20-Lyase-17-Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone-Aldolase-or.html
Anti Human 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone-3-Cmo Antibody | Bio-Rad  Anti Human 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone-3-Cmo Antibody | Bio-Rad
strong,Sheep anti Human 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone-3-Cmo antibody,/strong, recognizes 17-Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone-3-CMO, a ... Sheep anti Human 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone-3-Cmo antibody recognizes 17-Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone-3-CMO, a progestogen which ... Request a different product with the 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone-3-Cmo specificity ...
more infohttps://www.bio-rad-antibodies.com/polyclonal/human-17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone-3-cmo-antibody-obt1424.html
Synthesis of 19-nor-17 alpha-hydroxy-progesterone-caprona - wood antibiotics365 com  Synthesis of 19-nor-17 alpha-hydroxy-progesterone-caprona - wood antibiotics365 com
Synthesis of 19-nor-17 alpha-hydroxy-progesterone-caprona. By admin October 27, 2019 Uncategorized 0 Comments ... HomeSynthesis of 19-nor-17 alpha-hydroxy-progesterone-caprona. ...
more infohttp://wood.antibiotics365.com/synthesis-of-19-nor-17-alpha-hydroxy-progesterone-caprona/
Natural Food Supplements 17 Alpha hydroxyprogesterone Factory - 17 Alpha hydroxyprogesterone Factory For Health Care Products -...  Natural Food Supplements 17 Alpha hydroxyprogesterone Factory - 17 Alpha hydroxyprogesterone Factory For Health Care Products -...
Equipped with the best GMP factory of best quality 17 Alpha hydroxyprogesterone Factory for cosmetic, health care and human ... it is able to supply you with top quality 17 Alpha hydroxyprogesterone Factory USP/EP 99%, as well as the reactive intermediate ... Hydroxyprogesterone caproate. Synonyms: OHPC; Hydroxyprogesterone hexanoate; 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate; 17α-OHPC; 17- ... Contact Now Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate,17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproateProduct Name: ...
more infohttp://www.wellgreenxa.com/product/17-Alpha-hydroxyprogesterone-Factory.html
Natural Food Supplements Pharma Grade 17 Alpha hydroxyprogesterone - Pharma Grade 17 Alpha hydroxyprogesterone For Health Care...  Natural Food Supplements Pharma Grade 17 Alpha hydroxyprogesterone - Pharma Grade 17 Alpha hydroxyprogesterone For Health Care...
Equipped with the best GMP factory of best quality Pharma Grade 17 Alpha hydroxyprogesterone for cosmetic, health care and ... it is able to supply you with top quality Pharma Grade 17 Alpha hydroxyprogesterone USP/EP 99%, as well as the reactive ... Hydroxyprogesterone caproate. Synonyms: OHPC; Hydroxyprogesterone hexanoate; 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate; 17α-OHPC; 17- ... Contact Now Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate,17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproateProduct Name: ...
more infohttp://www.wellgreenxa.com/product/Pharma-Grade-17-Alpha-hydroxyprogesterone.html
Immunoassays | Applications ALPCO  Immunoassays | Applications ALPCO
Product: 17-alpha Hydroxy Progesterone ELISA (Saliva). Catalog#: 20-17OHU-E01-SLV ...
more infohttps://www.alpco.com/store/application/immunoassays.html
Primary antibodies - Page 2 of 849 on g | Genetex Inc.  Primary antibodies - Page 2 of 849 on 'g' | Genetex Inc.
Browse over 8489 Primary antibodies, covering popular research areas including cancer, neuroscience, epigenetics, cell biology, apoptosis, autophagy, hypoxia, immunology and tested in human, mouse, rat, zebrafish et., al. by WB, ICC/IF, IHC, ChIP et., al.
more infohttp://www.genetex.com/Web/search/Catalog/2?Category=494&Keyword=g
Patent US20060249381 - Cellulosic-based resistance domain for an analyte sensor - Google Patents  Patent US20060249381 - Cellulosic-based resistance domain for an analyte sensor - Google Patents
... alpha-fetoprotein; amino acid profiles (arginine (Krebs cycle), histidine/urocanic acid, homocysteine, phenylalanine/tyrosine, ... alpha 1-antitrypsin, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hemoglobin A, ... 17. The sensor of claim 1. , wherein a thickness of the resistance domain is from about 0.05 microns to about 5 microns. ... Jun 17, 2003. Therasense, Inc.. Blood analyte monitoring through subcutaneous measurement. US6689265 *. Mar 23, 2001. Feb 10, ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US20060249381?dq=6,304,975
Patent US20060020189 - Transcutaneous analyte sensor - Google Patents  Patent US20060020189 - Transcutaneous analyte sensor - Google Patents
... rotating the sensor seventeen times by 120( for at least six layers of 360( coverage) and curing at 50(C under vacuum for 60 ... alpha-fetoprotein; amino acid profiles (arginine (Krebs cycle), histidine/urocanic acid, homocysteine, phenylalanine/tyrosine, ... alpha 1-antitrypsin, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hemoglobin A, ... 17. The system of claim 1. , wherein the sensor is configured to extend from the housing by a distance, wherein the distance ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US20060020189?dq=5311516
Patente US20050031689 - Biointerface membranes incorporating bioactive agents - Google Patentes  Patente US20050031689 - Biointerface membranes incorporating bioactive agents - Google Patentes
Transforming Growth Factor Alpha (TGF-Alpha), Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-Alpha), Placental ... Transforming Growth Factor Alpha, Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, Angiogenin, Interleukin-8, Hypoxia ... Transforming Growth Factor Alpha, Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, Angiogenin, Interleukin-8, Hypoxia ... alpha-fetoprotein; amino acid profiles (arginine (Krebs cycle), histidine/urocanic acid, homocysteine, phenylalanine/tyrosine, ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US20050031689
Patent US20050143635 - Calibration techniques for a continuous analyte sensor - Google Patents  Patent US20050143635 - Calibration techniques for a continuous analyte sensor - Google Patents
... alpha-fetoprotein; amino acid profiles (arginine (Krebs cycle), histidine/urocanic acid, homocysteine, phenylalanine/tyrosine, ... alpha 1-antitrypsin, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, analyte-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hemoglobinopathies ... 17. The method of claim 15. , further comprising a step of filtering at least one glucose-related sensor data point when ... 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone; hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase; immunoreactive trypsin; lactate; lead; lipoproteins ((a ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US20050143635
RCT of Progesterone to Prevent Preterm Birth in Nulliparous Women With a Short Cervix - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov  RCT of Progesterone to Prevent Preterm Birth in Nulliparous Women With a Short Cervix - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Epub 2012 Sep 17.. * Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov ... 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prevent prematurity in nulliparas with cervical length less than 30 mm. Am J Obstet ... Drug: 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate Coded study medication is sterile solution containing 250 mg/mL of 17 alpha- ... hydroxyprogesterone caproate in castor oil with benzyl benzoate and benzyl alcohol as a preservative; placebo is same without ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00439374
Final Exam Repro Flashcards by Tracy Douglas | Brainscape  Final Exam Repro Flashcards by Tracy Douglas | Brainscape
Tumour necrosis factor alpha= kills granulosal cells. * gap junction breakdown between granulosal cells and oocyte= removal of ... it is not eliminated inthe female because oestradiol cannot cross the BBB since in a female it is bound by alpha-fetoprotein) ... Most important is progesterone (P4). Others are 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, etc. ... What are the sources of nutrition for a foetus before 17 days approximately? ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/final-exam-repro-4293108/packs/6247370
17-Hydroxyprogesterone in premature infants as a marker of intrauterine stress.  17-Hydroxyprogesterone in premature infants as a marker of intrauterine stress.
The postnatal 17-OHP level may be considered as a measure for severity of intrauterine stress and might be used as an ... METHODS: We analyzed 17-OHP and TSH levels during neonatal screenings in the first hours of life of 90 premature infants born ... 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood*. Biological Markers / blood. Chorioamnionitis / blood*. Female. Fetal Growth Retardation ... 17-OHP was even higher when intrauterine growth restriction was present (99.8 nmol/L). Antenatal steroids and mode of delivery ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/17-Hydroxyprogesterone-in-premature-infants/18211251.html
Free Androgen Index - AHealthyMe - Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts  Free Androgen Index - AHealthyMe - Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts
Alpha-Fetoprotein (Blood) * Alpha-Fetoprotein Tumor Marker (Blood) * View All 99 Drug Reference. * Metformin extended-release ... ACTH stimulation of 17-OHP, if your 17-OHP level is not clearly normal ...
more infohttp://www.ahealthyme.com/Library/DiseasesConditions/Adult/Men/167,free_androgen_index
Application # 2005/0056552. Increasing bias for oxygen production in an electrode system - Patents.com  Application # 2005/0056552. Increasing bias for oxygen production in an electrode system - Patents.com
... alpha-fetoprotein; amino acid profiles (arginine (Krebs cycle), histidine/urocanic acid, homocysteine, phenylalanine/tyrosine, ... alpha 1-antitrypsin, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hemoglobin A, ... 17. The method of claim 14, wherein the bias potential is above about +0.7V. 18. The method of claim 14, wherein the bias ... 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone; hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase; immunoreactive trypsin; lactate; lead; lipoproteins ((a ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-20050056552.html
Test Database | Derby Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust  Test Database | Derby Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
alpha-1 antitrypsin. Blood. Vacutainer / Gold / SST. 5 mL. Biochemistry. Page: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [+11] ... 17-alpha Hydroxyprogesterone (saliva). Saliva. Saliva collection tube. 2mL. Biochemistry. 5HIAA. Urine. 24h urine / Container ... 17-alpha Hydroxyprogesterone. Blood. Vacutainer / Red / Serum or Vacutainer.... 1 mL. Biochemistry. ...
more infohttp://www.derbyhospitals.nhs.uk/primary/pathology/test-database/
  • Ethisterone is a synthetic androstane steroid which was derived from testosterone and is also known by the following synonyms: 17α-Ethynyltestosterone (or simply ethinyltestosterone or ethynyltestosterone) 17α-Ethynylandrost-4-en-17β-ol-3-one Pregn-4-en-20-yn-17β-ol-3-one (or simply pregneninolone or pregnenynolone) 20,21-Anhydro-17β-hydroxyprogesterone (or simply anhydrohydroxyprogesterone) Closely related analogues of ethisterone include vinyltestosterone, allyltestosterone, methyltestosterone, ethyltestosterone, and propyltestosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though classical PRs and mPRs can also have overlapping regional expression (e.g., both are expressed in the hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum), their ligand specificity is not identical (for example mPRs bind to 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and 5-dihydroprogesterone with greater affinity than to the classical PRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The major reactions catalyzed by 17β-HSD (e.g., the conversion of androstenedione to testosterone) are in fact hydrogenation (reduction) rather than dehydrogenation (oxidation) reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that 3,17-diacetoxy-6-methylpregna-4,6-dien-20-one (1b), a structural analog of compound 1a, is certified in Russia under the trade name acetomepregnol and recommended for therapeutic purposes in gynecological practice and as a contraceptive preparation in combination with estrogens . (wikipedia.org)
  • Roxibolone (INN) (developmental code name BR-906), also known as 11β,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methyl-3-oxoandrosta-1,4-diene-2-carboxylic acid, is a steroidal antiglucocorticoid described as an anticholesterolemic (cholesterol-lowering) and anabolic drug which was never marketed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldosterone - Approximately 17% of serum aldosterone is bound to transcortin, while another 47% is bound to serum albumin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective: This trial would evaluate the clinical effectiveness of Progesterone(P) and 17-hydroxy Progesterone (17P) in reducing PTD, in symptomatic women at risk because of cervical shortening, in the present pregnancy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Data on the costs of preterm birth were combined with published data on the effectiveness of 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate to produce estimates of the effect of treatment on expected future direct medical costs. (ovid.com)
  • It is closely related to androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol). (wikipedia.org)