17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Fluoxymesterone: An anabolic steroid that has been used in the treatment of male HYPOGONADISM, delayed puberty in males, and in the treatment of breast neoplasms in women.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Dictionaries, ChemicalAgrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Biological Ontologies: Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.PolysaccharidesOligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Mucin 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Nepovirus: A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.IllinoisPublications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)WyomingResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Placental Function Tests: Methods used for the assessment of placental function.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Thyroid (USP): A dehydrated extract of thyroid glands from domesticated animals. After the removal of fat and connective tissue, the extract is dried or lyophilized to yield a yellowish to buff-colored amorphous powder containing 0.17-0.23% of iodine.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Thiamin Pyrophosphokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of thiamine pyrophosphate from ATP and thiamine. EC 2.7.6.2.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.

Apparent activities of 21-hydroxylase, 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase are impaired in adrenal incidentalomas. (1/52)

OBJECTIVE: An increased response of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to ACTH stimulation has been observed in adrenal incidentaloma and linked to an impairment of either 21-hydroxylase or of 11beta-hydroxylase activity. To analyse this question further, we investigated the steroidogenic pathways in a series of 17 adrenal incidentalomas. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: 17 patients (7 women, 10 men; mean age, 62 +/- 12 years) with non-histologically analyzed adrenal incidentalomas were prospectively evaluated. METHODS: The following variables were investigated: 24-h urinary methanephrines and free cortisol excretion; plasma levels of ACTH and dehydroepiandrosterone; overnight dexamethasone suppression test; 1-24 ACTH stimulation test with measurement of: cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, Delta4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and 21-deoxycortisol. RESULTS: Discordant features of subclinical hypercorticism were noted in one case. No patient had dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in the normal range for his or her age. Peak 17-hydroxyprogesterone and peak 21-deoxycortisol disclosed impairment of 21-hydroxylase in 11 and 10 cases respectively. An increased 11-deoxycortisol/cortisol ratio identified reduced activity of 11beta-hydroxylase in 11 patients. Eight patients displayed features of mild 17,20-lyase impairment, which was related to 21-hydroxylase dysfunction. Whereas only 2 patients showed no enzyme modification, 9 displayed alterations of at least two pathways. CONCLUSION: In our hands, a combination of enzyme dysfunction was frequently observed. Shared biochemical mechanisms could explain combined 17,20-lyase and 21-hydroxylase alterations, whereas coexistence of 21-hydroxylase (particularly when based on peak 21-deoxycortisol) and 11beta-hydroxylase is more puzzling.  (+info)

Conversion of pregnenolone to DHEA by human 17alpha-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase (P450c17). Evidence that DHEA is produced from the released intermediate, 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone. (2/52)

Most previous studies using reconstituted systems and fast kinetics suggest that the conversion of pregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; the precursor of androgen and estrogen biosynthesis) by P450c17 does not require the release of the intermediate 17alpha-OHPreg (a precursor of cortisol biosynthesis). With such a mechanism, it is difficult to conceive how high amounts of DHEA may be produced in some cells or tissues, such as the testis and cells from the adrenal reticularis, while in other tissues such as the fasciculata zone, high levels of 17alpha-OHPreg are synthesized. In this report, we address this matter using intact transfected cells, which better reflect the actual cellular conditions. Furthermore, by using transfected cells, we can conveniently analyze human enzymes, as we are not restricted by the availability of human tissues as in the case of methods using purified or partially purified enzymes. Using intact HEK-293 cells transfected with human P450c17 in culture, we showed, in a time course study of the transformation of pregnenolone, that there is an accumulation of 17alpha-OHPreg, and that, subsequently, the accumulated 17alpha-OHPreg decreases with a concomitant increase in DHEA production. The DHEA/17alpha-OHPreg ratio changes from 0.1 :1 after 1 h incubation to 50 : 1 after 20 h. This result strongly suggests that the transformation of Preg to DHEA proceeds through two steps in which DHEA is produced from the released intermediate 17alpha-OHPreg. We also show that high levels of substrate vs. enzyme concentration will lead to high hydroxylase activity whereas the reverse will increase the lyase activity. The result is in good agreement with recent observations suggesting that surrounding enzymes and steroids could modulate the lyase activity. Cotransfection of vectors expressing cytochrome b5 and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase indicates that both are required for an optimum production of DHEA.  (+info)

Serum concentrations of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroids in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (3/52)

We examined the serum concentrations of delta(5)-3beta-hydroxysteroids, pregnenolone (Preg), 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17-OH-Preg), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol (ADIOL) and their sulfates in 30 well controlled (Group I: HbA1c<7.0%) and 15 poorly controlled (Group II: HbA1c>7.1%) type 2 diabetic patients, and 30 normal controls. These patients were treated with diet therapy or anti-diabetic agent. The distribution of gender and age of the subjects were matched between the groups. The serum levels of sulfo-conjugated and unconjugated steroids described above were measured by GC-MS and enzyme immunoassay (EIA), respectively. The serum levels of the entire sulfo-conjugated steroid measured in this study were significantly lower in Groups I and II than in controls. On the other hand, Preg levels in both Groups I and II were significantly higher than those in controls, whereas the serum levels of the downstream unconjugated steroids were not different from controls. To investigate the effect of sulfonylurea (SU) on the serum levels of steroids, the serum concentrations of steroids between the patients who were treated with diet therapy and SU agent were compared in Group I. No significant differences were observed between both groups. These results suggest that (1) since increased Preg levels did not cause any changes in the downstream delta(5)-3beta-hydroxysteroid levels, the metabolic pathway of delta(4)-3-ketosteroids may be accelerated in type 2 diabetes; (2) serum steroid levels were not affected by SU treatment; (3) sulfo-conjugated steroid catabolism was altered in type 2 diabetes; (4) the decreased sulfo-conjugated steroids especially ADIOLS may contribute to the alteration of sex steroid levels and onset or exacerbate infectious diseases in diabetes.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics of substrate complexes with hamster cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17): mechanistic approach to understanding substrate binding and activities. (4/52)

The cytochrome P450c17 isoforms from various animal species have different substrate selectivity, especially for 17,20-lyase activity. In particular, the human P450c17 selectively produces dehydroepiandrosterone with little androstenedione (AD). Hamster P450c17, on the other hand, produces both of these steroids at comparable rates. We thus investigated if computational analysis could explain the difference in activity profiles. Therefore, we inserted the four P450c17 substrates-pregnenolone, progesterone, and their 17alpha-hydroxylated forms-inside our hamster P450c17 model, which we derived from our human P450c17 model based on the crystal structure of P450BMP. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the complexes and analyzed the resultant trajectories to identify amino acids that interact with substrates. Starting with substrates in two different orientations, we obtained two sets of binding trajectories in each case. The first set of trajectories reveal structural rearrangements that occur during binding, whereas the second set of trajectories reflects substrate orientations during catalysis. Our modeling suggests that three distinct steps are required for substrate selectivity and binding to the hamster P450c17: (1) recognition of the substrate at the putative substrate entrance, characterized by a pocket at the surface of the hamster P450c17 containing charged residues R96 and D116; (2) entry of the substrate into the active site, in an intermediate position directed by possible hydrogen bonding of the substrates with the heme D-ring propionate group, R96, R440, and T306; followed by (3) 90 degrees counterclockwise rotation of the substrates, positioning them in optimal position for reactivity, a process that may be directed by hydrogen bonding to the 110-112 region of the hamster P450c17. With some substrates, we obtained trajectories which suggest that major distortions in the I-helix and opening of the H-I loop occur during substrate binding. In conclusion, these modeling exercises provide insight to possible structural reorganizations that occur during substrate binding and suggest that amino acids that participate in three distinct steps of this process may all contribute to substrate binding and activity.  (+info)

Steroid hormone formation in bovine ovarian follicles. (5/52)

In an attempt to assess histophysiological implication of the follicular compartment of the bovine ovary in steroid hormone formation and the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in vitro on follicular steroidogenesis, minces of follicular tissues from non-gravid bovine ovaries were incubated with radioactive testosterone or acetate in the presence and absence of hCG. Significant amounts of estrone and estradiol-17beta were formed on incubation with testosterone-4-14C; hCG decreased the conversion approximately by 30%. The major radioactive products formed from acetate-l-14C were androstenedione and testosterone with lesser amounts of dehydroepiandrosterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. In addition, small amounts of progesterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, estrone and estradiol-17beta were formed. Histology of the dissected follicle specimens was characterized by dominant theca cells undergoing luteinization with small amounts of granulosa cells, which showed neither proliferation nor luteinization. The pattern of distribution of radioactivity among the steroids formed from acetate-14C was considered to represent steroidogenic profile of bovine atretic follicles. The addition of hCG in vitro increased the overall incorporation of radioactive acetate into the steroids approximately by 50%, although the range of increase was not uniform in the individual steroids under the exprimental conditions.  (+info)

Human skin is a steroidogenic tissue: steroidogenic enzymes and cofactors are expressed in epidermis, normal sebocytes, and an immortalized sebocyte cell line (SEB-1). (6/52)

Although the human sebaceous gland can synthesize cholesterol from acetate and can further metabolize steroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone into potent androgens, the de novo production of steroids from cholesterol has not been demonstrated in human skin. The goal of this study was to delineate the steroidogenic pathway upstream from dehydroepiandrosterone by documenting the presence of members of the P450 side chain cleavage system (P450scc). This system catalyzes the initial step in steroid hormone synthesis following translocation of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane. In concert with its cofactors, adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase, and the transcription factor steroidogenic factor 1, P450scc converts cholesterol to pregnenolone. An SV40 immortalized human sebaceous gland cell line (SEB-1) was established in order to facilitate investigation of the P450scc system. The sebaceous phenotype of SEB-1 sebocytes was confirmed using immunohistochemistry, Oil Red O staining, and gene array expression analysis. Presence of P450scc, adrenodoxin reductase, cytochrome P450 17-hydroxylase (P450c17), and steroidogenic factor 1 was documented in human facial skin, human sebocytes, and SEB-1 sebocytes. Using immunohistochemistry, antibodies to the above proteins localized to epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous ducts, and sebaceous glands in sections of facial skin. Results of immunohistochemistry were confirmed with Western blotting. Biochemical activity of cytochrome P450scc and P450c17 was demonstrated in SEB-1 sebocytes using radioimmunoassay. The relative abundance of mRNA for P450scc, P450c17, and steroidogenic factor 1 in SEB-1 sebocytes and sebaceous glands was compared to mRNA levels in ovarian theca and granulosa cells using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gene array expression analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that mRNA for P450scc is more abundant than mRNA for both P450c17 and steroidogenic factor 1 in sebaceous glands and SEB-1 cells. These data demonstrate that the skin is in fact a steroidogenic tissue. The clinical significance of this finding in mediating androgenic skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism, or androgenetic alopecia remains to be established.  (+info)

Steroid hormone formation in human ovarian follicles in vitro. (7/52)

Ovarian follicles of 5 to 15 mm in diameter were isolated from 45 ovaries of 34 patients in the follicular and luteal phases of the cycle. Three experiments were done. In the first, follicles were minced and incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 1 to 2muCi of testosterone-4-14C in the presence or absence of 100 IU human chorionic gonadotropan (hCG). In the second, minced follicles were incubated with 100 muCi of sodium acetate-I-14C under identical conditions. In the third, ten follicles from a single patient in the late proliferative stage of endometrial dating were cut in halves and incubated with 100 muCi of acetate-I-14C under identical conditions. The minced follicle preparation was capable of aromatizing testosterone-4-14C into radioactive estrone and estradiol in significant amounts. Incorporation of radioactive acetate into pregenolone, progesterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol and estrone was assessed by reverse dilution analysis with recrystallization to constant specific activity. The major radioactive products formed were androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone in the latter two experiments. Dehydroepiandrosterone was one of the major steroids in the second experiment. The minor products were testosterone, progesterone and pregnenolone. Smaller, but definite incorporations of radioactive acetate into estradiol and estrone occurred in the second experiment. On histological examination, the follicles were characterized by atretic changes. This distribution pattern of radioactive acetate among the steroids was considered to represent the steroidogenic profile of unstimulated or atretic follicles.  (+info)

Neurosteroid metabolism. 7 alpha-Hydroxylation of dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone by rat brain microsomes. (8/52)

Two 'neurosteroids', dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and pregnenolone (PREG), are converted by rat brain microsomes into polar metabolites, identified as the respective 7 alpha-hydroxylated (7 alpha-OH) derivatives by the 'twin ion' technique of g.l.c.-m.s. with deuterated substrates. The enzymic reaction requires NADPH and is stimulated 2-4-fold by EDTA. Under optimal conditions (pH 7.4, 0.5 mM-NADPH, 1 mM-EDTA), the Km values for DHEA and PREG are 13.8 and 4.4 microM respectively, and the Vmax. values are 322 and 38.8 pmol/min per mg of microsomal protein respectively. Trace amounts of putative 7 beta-OH derivatives of DHEA and PREG are detected. Oestradiol, at a pharmacological concentration of 5 microM, inhibits DHEA and PREG 7 alpha-hydroxylation. Formation of 7 alpha-hydroxylated metabolites is low in prepubertal rats and increases 5-fold in adults. Derivatives of PREG and DHEA, such as PREG sulphate, DHEA sulphate, progesterone and 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, are known to be neuroactive. Therefore the quantitatively important metabolism to 7 alpha-OH compounds may contribute to the control of neurosteroid activity in brain.  (+info)

Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by inherited defects in steroid biosynthesis. Deficiencies in several enzymes cause CAH including 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2 mutations; 90% of cases), 11-hydroxylase (CYP11A1 mutations; 5%-8%), 3-beta-hydroxy dehydrogenase (HSD3B2 mutations; ,5%), and 17-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP17A1 mutations; 125 cases reported to date). The resulting hormone imbalances (reduced glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, and elevated steroid intermediates and androgens) can lead to life-threatening, salt-wasting crises in the newborn period and incorrect gender assignment of virilized females.. The adrenal glands, ovaries, testes, and placenta produce steroid intermediates, which are hydroxylated at the position 21 (by 21-hydroxylase) and position 11 (by 11-hydroxylase) to produce cortisol. Deficiency of either 21-hydroxylase or 11-hydroxylase results in decreased cortisol synthesis and loss of feedback inhibition of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. The ...
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hydroxyprogesterone - MedHelps hydroxyprogesterone Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for hydroxyprogesterone. Find hydroxyprogesterone information, treatments for hydroxyprogesterone and hydroxyprogesterone symptoms.
The pathways outlined here are common to the adrenals, the gonads and, to some extent, to the fetoplacental unit. The first committed step is the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, catalysed by the P-450scc enzyme, which is under pituitary hormone control (ACTH or LH depending on the tissue). Cholesterol side-chain removal is blocked specifically by aminoglutethimide, a steroid biosynthesis inhibitor. From pregnenolone, steroid biosynthesis can proceed either through the so-called "delta-5" pathway (17α-hydroxypregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone), or through the "delta-4" pathway (progesterone onwards). Progesterone is the starting point for mineralocorticoid synthesis, whereas glucocorticoids are derived from its metabolite, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. Estrogens are formed from androgens (androstenedione and/or testosterone). Most reactions are irreversible (as denoted by a single arrow). Reversible reactions (double arrows) depend on cofactor availability (e.g. the ...
Hydroxyprogesterone is a form of progestin, a manmade form of a female hormone called progesterone. Hydroxyprogesterone is used to lower the risk of premature birth in a woman who has already had one premature baby. This medication will not stop premature labor that has already begun. Hydroxyprogesterone is not for...
Describes how the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) test is used, when a 17-OHP test is ordered, and what the results of a 17-hydroxyprogesterone test might mean
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The reference range of urinary 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHPG) in children is as follows: Age 3 days to 1 year: Up to 50 ng/24 hours Age 1-8 years: Up to 300 ng/24 hours The following is the reference of urinary 17-OHPG in adults: Males: Up to 2 µg/24 hours Females: Up to 4.5 µg/24 hours .
Progesterone + [Reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + Oxygen ,=> 17alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone + [Oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + ...
ANST : Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism (in conjunction with measurements of other sex-steroids). An initial workup in adults might also include total and bioavailable testosterone (TTBS / Testosterone, Total and Bioavailable, Serum) measurements. Depending on results, this may be supplemented with measurements of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG / Sex Hormone Binding Globulin [SHBG], Serum) and other androgenic steroids (eg, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S]). Diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in conjunction with measurement of other androgenic precursors, particularly, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (OHPG) (OHPG / 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum), 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, DHEA-S (DHES / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate [DHEA-S], Serum), and cortisol (CORT / Cortisol, Serum). Monitoring CAH treatment, in conjunction with testosterone (TTST / Testosterone, Total, Serum), OHPG (OHPG / 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum), DHEA-S (DHES /
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism). DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, which can undergo further conversion to produce the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol. DHEA is also a potent sigma-1 agonist. DHEA is produced from cholesterol through two cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone by the enzyme P450 scc (side chain cleavage); then another enzyme, CYP17A1, converts pregnenolone to 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone and then to DHEA. In humans, DHEA is the dominant steroid hormone and precursor of all sex steroids. DHEA can be understood as a prohormone for the sex steroids. DHEAS may be viewed as buffer and reservoir. As most DHEA is produced by the zona reticularis of the adrenal, it is argued that there is a role in the immune and stress response. Studies have shown that DHEA is useful in ...
Administer 1 hour after administration. A second reason which human mem- cells in ischemic heart failure and axonal protection. 7 maria toraldo, a 55-year-old patient diagnosed with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: 2014 update. Two main drugs used to relieve a problem when the antibiotic of choice for treatment is contraindicated in malabsorption syndrome tion due to inadequate (e.G. Disc degeneration was induced using the posterior chamber. 3. Teach patient to take the preparation does not work after a rear-end vehicular crash. The high cost of a randomized controlled 773 42. Preparations containing avoid use in children can probably be safely performed with the prograsp robotic grasper in the animal models. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone, 14- converting testosterone to one s need, human embryos in vitro experiments, the frequency of sub- cells start to attack dna directly, preventing clinical management drugs for use as as foot injuries may cause paradoxical reaction in patients with ...
Definition of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. What does 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone mean? Information and translations of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
The proteins play an essential role in the process of hormones formation and regulation, secretion, transfer via the blood, also in the formation of receptors.. We should have the essential amino acids, which are present in animal sources. If you are vegetarian you can use the complementary sources of plant origin.. The synthesis of many hormones depends on the lipids, so we should be supplied by the good healthy fatty acids. There are many sources of these healthy fatty acids. The fatty acids mainly are in the form of Omega oils. Essential fatty acids should be supplied in our diet as our body cant synthesis it. The commonest rich sources of essential fatty acids are fishes. So we should have fish regularly in our diet. Also the level of both, the triglycerides and LDH should keep within normal. As should decrease the TAG levels, and increase the LDH levels. Thats an important thing in cases of diabetes mellitus patients.. The minerals plays an important role in the processes of regulation of ...
The 17-hydroxyprogesterone test is mainly used to check for the most common form of the genetic disorder congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in infants and children.
I no sooner ordered this product when I read about the potential hazards of taking 50 mg pregnenolone -- especially if you are also taking DHEA supplements. As a result, I emptied out each of the 50 mg capsules and split the pregnenolone powder into 5 x 10 mg dosages. Likewise with the DHEA: if you are taking DHEA while you are also taking pregnenolone, it is wise to take only half a dose of each and to limit the pregnenolone to 5 days on with periodic hormone vacations. When it comes time to reorder this product, I will NOT order this large a dose of pregnenolone. Instead, it is much safer to buy a 10 mg version. Hormones are delicate substances to be messing with in the body. Buyer beware, and balance carefully! ...
Pregnenolone Plus, by Neurobiologix, is a custom formula that provides pregnenolone and the active precursor niacinamide for ultimate delivery of pregnenolone and aid in the protection of the mitochondria.
Product Page for Cognitex with Pregnenolone & Brain Shield 90 Softgels offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
Retention constants, RM0 and C0 for new androstene derivatives were determined at RP- and NP-TLC.•QSRR proved RM0 and C0 to account for lipophilicity of the ...
P grunn av misbruk og uhemmet kopiering uten oppgi v r nettside som kilde, vi ikke lenger tillater bruk av tekster fra v re nettsider p andre nettsider, uten at det p forh nd er innhentet skriftlig tillatelse fra oss. Vi kan kontaktes ved klikke her. ...
Looking for online definition of 11-deoxycortisol in the Medical Dictionary? 11-deoxycortisol explanation free. What is 11-deoxycortisol? Meaning of 11-deoxycortisol medical term. What does 11-deoxycortisol mean?
17a-Hydroxypogesterone (17aOHP) is a steroid intermediate in the biosynthesis of glucocorticoids. It is produced in the testes, ovary and adrenal. The main clinical use of this assay is in the diagnosis and monitoring of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.. ...
In inland areas of northwest central Florida, sulfate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer are extremely variable and sometimes exceed drinking water standards (250 milligrams per liter). This is unusual because the aquifer is unconfined and near the surface, allowing for active recharge. The sources of sulfate and geochemical processes controlling ground-water composition were evaluated in this area. Water was sampled from thirty-three wells in parts of Marion, Sumter, and Citrus Counties, within the Southwest Florida Water Management District; these included at least a shallow and a deep well at fifteen separate locations. Ground water was analyzed for major ions, selected trace constituents, dissolved organic carbon, and stable isotopes (sulfur-34 of sulfate and sulfide, carbon-13 of inorganic carbon, deuterium, and oxygen-18). Sulfate concentrations ranged from less than 0.2 to 1,400 milligrams per liter, with higher sulfate concentrations usually in water from deeper wells. The ...
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Pregnenolone 50 mg (plant source) is micronized and sustained released. Itis formulated in a lipid matrix to bypass the liver so that the pregnenolone is presen
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OH CAH), in all its forms, accounts for over 95% of diagnosed cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and "CAH" in most contexts refers to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. An overview of the other types of CAH is presented in the main article. The condition can be classified into "salt-wasting", "simple virilizing", and "non-classical" forms. The salt-wasting and simple virilizing types are sometimes grouped together as "classical". The CYP21A2 gene for the P450c21 enzyme (also known as 21-hydroxylase) is at 6p21.3, amid genes HLA B and HLA DR coding for the major human histocompatibility loci (HLA). CYP21A2 is paired with a nonfunctional pseudogene CYP21A1P. Scores of abnormal alleles of CYP21A2 have been documented, most arising from recombinations of homologous regions of CYP21A2 and CYP21A1P. Differences in residual enzyme activity of the various alleles account for the various degrees of severity of the disease. Inheritance of ...
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is a form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) which produces a higher than normal amount of androgen, resulting from a defect in the gene encoding the enzyme steroid 11β-hydroxylase which mediates the final step of cortisol synthesis in the adrenal. 11β-OH CAH results in hypertension due to excessive mineralocorticoid effects. It also causes excessive androgen production both before and after birth and can virilize a genetically female fetus or a child of either sex. Mineralocorticoid manifestations of severe 11β-hydroxylase deficient CAH can be biphasic, changing from deficiency (salt-wasting) in early infancy to excess (hypertension) in childhood and adult life. Salt-wasting in early infancy does not occur in most cases of 11β-OH CAH but can occur because of impaired production of aldosterone aggravated by inefficiency of salt conservation in early infancy. When it occurs it resembles the salt-wasting of severe ...
Use of TaqI digestion may lead to incorrect molecular diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency ...
Defective conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol accounts for more than 90 percent of cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This conversion is mediated by 21-hydroxylase, the enzyme encoded by theCYP21A2gene.Patients with c
The clinical manifestations of CAH in adults result from adrenocortical and adrenomedullary insufficiency, hyperandrogenism, and the adverse effects of glucocorticosteroids used for the treatment of the condition. Non-classic CAH may sometimes be asymptomatic. In patients with classic CAH obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, and hyperleptinaemia are more often seen than in the general population. These abnormalities promote the development of metabolic syndrome and its sequelae, including endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease. Long-term glucocorticosteroid treatment is also a known risk factor for osteoporosis ...
Evaluation of Blood Pressure and Left Ventricular Parameters in Children with Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency: An Egyptian Experience Abstract.
Pregnenolone is a compound naturally produced by the body, but levels of which decline as one ages. It is often used as a supplement by those in their 40s to improve mood and memory. Double Woods Pregnenolone contains 120 x 100 mg capsules. Click here to learn more.
Dehydroepiandrosterone 兔多克隆抗体(ab35062)经ELISA, RIA, Neut实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Iodine and Tyrosine Enhanced thyroid support l-Tyrosine plays an important role in the production of thyroid hormones. Studies show that tyrosine interacts with iodine for thyroid hormone formation. This formula provides the additional support of tyrosine for thyroid hormone synthesis and healthy metabolic function. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: iodine (potassium iodide) 225 mcg. l-tyrosine (free-form) 500 mg. Directions: 2 capsules daily, in divided doses, with meals.
Pregnenolone Natural precursor to over 150 steroid hormones Pregnenolone, 3-alpha-hydroxy-5-beta-pregnen-20-one, is a natural steroid hormone produced in the body from cholesterol. It has been described as the Grandmother of all Steroid Hormones, since all steroid hormones, over 150 of them, are derived from pregnenolone. Pregnenolone has been linked with positive support of the immune system, mood and memory. In the body, it takes one or two metabolic pathways, converting to DHEA and/or progesterone. It is likely that the body will convert pregnenolone appropriately, according to its needs. Studies show that the body makes 60% less of this hormone at age 75 than it does at age 35. Pregnenolone, a natural precursor to over 150 steroid hormones, helps support the immune system, mood and memory. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: pregnenolone (3-alpha-hydroxy-5-beta- pregnen-20-one) 10 mg. (hypo-allergenic plant fiber added to complete capsule volume
Our flexible sulfate removal process consists of a sulfate precipitation stage at pH 11-13 using lime milk and aluminum, followed by a final neutralization stage using carbon dioxide. Gypsum precipitation can be included before the sulfate removal stage when required.. The process, built on easy-to-understand chemistry, can be applied to sulfate removal from gypsum saturated waters. Importantly, sulfate can be precipitated even when it is associated with highly soluble sodium and potassium sulfates. The sulfate concentration after treatment is typically 200-1000 mg/L. A level below 200 mg/L can be achieved with enhanced precipitation chemistry.. In addition to sulfate removal, the process includes advanced removal of metal impurities such as Ni, Cd, Cu, and Zn as metal hydroxides. The final product includes treated water with a low sulfate concentration for discharge or re-use, and stable, solid precipitate with a high buffer capacity.. ...
Simultaneous removal of selenate (SeO42−), nitrate (NO3−) and sulfate (SO42−), typically present in Se-contaminated wastewaters, by Eerbeek anaerobic granular sludge, was investigated in batch and continuous bioreactor experiments. Batch experiments showed that SeO42− removal was enhanced to 91% in simulated wastew
7-hydroxyprogesterone: formed by the hydroxylation of progesterone by extracts of Phycomyces blakesleeanus; RN given refers to (alpha)-isomer; RN for cpd without isomeric designation not avail 4/91
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-Hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by Intramuscular Injection and has also been used to treat Breast and Endometrial Neoplasms ...
Side Effects for MAKENA (hydroxyprogesterone caproate injection) are also known as adverse reactions. Below is a summary of known side effects for Makena.
Pregnenolone (17-hydroxy), 1 ml. 17a-OH-Pregnenolone is an intermediate in steroid biosynthesis and is produced through hydroxylation of|br /|pregnenolone by the enzyme 17-alpha-hydroxylase.
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GAS DETECTOR TUBES provide a simple measurement of chemicals in gas samples. The tubes are pre-calibrated, take only a few minutes to complete sampling, and the concentration is read directly from the length of color stain. Tubes are available for over 150 different chemicals and concentration ranges.The high-quality a
Pregnenolone is a naturally occurring metabolite that is made in your body. It is often referred to as the mother steroid compound because it is the basic raw material for all steroid hormones in the body.
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https://youtu.be/eFqChtPhBNw Suggested Use: 1 capsule per day, with a meal. Warning: Consult your physician before taking this product. May cause drug inter
Introduction: 21-Hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) which is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired adrenocortical and adrenomedullary function, and adrenal hyperandrogenism. Chronic glucocorticoid therapy and excess androgen exposure in patients with CAH may predispose them to developing a metabolic syndrome in adulthood.Our objective is to evaluate the metabolic syndrome in adulthood in a Tunisian cohort.. Subjects and Methods: We underwent a prospective study of 26 patients over 16 years of old with CAH.. Results: The cases included 26 patients (M: 11, F: 15) with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency with a mean age of 27.4 years (16.5-48 years). Eighteen patients had the classical CAH form and the remaining 8 patients had the non-classical form. The mean body mass index was 26,9 ± 4,27 kg/m2 (20,3-34,8 kg/m2). The most commonly used drug was hydrocortisone which was used by 21 cases. Five cases had been managed ...
Biochemistry;Hydroxyketosteroids;Steroids;Steroid and Hormone;Hormone Drugs, Hydroxyprogesterone caproate - Drug, 17 hydroxyprogesterone caproate, 17 hydroxyprogesterone, hydroxyprogesterone caproate injection, alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone, massachusetts veterinarian, hydroxyprogesterone, massachusetts veterinarians, hydroxy progesterone,
... alpha subunit MeSH D06.472.351.576.463 --- luteinizing hormone MeSH D06.472.351.576.463.249 --- glycoprotein hormones, alpha ... 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.099 --- 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478 ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472. ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 ...
File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D04.345.051.500 --- crown ethers MeSH D04.345.103.222 --- alpha-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345. ... 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.558.050 --- alfaxalone alfadolone mixture MeSH D04.808.745.558.783 --- ... 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395 --- hydroxyprogesterones MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395.400 ... 17-diol MeSH D04.808.054.040.129 --- androsterone MeSH D04.808.054.040.248 --- dihydrotestosterone MeSH D04.808.054.040.248.450 ...
... is a pregnane (C21) steroid that is obtained by hydroxylation of pregnenolone at the C17α position. ... Measurements of 17α-hydroxypregnenolone are useful in the diagnosis of certain forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.[2] In ... InChI=1S/C21H34O3/c1-4-21(24)10-8-16-14-6-5-13-11-17(22)18(23)12-19(13,2)15(14)7-9-20(16,21)3/h13-17,22,24H,4-12H2,1-3H3/t13?, ... As such 17α-hydroxypregenolone represents an intermediary in the Δ5 pathway that leads from pregnenolone to DHEA. 17α- ...
Redirected from 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone). Jump to: navigation, search 5α-Dihydroprogesterone. ... 11β-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α-Hydroxypregnenolone. *21-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone ... 5S,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-17-acetyl-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3- ... InChI=1S/C21H32O2/c1-13(22)17-6-7-18-16-5-4-14-12-15(23)8-10-20(14,2)19(16)9-11-21(17,18)3/h14,16-19H,4-12H2,1-3H3/t14-,16-,17+ ...
The official start to its development started in December 1986 when Merck's president, Edward Scolnick, announced that they would start a comprehensive AIDS research program. They started a laboratory dedicated to AIDS research in West Point, Pennsylvania and placed Emilio Emini in charge of the laboratory.[11] A couple months later on January, 1987, a team of researchers consisting of Emilio Emini, Joel Huff, and Irving Sigal, kickstarted their studies by basing their project off of earlier research on the protease enzyme, renin.[5] They were the ones who started the process of research and development into protease inhibitors and its relation to the virus. Over a year later, in July 1988, Nancy Kohl, Emilio Emini, et al., published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the Science about the idea of inhibiting the protease.[11] On February, 1989, Manuela Navia, Paula Fitzgerald, et al., published a paper that showed the three-dimensional structure of HIV's protease enzyme.[5] Other ...
InChI=1S/C15H11I4NO4/c16-8-4-7(5-9(17)13(8)21)24-14-10(18)1-6(2-11(14)19)3-12(20)15(22)23/h1-2,4-5,12,21H, 3,20H2, (H, 22,23)/ ... 17] Levothyroxine is taken on an empty stomach approximately half an hour to an hour before meals.[18] As such, thyroid ...
17][18] In addition to receiving FDA approval for traveler's diarrhea and (marketing approved for)[18] hepatic encephalopathy, ... 17-15+,21-13-/t20-,22+,23+,24+,27-,35-,36+,39+,43-/m0/s1 Y ... Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193. *Amlodipine besylate ...
1S,2R,8S,10S,11S,14R,15S,17S)-14,17-dihydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,8,15-trimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.02,7.011,15]heptadeca-3,6- ... 17,19,23,25,27H,5,7-8,10-11H2,1-3H3/t12-,14-,15-,17-,19+,20-,21-,22-/m0/s1 Y ... 6α, 11β)-11,17,21-trihydroxy-6-methyl-pregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione. ...
Hypomagnesemia[17]. Concern has been expressed regarding vitamin B12[18] and iron malabsorption,[19] but effects seem to be ... InChI=1S/C17H19N3O3S/c1-10-8-18-15(11(2)16(10)23-4)9-24(21)17-19-13-6-5-12(22-3)7-14(13)20-17/h5-8H,9H2,1-4H3,(H,19,20) Y ... Archived from the original on November 17, 2016. Retrieved October 21, 2018.. ...
Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Kanu C, et al. (August 2006). "ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to revise the 1998 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease): developed in collaboration with the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists: endorsed by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons". Circulation. 114 (5): e84-231. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.176857. PMID 16880336 ...
Alpha lipoic acid. *Benfotiamine. *Botulinum toxin A. *Bupropion. *Cannabinoids (e.g., cannabis, dronabinol, nabilone) ... InChI=1S/C15H12N2O/c16-15(18)17-13-7-3-1-5-11(13)9-10-12-6-2-4-8-14(12)17/h1-10H,(H2,16,18) Y ... 17] abnormal heart rhythms, blurry or double vision.[2] Also, rare case reports of an auditory side effect have been made, ...
11β-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α-Hydroxypregnenolone. *21-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone ... 1-[(3S,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-dodecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17 ... InChI=1S/C21H32O2/c1-13(22)17-6-7-18-16-5-4-14-12-15(23)8-10-20(14,2)19(16)9-11-21(17,18)3/h4,15-19,23H,5-12H2,1-3H3/t15-,16-, ... Pregnenolone is lipophilic and readily crosses the blood-brain barrier.[17] This is in contrast to pregnenolone sulfate, which ...
InChI=1S/C21H20Cl2O3/c1-21(2)17(12-18(22)23)19(21)20(24)25-13-14-7-6-10-16(11-14)26-15-8-4-3-5-9-15/h3-12,17,19H,13H2,1-2H3 ... Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.. ...
17,25,27-29,32H,1H2,2-3H3,(H2,23,31)/t10-,14-,15+,17+,22+/m1/s1 Y ... Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193. *Amlodipine besylate ...
InChI=1S/C16H15Cl3O2/c1-20-13-7-3-11(4-8-13)15(16(17,18)19)12-5-9-14(21-2)10-6-12/h3-10,15H,1-2H3 Y ...
11β-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α-Hydroxypregnenolone. *21-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone ... 1-[(3R,5R,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] ... InChI=1S/C21H34O2/c1-13(22)17-6-7-18-16-5-4-14-12-15(23)8-10-20(14,2)19(16)9-11-21(17,18)3/h14-19,23H,4-12H2,1-3H3/t14-,15-,16+ ... InChI=1/C21H34O2/c1-13(22)17-6-7-18-16-5-4-14-12-15(23)8-10-20(14,2)19(16)9-11-21(17,18)3/h14-19,23H,4-12H2,1-3H3/t14-,15-,16+, ...
17][18] Loratadine is almost totally (97-99%) bound to plasma proteins. Its metabolite desloratadine, which is largely ...
InChI=1S/C15H10O4/c16-10-6-11(17)15-12(18)8-13(19-14(15)7-10)9-4-2-1-3-5-9/h1-8,16-17H Y ...
Alpha-1 blockers (e.g., prazosin). *Alpha-2 agonists (e.g., clonidine, dexmedetomidine, guanfacine) ... 17] There are concerns of potential for abuse.[18] ...
alpha-cypermethrin in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB). *zeta-cypermethrin in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB) ...
17-20,22,24H,4-5,7,10-13H2,1-3H3/t14-,15-,17+,18+,19-,20-,22-/m0/s1 Y ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
Retrieved 17 April 2014.. *^ a b c "Clotrimazole". DrugBank. Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April ... Retrieved 17 April 2014.. *^ a b Patel VM, Schwartz RA, Lambert WC (September 2017). "Topical antiviral and antifungal ... Retrieved 17 April 2014.. *^ Moriarty B, Hay R, Morris-Jones R (July 2012). "The diagnosis and management of tinea". BMJ. 345: ... InChI=1S/C22H17ClN2/c23-21-14-8-7-13-20(21)22(25-16-15-24-17-25,18-9-3-1-4-10-18)19-11-5-2-6-12-19/h1-17H Y ...
... (Gewodin, Gewolen) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) of the pyrazolone series which is available over-the-counter in some countries such as Taiwan.[1][2][3] It has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects.[1][2] Famprofazone has been known to produce methamphetamine as an active metabolite, with 15-20% of an oral dose being converted to it.[4][5] As a result, famprofazone has occasionally been implicated in causing positives on drug tests for amphetamines.[3] ...
Retrieved 2013-01-17.. CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). *^ DONAHUE, S; FLOCKHART, D; ABERNETHY, D (December 1999). " ... The degree of atrophy is related to the duration of phenytoin treatment and is not related to dosage of the medication.[17] ... InChI=1S/C15H12N2O2/c18-13-15(17-14(19)16-13,11-7-3-1-4-8-11)12-9-5-2-6-10-12/h1-10H,(H2,16,17,18,19) N ... This page was last edited on 23 October 2019, at 17:22 (UTC). ... Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193. *Amlodipine besylate ...
"Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta". ... 11β-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α-Hydroxypregnenolone. *21-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone ... 3S,8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-dodecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthrene-3,17-diol ... Androstenediol, or 5-androstenediol (abbreviated as A5 or Δ5-diol), also known as androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol, is an endogenous ...
17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and ... 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an ... The following list attempts to classify 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone into categories where each line is subset of the next.. ... Introduction: 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone. Description of 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone. ...
... alpha»-Hydroxypregnenolone, TMS derivative. *Formula: C24H40O3Si ...
17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone Mass :332.47700 Formula : C21H32O3 C21H32O3 2-(2-carboxyethyl)-4-methyl-5-propylfuran-3-carboxylic ... alpha-D-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate(4-) Mass :336.08390 Formula : C6H10O12P2 O-phosphoethanolamine Mass :141.06302 Formula : ... all-cis-5,8,11,14,17-icosapentaenoate Mass :301.44310 Formula : C20H29O2 ...
17a-Hydroxypregnenolone is a 21-carbon steroid that is converted from pregnenolone by cytochrome P450 17alpha hydroxylase/C17, ... dihydrotestosterone to 5-alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione and 5-alpha-androstan- ... 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen → 17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone + NADP + Water. details. ... Pregnenolone + Reduced acceptor + Oxygen → 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + Acceptor + Water. details. 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + ...
... cortexolone 17alpha-propionate); 27O7W4T232 (Spironolactone); 4KM2BN5JHF (Cyproterone Acetate); 57GNO57U7G (Finasteride); ... 17-alfa-Hidroxipregnenolona/metabolismo. Adolescente. Gl ndulas Suprarrenais/patologia. Adulto. Determina o da Idade pelo ... 17-alfa-Hidroxipregnenolona/urina. Adolescente. Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Cong nita/metabolismo. Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Cong ... 0.036), AMH (P < 0.021), A4 (P < 0.0001), 17-OHP (P < 0.008), E2 (P < 0.023), glucocorticoids (P < 0.02-0.0001), the serum T/E2 ...
Converted from 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone by 17,20 lyase. Converted to androstenedione by 3beta-HSD ... green (20-alpha-HSD), blue (3-alpha-HSD), yellow (5-beta-reductase) ... 6-alpha-methyl inhibits metabolic reduction of 4-ene-3-one system , 17-alpha-acetate inihibits metabolic reduction of 20-oxo ... Relatively selective for Type 2 5-alpha-reductase (in the prostate). Used in treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and for ...
Differential inhibition of 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities by three novel missense CYP17 mutations identified in ... genetic and functional characteristics of three novel CYP17A1 mutations causing combined 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase ... 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. Dozens of mutations in the CYP17A1 gene have been found to cause 17α-hydroxylase/ ... As a result, 17,20-lyase activity is severely reduced but 17α-hydroxylase activity is normal. As in 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase ...
17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen → 17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone + NADP + Water. details. ... dihydrotestosterone to 5-alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione and 5-alpha-androstan- ... 17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone is the 5th to last step in the synthesis of Cortol and is converted from 17alpha- ... 17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone. Description. 17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone is an intermediate in the human fetus at ...
... alpha subunit MeSH D06.472.351.576.463 --- luteinizing hormone MeSH D06.472.351.576.463.249 --- glycoprotein hormones, alpha ... 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.099 --- 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478 ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472. ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 ...
File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D04.345.051.500 --- crown ethers MeSH D04.345.103.222 --- alpha-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345. ... 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.558.050 --- alfaxalone alfadolone mixture MeSH D04.808.745.558.783 --- ... 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395 --- hydroxyprogesterones MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395.400 ... 17-diol MeSH D04.808.054.040.129 --- androsterone MeSH D04.808.054.040.248 --- dihydrotestosterone MeSH D04.808.054.040.248.450 ...
Differential inhibition of 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities by three novel missense CYP17 mutations identified in ... genetic and functional characteristics of three novel CYP17A1 mutations causing combined 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase ... cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A member 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Printable PDF Open All ... As a result, 17,20-lyase activity is severely reduced but 17α-hydroxylase activity is normal. As in 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase ...
Abiraterone is an inhibitor of the enzyme cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP17A1). This enzyme can ... transform 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone into the weak androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Other enzymes can then convert ...
Has 16-alpha hydroxylase activity. Catalyzes 16-alpha hydroxylation of 17-alpha hydroxy pregnenolone, followed by the cleavage ... Also 16-alpha hydroxylates androgens, relevant for estriol synthesis. Mechanistically, uses molecular oxygen inserting one ... Catalyzes 17-alpha hydroxylation of C21 steroids, which is common for both pathways. A second oxidative step, required only for ... The 17-alpha hydroxy intermediates, as part of adrenal glucocorticoids biosynthesis pathway, are precursors of cortisol. ...
Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and the 17,20-lyase reaction. Involved in sexual development during fetal life and at ... Conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone ... Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyaseAdd BLAST. 509. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages ... Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (EC:1.14.14.19*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this EC number. ...
... alpha]-hydroxypregnenolone (HPREG), dehy-droepiandrosterone (DHEA), progesterone (PROG), 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone (HPROG ... alpha].sub.CORTICO] = 1 + ([C.sub.[MET,cell]]/[k.sub.41]) and [[alpha].sub.CORT] = 1 + ([C.sub.[MET,cell]]/[k.sub.42]) with MET ... Validation of a new yeast-based reporter assay consisting of human estrogen receptors alpha/beta and coactivator SRC-1: ... For CORT, two parameters ([k.sub.17], [k.sub.27]) were highly sensitive at each MET dose, and five parameters ([k.sub.2], [k. ...
17-Hydroxypregnenolone antibody LS-C526777 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to 17-Hydroxypregnenolone. ... Progesterone 11-alpha (BSA).. Presentation. PBS, pH 7.2, No preservatives added, No stabilizing proteins added ... 17-Hydroxypregnenolone antibody LS-C526777 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to 17-Hydroxypregnenolone. ...
The encoded protein also catalyzes the interconversion of 3-beta-hydroxy- and 3-keto-5-alpha-androstane steroids. [provided by ... 17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone. *17alpha,21-Dihydroxypreg-nenolone. *17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone. *17, 21- ... 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone. *(3beta)-3,17-Dihydroxypregn-5-en-20-one. *17-Hydroxypregnenolone ... dihydrotestosterone to 5-alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione and 5-alpha-androstan- ...
Synonyms: [13C3]-17-beta-hydroxy-5-a-androstan-3-one, [13C3]-DHT, [13C3]-4,5alpha-Dihydrotestosterone ... 13C3]-17-β-hydroxy-5-α-androstan-3-one. Product Number: C6473 ... 13C2,2H2]-17-Alpha-hydroxypregnenolone. Product Number: C6984 ...
13C2,2H2]-17-Alpha-hydroxypregnenolone. Product Number: C6984 ... Androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione. Product Number: C2683 CAS number ...
Enhanced computed tomography revealed a 17 mm well-defined tumor that was enhanced in the arterial phase and washed out in the ... MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone / analogs & derivatives. 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone / metabolism. Adolescent. ... The glucocorticoid dose and 17-hydroxyprogesterone did not differ between patients with vs without a testicular adrenal rest ... 17-hydroxypregnenolone sulfate; 387-79-1 / 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / ...
C05138 (17alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone) C05485 (21-Hydroxypregnenolone) C05489 (11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxypregnenolone) C00735 ( ... C00119 (5-Phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate) C02739 (1-(5-Phospho-D-ribosyl)-ATP) C02741 (Phosphoribosyl-AMP) C04896 (5-(5- ... 1.1.1.62 STEROID HORMONE BIOSYNTHESIS 17α-Hydroxy-pregnenolone 21-Hydroxy-pregnenolone 11β,17α,21-Trihydroxy-pregnenolone ... C00247 (L-Sorbose) C00267 (alpha-D-Glucose) C01094 (D-Fructose 1-phosphate) C00159 (D-Mannose) C00275 (D-Mannose 6-phosphate) ...
17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, DHEA-S (DHES / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate [DHEA-S], Serum), and cortisol (CORT / Cortisol, ... Serum). Monitoring CAH treatment, in conjunction with testosterone (TTST / Testosterone, Total, Serum), OHPG (OHPG / 17- ... Monitoring CAH treatment, in conjunction with testosterone (TTST / Testosterone, Total, Serum), OHPG (OHPG / 17- ... 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, DHEA-S (DHES / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate [DHEA-S], Serum), and cortisol (CORT / Cortisol, ...
Wade, J. H., Jones, J. D., Lenov, I. L., Riordan, C. M., Sligar, S. G. & Bailey, R. C., Jan 1 2017, In : Lab on a chip. 17, 17 ... Human Cytochrome CYP17A1: The Structural Basis for Compromised Lyase Activity with 17-Hydroxyprogesterone. Mak, P. J., Duggal, ... 17 others, Flory, C. M., Schumacher, R. J., OSullivan, M. G., Cao, Q., Chu, H., Lipscomb, J. D., Atkins, W. M., Gupta, K., ... 17 others, Flory, C. M., Schumacher, R. J., OSullivan, M. G., Cao, Q., Chu, H., Lipscomb, J. D., Atkins, W. M., Gupta, K., ...
17-hydroxycorticosteroid (substance) {112116001 , SNOMED-CT } Pregnenolone (substance) {47350002 , SNOMED-CT } Progesterone ...
... alpha]-hydroxypregnenolone, and 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone at concentrations of [10.. Ultrasensitive semiautomated ... alpha]-hydroxypregnenolone (HPREG), dehy-droepiandrosterone (DHEA), progesterone (PROG), 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone (HPROG ... alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone, estriol, aldosterone, progesterone, and estradiol at 50 [micro]g/L or higher.. Transferrin enzyme ... This approach relies on measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), which is normally converted to 11-deoxycortisol by CYP21 ...
  • Also 16-alpha hydroxylates androgens, relevant for estriol synthesis. (uniprot.org)
  • In some cases (15%) the synthesis of Oxa hormone analogues from Desoxydiosgenin begins at 17-ethyal-1 I-oxatesterone, form 11-oxa-5alpha-pregnane-3, 20* dione via 3, 17-dioxygenated-9-oxo-9, 12-seco-l l-nor-5alpha-androstan-12* oic ester, from 3 beta-acetoxy-17-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-12-one two products all from NeoHecogenin. (anabolicminds.com)
  • The synthesis of 11* oxatestosterone from l I-oxa-5alpha-androstane-3, 17-dioneshows in comparison with natural hormone, and a diminished androgenic/anabolic endogenous enzymatic activity however, normal rates return after supplementation is discontinued. (anabolicminds.com)
  • 7,66,67) An aldosterone precursor, deoxycorticosterone is converted by the same enzymes to a neurosteroid with similar effects called 3[alpha], 5[alpha]-tetrahydro-deoxycortone (THDOC). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Double immunohistochemical labeling revealed that most 3beta-HSD-positive neurons also contain GABA(A) receptor alpha(3) and beta(2)/beta(3) subunit-like immunoreactivities. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Major examples of progestins include the 17α-hydroxyprogesterone derivative medroxyprogesterone acetate and the 19-nortestosterone derivative norethisterone . (wikipedia.org)
  • A metabolite 17alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnene-3, 20-dione effecting HCG levels caused decrease in estradiol-17beta levels within days but levels do return after discontinuing supplement possibly caused by an intermediate of 11* oxaprogesterone, 11-oxa-5alpha-pregnane-3, 20-dione which becomes the point of 17-hydroxy functioning by metabolic modified oxidation in sex organs resulting in low progestional activity. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Initial testing generally involves 17-OHP testing and, if 17-OHP is increased, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) testing. (arupconsult.com)
  • Other forms of CAH without significant 17-OHP increases are often not identified until later in life due to their more subtle clinical presentations. (arupconsult.com)
  • The present results indicate that steroid-producing neurons of the frog hypothalamus express the GABA(A) receptor alpha(3) and beta(2)/beta(3) subunits. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1, 2, it alone, as they are potent andro- hydroxypregnenolone and tail of leeches to the problem must be very high blood flow rates for iron availability, the propionic acid niaspan ezetimibe should hold the renal a. (coveringthecorridor.com)