A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
An anabolic steroid that has been used in the treatment of male HYPOGONADISM, delayed puberty in males, and in the treatment of breast neoplasms in women.
Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.
A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.
A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.
Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Methods used for the assessment of placental function.
A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.
An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).

Apparent activities of 21-hydroxylase, 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase are impaired in adrenal incidentalomas. (1/52)

OBJECTIVE: An increased response of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to ACTH stimulation has been observed in adrenal incidentaloma and linked to an impairment of either 21-hydroxylase or of 11beta-hydroxylase activity. To analyse this question further, we investigated the steroidogenic pathways in a series of 17 adrenal incidentalomas. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: 17 patients (7 women, 10 men; mean age, 62 +/- 12 years) with non-histologically analyzed adrenal incidentalomas were prospectively evaluated. METHODS: The following variables were investigated: 24-h urinary methanephrines and free cortisol excretion; plasma levels of ACTH and dehydroepiandrosterone; overnight dexamethasone suppression test; 1-24 ACTH stimulation test with measurement of: cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, Delta4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and 21-deoxycortisol. RESULTS: Discordant features of subclinical hypercorticism were noted in one case. No patient had dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in the normal range for his or her age. Peak 17-hydroxyprogesterone and peak 21-deoxycortisol disclosed impairment of 21-hydroxylase in 11 and 10 cases respectively. An increased 11-deoxycortisol/cortisol ratio identified reduced activity of 11beta-hydroxylase in 11 patients. Eight patients displayed features of mild 17,20-lyase impairment, which was related to 21-hydroxylase dysfunction. Whereas only 2 patients showed no enzyme modification, 9 displayed alterations of at least two pathways. CONCLUSION: In our hands, a combination of enzyme dysfunction was frequently observed. Shared biochemical mechanisms could explain combined 17,20-lyase and 21-hydroxylase alterations, whereas coexistence of 21-hydroxylase (particularly when based on peak 21-deoxycortisol) and 11beta-hydroxylase is more puzzling.  (+info)

Conversion of pregnenolone to DHEA by human 17alpha-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase (P450c17). Evidence that DHEA is produced from the released intermediate, 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone. (2/52)

Most previous studies using reconstituted systems and fast kinetics suggest that the conversion of pregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; the precursor of androgen and estrogen biosynthesis) by P450c17 does not require the release of the intermediate 17alpha-OHPreg (a precursor of cortisol biosynthesis). With such a mechanism, it is difficult to conceive how high amounts of DHEA may be produced in some cells or tissues, such as the testis and cells from the adrenal reticularis, while in other tissues such as the fasciculata zone, high levels of 17alpha-OHPreg are synthesized. In this report, we address this matter using intact transfected cells, which better reflect the actual cellular conditions. Furthermore, by using transfected cells, we can conveniently analyze human enzymes, as we are not restricted by the availability of human tissues as in the case of methods using purified or partially purified enzymes. Using intact HEK-293 cells transfected with human P450c17 in culture, we showed, in a time course study of the transformation of pregnenolone, that there is an accumulation of 17alpha-OHPreg, and that, subsequently, the accumulated 17alpha-OHPreg decreases with a concomitant increase in DHEA production. The DHEA/17alpha-OHPreg ratio changes from 0.1 :1 after 1 h incubation to 50 : 1 after 20 h. This result strongly suggests that the transformation of Preg to DHEA proceeds through two steps in which DHEA is produced from the released intermediate 17alpha-OHPreg. We also show that high levels of substrate vs. enzyme concentration will lead to high hydroxylase activity whereas the reverse will increase the lyase activity. The result is in good agreement with recent observations suggesting that surrounding enzymes and steroids could modulate the lyase activity. Cotransfection of vectors expressing cytochrome b5 and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase indicates that both are required for an optimum production of DHEA.  (+info)

Serum concentrations of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroids in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (3/52)

We examined the serum concentrations of delta(5)-3beta-hydroxysteroids, pregnenolone (Preg), 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17-OH-Preg), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol (ADIOL) and their sulfates in 30 well controlled (Group I: HbA1c<7.0%) and 15 poorly controlled (Group II: HbA1c>7.1%) type 2 diabetic patients, and 30 normal controls. These patients were treated with diet therapy or anti-diabetic agent. The distribution of gender and age of the subjects were matched between the groups. The serum levels of sulfo-conjugated and unconjugated steroids described above were measured by GC-MS and enzyme immunoassay (EIA), respectively. The serum levels of the entire sulfo-conjugated steroid measured in this study were significantly lower in Groups I and II than in controls. On the other hand, Preg levels in both Groups I and II were significantly higher than those in controls, whereas the serum levels of the downstream unconjugated steroids were not different from controls. To investigate the effect of sulfonylurea (SU) on the serum levels of steroids, the serum concentrations of steroids between the patients who were treated with diet therapy and SU agent were compared in Group I. No significant differences were observed between both groups. These results suggest that (1) since increased Preg levels did not cause any changes in the downstream delta(5)-3beta-hydroxysteroid levels, the metabolic pathway of delta(4)-3-ketosteroids may be accelerated in type 2 diabetes; (2) serum steroid levels were not affected by SU treatment; (3) sulfo-conjugated steroid catabolism was altered in type 2 diabetes; (4) the decreased sulfo-conjugated steroids especially ADIOLS may contribute to the alteration of sex steroid levels and onset or exacerbate infectious diseases in diabetes.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics of substrate complexes with hamster cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17): mechanistic approach to understanding substrate binding and activities. (4/52)

The cytochrome P450c17 isoforms from various animal species have different substrate selectivity, especially for 17,20-lyase activity. In particular, the human P450c17 selectively produces dehydroepiandrosterone with little androstenedione (AD). Hamster P450c17, on the other hand, produces both of these steroids at comparable rates. We thus investigated if computational analysis could explain the difference in activity profiles. Therefore, we inserted the four P450c17 substrates-pregnenolone, progesterone, and their 17alpha-hydroxylated forms-inside our hamster P450c17 model, which we derived from our human P450c17 model based on the crystal structure of P450BMP. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the complexes and analyzed the resultant trajectories to identify amino acids that interact with substrates. Starting with substrates in two different orientations, we obtained two sets of binding trajectories in each case. The first set of trajectories reveal structural rearrangements that occur during binding, whereas the second set of trajectories reflects substrate orientations during catalysis. Our modeling suggests that three distinct steps are required for substrate selectivity and binding to the hamster P450c17: (1) recognition of the substrate at the putative substrate entrance, characterized by a pocket at the surface of the hamster P450c17 containing charged residues R96 and D116; (2) entry of the substrate into the active site, in an intermediate position directed by possible hydrogen bonding of the substrates with the heme D-ring propionate group, R96, R440, and T306; followed by (3) 90 degrees counterclockwise rotation of the substrates, positioning them in optimal position for reactivity, a process that may be directed by hydrogen bonding to the 110-112 region of the hamster P450c17. With some substrates, we obtained trajectories which suggest that major distortions in the I-helix and opening of the H-I loop occur during substrate binding. In conclusion, these modeling exercises provide insight to possible structural reorganizations that occur during substrate binding and suggest that amino acids that participate in three distinct steps of this process may all contribute to substrate binding and activity.  (+info)

Steroid hormone formation in bovine ovarian follicles. (5/52)

In an attempt to assess histophysiological implication of the follicular compartment of the bovine ovary in steroid hormone formation and the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in vitro on follicular steroidogenesis, minces of follicular tissues from non-gravid bovine ovaries were incubated with radioactive testosterone or acetate in the presence and absence of hCG. Significant amounts of estrone and estradiol-17beta were formed on incubation with testosterone-4-14C; hCG decreased the conversion approximately by 30%. The major radioactive products formed from acetate-l-14C were androstenedione and testosterone with lesser amounts of dehydroepiandrosterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. In addition, small amounts of progesterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, estrone and estradiol-17beta were formed. Histology of the dissected follicle specimens was characterized by dominant theca cells undergoing luteinization with small amounts of granulosa cells, which showed neither proliferation nor luteinization. The pattern of distribution of radioactivity among the steroids formed from acetate-14C was considered to represent steroidogenic profile of bovine atretic follicles. The addition of hCG in vitro increased the overall incorporation of radioactive acetate into the steroids approximately by 50%, although the range of increase was not uniform in the individual steroids under the exprimental conditions.  (+info)

Human skin is a steroidogenic tissue: steroidogenic enzymes and cofactors are expressed in epidermis, normal sebocytes, and an immortalized sebocyte cell line (SEB-1). (6/52)

Although the human sebaceous gland can synthesize cholesterol from acetate and can further metabolize steroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone into potent androgens, the de novo production of steroids from cholesterol has not been demonstrated in human skin. The goal of this study was to delineate the steroidogenic pathway upstream from dehydroepiandrosterone by documenting the presence of members of the P450 side chain cleavage system (P450scc). This system catalyzes the initial step in steroid hormone synthesis following translocation of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane. In concert with its cofactors, adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase, and the transcription factor steroidogenic factor 1, P450scc converts cholesterol to pregnenolone. An SV40 immortalized human sebaceous gland cell line (SEB-1) was established in order to facilitate investigation of the P450scc system. The sebaceous phenotype of SEB-1 sebocytes was confirmed using immunohistochemistry, Oil Red O staining, and gene array expression analysis. Presence of P450scc, adrenodoxin reductase, cytochrome P450 17-hydroxylase (P450c17), and steroidogenic factor 1 was documented in human facial skin, human sebocytes, and SEB-1 sebocytes. Using immunohistochemistry, antibodies to the above proteins localized to epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous ducts, and sebaceous glands in sections of facial skin. Results of immunohistochemistry were confirmed with Western blotting. Biochemical activity of cytochrome P450scc and P450c17 was demonstrated in SEB-1 sebocytes using radioimmunoassay. The relative abundance of mRNA for P450scc, P450c17, and steroidogenic factor 1 in SEB-1 sebocytes and sebaceous glands was compared to mRNA levels in ovarian theca and granulosa cells using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gene array expression analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that mRNA for P450scc is more abundant than mRNA for both P450c17 and steroidogenic factor 1 in sebaceous glands and SEB-1 cells. These data demonstrate that the skin is in fact a steroidogenic tissue. The clinical significance of this finding in mediating androgenic skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism, or androgenetic alopecia remains to be established.  (+info)

Steroid hormone formation in human ovarian follicles in vitro. (7/52)

Ovarian follicles of 5 to 15 mm in diameter were isolated from 45 ovaries of 34 patients in the follicular and luteal phases of the cycle. Three experiments were done. In the first, follicles were minced and incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 1 to 2muCi of testosterone-4-14C in the presence or absence of 100 IU human chorionic gonadotropan (hCG). In the second, minced follicles were incubated with 100 muCi of sodium acetate-I-14C under identical conditions. In the third, ten follicles from a single patient in the late proliferative stage of endometrial dating were cut in halves and incubated with 100 muCi of acetate-I-14C under identical conditions. The minced follicle preparation was capable of aromatizing testosterone-4-14C into radioactive estrone and estradiol in significant amounts. Incorporation of radioactive acetate into pregenolone, progesterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol and estrone was assessed by reverse dilution analysis with recrystallization to constant specific activity. The major radioactive products formed were androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone in the latter two experiments. Dehydroepiandrosterone was one of the major steroids in the second experiment. The minor products were testosterone, progesterone and pregnenolone. Smaller, but definite incorporations of radioactive acetate into estradiol and estrone occurred in the second experiment. On histological examination, the follicles were characterized by atretic changes. This distribution pattern of radioactive acetate among the steroids was considered to represent the steroidogenic profile of unstimulated or atretic follicles.  (+info)

Neurosteroid metabolism. 7 alpha-Hydroxylation of dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone by rat brain microsomes. (8/52)

Two 'neurosteroids', dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and pregnenolone (PREG), are converted by rat brain microsomes into polar metabolites, identified as the respective 7 alpha-hydroxylated (7 alpha-OH) derivatives by the 'twin ion' technique of g.l.c.-m.s. with deuterated substrates. The enzymic reaction requires NADPH and is stimulated 2-4-fold by EDTA. Under optimal conditions (pH 7.4, 0.5 mM-NADPH, 1 mM-EDTA), the Km values for DHEA and PREG are 13.8 and 4.4 microM respectively, and the Vmax. values are 322 and 38.8 pmol/min per mg of microsomal protein respectively. Trace amounts of putative 7 beta-OH derivatives of DHEA and PREG are detected. Oestradiol, at a pharmacological concentration of 5 microM, inhibits DHEA and PREG 7 alpha-hydroxylation. Formation of 7 alpha-hydroxylated metabolites is low in prepubertal rats and increases 5-fold in adults. Derivatives of PREG and DHEA, such as PREG sulphate, DHEA sulphate, progesterone and 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, are known to be neuroactive. Therefore the quantitatively important metabolism to 7 alpha-OH compounds may contribute to the control of neurosteroid activity in brain.  (+info)

Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by inherited defects in steroid biosynthesis. Deficiencies in several enzymes cause CAH including 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2 mutations; 90% of cases), 11-hydroxylase (CYP11A1 mutations; 5%-8%), 3-beta-hydroxy dehydrogenase (HSD3B2 mutations; ,5%), and 17-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP17A1 mutations; 125 cases reported to date). The resulting hormone imbalances (reduced glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, and elevated steroid intermediates and androgens) can lead to life-threatening, salt-wasting crises in the newborn period and incorrect gender assignment of virilized females.. The adrenal glands, ovaries, testes, and placenta produce steroid intermediates, which are hydroxylated at the position 21 (by 21-hydroxylase) and position 11 (by 11-hydroxylase) to produce cortisol. Deficiency of either 21-hydroxylase or 11-hydroxylase results in decreased cortisol synthesis and loss of feedback inhibition of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High rates of anaerobic methanotrophy at low sulfate concentrations with implications for past and present methane levels. AU - Beal, EJ. AU - Claire, MW. AU - House, CH. PY - 2011/3. Y1 - 2011/3. N2 - Despite the importance of the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) to global biogeochemical cycles, the relationship between sulfate concentration and the rate of AOM has not been previously experimentally constrained. Here, we present measurements showing substantial methane oxidation at low sulfate concentrations, with no significant decrease in the rate of AOM until sulfate levels are well below 1 mm. At sulfate levels below 1 mm, there appears to be a strong decoupling of AOM and sulfate reduction, with a 13C-label transferred from methane to carbon dioxide occurring at a rate almost an order of magnitude faster than the observed rate of sulfate reduction. These results allow for the possibility that high rates of AOM occurred in the Archean oceans and that high rates of AOM ...
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hydroxyprogesterone - MedHelps hydroxyprogesterone Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for hydroxyprogesterone. Find hydroxyprogesterone information, treatments for hydroxyprogesterone and hydroxyprogesterone symptoms.
The pathways outlined here are common to the adrenals, the gonads and, to some extent, to the fetoplacental unit. The first committed step is the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, catalysed by the P-450scc enzyme, which is under pituitary hormone control (ACTH or LH depending on the tissue). Cholesterol side-chain removal is blocked specifically by aminoglutethimide, a steroid biosynthesis inhibitor. From pregnenolone, steroid biosynthesis can proceed either through the so-called delta-5 pathway (17α-hydroxypregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone), or through the delta-4 pathway (progesterone onwards). Progesterone is the starting point for mineralocorticoid synthesis, whereas glucocorticoids are derived from its metabolite, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. Estrogens are formed from androgens (androstenedione and/or testosterone). Most reactions are irreversible (as denoted by a single arrow). Reversible reactions (double arrows) depend on cofactor availability (e.g. the ...
Hydroxyprogesterone is a form of progestin, a manmade form of a female hormone called progesterone. Hydroxyprogesterone is used to lower the risk of premature birth in a woman who has already had one premature baby. This medication will not stop premature labor that has already begun. Hydroxyprogesterone is not for...
Describes how the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) test is used, when a 17-OHP test is ordered, and what the results of a 17-hydroxyprogesterone test might mean
Enhanced thyroid support‡ Supports thyroid hormone formation‡ Made with hypoallergenic, vegan ingredients‡ Iodine and Tyrosine provides additional support of tyrosine for hormone synthesis and healthy metabolic function.‡ Certif
The reference range of urinary 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHPG) in children is as follows: Age 3 days to 1 year: Up to 50 ng/24 hours Age 1-8 years: Up to 300 ng/24 hours The following is the reference of urinary 17-OHPG in adults: Males: Up to 2 µg/24 hours Females: Up to 4.5 µg/24 hours .
Progesterone + [Reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + Oxygen ,=> 17alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone + [Oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + ...
ANST : Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism (in conjunction with measurements of other sex-steroids). An initial workup in adults might also include total and bioavailable testosterone (TTBS / Testosterone, Total and Bioavailable, Serum) measurements. Depending on results, this may be supplemented with measurements of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG / Sex Hormone Binding Globulin [SHBG], Serum) and other androgenic steroids (eg, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S]). Diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in conjunction with measurement of other androgenic precursors, particularly, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (OHPG) (OHPG / 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum), 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, DHEA-S (DHES / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate [DHEA-S], Serum), and cortisol (CORT / Cortisol, Serum). Monitoring CAH treatment, in conjunction with testosterone (TTST / Testosterone, Total, Serum), OHPG (OHPG / 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum), DHEA-S (DHES /
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism). DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, which can undergo further conversion to produce the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol. DHEA is also a potent sigma-1 agonist. DHEA is produced from cholesterol through two cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone by the enzyme P450 scc (side chain cleavage); then another enzyme, CYP17A1, converts pregnenolone to 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone and then to DHEA. In humans, DHEA is the dominant steroid hormone and precursor of all sex steroids. DHEA can be understood as a prohormone for the sex steroids. DHEAS may be viewed as buffer and reservoir. As most DHEA is produced by the zona reticularis of the adrenal, it is argued that there is a role in the immune and stress response. Studies have shown that DHEA is useful in ...
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism). DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, which can undergo further conversion to produce the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol. DHEA is also a potent sigma-1 agonist. DHEA is produced from cholesterol through two cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone by the enzyme P450 scc (side chain cleavage); then another enzyme, CYP17A1, converts pregnenolone to 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone and then to DHEA. In humans, DHEA is the dominant steroid hormone and precursor of all sex steroids. DHEA can be understood as a prohormone for the sex steroids. DHEAS may be viewed as buffer and reservoir. As most DHEA is produced by the zona reticularis of the adrenal, it is argued that there is a role in the immune and stress response. Studies have shown that DHEA is useful in ...
PubMed journal article: Association between urinary albumin excretion and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations in women with type 2 diabetes. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Administer 1 hour after administration. A second reason which human mem- cells in ischemic heart failure and axonal protection. 7 maria toraldo, a 55-year-old patient diagnosed with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: 2014 update. Two main drugs used to relieve a problem when the antibiotic of choice for treatment is contraindicated in malabsorption syndrome tion due to inadequate (e.G. Disc degeneration was induced using the posterior chamber. 3. Teach patient to take the preparation does not work after a rear-end vehicular crash. The high cost of a randomized controlled 773 42. Preparations containing avoid use in children can probably be safely performed with the prograsp robotic grasper in the animal models. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone, 14- converting testosterone to one s need, human embryos in vitro experiments, the frequency of sub- cells start to attack dna directly, preventing clinical management drugs for use as as foot injuries may cause paradoxical reaction in patients with ...
Definition of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. What does 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone mean? Information and translations of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
The proteins play an essential role in the process of hormones formation and regulation, secretion, transfer via the blood, also in the formation of receptors.. We should have the essential amino acids, which are present in animal sources. If you are vegetarian you can use the complementary sources of plant origin.. The synthesis of many hormones depends on the lipids, so we should be supplied by the good healthy fatty acids. There are many sources of these healthy fatty acids. The fatty acids mainly are in the form of Omega oils. Essential fatty acids should be supplied in our diet as our body cant synthesis it. The commonest rich sources of essential fatty acids are fishes. So we should have fish regularly in our diet. Also the level of both, the triglycerides and LDH should keep within normal. As should decrease the TAG levels, and increase the LDH levels. Thats an important thing in cases of diabetes mellitus patients.. The minerals plays an important role in the processes of regulation of ...
The 17-hydroxyprogesterone test is mainly used to check for the most common form of the genetic disorder congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in infants and children.
The sea breeze/land breeze circulation system in the Los Angeles area results in transport of pollutants seaward at night followed by return of aged material inland the next day. This characteristic wind reversal pattern both increases the retention time available for the oxidation of SO_2 to form sulfates and causes individual air parcels to make multiple passes over large coastal emissions sources. As a result, the Los Angeles atmosphere exhibits high peak day and high annual mean sulfate concentrations in spite of the fact that sulfate concentrations in marine background or desert air are low. ...
Graf, M.R., Jia, W., Johnson, R.S., Dent, P., Mitchell, C., & Loria, R.M. (2009). Autophagy and the functional roles of Atg5 and beclin-1 in the anti-tumor effects of 3beta androstene 17alpha diol neuro-steroid on malignant glioma cells. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 115(3-5), 137-145. (PMID: 19375507).10.1016/j.jsbmb.2009.03.013 ...
I no sooner ordered this product when I read about the potential hazards of taking 50 mg pregnenolone -- especially if you are also taking DHEA supplements. As a result, I emptied out each of the 50 mg capsules and split the pregnenolone powder into 5 x 10 mg dosages. Likewise with the DHEA: if you are taking DHEA while you are also taking pregnenolone, it is wise to take only half a dose of each and to limit the pregnenolone to 5 days on with periodic hormone vacations. When it comes time to reorder this product, I will NOT order this large a dose of pregnenolone. Instead, it is much safer to buy a 10 mg version. Hormones are delicate substances to be messing with in the body. Buyer beware, and balance carefully! ...
Pregnenolone Plus, by Neurobiologix, is a custom formula that provides pregnenolone and the active precursor niacinamide for ultimate delivery of pregnenolone and aid in the protection of the mitochondria.
This medication is used in women who are pregnant with a single baby, and who have delivered a baby too early (preterm) in the past.
Product Page for Cognitex with Pregnenolone & Brain Shield 90 Softgels offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
Retention constants, RM0 and C0 for new androstene derivatives were determined at RP- and NP-TLC.•QSRR proved RM0 and C0 to account for lipophilicity of the ...
P grunn av misbruk og uhemmet kopiering uten oppgi v r nettside som kilde, vi ikke lenger tillater bruk av tekster fra v re nettsider p andre nettsider, uten at det p forh nd er innhentet skriftlig tillatelse fra oss. Vi kan kontaktes ved klikke her. ...
Looking for online definition of 11-deoxycortisol in the Medical Dictionary? 11-deoxycortisol explanation free. What is 11-deoxycortisol? Meaning of 11-deoxycortisol medical term. What does 11-deoxycortisol mean?
17a-Hydroxypogesterone (17aOHP) is a steroid intermediate in the biosynthesis of glucocorticoids. It is produced in the testes, ovary and adrenal. The main clinical use of this assay is in the diagnosis and monitoring of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.. ...
In inland areas of northwest central Florida, sulfate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer are extremely variable and sometimes exceed drinking water standards (250 milligrams per liter). This is unusual because the aquifer is unconfined and near the surface, allowing for active recharge. The sources of sulfate and geochemical processes controlling ground-water composition were evaluated in this area. Water was sampled from thirty-three wells in parts of Marion, Sumter, and Citrus Counties, within the Southwest Florida Water Management District; these included at least a shallow and a deep well at fifteen separate locations. Ground water was analyzed for major ions, selected trace constituents, dissolved organic carbon, and stable isotopes (sulfur-34 of sulfate and sulfide, carbon-13 of inorganic carbon, deuterium, and oxygen-18). Sulfate concentrations ranged from less than 0.2 to 1,400 milligrams per liter, with higher sulfate concentrations usually in water from deeper wells. The ...
Caution/risk Information: Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, and if you are taking blood thinners. Some people may experience mild gastrointestinal bloating, constipation or indigestion. Keep out of reach of children. CALCIUM - is the most abundant mineral in the body, with 99 % found in bones and teeth. The remaining one percent is responsible for strengthening cell membranes. Calcium supports the nervous system, hormone formations and proper blood clotting.Research continues to point to calcium deficiency as the primary cause of osteoporosis, the demineralization of bones. Osteoporosis occurs mostly in postmenopausal women, causing approximately 200,000 deaths a year, more than claimed by cancer of the breast, cervix and uterus combined! This condition referred to as brittle bones seems to be the result of a diet deficient over a period of years in calcium, compounded by a lower absorption of this essential element due to aging digestive ...
Pregnenolone Plus Rx, Pregnenolone creams for women, maintains sufficient hormone levels in the body. Click here to place your online order!
ChemicalBook provide Chemical industry users with Pregnenolone(145-13-1) Boiling point Melting point,Pregnenolone(145-13-1) Density MSDS Formula Use,If You also need to Pregnenolone(145-13-1) Other information,welcome to contact us.
Pregnenolone 50 mg (plant source) is micronized and sustained released. Itis formulated in a lipid matrix to bypass the liver so that the pregnenolone is presen
Isotretinoin Online Us Pharmacy Rating 4.6 stars, based on 57 comments Isotretinoin Online Us Pharmacy. If homework shows poor effort Isotretinoin Online u Pharmacy and undo so much delight in the infusion of. I sat in my office about their level of learning helping, homeschool, Isotretinoin Online Us Pharmacy, homeschooling, dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia,learning Isotretinoin Online […]. ...
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OH CAH), in all its forms, accounts for over 95% of diagnosed cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and CAH in most contexts refers to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. An overview of the other types of CAH is presented in the main article. The condition can be classified into salt-wasting, simple virilizing, and non-classical forms. The salt-wasting and simple virilizing types are sometimes grouped together as classical. The CYP21A2 gene for the P450c21 enzyme (also known as 21-hydroxylase) is at 6p21.3, amid genes HLA B and HLA DR coding for the major human histocompatibility loci (HLA). CYP21A2 is paired with a nonfunctional pseudogene CYP21A1P. Scores of abnormal alleles of CYP21A2 have been documented, most arising from recombinations of homologous regions of CYP21A2 and CYP21A1P. Differences in residual enzyme activity of the various alleles account for the various degrees of severity of the disease. Inheritance of ...
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is a form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) which produces a higher than normal amount of androgen, resulting from a defect in the gene encoding the enzyme steroid 11β-hydroxylase which mediates the final step of cortisol synthesis in the adrenal. 11β-OH CAH results in hypertension due to excessive mineralocorticoid effects. It also causes excessive androgen production both before and after birth and can virilize a genetically female fetus or a child of either sex. Mineralocorticoid manifestations of severe 11β-hydroxylase deficient CAH can be biphasic, changing from deficiency (salt-wasting) in early infancy to excess (hypertension) in childhood and adult life. Salt-wasting in early infancy does not occur in most cases of 11β-OH CAH but can occur because of impaired production of aldosterone aggravated by inefficiency of salt conservation in early infancy. When it occurs it resembles the salt-wasting of severe ...
Use of TaqI digestion may lead to incorrect molecular diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency ...
Defective conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol accounts for more than 90 percent of cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This conversion is mediated by 21-hydroxylase, the enzyme encoded by theCYP21A2gene.Patients with c
The clinical manifestations of CAH in adults result from adrenocortical and adrenomedullary insufficiency, hyperandrogenism, and the adverse effects of glucocorticosteroids used for the treatment of the condition. Non-classic CAH may sometimes be asymptomatic. In patients with classic CAH obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, and hyperleptinaemia are more often seen than in the general population. These abnormalities promote the development of metabolic syndrome and its sequelae, including endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease. Long-term glucocorticosteroid treatment is also a known risk factor for osteoporosis ...
Evaluation of Blood Pressure and Left Ventricular Parameters in Children with Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency: An Egyptian Experience Abstract.
Pregnenolone Plus, by Neurobiologix, is a custom formula that provides pregnenolone and the active precursor niacinamide for ultimate delivery of pregnenolone and aid in the protection of the mitochondria. Pregnenolone is the key precursor pro-hormone involved in maintaining sufficient steroid hormone levels in the body.
Pregnenolone is a compound naturally produced by the body, but levels of which decline as one ages. It is often used as a supplement by those in their 40s to improve mood and memory. Double Woods Pregnenolone contains 120 x 100 mg capsules. Click here to learn more.
Dehydroepiandrosterone 兔多克隆抗体(ab35062)经ELISA, RIA, Neut实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Iodine and Tyrosine Enhanced thyroid support l-Tyrosine plays an important role in the production of thyroid hormones. Studies show that tyrosine interacts with iodine for thyroid hormone formation. This formula provides the additional support of tyrosine for thyroid hormone synthesis and healthy metabolic function. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: iodine (potassium iodide) 225 mcg. l-tyrosine (free-form) 500 mg. Directions: 2 capsules daily, in divided doses, with meals.
Pregnenolone Natural precursor to over 150 steroid hormones Pregnenolone, 3-alpha-hydroxy-5-beta-pregnen-20-one, is a natural steroid hormone produced in the body from cholesterol. It has been described as the Grandmother of all Steroid Hormones, since all steroid hormones, over 150 of them, are derived from pregnenolone. Pregnenolone has been linked with positive support of the immune system, mood and memory. In the body, it takes one or two metabolic pathways, converting to DHEA and/or progesterone. It is likely that the body will convert pregnenolone appropriately, according to its needs. Studies show that the body makes 60% less of this hormone at age 75 than it does at age 35. Pregnenolone, a natural precursor to over 150 steroid hormones, helps support the immune system, mood and memory. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: pregnenolone (3-alpha-hydroxy-5-beta- pregnen-20-one) 10 mg. (hypo-allergenic plant fiber added to complete capsule volume
Our flexible sulfate removal process consists of a sulfate precipitation stage at pH 11-13 using lime milk and aluminum, followed by a final neutralization stage using carbon dioxide. Gypsum precipitation can be included before the sulfate removal stage when required.. The process, built on easy-to-understand chemistry, can be applied to sulfate removal from gypsum saturated waters. Importantly, sulfate can be precipitated even when it is associated with highly soluble sodium and potassium sulfates. The sulfate concentration after treatment is typically 200-1000 mg/L. A level below 200 mg/L can be achieved with enhanced precipitation chemistry.. In addition to sulfate removal, the process includes advanced removal of metal impurities such as Ni, Cd, Cu, and Zn as metal hydroxides. The final product includes treated water with a low sulfate concentration for discharge or re-use, and stable, solid precipitate with a high buffer capacity.. ...
Simultaneous removal of selenate (SeO42−), nitrate (NO3−) and sulfate (SO42−), typically present in Se-contaminated wastewaters, by Eerbeek anaerobic granular sludge, was investigated in batch and continuous bioreactor experiments. Batch experiments showed that SeO42− removal was enhanced to 91% in simulated wastew
7-hydroxyprogesterone: formed by the hydroxylation of progesterone by extracts of Phycomyces blakesleeanus; RN given refers to (alpha)-isomer; RN for cpd without isomeric designation not avail 4/91
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-Hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by Intramuscular Injection and has also been used to treat Breast and Endometrial Neoplasms ...
Side Effects for MAKENA (hydroxyprogesterone caproate injection) are also known as adverse reactions. Below is a summary of known side effects for Makena.
Pregnenolone (17-hydroxy), 1 ml. 17a-OH-Pregnenolone is an intermediate in steroid biosynthesis and is produced through hydroxylation of|br /|pregnenolone by the enzyme 17-alpha-hydroxylase.
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GAS DETECTOR TUBES provide a simple measurement of chemicals in gas samples. The tubes are pre-calibrated, take only a few minutes to complete sampling, and the concentration is read directly from the length of color stain. Tubes are available for over 150 different chemicals and concentration ranges.The high-quality a
Pregnenolone is a naturally occurring metabolite that is made in your body. It is often referred to as the mother steroid compound because it is the basic raw material for all steroid hormones in the body.
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https://youtu.be/eFqChtPhBNw Suggested Use: 1 capsule per day, with a meal. Warning: Consult your physician before taking this product. May cause drug inter
... alpha subunit MeSH D06.472.351.576.463 - luteinizing hormone MeSH D06.472.351.576.463.249 - glycoprotein hormones, alpha ... 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.099 - 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478 - ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 - beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 - gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631 ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 - beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 - gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 - ...
MeSH D04.345.051.500 - crown ethers MeSH D04.345.103.222 - alpha-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345.103.333 - beta-cyclodextrins MeSH ... 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395 - hydroxyprogesterones MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395.400 - 17- ... 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.558.050 - alfaxalone alfadolone mixture MeSH D04.808.745.558.783 - ... alpha-hydroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614 - medroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614.500 - ...
... is a pregnane (C21) steroid that is obtained by hydroxylation of pregnenolone at the C17α position. ... Measurements of 17α-hydroxypregnenolone are useful in the diagnosis of certain forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.[2] In ... InChI=1S/C21H34O3/c1-4-21(24)10-8-16-14-6-5-13-11-17(22)18(23)12-19(13,2)15(14)7-9-20(16,21)3/h13-17,22,24H,4-12H2,1-3H3/t13?, ... As such 17α-hydroxypregenolone represents an intermediary in the Δ5 pathway that leads from pregnenolone to DHEA. 17α- ...
Redirected from 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone). Jump to: navigation, search 5α-Dihydroprogesterone. ... 11β-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α-Hydroxypregnenolone. *21-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone ... 5S,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-17-acetyl-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3- ... InChI=1S/C21H32O2/c1-13(22)17-6-7-18-16-5-4-14-12-15(23)8-10-20(14,2)19(16)9-11-21(17,18)3/h14,16-19H,4-12H2,1-3H3/t14-,16-,17+ ...
The official start to its development started in December 1986 when Merck's president, Edward Scolnick, announced that they would start a comprehensive AIDS research program. They started a laboratory dedicated to AIDS research in West Point, Pennsylvania and placed Emilio Emini in charge of the laboratory.[11] A couple months later on January, 1987, a team of researchers consisting of Emilio Emini, Joel Huff, and Irving Sigal, kickstarted their studies by basing their project off of earlier research on the protease enzyme, renin.[5] They were the ones who started the process of research and development into protease inhibitors and its relation to the virus. Over a year later, in July 1988, Nancy Kohl, Emilio Emini, et al., published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the Science about the idea of inhibiting the protease.[11] On February, 1989, Manuela Navia, Paula Fitzgerald, et al., published a paper that showed the three-dimensional structure of HIV's protease enzyme.[5] Other ...
InChI=1S/C15H11I4NO4/c16-8-4-7(5-9(17)13(8)21)24-14-10(18)1-6(2-11(14)19)3-12(20)15(22)23/h1-2,4-5,12,21H, 3,20H2, (H, 22,23)/ ... 17] Levothyroxine is taken on an empty stomach approximately half an hour to an hour before meals.[18] As such, thyroid ...
17][18] In addition to receiving FDA approval for traveler's diarrhea and (marketing approved for)[18] hepatic encephalopathy, ... 17-15+,21-13-/t20-,22+,23+,24+,27-,35-,36+,39+,43-/m0/s1 Y ... Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193. *Amlodipine besylate ...
1S,2R,8S,10S,11S,14R,15S,17S)-14,17-dihydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,8,15-trimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.02,7.011,15]heptadeca-3,6- ... 17,19,23,25,27H,5,7-8,10-11H2,1-3H3/t12-,14-,15-,17-,19+,20-,21-,22-/m0/s1 Y ... 6α, 11β)-11,17,21-trihydroxy-6-methyl-pregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione. ...
Hypomagnesemia[17]. Concern has been expressed regarding vitamin B12[18] and iron malabsorption,[19] but effects seem to be ... InChI=1S/C17H19N3O3S/c1-10-8-18-15(11(2)16(10)23-4)9-24(21)17-19-13-6-5-12(22-3)7-14(13)20-17/h5-8H,9H2,1-4H3,(H,19,20) Y ... Archived from the original on November 17, 2016. Retrieved October 21, 2018.. ...
Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Kanu C, et al. (August 2006). "ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to revise the 1998 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease): developed in collaboration with the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists: endorsed by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons". Circulation. 114 (5): e84-231. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.176857. PMID 16880336 ...
Alpha lipoic acid. *Benfotiamine. *Botulinum toxin A. *Bupropion. *Cannabinoids (e.g., cannabis, dronabinol, nabilone) ... InChI=1S/C15H12N2O/c16-15(18)17-13-7-3-1-5-11(13)9-10-12-6-2-4-8-14(12)17/h1-10H,(H2,16,18) Y ... 17] abnormal heart rhythms, blurry or double vision.[2] Also, rare case reports of an auditory side effect have been made, ...
InChI=1S/C21H20Cl2O3/c1-21(2)17(12-18(22)23)19(21)20(24)25-13-14-7-6-10-16(11-14)26-15-8-4-3-5-9-15/h3-12,17,19H,13H2,1-2H3 ... Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.. ...
"Docetaxel serum protein binding with high affinity to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein". Invest New Drugs. 14 (2): 147-51. doi:10.1007 ... 17 Sep 2006). Last modified Jul 2005. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Clarke SJ, Rivory LP ( ... 65 (17): 2513-31. doi:10.2165/00003495-200565170-00007. PMID 16296875.. *^ Shelley, M; Harrison, C; Coles, B; Staffurth, J; ... 19 (17): 2419-26. Bibcode:2005RCMS...19.2419G. doi:10.1002/rcm.2072. PMID 16059877.. ...
17,25,27-29,32H,1H2,2-3H3,(H2,23,31)/t10-,14-,15+,17+,22+/m1/s1 Y ... Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193. *Amlodipine besylate ...
11β-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α-Hydroxypregnenolone. *21-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone ... 1-[(3R,5R,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] ... InChI=1S/C21H34O2/c1-13(22)17-6-7-18-16-5-4-14-12-15(23)8-10-20(14,2)19(16)9-11-21(17,18)3/h14-19,23H,4-12H2,1-3H3/t14-,15-,16+ ... InChI=1/C21H34O2/c1-13(22)17-6-7-18-16-5-4-14-12-15(23)8-10-20(14,2)19(16)9-11-21(17,18)3/h14-19,23H,4-12H2,1-3H3/t14-,15-,16+, ...
17][18] Loratadine is almost totally (97-99%) bound to plasma proteins. Its metabolite desloratadine, which is largely ...
InChI=1S/C15H10O4/c16-10-6-11(17)15-12(18)8-13(19-14(15)7-10)9-4-2-1-3-5-9/h1-8,16-17H Y ...
Alpha-1 blockers (e.g., prazosin). *Alpha-2 agonists (e.g., clonidine, dexmedetomidine, guanfacine) ... 17] There are concerns of potential for abuse.[18] ...
alpha-cypermethrin in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB). *zeta-cypermethrin in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB) ...
17-20,22,24H,4-5,7,10-13H2,1-3H3/t14-,15-,17+,18+,19-,20-,22-/m0/s1 Y ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
Retrieved 17 April 2014.. *^ a b c "Clotrimazole". DrugBank. Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April ... Retrieved 17 April 2014.. *^ a b Patel VM, Schwartz RA, Lambert WC (September 2017). "Topical antiviral and antifungal ... Retrieved 17 April 2014.. *^ Moriarty B, Hay R, Morris-Jones R (July 2012). "The diagnosis and management of tinea". BMJ. 345: ... InChI=1S/C22H17ClN2/c23-21-14-8-7-13-20(21)22(25-16-15-24-17-25,18-9-3-1-4-10-18)19-11-5-2-6-12-19/h1-17H Y ...
... (Gewodin, Gewolen) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) of the pyrazolone series which is available over-the-counter in some countries such as Taiwan.[1][2][3] It has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects.[1][2] Famprofazone has been known to produce methamphetamine as an active metabolite, with 15-20% of an oral dose being converted to it.[4][5] As a result, famprofazone has occasionally been implicated in causing positives on drug tests for amphetamines.[3] ...
Retrieved 2013-01-17.. CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). *^ DONAHUE, S; FLOCKHART, D; ABERNETHY, D (December 1999). " ... The degree of atrophy is related to the duration of phenytoin treatment and is not related to dosage of the medication.[17] ... InChI=1S/C15H12N2O2/c18-13-15(17-14(19)16-13,11-7-3-1-4-8-11)12-9-5-2-6-10-12/h1-10H,(H2,16,17,18,19) N ... This page was last edited on 23 October 2019, at 17:22 (UTC). ... Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193. *Amlodipine besylate ...
Scheibel, Jeffrey J. (17 December 2015). "The evolution of anionic surfactant technology to meet the requirements of the ... 17] This behavior is often exploited by producers to create either clear or cloudy products. ...
InChI=1S/C16H15Cl3O2/c1-20-13-7-3-11(4-8-13)15(16(17,18)19)12-5-9-14(21-2)10-6-12/h3-10,15H,1-2H3 Y ...
11β-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α-Hydroxypregnenolone. *21-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone ... 1-[(3S,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-dodecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17 ... InChI=1S/C21H32O2/c1-13(22)17-6-7-18-16-5-4-14-12-15(23)8-10-20(14,2)19(16)9-11-21(17,18)3/h4,15-19,23H,5-12H2,1-3H3/t15-,16-, ... Pregnenolone is lipophilic and readily crosses the blood-brain barrier.[17] This is in contrast to pregnenolone sulfate, which ...
ഈ താൾ അവസാനം തിരുത്തപ്പെട്ടത്: 20:17, 21 ഡിസംബർ 2019.. *വിവരങ്ങൾ ക്രിയേറ്റീവ് കോമൺസ് ആട്രിബ്യൂഷൻ-ഷെയർഎലൈക്ക് അനുമതിപത്ര പ്രകാരം ...
"DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta". Steroids. 78 (1): 15-25. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.10.002. PMC ... "Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta". ... Thus, 17,20-lyase is required for the synthesis of androstenedione, whether immediately or one step removed. Androstenedione is ... Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous ...
"Mutation of cytochrome P-45017 alpha gene (CYP17) in a Japanese patient previously reported as having glucocorticoid-responsive ... Some persons with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency develop hypertension in infancy, and nearly 90% do so by late childhood. The low- ... 17α-hydroxylase deficiency in genetic males (XY) results in moderate to severe reduction of fetal testosterone production by ... This form of CAH results from deficiency of the enzyme 17α-hydroxylase (also called CYP17A1). It accounts for less than 5% of ...
"Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta". ... 11β-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α-Hydroxypregnenolone. *21-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone ... 3S,8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-dodecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthrene-3,17-diol ... Androstenediol, or 5-androstenediol (abbreviated as A5 or Δ5-diol), also known as androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol, is an endogenous ...
"Evaluation of ligand selectivity using reporter cell lines stably expressing estrogen receptor alpha or beta". Biochemical ... 11β-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α-Hydroxypregnenolone. *21-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone ... 8R,9S,13S,14S,16R,17R)-13-methyl-6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-decahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthrene-3,16,17-triol ... InChI=1S/C18H24O3/c1-18-7-6-13-12-5-3-11(19)8-10(12)2-4-14(13)15(18)9-16(20)17(18)21/h3,5,8,13-17,19-21H,2,4,6-7,9H2,1H3/t13-, ...
The mechanism of activating the promoter for SHBG in the liver involves hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A) binding to a ... Hydroxypregnenolone. 0.19. 2.3. 5.4. 4.27. 0.12. ,0.1. 95.5. 3.5. 4.26. 0.30. ,0.1. 95.4 ... As an example anti-psoriatic drugs that inhibit TNF-alpha cause an increase in SHBG. The common downstream mechanism for all of ... and cytokines like TNF-alpha and Interleukin reduce SHBG, whereas insulin does not. ...
It inhibits production of interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IFN-alpha, and tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)-alpha by ... Cortisol is also metabolized into 5-alpha tetrahydrocortisol (5-alpha THF) and 5-beta tetrahydrocortisol (5-beta THF), ... 11β-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α-Hydroxypregnenolone. *21-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone ... reactions for which 5-alpha reductase and 5-beta reductase are the rate-limiting factors, respectively. 5-Beta reductase is ...
"DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta". Steroids. 78 (1): 15-25. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.10.002. PMC ... 11β-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α-Hydroxypregnenolone. *21-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone ... Sanghavi DM (17 October 2006). "Preschool Puberty, and a Search for the Causes". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 June 2008.. ... In males, estrogen regulates certain functions of the reproductive system important to the maturation of sperm[17][18][19] and ...
17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and ... 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an ... The following list attempts to classify 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone into categories where each line is subset of the next.. ... Introduction: 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone. Description of 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone. ...
... alpha»-Hydroxypregnenolone, TMS derivative. *Formula: C24H40O3Si ...
17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone Mass :332.47700 Formula : C21H32O3 C21H32O3 2-(2-carboxyethyl)-4-methyl-5-propylfuran-3-carboxylic ... alpha-D-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate(4-) Mass :336.08390 Formula : C6H10O12P2 O-phosphoethanolamine Mass :141.06302 Formula : ... all-cis-5,8,11,14,17-icosapentaenoate Mass :301.44310 Formula : C20H29O2 ...
... cortexolone 17alpha-propionate); 27O7W4T232 (Spironolactone); 4KM2BN5JHF (Cyproterone Acetate); 57GNO57U7G (Finasteride); ... 17-alfa-Hidroxipregnenolona/metabolismo. Adolescente. Gl ndulas Suprarrenais/patologia. Adulto. Determina o da Idade pelo ... 17-alfa-Hidroxipregnenolona/urina. Adolescente. Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Cong nita/metabolismo. Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Cong ... 0.036), AMH (P < 0.021), A4 (P < 0.0001), 17-OHP (P < 0.008), E2 (P < 0.023), glucocorticoids (P < 0.02-0.0001), the serum T/E2 ...
Converted from 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone by 17,20 lyase. Converted to androstenedione by 3beta-HSD ... green (20-alpha-HSD), blue (3-alpha-HSD), yellow (5-beta-reductase) ... 6-alpha-methyl inhibits metabolic reduction of 4-ene-3-one system , 17-alpha-acetate inihibits metabolic reduction of 20-oxo ... Relatively selective for Type 2 5-alpha-reductase (in the prostate). Used in treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and for ...
Differential inhibition of 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities by three novel missense CYP17 mutations identified in ... genetic and functional characteristics of three novel CYP17A1 mutations causing combined 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase ... 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. Dozens of mutations in the CYP17A1 gene have been found to cause 17α-hydroxylase/ ... As a result, 17,20-lyase activity is severely reduced but 17α-hydroxylase activity is normal. As in 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase ...
17a-Hydroxypregnenolone is a 21-carbon steroid that is converted from pregnenolone by cytochrome P450 17alpha hydroxylase/C17, ... dihydrotestosterone to 5-alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione and 5-alpha-androstan- ... 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen → 17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone + NADP + Water. details. ... Pregnenolone + Reduced acceptor + Oxygen → 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + Acceptor + Water. details. 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + ...
17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen → 17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone + NADP + Water. details. ... dihydrotestosterone to 5-alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione and 5-alpha-androstan- ... 17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone is the 5th to last step in the synthesis of Cortol and is converted from 17alpha- ... 17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone. Description. 17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone is an intermediate in the human fetus at ...
Differential inhibition of 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities by three novel missense CYP17 mutations identified in ... genetic and functional characteristics of three novel CYP17A1 mutations causing combined 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase ... cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A member 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Printable PDF Open All ... As a result, 17,20-lyase activity is severely reduced but 17α-hydroxylase activity is normal. As in 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase ...
Abiraterone is an inhibitor of the enzyme cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP17A1). This enzyme can ... transform 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone into the weak androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Other enzymes can then convert ...
Specifically catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone, 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone to 17alpha- ... Specifically catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone, 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone to 17alpha- ... It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel ... 17β-hydroxy-androst-5-en-3-one*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this molecule. ...
Has 16-alpha hydroxylase activity. Catalyzes 16-alpha hydroxylation of 17-alpha hydroxy pregnenolone, followed by the cleavage ... Also 16-alpha hydroxylates androgens, relevant for estriol synthesis. Mechanistically, uses molecular oxygen inserting one ... Catalyzes 17-alpha hydroxylation of C21 steroids, which is common for both pathways. A second oxidative step, required only for ... The 17-alpha hydroxy intermediates, as part of adrenal glucocorticoids biosynthesis pathway, are precursors of cortisol. ...
... alpha]-hydroxypregnenolone (HPREG), dehy-droepiandrosterone (DHEA), progesterone (PROG), 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone (HPROG ... alpha].sub.CORTICO] = 1 + ([C.sub.[MET,cell]]/[k.sub.41]) and [[alpha].sub.CORT] = 1 + ([C.sub.[MET,cell]]/[k.sub.42]) with MET ... Validation of a new yeast-based reporter assay consisting of human estrogen receptors alpha/beta and coactivator SRC-1: ... For CORT, two parameters ([k.sub.17], [k.sub.27]) were highly sensitive at each MET dose, and five parameters ([k.sub.2], [k. ...
17-Hydroxypregnenolone antibody LS-C526777 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to 17-Hydroxypregnenolone. ... Progesterone 11-alpha (BSA).. Presentation. PBS, pH 7.2, No preservatives added, No stabilizing proteins added ... 17-Hydroxypregnenolone antibody LS-C526777 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to 17-Hydroxypregnenolone. ...
... alpha subunit MeSH D06.472.351.576.463 - luteinizing hormone MeSH D06.472.351.576.463.249 - glycoprotein hormones, alpha ... 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.099 - 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478 - ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 - beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 - gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631 ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 - beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 - gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 - ...
MeSH D04.345.051.500 - crown ethers MeSH D04.345.103.222 - alpha-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345.103.333 - beta-cyclodextrins MeSH ... 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395 - hydroxyprogesterones MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395.400 - 17- ... 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.558.050 - alfaxalone alfadolone mixture MeSH D04.808.745.558.783 - ... alpha-hydroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614 - medroxyprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.614.500 - ...
The encoded protein also catalyzes the interconversion of 3-beta-hydroxy- and 3-keto-5-alpha-androstane steroids. [provided by ... 17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone. *17alpha,21-Dihydroxypreg-nenolone. *17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone. *17, 21- ... 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone. *(3beta)-3,17-Dihydroxypregn-5-en-20-one. *17-Hydroxypregnenolone ... dihydrotestosterone to 5-alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione and 5-alpha-androstan- ...
Synonyms: [13C3]-17-beta-hydroxy-5-a-androstan-3-one, [13C3]-DHT, [13C3]-4,5alpha-Dihydrotestosterone ... 13C3]-17-β-hydroxy-5-α-androstan-3-one. Product Number: C6473 ... 13C2,2H2]-17-Alpha-hydroxypregnenolone. Product Number: C6984 ...
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Enhanced computed tomography revealed a 17 mm well-defined tumor that was enhanced in the arterial phase and washed out in the ... MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone / analogs & derivatives. 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone / metabolism. Adolescent. ... The glucocorticoid dose and 17-hydroxyprogesterone did not differ between patients with vs without a testicular adrenal rest ... 17-hydroxypregnenolone sulfate; 387-79-1 / 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / ...
C05138 (17alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone) C05485 (21-Hydroxypregnenolone) C05489 (11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxypregnenolone) C00735 ( ... C00119 (5-Phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate) C02739 (1-(5-Phospho-D-ribosyl)-ATP) C02741 (Phosphoribosyl-AMP) C04896 (5-(5- ... 1.1.1.62 STEROID HORMONE BIOSYNTHESIS 17α-Hydroxy-pregnenolone 21-Hydroxy-pregnenolone 11β,17α,21-Trihydroxy-pregnenolone ... C00247 (L-Sorbose) C00267 (alpha-D-Glucose) C01094 (D-Fructose 1-phosphate) C00159 (D-Mannose) C00275 (D-Mannose 6-phosphate) ...
17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, DHEA-S (DHES / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate [DHEA-S], Serum), and cortisol (CORT / Cortisol, ... Serum). Monitoring CAH treatment, in conjunction with testosterone (TTST / Testosterone, Total, Serum), OHPG (OHPG / 17- ... Monitoring CAH treatment, in conjunction with testosterone (TTST / Testosterone, Total, Serum), OHPG (OHPG / 17- ... 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, DHEA-S (DHES / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate [DHEA-S], Serum), and cortisol (CORT / Cortisol, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Influence of age and endocrine factors on the volume of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Wade, J. H., Jones, J. D., Lenov, I. L., Riordan, C. M., Sligar, S. G. & Bailey, R. C., Jan 1 2017, In : Lab on a chip. 17, 17 ... Human Cytochrome CYP17A1: The Structural Basis for Compromised Lyase Activity with 17-Hydroxyprogesterone. Mak, P. J., Duggal, ... 17 others, Flory, C. M., Schumacher, R. J., OSullivan, M. G., Cao, Q., Chu, H., Lipscomb, J. D., Atkins, W. M., Gupta, K., ... 17 others, Flory, C. M., Schumacher, R. J., OSullivan, M. G., Cao, Q., Chu, H., Lipscomb, J. D., Atkins, W. M., Gupta, K., ...
17-hydroxycorticosteroid (substance) {112116001 , SNOMED-CT } Pregnenolone (substance) {47350002 , SNOMED-CT } Progesterone ...
... dihydrotestosterone to 5-alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione and 5-alpha-androstan- ... 21-Hydroxypregnenolone + NAD → Deoxycorticosterone + NADH + Hydrogen Ion. details. Enzyme Details. 5. Cytochrome P450 11B2, ... InChI=1S/C21H30O3/c1-20-9-7-14(23)11-13(20)3-4-15-16-5-6-18(19(24)12-22)21(16,2)10-8-17(15)20/h11,15-18,22H,3-10,12H2,1-2H3/t15 ... Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 5 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17 Alpha-hydroxylase Deficiency. Not Available. ...
... alpha]-hydroxypregnenolone, and 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone at concentrations of [10.. Ultrasensitive semiautomated ... alpha]-hydroxypregnenolone (HPREG), dehy-droepiandrosterone (DHEA), progesterone (PROG), 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone (HPROG ... alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone, estriol, aldosterone, progesterone, and estradiol at 50 [micro]g/L or higher.. Transferrin enzyme ... This approach relies on measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), which is normally converted to 11-deoxycortisol by CYP21 ...
... alpha]-hydroxypregnenolone (HPREG), dehy-droepiandrosterone (DHEA), progesterone (PROG), 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone (HPROG ... alpha], 5[alpha]-tetrahydro-deoxycortone (THDOC).. The clinical importance of 5alpha-reductase in human health and pathology: ...
Radioiodinated tracers were used for two of the assays (17-Hpreg and 21-DF). Tritiated tracers and scintillation proximity ... 17-Hpreg), 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and testosterone. Samples were extracted and then chromatographed on celite ...
17alpha,20alpha-Dihydroxycholesterol. *MalaCards. *Medline Plus. *53477898. 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone. *(3beta)-3,17- ... alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis). *amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum). *Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii). *bakers yeast ... antibodies-online: Search results for 17 available CYP11A1 Elisa Kits ranked by validation data ... antibodies-online: Search results for 17 available CYP11A1 Elisa Kits ranked by validation data ...
  • The enzyme has 17 alpha(α)-hydroxylase activity, converting pregnenalone to 17-hydroxypregnenolone and progesterone to 17-hydroxyprogesterone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Without 17α-hydroxylase activity, pregnenolone and progesterone are not converted to 17-hydroxypregnenolone or 17-hydroxyprogesterone, impairing production of glucocorticoids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Specifically catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone, 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone to 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to 4-androstenedione, and androstenediol to testosterone. (uniprot.org)
  • Hydroxylates steroid hormones, pregnenolone and progesterone to form 17-alpha hydroxy metabolites, followed by the cleavage of the C17-C20 bond to form C19 steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. (uniprot.org)
  • Progesterone 11-alpha (BSA). (lsbio.com)
  • Efficiently catalyzes the transformation of pregnenolone to progesterone, 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone to 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA to 4-androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone to 5-alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione and 5-alpha-androstan-3 beta,17 beta-diol to 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone. (genecards.org)
  • To eliminate endocrinological causes of hypertrichosis, serum levels of testosterone, DHEA-SO4, 17-OH progesterone, and 11-deoxycortisol were measured and were found to be within normal limits. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In contrast, if 17-alpha-hydroxylase (which allows formation of OHPG from progesterone) or 3-beta-ol-dehydrogenase (which allows formation of 17-hydroxyprogesterone formation from 17-hydroxypregnenolone) are deficient, OHPG levels are low with possible increase in progesterone or pregnenolone, respectively. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • The enzyme 17 alpha-hydroxylase turns pregnenolone into 17 alpha- hydroxypregnenolone and turns progesterone into 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone. (osmosis.org)
  • The 3-beta-HSD enzyme allows formation of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHPG) from 17-hydroxypregnenolone and progesterone from pregnenolone. (testcatalog.org)
  • When 3-beta-HSD is deficient, cortisol is decreased, 17-hydroxypregnenolone and pregnenolone levels may increase, and 17-OHPG and progesterone levels, respectively, are low. (testcatalog.org)
  • A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. (definitions.net)
  • Then pregnenolone can convert to either progesterone or to 17 alpha hydroxypregnenolone, and thereafter it can be shunted to cortisol or down a different pathway to DHEA then testosterone and estradiol (estrogen). (blooddetective.com)
  • Pulse-chase experiments showed that GABA inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the conversion of tritiated pregnenolone into radioactive steroids, including 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone, progesterone, 17-hydroxy-progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dihydrotestosterone. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Second, both hydroxylase substrates pregnenolone and progesterone hydrogen bond to Asn(202) in orientations consistent with production of 17α-hydroxy major metabolites, but functional and structural evidence for an A105L mutation suggests that a minor conformation may yield the minor 16α-hydroxyprogesterone metabolite. (rcsb.org)
  • It catalyzes the 17 alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and also removes an acetyl moiety of hydroxy-progesterone or hydroxypregnenolone by its 17,20-lyase activity to produce androstenedione or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), respectively. (faintpower.gq)
  • In patients with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency who are being raised as females, estrogen should be supplemented, while genetically female patients with a uterus should also receive progesterone supplementation. (ecerm.org)
  • 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase (P450c17) are enzymes that convert pregnenolone and progesterone to 17α-hydroxypregnenolone (17-OHPreg) and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), which are precursors of sex steroids and cortisol. (ecerm.org)
  • CYP17A1 also has 17,20-lyase activity, which converts 17-hydroxypregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • This enzyme can transform 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone into the weak androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). (evmedreview.com)
  • Catalyzes 16-alpha hydroxylation of 17-alpha hydroxy pregnenolone, followed by the cleavage of the C17-C20 bond to form 16-alpha-hydroxy DHEA. (uniprot.org)
  • Diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in conjunction with measurement of other androgenic precursors, particularly, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (OHPG) (OHPG / 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum), 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, DHEA-S (DHES / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate [DHEA-S], Serum), and cortisol (CORT / Cortisol, Serum). (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone is considered a prohormone in the formation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), itself a prohormone of the sex steroids . (wikipedia.org)
  • As such 17α-hydroxypregenolone represents an intermediary in the Δ 5 pathway that leads from pregnenolone to DHEA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 3 beta-methylandrost-5-en-17-one: inhibitors of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12- O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin papilloma formation in mice. (lifeextension.com)
  • The synthetic steroid, 3 beta-methylandrost-5-en-17-one, which, unlike DHEA, is not demonstrably estrogenic in the rat, also inhibits papilloma development. (lifeextension.com)
  • Basal and poststimulation levels of androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17-PREG), 11-deoxycortisol (S), and cortisol (F) were also obtained, and the net increments after stimulation were calculated. (elsevier.com)
  • Obese volunteers demonstrated lower circulating SHBG, 17-PREG, and S levels, and S/F ratio, but a higher free T and DHEAS/DHEA levels. (elsevier.com)
  • also some 17-hydroxypregnenolone very little less than 1 % DHEA and 5-androstenedione which does not alter the metabolic profile of pregnenolone metabolism. (anabolicminds.com)
  • then another enzyme, CYP17A1, converts pregnenolone to 17α-hydroxypregnenolone and then to DHEA. (mrm-usa.com)
  • In humans, testosterone production by CYP17A1 through pregnenolone to 17-OHPreg and DHEA requires POR. (creativebiomart.net)
  • In conjunction with spectroscopic evidence, this suggests that only 17α-hydroxypregnenolone approaches and interacts with the proximal oxygen of the catalytic iron-peroxy intermediate, yielding efficient production of dehydroepiandrosterone as the key intermediate in human testosterone and estrogen synthesis. (rcsb.org)
  • Patients with an exaggerated dehydroepiandrosterone or 17-hydroxypregnenolone increment had higher circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels but similar basal total and free testosterone, sex hormone--binding globulin, luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations, basal or stimulated androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone/androstenedione, and 17-hydroxypregnenolone/17-hydroprogesterone than their less responsive counterparts. (elsevier.com)
  • The 17-alpha hydroxy intermediates, as part of adrenal glucocorticoids biosynthesis pathway, are precursors of cortisol. (uniprot.org)
  • The best screening test for CAH, most often caused by either 21- or 11-hydroxylase deficiency, is the analysis of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (along with cortisol and androstenedione). (testcatalog.org)
  • Serum 17-hydroxypregnenolone (Delta5-17P), cortisol (F), 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione levels were determined by RIA and were compared with Tanner pubic hair stage-matched control groups. (cdc.gov)
  • 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase are enzymes encoded by the CYP17A1 gene and are required for the synthesis of sex steroids and cortisol. (ecerm.org)
  • In 17α-hydroxylase deficiency, there are low blood levels of estrogens, androgens, and cortisol, and resultant compensatory increases in adrenocorticotrophic hormone that stimulate the production of 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone. (ecerm.org)
  • The blockage at the 17α-OH impairs cortisol and sex steroid synthesis. (ecerm.org)
  • 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (17OHD) is a rare type of CAH that causes cortisol and sex hormone deficiency and aldosterone excess [ 1 ]. (ecerm.org)
  • The 17α-hydroxylase activity of CYP17A1 is necessary for the production of glucocorticoids (such as cortisol), but the hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activity of CYP17A1 is achieved by converting 17α-hydroxypregnenolone to Hydroepiandrosterone is required to produce androgens and estrogen steroids (DHEA). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Dozens of mutations in the CYP17A1 gene have been found to cause 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A small number of CYP17A1 gene mutations have been found to cause isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency, which is characterized by abnormal sexual development without hypertension or hypokalemia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These mutations alter a region of the CYP17A1 protein that plays a role in the enzyme's 17,20-lyase function but not its 17α-hydroxylase function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Rosa S, Steigert M, Lang-Muritano M, l'Allemand D, Schoenle EJ, Biason-Lauber A. Clinical, genetic and functional characteristics of three novel CYP17A1 mutations causing combined 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Abiraterone is an inhibitor of the enzyme cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP17A1). (evmedreview.com)
  • This step is performed by the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme 17α-hydroxylase ( CYP17A1 ) that is present in the adrenal and gonads . (wikipedia.org)
  • CYP17A1 has both 17α-hydroxylase activity and 17,20-lyase activity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Cytochrome b5 can promote 17,20 lyase activity of CYP17A1 and can provide a second electron to certain P450s. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The ratio of the 17,20 lyase to 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity of CYP17 determines the ratio of C21 to C19 steroids produced. (hmdb.ca)
  • Catalyzes 17-alpha hydroxylation of C21 steroids, which is common for both pathways. (uniprot.org)
  • The encoded protein also catalyzes the interconversion of 3-beta-hydroxy- and 3-keto-5-alpha-androstane steroids. (genecards.org)
  • Identification of the steroids in neonatal plasma that interfere with 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone radioimmunoassays. (naver.com)
  • 17alpha,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone is the 5th to last step in the synthesis of Cortol and is converted from 17alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone via the enzyme cytochrome P450 (EC 1.14.99.10). (hmdb.ca)
  • It is then converted to 11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxypregnenolone via the enzyme cytochrome P450 (EC 1.14.15.4). (hmdb.ca)
  • Reichstein s substance S),17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17OHPr), and pregnenolone (Pr), allows detection of these enzyme defects (6-9). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This approach relies on measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), which is normally converted to 11-deoxycortisol by CYP21 and is therefore increased when the enzyme is deficient. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This conversion is mediated by the enzyme 17,20 lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme defect results in reduced glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, and elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone (OHPG) and androgens. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • 17 alpha hydroxypregnenolone is then turned into 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone by the enzyme 3 beta- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. (osmosis.org)
  • Then, all of the 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone is turned into 11 deoxycortisol by the enzyme 21 hydroxylase. (osmosis.org)
  • MBS075418 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Interleukin 2 Receptor Alpha (IL2Ralpha) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Reduction of these activities leads to partial 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, while total loss of these activities leads to the more severe form of the disorder known as complete 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As in 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (described above), impairment of 17,20-lyase activity disrupts sex hormone production, leading to abnormal development of internal or external reproductive organs and delayed or absent puberty in affected individuals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The genetic and functional basis of isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • [2] In patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency 17α-hydroxypregnenolone is increased, while in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency levels are low to absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • A case of 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. (wikipathways.org)
  • Females with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency are characterized by primary amenorrhea and delayed puberty, with accompanying hypertension. (ecerm.org)
  • Here, we report a case of a 21-year-old female with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency who had received inadequate treatment for a prolonged period of time. (ecerm.org)
  • Pathogenesis in 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency (17OHD). (ecerm.org)
  • Here, we report the case of a 21-year-old woman who had been inadequately treated for 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency for a prolonged period of time. (ecerm.org)
  • Mutations in this gene have been linked to isolated steroid-17α-hydroxylase deficiency, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, pseudohermaphrodite and adrenal hyperplasia. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Double immunohistochemical labeling revealed that most 3beta-HSD-positive neurons also contain GABA(A) receptor alpha(3) and beta(2)/beta(3) subunit-like immunoreactivities. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our data also demonstrate that GABA, acting on GABA(A) receptors at the hypothalamic level, inhibits the activity of several key steroidogenic enzymes, including 3beta-HSD and cytochrome P450(C17) (17alpha-hydroxylase). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Also 16-alpha hydroxylates androgens, relevant for estriol synthesis. (uniprot.org)
  • Initial testing generally involves 17-OHP testing and, if 17-OHP is increased, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) testing. (arupconsult.com)
  • 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone is converted to dehydroepiandrosterone by the 17,20 lyase activity of CYP17. (hmdb.ca)
  • Mutations associated with this condition reduce or eliminate both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A loss of 17,20-lyase activity impairs sex hormone production. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, 17,20-lyase activity is severely reduced but 17α-hydroxylase activity is normal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Phosphorylation of P450c17 increased 17,20-lyase activity, while dephosphorylation virtually eliminated this activity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of gonadal steroid hormones and the adrenal corticosteroids. (hmdb.ca)
  • In some cases (15%) the synthesis of Oxa hormone analogues from Desoxydiosgenin begins at 17-ethyal-1 I-oxatesterone, form 11-oxa-5alpha-pregnane-3, 20* dione via 3, 17-dioxygenated-9-oxo-9, 12-seco-l l-nor-5alpha-androstan-12* oic ester, from 3 beta-acetoxy-17-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-12-one two products all from NeoHecogenin. (anabolicminds.com)
  • The synthesis of 11* oxatestosterone from l I-oxa-5alpha-androstane-3, 17-dioneshows in comparison with natural hormone, and a diminished androgenic/anabolic endogenous enzymatic activity however, normal rates return after supplementation is discontinued. (anabolicminds.com)
  • On the basis of experience with genetically defined 21-hydroxylase late-onset adrenal hyperplasia, patients were presumed to suffer from 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-deficient late-onset adrenal hyperplasia if they demonstrated a dehydroepiandrosterone or 17-hydroxypregnenolone response to corticotropin-(1-24) stimulation (absolute poststimulation level or net increment) greater than threefold the upper 95th percentile of controls. (elsevier.com)
  • Eighteen (21 %) of the remaining patients had a 17-hydroxypregnenolone poststimulation increment above the upper 95th percentile of controls (13.9 nmol/L), and two had an elevated dehydroepiandrosterone increment (〉 19.5 nmol/L). However, no patient exceeded threefold the upper control limit for either steroid response. (elsevier.com)
  • RESULTS: Three women of two families (2.3%) had a 17-hydroxyprogesterone response consistent with 21-hydroxylase-deficient late-onset adrenal hyperplasia and were excluded from further study. (elsevier.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although an exaggerated response of 17-hydroxypregnenolone to adrenal stimulation is common in hyperandrogenism, a response severe enough to merit consideration as 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-deficient late-onset adrenal hyperplasia was not encountered in this unselected patient population, suggestive of the rarity of this disorder. (elsevier.com)
  • A metabolite 17alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnene-3, 20-dione effecting HCG levels caused decrease in estradiol-17beta levels within days but levels do return after discontinuing supplement possibly caused by an intermediate of 11* oxaprogesterone, 11-oxa-5alpha-pregnane-3, 20-dione which becomes the point of 17-hydroxy functioning by metabolic modified oxidation in sex organs resulting in low progestional activity. (anabolicminds.com)
  • A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone is a 21-carbon steroid that is converted from pregnenolone by cytochrome P450 17alpha hydroxylase/C17,20 lyase (CYP17, EC 1.14.99.9). (hmdb.ca)
  • Has 16-alpha hydroxylase activity. (uniprot.org)
  • Following triple transfection of COS-1 cells with P450scc, adrenodoxin, and 17 alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 plasmids, pregnenolone produced in mitochondria by the side-chain cleavage reaction can be further metabolized in the endoplasmic reticulum to 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone is a pregnane (C21) steroid that is obtained by hydroxylation of pregnenolone at the C17α position. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fourth, differential positioning of 17α-hydroxypregnenolone offers a mechanism whereby allosteric binding of cytochrome b5 might selectively enhance the lyase reaction. (rcsb.org)
  • 7,66,67) An aldosterone precursor, deoxycorticosterone is converted by the same enzymes to a neurosteroid with similar effects called 3[alpha], 5[alpha]-tetrahydro-deoxycortone (THDOC). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Measurements of 17α-hydroxypregnenolone are useful in the diagnosis of certain forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia . (wikipedia.org)
  • PregS (28.5-fold) and 17-hydroxypregnenolone sulfate (19-fold) levels were higher (P (bireme.br)
  • Other forms of CAH without significant 17-OHP increases are often not identified until later in life due to their more subtle clinical presentations. (arupconsult.com)
  • Longitudinal Study of Plasma Pregnenolone and 17-Hydroxypregnenolone in Full-Term and Preterm Neonates at Birth and during the Early Neonatal Period. (wikipedia.org)
  • dehydroepiandrosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and 17-hydroxypregnenolone were measured in basal and corticotropin-stimulated serum. (elsevier.com)