17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Fluoxymesterone: An anabolic steroid that has been used in the treatment of male HYPOGONADISM, delayed puberty in males, and in the treatment of breast neoplasms in women.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
(1/52) Apparent activities of 21-hydroxylase, 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase are impaired in adrenal incidentalomas.

OBJECTIVE: An increased response of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to ACTH stimulation has been observed in adrenal incidentaloma and linked to an impairment of either 21-hydroxylase or of 11beta-hydroxylase activity. To analyse this question further, we investigated the steroidogenic pathways in a series of 17 adrenal incidentalomas. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: 17 patients (7 women, 10 men; mean age, 62 +/- 12 years) with non-histologically analyzed adrenal incidentalomas were prospectively evaluated. METHODS: The following variables were investigated: 24-h urinary methanephrines and free cortisol excretion; plasma levels of ACTH and dehydroepiandrosterone; overnight dexamethasone suppression test; 1-24 ACTH stimulation test with measurement of: cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, Delta4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and 21-deoxycortisol. RESULTS: Discordant features of subclinical hypercorticism were noted in one case. No patient had dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in the normal range for his or her age. Peak 17-hydroxyprogesterone and peak 21-deoxycortisol disclosed impairment of 21-hydroxylase in 11 and 10 cases respectively. An increased 11-deoxycortisol/cortisol ratio identified reduced activity of 11beta-hydroxylase in 11 patients. Eight patients displayed features of mild 17,20-lyase impairment, which was related to 21-hydroxylase dysfunction. Whereas only 2 patients showed no enzyme modification, 9 displayed alterations of at least two pathways. CONCLUSION: In our hands, a combination of enzyme dysfunction was frequently observed. Shared biochemical mechanisms could explain combined 17,20-lyase and 21-hydroxylase alterations, whereas coexistence of 21-hydroxylase (particularly when based on peak 21-deoxycortisol) and 11beta-hydroxylase is more puzzling.  (+info)

(2/52) Conversion of pregnenolone to DHEA by human 17alpha-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase (P450c17). Evidence that DHEA is produced from the released intermediate, 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone.

Most previous studies using reconstituted systems and fast kinetics suggest that the conversion of pregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; the precursor of androgen and estrogen biosynthesis) by P450c17 does not require the release of the intermediate 17alpha-OHPreg (a precursor of cortisol biosynthesis). With such a mechanism, it is difficult to conceive how high amounts of DHEA may be produced in some cells or tissues, such as the testis and cells from the adrenal reticularis, while in other tissues such as the fasciculata zone, high levels of 17alpha-OHPreg are synthesized. In this report, we address this matter using intact transfected cells, which better reflect the actual cellular conditions. Furthermore, by using transfected cells, we can conveniently analyze human enzymes, as we are not restricted by the availability of human tissues as in the case of methods using purified or partially purified enzymes. Using intact HEK-293 cells transfected with human P450c17 in culture, we showed, in a time course study of the transformation of pregnenolone, that there is an accumulation of 17alpha-OHPreg, and that, subsequently, the accumulated 17alpha-OHPreg decreases with a concomitant increase in DHEA production. The DHEA/17alpha-OHPreg ratio changes from 0.1 :1 after 1 h incubation to 50 : 1 after 20 h. This result strongly suggests that the transformation of Preg to DHEA proceeds through two steps in which DHEA is produced from the released intermediate 17alpha-OHPreg. We also show that high levels of substrate vs. enzyme concentration will lead to high hydroxylase activity whereas the reverse will increase the lyase activity. The result is in good agreement with recent observations suggesting that surrounding enzymes and steroids could modulate the lyase activity. Cotransfection of vectors expressing cytochrome b5 and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase indicates that both are required for an optimum production of DHEA.  (+info)

(3/52) Serum concentrations of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroids in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

We examined the serum concentrations of delta(5)-3beta-hydroxysteroids, pregnenolone (Preg), 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17-OH-Preg), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol (ADIOL) and their sulfates in 30 well controlled (Group I: HbA1c<7.0%) and 15 poorly controlled (Group II: HbA1c>7.1%) type 2 diabetic patients, and 30 normal controls. These patients were treated with diet therapy or anti-diabetic agent. The distribution of gender and age of the subjects were matched between the groups. The serum levels of sulfo-conjugated and unconjugated steroids described above were measured by GC-MS and enzyme immunoassay (EIA), respectively. The serum levels of the entire sulfo-conjugated steroid measured in this study were significantly lower in Groups I and II than in controls. On the other hand, Preg levels in both Groups I and II were significantly higher than those in controls, whereas the serum levels of the downstream unconjugated steroids were not different from controls. To investigate the effect of sulfonylurea (SU) on the serum levels of steroids, the serum concentrations of steroids between the patients who were treated with diet therapy and SU agent were compared in Group I. No significant differences were observed between both groups. These results suggest that (1) since increased Preg levels did not cause any changes in the downstream delta(5)-3beta-hydroxysteroid levels, the metabolic pathway of delta(4)-3-ketosteroids may be accelerated in type 2 diabetes; (2) serum steroid levels were not affected by SU treatment; (3) sulfo-conjugated steroid catabolism was altered in type 2 diabetes; (4) the decreased sulfo-conjugated steroids especially ADIOLS may contribute to the alteration of sex steroid levels and onset or exacerbate infectious diseases in diabetes.  (+info)

(4/52) Molecular dynamics of substrate complexes with hamster cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17): mechanistic approach to understanding substrate binding and activities.

The cytochrome P450c17 isoforms from various animal species have different substrate selectivity, especially for 17,20-lyase activity. In particular, the human P450c17 selectively produces dehydroepiandrosterone with little androstenedione (AD). Hamster P450c17, on the other hand, produces both of these steroids at comparable rates. We thus investigated if computational analysis could explain the difference in activity profiles. Therefore, we inserted the four P450c17 substrates-pregnenolone, progesterone, and their 17alpha-hydroxylated forms-inside our hamster P450c17 model, which we derived from our human P450c17 model based on the crystal structure of P450BMP. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the complexes and analyzed the resultant trajectories to identify amino acids that interact with substrates. Starting with substrates in two different orientations, we obtained two sets of binding trajectories in each case. The first set of trajectories reveal structural rearrangements that occur during binding, whereas the second set of trajectories reflects substrate orientations during catalysis. Our modeling suggests that three distinct steps are required for substrate selectivity and binding to the hamster P450c17: (1) recognition of the substrate at the putative substrate entrance, characterized by a pocket at the surface of the hamster P450c17 containing charged residues R96 and D116; (2) entry of the substrate into the active site, in an intermediate position directed by possible hydrogen bonding of the substrates with the heme D-ring propionate group, R96, R440, and T306; followed by (3) 90 degrees counterclockwise rotation of the substrates, positioning them in optimal position for reactivity, a process that may be directed by hydrogen bonding to the 110-112 region of the hamster P450c17. With some substrates, we obtained trajectories which suggest that major distortions in the I-helix and opening of the H-I loop occur during substrate binding. In conclusion, these modeling exercises provide insight to possible structural reorganizations that occur during substrate binding and suggest that amino acids that participate in three distinct steps of this process may all contribute to substrate binding and activity.  (+info)

(5/52) Steroid hormone formation in bovine ovarian follicles.

In an attempt to assess histophysiological implication of the follicular compartment of the bovine ovary in steroid hormone formation and the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in vitro on follicular steroidogenesis, minces of follicular tissues from non-gravid bovine ovaries were incubated with radioactive testosterone or acetate in the presence and absence of hCG. Significant amounts of estrone and estradiol-17beta were formed on incubation with testosterone-4-14C; hCG decreased the conversion approximately by 30%. The major radioactive products formed from acetate-l-14C were androstenedione and testosterone with lesser amounts of dehydroepiandrosterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. In addition, small amounts of progesterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, estrone and estradiol-17beta were formed. Histology of the dissected follicle specimens was characterized by dominant theca cells undergoing luteinization with small amounts of granulosa cells, which showed neither proliferation nor luteinization. The pattern of distribution of radioactivity among the steroids formed from acetate-14C was considered to represent steroidogenic profile of bovine atretic follicles. The addition of hCG in vitro increased the overall incorporation of radioactive acetate into the steroids approximately by 50%, although the range of increase was not uniform in the individual steroids under the exprimental conditions.  (+info)

(6/52) Human skin is a steroidogenic tissue: steroidogenic enzymes and cofactors are expressed in epidermis, normal sebocytes, and an immortalized sebocyte cell line (SEB-1).

Although the human sebaceous gland can synthesize cholesterol from acetate and can further metabolize steroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone into potent androgens, the de novo production of steroids from cholesterol has not been demonstrated in human skin. The goal of this study was to delineate the steroidogenic pathway upstream from dehydroepiandrosterone by documenting the presence of members of the P450 side chain cleavage system (P450scc). This system catalyzes the initial step in steroid hormone synthesis following translocation of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane. In concert with its cofactors, adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase, and the transcription factor steroidogenic factor 1, P450scc converts cholesterol to pregnenolone. An SV40 immortalized human sebaceous gland cell line (SEB-1) was established in order to facilitate investigation of the P450scc system. The sebaceous phenotype of SEB-1 sebocytes was confirmed using immunohistochemistry, Oil Red O staining, and gene array expression analysis. Presence of P450scc, adrenodoxin reductase, cytochrome P450 17-hydroxylase (P450c17), and steroidogenic factor 1 was documented in human facial skin, human sebocytes, and SEB-1 sebocytes. Using immunohistochemistry, antibodies to the above proteins localized to epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous ducts, and sebaceous glands in sections of facial skin. Results of immunohistochemistry were confirmed with Western blotting. Biochemical activity of cytochrome P450scc and P450c17 was demonstrated in SEB-1 sebocytes using radioimmunoassay. The relative abundance of mRNA for P450scc, P450c17, and steroidogenic factor 1 in SEB-1 sebocytes and sebaceous glands was compared to mRNA levels in ovarian theca and granulosa cells using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gene array expression analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that mRNA for P450scc is more abundant than mRNA for both P450c17 and steroidogenic factor 1 in sebaceous glands and SEB-1 cells. These data demonstrate that the skin is in fact a steroidogenic tissue. The clinical significance of this finding in mediating androgenic skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism, or androgenetic alopecia remains to be established.  (+info)

(7/52) Steroid hormone formation in human ovarian follicles in vitro.

Ovarian follicles of 5 to 15 mm in diameter were isolated from 45 ovaries of 34 patients in the follicular and luteal phases of the cycle. Three experiments were done. In the first, follicles were minced and incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 1 to 2muCi of testosterone-4-14C in the presence or absence of 100 IU human chorionic gonadotropan (hCG). In the second, minced follicles were incubated with 100 muCi of sodium acetate-I-14C under identical conditions. In the third, ten follicles from a single patient in the late proliferative stage of endometrial dating were cut in halves and incubated with 100 muCi of acetate-I-14C under identical conditions. The minced follicle preparation was capable of aromatizing testosterone-4-14C into radioactive estrone and estradiol in significant amounts. Incorporation of radioactive acetate into pregenolone, progesterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol and estrone was assessed by reverse dilution analysis with recrystallization to constant specific activity. The major radioactive products formed were androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone in the latter two experiments. Dehydroepiandrosterone was one of the major steroids in the second experiment. The minor products were testosterone, progesterone and pregnenolone. Smaller, but definite incorporations of radioactive acetate into estradiol and estrone occurred in the second experiment. On histological examination, the follicles were characterized by atretic changes. This distribution pattern of radioactive acetate among the steroids was considered to represent the steroidogenic profile of unstimulated or atretic follicles.  (+info)

(8/52) Neurosteroid metabolism. 7 alpha-Hydroxylation of dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone by rat brain microsomes.

Two 'neurosteroids', dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and pregnenolone (PREG), are converted by rat brain microsomes into polar metabolites, identified as the respective 7 alpha-hydroxylated (7 alpha-OH) derivatives by the 'twin ion' technique of g.l.c.-m.s. with deuterated substrates. The enzymic reaction requires NADPH and is stimulated 2-4-fold by EDTA. Under optimal conditions (pH 7.4, 0.5 mM-NADPH, 1 mM-EDTA), the Km values for DHEA and PREG are 13.8 and 4.4 microM respectively, and the Vmax. values are 322 and 38.8 pmol/min per mg of microsomal protein respectively. Trace amounts of putative 7 beta-OH derivatives of DHEA and PREG are detected. Oestradiol, at a pharmacological concentration of 5 microM, inhibits DHEA and PREG 7 alpha-hydroxylation. Formation of 7 alpha-hydroxylated metabolites is low in prepubertal rats and increases 5-fold in adults. Derivatives of PREG and DHEA, such as PREG sulphate, DHEA sulphate, progesterone and 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, are known to be neuroactive. Therefore the quantitatively important metabolism to 7 alpha-OH compounds may contribute to the control of neurosteroid activity in brain.  (+info)

*  List of MeSH codes (D06)
... alpha subunit MeSH D06.472.351.576.463 --- luteinizing hormone MeSH D06.472.351.576.463.249 --- glycoprotein hormones, alpha ... 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.099 --- 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D06.472.334.851.687.750.478 ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472. ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D04)
File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D04.345.051.500 --- crown ethers MeSH D04.345.103.222 --- alpha-cyclodextrins MeSH D04.345. ... 5-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.558.050 --- alfaxalone alfadolone mixture MeSH D04.808.745.558.783 --- ... 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395 --- hydroxyprogesterones MeSH D04.808.745.745.654.829.395.400 ... 17-diol MeSH D04.808.054.040.129 --- androsterone MeSH D04.808.054.040.248 --- dihydrotestosterone MeSH D04.808.054.040.248.450 ...
*  Androstenedione
"DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta". Steroids. 78 (1): 15-25. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.10.002. PMC ... "Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta". ... Thus, 17,20-lyase is required for the synthesis of androstenedione, whether immediately or one step removed. Androstenedione is ... Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous ...
*  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency
"Mutation of cytochrome P-45017 alpha gene (CYP17) in a Japanese patient previously reported as having glucocorticoid-responsive ... Some persons with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency develop hypertension in infancy, and nearly 90% do so by late childhood. The low- ... 17α-Hydroxylase deficiency in genetic males (XY) results in moderate to severe reduction of fetal testosterone production by ... This form of CAH results from deficiency of the enzyme 17α-hydroxylase (also called CYP17A1). It accounts for less than 5% of ...
*  Progestogen
These progestogens, along with another steroid, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, are the precursors of all other endogenous steroids, ... Major examples of progestins include the 17α-hydroxyprogesterone derivative medroxyprogesterone acetate and the 19- ... 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and related progestins". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 197 (6): 599.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog. ... 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 20α-dihydroprogesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and 5α- ...
*  CYP17A1
"Mutation of cytochrome P-45017 alpha gene (CYP17) in a Japanese patient previously reported as having glucocorticoid-responsive ... It has both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities, and is a key enzyme in the steroidogenic pathway that produces ... CYP17A1 has both 17α-hydroxylase activity and 17,20-lyase activity. The 17α-hydroxylase activity of CYP17A1 is required for the ... Cytochrome b5 acts as a facilitator for 17,20 lyase activity of CYP17A1 and can donate a second electron to some P450s. In ...
Ruckpaul, K. and Rein, H., Eds. (1990) Frontiers in Biotransformation, vol. 3: Molecular Mechanisms of Adrenal Steroidogenesis and Aspects of Regulation and Application. Taylor & Francis, London ...
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OH CAH), in all its forms, accounts for over 95% of diagnosed cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and "CAH" in most contexts refers to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. An overview of the other types of CAH is presented in the main article. The condition can be classified into "salt-wasting", "simple virilizing", and "non-classical" forms. The salt-wasting and simple virilizing types are sometimes grouped together as "classical". The CYP21A2 gene for the P450c21 enzyme (also known as 21-hydroxylase) is at 6p21.3, amid genes HLA B and HLA DR coding for the major human histocompatibility loci (HLA). CYP21A2 is paired with a nonfunctional pseudogene CYP21A1P. Scores of abnormal alleles of CYP21A2 have been documented, most arising from recombinations of homologous regions of CYP21A2 and CYP21A1P. Differences in residual enzyme activity of the various alleles account for the various degrees of severity of the disease. Inheritance of ...
ANST : Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism (in conjunction with measurements of other sex-steroids). An initial workup in adults might also include total and bioavailable testosterone (TTBS / Testosterone, Total and Bioavailable, Serum) measurements. Depending on results, this may be supplemented with measurements of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG / Sex Hormone Binding Globulin [SHBG], Serum) and other androgenic steroids (eg, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S]). Diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in conjunction with measurement of other androgenic precursors, particularly, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (OHPG) (OHPG / 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum), 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, DHEA-S (DHES / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate [DHEA-S], Serum), and cortisol (CORT / Cortisol, Serum). Monitoring CAH treatment, in conjunction with testosterone (TTST / Testosterone, Total, Serum), OHPG (OHPG / 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum), DHEA-S (DHES /
3-beta-HSD is a bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of Delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. The 3-beta-HSD enzymatic system plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of all classes of hormonal steroids. Efficiently catalyzes the transformation of pregnenolone to progesterone, 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone to 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA to 4-androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone to 5-alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione and 5-alpha-androstan-3 beta,17 beta-diol to 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone ...
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by inherited defects in steroid biosynthesis. Deficiencies in several enzymes cause CAH including 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2 mutations; 90% of cases), 11-hydroxylase (CYP11A1 mutations; 5%-8%), 3-beta-hydroxy dehydrogenase (HSD3B2 mutations; ,5%), and 17-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP17A1 mutations; 125 cases reported to date). The resulting hormone imbalances (reduced glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, and elevated steroid intermediates and androgens) can lead to life-threatening, salt-wasting crises in the newborn period and incorrect gender assignment of virilized females.. The adrenal glands, ovaries, testes, and placenta produce steroid intermediates, which are hydroxylated at the position 21 (by 21-hydroxylase) and position 11 (by 11-hydroxylase) to produce cortisol. Deficiency of either 21-hydroxylase or 11-hydroxylase results in decreased cortisol synthesis and loss of feedback inhibition of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. The ...
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Defective conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol accounts for more than 95 percent of cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. This conversion is mediated by 21-hydroxylase, deficiency of which is caused by mutations in the CYP21A2
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hydroxyprogesterone - MedHelps hydroxyprogesterone Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for hydroxyprogesterone. Find hydroxyprogesterone information, treatments for hydroxyprogesterone and hydroxyprogesterone symptoms.
Our data clearly showed an increased risk of obesity among children and adolescents with classic CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, compared with the German reference population. Current data on obesity ascertained at Bavarian school entry examinations revealed a slightly increased prevalence for obesity (2.9%, compared with the expected value of 2.3%)22 but complied with British reference values.23 Because current German references,14 published several years later, showed a markedly higher 97th percentile, in comparison with British children, we presume that the difference in prevalence of 0.6% is not significant. Therefore, our observations regarding an increased rate of obesity in CAH do not simply reflect the general trend toward higher BMI values in industrialized countries.. In the late 1980s, Knorr and Hinrichsen-de-Lienau3 reported an increased rate of obese patients with CAH among those who were treated inadequately with high glucocorticoid dosages (expressed as hydrocortisone ...
The pathways outlined here are common to the adrenals, the gonads and, to some extent, to the fetoplacental unit. The first committed step is the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, catalysed by the P-450scc enzyme, which is under pituitary hormone control (ACTH or LH depending on the tissue). Cholesterol side-chain removal is blocked specifically by aminoglutethimide, a steroid biosynthesis inhibitor. From pregnenolone, steroid biosynthesis can proceed either through the so-called "delta-5" pathway (17α-hydroxypregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone), or through the "delta-4" pathway (progesterone onwards). Progesterone is the starting point for mineralocorticoid synthesis, whereas glucocorticoids are derived from its metabolite, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. Estrogens are formed from androgens (androstenedione and/or testosterone). Most reactions are irreversible (as denoted by a single arrow). Reversible reactions (double arrows) depend on cofactor availability (e.g. the ...
The clinical manifestations of CAH in adults result from adrenocortical and adrenomedullary insufficiency, hyperandrogenism, and the adverse effects of glucocorticosteroids used for the treatment of the condition. Non-classic CAH may sometimes be asymptomatic. In patients with classic CAH obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, and hyperleptinaemia are more often seen than in the general population. These abnormalities promote the development of metabolic syndrome and its sequelae, including endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease. Long-term glucocorticosteroid treatment is also a known risk factor for osteoporosis ...
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism). DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, which can undergo further conversion to produce the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol. DHEA is also a potent sigma-1 agonist. DHEA is produced from cholesterol through two cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone by the enzyme P450 scc (side chain cleavage); then another enzyme, CYP17A1, converts pregnenolone to 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone and then to DHEA. In humans, DHEA is the dominant steroid hormone and precursor of all sex steroids. DHEA can be understood as a prohormone for the sex steroids. DHEAS may be viewed as buffer and reservoir. As most DHEA is produced by the zona reticularis of the adrenal, it is argued that there is a role in the immune and stress response. Studies have shown that DHEA is useful in ...
DHEA is produced from cholesterol through two cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone by the enzyme P450 scc (side chain cleavage); then another enzyme, CYP17A1, converts pregnenolone to 17α-hydroxypregnenolone and then to DHEA.. Although it predominantly functions as an endogenous precursor to more potent androgens such as testosterone and DHT, DHEA has been found to possess some degree of androgenic activity in its own right.* Unlike the case of the androgen and estrogen receptors, DHEA does not bind to or activate the progesterone, glucocorticoid, or mineralocorticoid receptors.. Regular exercise as well as calorie restriction is known to increase DHEA production in the body. DHEA balance in the body helps to support memory and cognition, joint health, energy, fatigue reduction, cholesterol balance, wellness and mood.. ...
Looking for online definition of 11-deoxycortisol in the Medical Dictionary? 11-deoxycortisol explanation free. What is 11-deoxycortisol? Meaning of 11-deoxycortisol medical term. What does 11-deoxycortisol mean?
Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is more common in females than males and sex steroid hormones may in part explain this difference. We conducted a case-control study nested within two prospective studies to determine the associations between plasma steroid hormones measured prior to RA onset and polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2), aromatase (CYP19) and progesterone receptor (PGR) genes and RA risk. Methods: We genotyped AR, ESR2, CYP19, PGR SNPs and the AR CAG repeat in RA case-control studies nested within the Nurses Health Study (NHS), NHS II (449 RA cases, 449 controls) and the Womens Health Study (72 cases, and 202 controls). All controls were matched on cohort, age, Caucasian race, menopausal status, and postmenopausal hormone use. We measured plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin in 132 pre-RA samples and 396 matched controls in the NHS cohorts. We used conditional logistic regression ...
We studied the annual variability of the concentration and isotopic composition of main sulfur species and sulfide oxidation intermediates in the water column of monomictic fresh-water Lake Kinneret. Sulfate concentrations in the lake are |1 mM and similar to concentrations that are proposed to have existed in the Paleoproterozoic ocean. The main goal of this research was to explore biogeochemical constrains of sulfur cycling in the modern low-sulfate fresh-water lake and to identify which processes may be responsible for the isotopic composition of sulfur species in the Precambrian sedimentary rocks. At the deepest point of the lake, the sulfate inventory decreases by more than 20% between March and December due to microbial sulfate reduction leading to the buildup of hydrogen sulfide. During the initial stages of stratification, sulfur isotope fractionation between sulfate and hydrogen sulfide is low (11.6 ‰) and sulfur oxyanions (e.g. thiosulfate and sulfite) are the main products of the incomplete
17a-Hydroxypogesterone (17aOHP) is a steroid intermediate in the biosynthesis of glucocorticoids. It is produced in the testes, ovary and adrenal. The main clinical use of this assay is in the diagnosis and monitoring of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.. ...
Hydroxyprogesterone is a form of progestin, a manmade form of a female hormone called progesterone. Hydroxyprogesterone is used to lower the risk of premature birth in a woman who has already had one premature baby. This medication will not stop premature labor that has already begun. Hydroxyprogesterone is not for...
Definition of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. What does 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone mean? Information and translations of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
In inland areas of northwest central Florida, sulfate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer are extremely variable and sometimes exceed drinking water standards (250 milligrams per liter). This is unusual because the aquifer is unconfined and near the surface, allowing for active recharge. The sources of sulfate and geochemical processes controlling ground-water composition were evaluated in this area. Water was sampled from thirty-three wells in parts of Marion, Sumter, and Citrus Counties, within the Southwest Florida Water Management District; these included at least a shallow and a deep well at fifteen separate locations. Ground water was analyzed for major ions, selected trace constituents, dissolved organic carbon, and stable isotopes (sulfur-34 of sulfate and sulfide, carbon-13 of inorganic carbon, deuterium, and oxygen-18). Sulfate concentrations ranged from less than 0.2 to 1,400 milligrams per liter, with higher sulfate concentrations usually in water from deeper wells. The ...
adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle ,, []).push({}); The 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common congenital adrenal hyperplasia due. Adrenal enzymatic blocks are transmitted ...
YARMAN SEMA , DURSUN ALI , OGUZ FATMA , ALAGOL FARUK Endocrine journal 51(1), 31-36, 2004-02-01 医中誌Web 参考文献35件 被引用文献1件 ...
Describes how the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) test is used, when a 17-OHP test is ordered, and what the results of a 17-hydroxyprogesterone test might mean
Describes how the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) test is used, when a 17-OHP test is ordered, and what the results of a 17-hydroxyprogesterone test might mean
Autism spectrum disorder presents many alterations in amino acid metabolism and in neurotransmitter systems (gamma amino acid system, glutamate-glutamine, nicotine-acid, serotonin-system) . Also alteration in gene activation within nerve cells and lymphocyte cultures encloses over 600 genes, affecting a wide field of enzymes , metabolic pathways and hormone formation. Male hormones and their precursors are often increased and their influence to nerve cell growth and spine formation is evident.. The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder is made in accordance of criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) of the American Psychiatric Association by an experienced and specialised paediatrician or psychologist and /or by an Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) or Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) .. Overnight urine with measurement of quantity and time will be collected and a little part of the urinary samples will be frozen for storage till ...
Iodine and Tyrosine Enhanced thyroid support l-Tyrosine plays an important role in the production of thyroid hormones. Studies show that tyrosine interacts with iodine for thyroid hormone formation. This formula provides the additional support of tyrosine for thyroid hormone synthesis and healthy metabolic function. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: iodine (potassium iodide) 225 mcg. l-tyrosine (free-form) 500 mg. Directions: 2 capsules daily, in divided doses, with meals.
The proteins play an essential role in the process of hormones formation and regulation, secretion, transfer via the blood, also in the formation of receptors.. We should have the essential amino acids, which are present in animal sources. If you are vegetarian you can use the complementary sources of plant origin.. The synthesis of many hormones depends on the lipids, so we should be supplied by the good healthy fatty acids. There are many sources of these healthy fatty acids. The fatty acids mainly are in the form of Omega oils. Essential fatty acids should be supplied in our diet as our body cant synthesis it. The commonest rich sources of essential fatty acids are fishes. So we should have fish regularly in our diet. Also the level of both, the triglycerides and LDH should keep within normal. As should decrease the TAG levels, and increase the LDH levels. Thats an important thing in cases of diabetes mellitus patients.. The minerals plays an important role in the processes of regulation of ...
Simultaneous removal of selenate (SeO42−), nitrate (NO3−) and sulfate (SO42−), typically present in Se-contaminated wastewaters, by Eerbeek anaerobic granular sludge, was investigated in batch and continuous bioreactor experiments. Batch experiments showed that SeO42− removal was enhanced to 91% in simulated wastew
7-hydroxyprogesterone: formed by the hydroxylation of progesterone by extracts of Phycomyces blakesleeanus; RN given refers to (alpha)-isomer; RN for cpd without isomeric designation not avail 4/91
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-Hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by Intramuscular Injection and has also been used to treat Breast and Endometrial Neoplasms ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Assaypro \ 6β-Hydroxyprogesterone antibdoy \ 10251-05015 for more molecular products just contact us
17-hydroxyprogesterone blood tests are part of an infants routine screening, but it is also performed for a number of other reasons. Read on to learn what this test is, how it is used, when it is ordered, preparation and procedure, and to understand the results.
Structural Stereochemistry of Androstene Hormones Determines Interactions with Human Androgen, Estrogen, and Glucocorticoid Receptors. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
I no sooner ordered this product when I read about the potential hazards of taking 50 mg pregnenolone -- especially if you are also taking DHEA supplements. As a result, I emptied out each of the 50 mg capsules and split the pregnenolone powder into 5 x 10 mg dosages. Likewise with the DHEA: if you are taking DHEA while you are also taking pregnenolone, it is wise to take only half a dose of each and to limit the pregnenolone to 5 days on with periodic hormone vacations. When it comes time to reorder this product, I will NOT order this large a dose of pregnenolone. Instead, it is much safer to buy a 10 mg version. Hormones are delicate substances to be messing with in the body. Buyer beware, and balance carefully! ...
Looking for dehydroepiandrosterone? Find out information about dehydroepiandrosterone. C19H28O2 Dimorphous crystals with a melting point of 140-141°C, or leaflet crystals with a melting point of 152-153°C; soluble in alcohol, benzene, and... Explanation of dehydroepiandrosterone
Pregnenolone Plus, by Neurobiologix, is a custom formula that provides pregnenolone and the active precursor niacinamide for ultimate delivery of pregnenolone and aid in the protection of the mitochondria.
Pregnenolone Plus Rx, Pregnenolone creams for women, maintains sufficient hormone levels in the body. Click here to place your online order!
Pregnenolone is a precursor to many important hormones. Pregnenolone features USP-grade pregnenolone derived from natural botanical sources (not synthetic) and provides premier hormone support.
A microsomal cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein that catalyses two independent reactions at the same active site - the 17-hydroxylation of pregnenolone and progeste
Pregnenolone (17-hydroxy), 1 ml. 17a-OH-Pregnenolone is an intermediate in steroid biosynthesis and is produced through hydroxylation of|br /|pregnenolone by the enzyme 17-alpha-hydroxylase.
In general as far as I know customers who bought Nutricology Pregnenolone 50 Mg Sust Release, 60 Count or other products in the Internet also were interested in reviews, cheap & lowest prices in outlets and stores, shipping, gift ideas, city deals, sales, coupons online, new, holiday & daily deals, bargain, best buy products including special offers on Nutricology Pregnenolone 50 Mg Sust Release, 60 Count, best deals, discount coupons, top & hot deals, great offers, last minute deals and so on ...
In general as far as I know customers who bought Ortho Molecular - Pregnenolone 10mg - 100 Tablets or other products in the Internet also were interested in reviews, cheap & lowest prices in outlets and stores, shipping, gift ideas, city deals, sales, coupons online, new, holiday & daily deals, bargain, best buy products including special offers on Ortho Molecular - Pregnenolone 10mg - 100 Tablets, best deals, discount coupons, top & hot deals, great offers, last minute deals and so on ...
Pregnenolone 50 mg (plant source) is micronized and sustained released. Itis formulated in a lipid matrix to bypass the liver so that the pregnenolone is presen
Hirsutism - Get information and read articles on Hirsutism signs, symptoms, causes, treatment, prevention and diagnosis at onlymyhealth.com, your complete health guide.
Pregnenolone is a naturally occurring metabolite that is made in your body. It is often referred to as the mother steroid compound because it is the basic raw material for all steroid hormones in the body.
|font size=3||span style=font-family: arial;|Pregnenolone is metabolized in two directions: production of DHEA and its metabolites and production of progesterone and its metabolites. Do NOT take if at risk for hormonally related cancers such as reproductive or prostate abnormalities, if under the age of 40, or if pregnant, lactating or trying to conceive.|/span||/font||sup class=footNote||/sup||input id=gwProxy type=hidden||!--Session data--||input onclick=jsCall(); id=jsProxy type=hidden||div id=refHTML||/div||input id=gwProxy type=hidden||!--Session data--||input onclick=jsCall(); id=jsProxy type=hidden||div id=refHTML||/div||input id=gwProxy type=hidden||!--Session data--||input onclick=jsCall(); id=jsProxy type=hidden||div id=refHTML||/div||input id=gwProxy type=hidden||!--Session data--||input onclick=jsCall(); id=jsProxy type=hidden||div id=refHTML||/div||input id=gwProxy type=hidden||!--Session data--||input onclick=jsCall();
Learn more about Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at Aventura Hospital & Medical Center Supplement Forms/Alternate Names DHEA Sulfate Uses Principal Proposed...
Learn more about Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at Kendall Regional Medical Center Supplement Forms/Alternate Names DHEA Sulfate Uses Principal Proposed Uses ...
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Product Page for Cognitex with Pregnenolone & Brain Shield 90 Softgels offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
Learn more about Pregnenolone at Blake Medical Center Uses Principal Proposed Uses None Other Proposed Uses Aging in General ...
Pregnenolone 10 mg Reviews and other Reviews of Nutritional Supplements and Merchants Plus Related Resources Including a 2017 Buying Guide. Healthy Learning for Healthy Living.
Learn about the potential side effects of Makena (hydroxyprogesterone). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
Progesterone + [Reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + Oxygen ,=> 17alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone + [Oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + ...
Pharmacokinetics of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate in multifetal gestation.Authors: Caritis SN, Sharma S, Venkataramanan R, Rouse DJ, Peaceman AM, Sciscione A, Spong CY, Varner MW, Malone FD, Iams JD, Mercer BM, Thorp JM Jr, Sorokin Y, Carpenter M, Lo J, Ramin S, Harper M, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network ...
Predicting Multi-Drug Inhibition Interactions based on Signaling Networks and Single Drug Dose-Response Information. Human Neutrophils in Patients with Positive Serology for Chagas Disease. Requirements for Cryopreservation of In Vitro-Produced Bovine Embryos by a Standard Method of Vitrification. Fangchinoline Inhibits Breast Tumor Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 Cell Line in Vivo. Anti-GnRH Receptor Monoclonal Antibodies, First-In-Class GnRH Analog. Pharmacy Compounding Quality Control and Pharmaceutical Development Strategies for Seventeen alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate in Prevention of Preterm Delivery. Salmonella Serovars and Their Host Specificity. New Adipocytokines. MAPK Pathway in Skeletal Muscle Diseases. Articles related to apoptosis are open access to read here.
The available experimental and human data are inadequate to evaluate the carcinogenicity of 17a-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. For definition of the italicized terms, see Preamble Evaluation.. Subsequent evaluation: Suppl. 7 (1987) (Progestins) ...
Define Congenital adrenal hyperplasia type 1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia type 1 synonyms, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia type 1 pronunciation, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia type 1 translation, English dictionary definition of Congenital adrenal hyperplasia type 1. n. Any of a group of genetic disorders characterized by an enzyme deficiency that leads to insufficient production of cortisol and often aldosterone by the...
Author: Reed-Kane Dana, Kirshbaum Karen, Year: 2006, Abstract: 17a-hydroxyprogesterone caproate is a naturally occurring metabolite of progesterone that is produced in significant quantities during pregnancy. The demand for 17a hydroxyprogesterone caproate, the lack of a commercially available manufactured form approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and publication of the results of a large trial to determine the effectiveness of the drug in the prevention of preterm delivery have spawned an increased interest in compounded formulations of the dru
OBJECTIVE: To compare preterm birth rate and neonatal outcome in twin gestations randomized to either 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) or placebo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with twin gestations between 20-30 weeks were randomized to rec
Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth: indications, when to initiate, efficacy and safety Helen Y How, Baha M SibaiDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH USAAbstract: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and long-term disability of non-anomalous infants. Previous studies have identified a prior early spontaneous preterm birth as the risk factor with the highest predictive value for recurrence. Two recent double blind randomized placebo controlled trials reported lower preterm birth rate with the use of either intramuscular 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (IM 17OHP-C) or intravaginal micronized progesterone suppositories in women at risk for preterm delivery. However, it is still unclear which high-risk women would truly benefit from this treatment in a general clinical setting and whether socio-cultural, racial and genetic differences play a role in patients response to
Hydroxyprogesterone caproate yog ib tug steroidal progestin thiab derivative ntawm 17a-hydroxyprogesterone (17a-OHP) uas muaj feem xyuam nrog lwm 17a-OHP derivatives xws li chlormadinone acetate, cyproterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, thiab megestrol acetate.Nws yog ib qho ester ntawm 17α-OHP tsim los ntawm caproic acid (hexanoic acid).
In some infant girls who have ambiguous genitalia, reconstructive surgery may be required to correct the appearance and function of the genitals, a procedure that may involve reducing the size of the clitoris and reconstructing the vaginal opening. The Komansky Center for Childrens Health at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center is one of the worlds major referral centers for genital reconstructive surgery. Dr. Poppas has performed over 100 of these complex surgeries. Earlier this year, he was honored by the CARES (Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Research Education and Support) Foundation as the first recipient of its Visionary Award for his contributions and commitment to CARES and the congenital adrenal hyperplasia community. CARES Foundation is a national nonprofit organization committed to improving the lives of families and individuals affected by congenital adrenal hyperplasia. A member of CARES Scientific and Advisory Board, Dr. Poppas has performed genital ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Congenital adrenal hyperplasia at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Congenital adrenal hyperplasia easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Good news in the fight against preterm births (of which there are more than half a million each year in the U.S.): just last week, the FDA approved the use of hydroxyprogesterone caproate injection, commonly known as 17P, which is a synthetic form of a hormone produced during pregnancy. The drug will be marketed under the brand name Makena™ and given in weekly injections to pregnant women between 16 and 20 weeks gestation, continuing until 37 weeks. According to a published study by the March of Dimes, the National Institutes for Health, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nearly 10,000 spontaneous premature births might be prevented annually if all women eligible for the progesterone injections received them.
Healthcare Sales & Marketing Network: AMAG Submits Supplemental New Drug Application to FDA for Makena(R) (Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate Injection) Auto-Injector for Subcutaneous Use
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in males (CAH), symptoms, causes and treatment of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, parents should always get themselves treated in all manner of conditions before going ahead to bear children.
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21-hydroxylase deficiency (also known as congenital adrenal hyperplasia) is an inherited disorder that affects the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of the kidneys and produce a variety of hormones that regulate many essential functions in the body. Two of these hormones, cortisol and aldosterone, are produced from cholesterol through the activity of an enzyme called 21-hydroxylase. Cortisol has numerous functions such as maintaining blood sugar levels, protecting the body from stress, and suppressing inflammation. Aldosterone, sometimes called the salt-retaining hormone, acts on the kidneys to regulate the levels of salt and water in the body, which affects blood pressure. People with 21-hydroxylase deficiency have a shortage of the 21-hydroxylase enzyme, which impairs the conversion of cholesterol to cortisol and aldosterone. When the precursors of cortisol and aldosterone build up in the adrenal glands, they are converted to male sex hormones called androgens. Androgens are ...
Daily vaginal progesterone initiated at 16 weeks was a reasonable alternative to weekly 17-alpha-hydroxy-progesterone caproate (17-OHPC) for the prevention of spontaneous preterm birth in women with singleton gestations and prior spontaneous preterm birth, a systematic review in Obstetrics & Gynecology reported.
Microbial steroid biotransformation have found wide-reaching application for the production of more precious and functionalized compounds due to their high regio-and stereoselectivity. In this study, the possibility of using filamentous fungi Aspergillus brasiliensis cells in the biotransformation of progesterone (I), a C-21 steroid hormone was studied for the first time.The fungal strain was inoculated into the transformation medium which supplemented with progesterone as a substrate. Biotransformation of this steroid for 7 days afforded 3 different hydroxylated metabolites: 11α-hydroxyprogesterone (II); 14α-hydroxyprogesterone (III) and 21-hydroxyprogesterone (IV).The metabolites were separated by thin layer chromatography. Structure determinations of the metabolites were performed by comparing NMR, MS and IR spectra of starting compound with those of metabolites.These results may be of industrial importance because the metabolites can be used as precursor of some steroid drugs.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by the genetic impairment of one of the five enzymes required for the biosynthesis of cortisol from cholesterol. In 95% of cases 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is responsible for the disease (1). Classic 21-OHD has an incidence varying from 1:11 800 to 1:21 800, depending on the population background. The pathophysiology, clinical picture, genetics, and the unique aspects of management from the point of view of the paediatric endocrinologist are addressed, and the problems encountered from birth to puberty are described. The child specific issues of rare forms of CAH are summarized thereafter. The reader is referred to Chapter 5.11 for a comprehensive overview of 21-OHD and for more details on all other forms of CAH.. ...
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), also known as the "adrenogenital syndrome," is an uncommon condition caused by a congenital defect in one of several enzymes that take part in the chain of reactions whereby cortisol is manufactured from its precursors. There are at least six fairly well-defined variants of CAH that result from the various enzyme defects. The most common of these are types I and II, which are due to C21-hydroxylase enzyme deficiency. All CAH variants are inherited as autosomal recessive traits. The clinical and laboratory findings depend on which metabolic pathway-and which precursor in the metabolic pathway- is affected. All variants affect the glucocorticoid (cortisol) pathway in some manner. In CAH due to 21-hydroxylase defect (types I and II) and in CAH type III, although formation of cortisone and cortisol is blocked, the precursors of these glucocorticoids are still being manufactured. Most of the early precursors of cortisone are estrogenic compounds, which also are ...
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of rare inherited autosomal recessive disorders characterized by a deficiency of one of the enzymes needed to make specific hormones. CAH effects the adrenal glands located at the top of each kidney. Normally, the adrenal glands are responsible for producing three...
I will be competing in the Mozart 100 race in Salzburg on June 20th. 100km in the mountains where they filmed the Sound of Music! I am raising money for the CARES Foundation, an organisation that helps those living with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH). CAH is a family of inherited disorders affecting the adrenal glands. Classical CAH must be detected at birth to avoid an adrenal crisis, which can lead to death. Once detected, CAH can fortunately be managed with medication and, with adequate care, affected individuals go on to live normal lives. My family has been personally affected by CAH, with my daughter having been born in a country where screening at birth is not done. Through my running I aim to build crucial awareness, and fundraise for a fantastic organisation doing CAH research and support worldwide. All donations through this site go directly to the CARES Foundation.
The majority of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) cases arise from mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) gene. Without reliance on HLA gene linkage analysis, we have developed primers for differential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the CYP21 gene and the non-functional CYP21P gene. Using the amplification created restriction site (ACRS) approach for direct mutational detection, a secondary PCR was then performed using a panel of primers specific for each of the 11 known mutations associated with CAH. Subsequent restriction analysis allowed not only the detection but also the determination of the zygosity of the mutations analysed. Existing deletion of the CYP21 gene could also be detected. In the analysis of 20 independent chromosomes in 11 families of CAH patients in Taiwan, four CYP21 mutation types, besides deletion, were detected. Interestingly, in five different alleles, the CYP21P pseudogene contained some polymorphisms generally associated with the CYP21 ...
Award in Recognition of Work with CAH Patients, Contributions to CAH Research and Quality Patient Care, 2011; USPHS Outstanding Service Medal for Conducting Outstanding Clinical Research and Building an Internationally Renowned Research Program to Further Understanding of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, 2010; Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Research, Education and Support Foundation, Inc. grant in support of research in the area of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 2005 - 2009; NIH Fellows Award for Research Excellence, 1997; NIH Clinical Research Loan Repayment and Scholarship Award, 1996; Dr. Louis Sklarow Memorial Award for outstanding graduate in medicine, SUNY at Buffalo, 1991; Alpha Omega Alpha Society. Selected Publications. BOOKS AND BOOK CHAPTERS. Charmandari E, Chrousos GP, Merke DP. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In: Adrenal Glands: diagnostic aspects and surgical therapy, Chapter 10, pp 101-114. Linos DA, VanHeerden JA, eds., Springer-Verlag, Germany 2005.. Merke DP, Cutler GB. ...
The term congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive disorders, each of which involves a deficiency of an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cortisol, aldosterone, or both. .
Female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia have been frequently studied in order to determine the impact of prenatal androgen exposure on various aspects of psychological, psychosocial and...
Learn about Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) symptoms and causes from experts at Boston Childrens, ranked best Childrens Hospital by US News.
Doctors at Hassenfeld Children's Hospital at NYU Langone use a blood test to screen newborns for congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Learn more.
Learn more about Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia at Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia at Chippenham Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia at Medical City McKinney DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
An education and support network for people and families with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. Includes important medical links, FAQ, Message Board and Archives.
There are two types of CAH. The first called Classical CAH which is usually detected through prenatal testing or diagnosed in early childhood. When the pituitary gland senses there is insufficient cortisol in the bloodstream, it releases a hormone called ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). This, in turn, stimulates the adrenals to produce more cortisol. The enzyme 21-hydroxylase is needed to convert a precursor molecule called 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) into cortisol, but those with CAH lack sufficient amounts of 21-hydroxylase causing the pituitary gland to pump out more ACTH when it senses the need for cortisol. The adrenals convert an overabundance of 17-OHP into masculine steroid hormones called androgens. As stated before, adrenal glands are responsible for creating cortisol, in order to maintain adequate energy supply and blood sugar levels, and deal with physical and emotional stress. "Lack of adequate cortisol also prevents the body from properly metabolizing sugar and responding to ...
Another name for Adrenal Hyperplasia is Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. Treatment for congenital adrenal hyperplasia usually includes hormone therapy ...
Children. Preterm infants. Preterm infants may exceed 630 ng/dL, however, it is uncommon to see levels reach 1,000 ng/dL.. Term infants. 0-28 days: ,630 ng/dL. Levels fall from newborn (,630 ng/dL) to prepubertal gradually within 6 months.. Prepubertal males: ,110 ng/dL. Prepubertal females: ,100 ng/dL Adults. Males: ,220 ng/dL. Females. Follicular: ,80 ng/dL. Luteal: ,285 ng/dL. Postmenopausal: ,51 ng/dL. Note: For pregnancy reference ranges, see: Soldin OP, Guo T, Weiderpass E, et al: Steroid hormone levels in pregnancy and 1 year postpartum using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Fertil Steril 2005 Sept;84(3):701-710. ...
The high rate of preterm delivery in the United States is the greatest contributor to the relatively high infant mortality rate in this country. Despite much effort, no effective method exists for prevention of preterm delivery. Progesterone has been studied as a prophylactic agent for preterm delivery with conflicting results. A meta-analysis of older trials using only 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17P) showed a significant protective effect. Meis and colleagues designed a multicenter modern retrial of 17P for prevention of pre-term delivery.. The authors screened patients for enrollment by reviewing prenatal charts of pregnancies at 15 to 20 weeks of gestation for a history of preterm delivery. Initial screening identified 2,980 women, of whom 1,039 were eligible after exclusion criteria, which included lack of documentation for prior preterm delivery, ultrasound dating of more than 20 weeks gestation, planned cerclage, multifetal pregnancy, or prior progesterone use during the current ...
A method for the analysis of testosterone, androstenedione, 5β-dihydrotestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 5β-pregnane-3α,17α,20α-triol, 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol, 5β-androstane-3β,17β-diol, 5β-pregnane-3α,17α,20β-triol, 5β-androstane-3α,11β-diol-17-one, 5β-pregnane-3α,17α-diol-20-one, 17α,20β,21-trihydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one and 11-deoxycortisol in water was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring.. Fish sex steroids were extracted from holding water using C18 SPE cartridges, and eluted using methanol. Free and glucuronide conjugate levels of steroids were determined, glucuronide conjugates by hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase prior to. derivatisation and free steroids by direct derivatisation. The method thus developed was applied to twelve goldfish holding water samples.. Androstenedione was found to be excreted in considerably higher quantities ...
English Synonyms: DELTA5-PREGNEN-3BETA-OL-20-ONE;DELTA5-PREGNEN-3B-OL-20-ONE;DELTA-5-PREGNENE-3B-OL-20-ONE;DELTA5-PREGNENOLONE;1-((3S,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-3-HYDROXY-10,13-DIMETHYL-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-TETRADECAHYDRO-1H-CYCLOPENTA[A]PHENANTHREN-17-YL)-ETHANONE;3BETA-HYDROXY-5-PREGNEN-20-ONE;3BETA-HYDROXYPREGN-5-EN-20-ONE;3b-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one ...
Results At birth, VPT infants exhibit a global defect in adrenal steroid synthesis pathways leading to lower levels of aldosterone, cortisol and androstenedione than in term infants. This defect was strongly related to GA. On day 3, steroid precursors (progesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), 17-hydroxyprogesterone(17-OH-P) and 11-deoxycortisol (S)) were higher in VPT and negatively correlated with GA. Despite of precursors accumulation, aldosterone and cortisol were similar in the three groups. At birth and day 3, a low cortisol/11-deoxycortisol ratio was found in preterm infants, suggesting an 11-beta-hydroxylase activity (CYP11B1) deficiency. ...
Disease, Amyloid, Biomarkers, Growth, Role, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Threonine, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Hormone, Methods, Measure, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Development And Growth, Hormones, Hyperplasia, Meningiomas, Progesterone, Progesterone Receptors, Quality Control
SUMMARY. Two sisters with deficient 17-hydroxylase activity are described. The enzyme, 17-hydroxylase, is necessary for both Cortisol and estrogen synthesis. Deficiency of these hormones results in increased adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Synthesis of deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and corticosterone (B) does not require 17-hydroxylation and is increased with resultant hypertension. Estrogen lack results in primary amenorrhea and absent sexual maturation. Ovarian enlargement and infarction from twisting also occur. Suppressive therapy with dexamethasone and estrogens has lowered the blood pressure and produced feminization. ...
Homogenates of first trimester human placentae were incubated with [26-14C]cholesterol. Using reverse-isotope dilution analysis [14C]isocaproic acid was isolated and characterized. A progressive increase in [14C]isocaproic acid formation with increasing gestation suggestive of a regulatory mechanism at the C-20, 22 desmolase site in the supply of placental pregnenolone was noted ...
Then, she asked me some follow-ups… How is my quality of sleep? I heard myself say, "Bad." (Whoa, I thought to myself! I never really said that out loud before, but I guess my sleep isnt really what I want it to be… I want to be able to fall asleep and stay asleep better. I told her this.) How is my skin? Combo/itchy sometimes, too. How is my energy level? Poor. I never met a nap I didnt want to take. Just about any time of the day. Im especially tired around 3 p.m. daily. And by the time I get home from work, I just want to throw myself on the couch. Ive always chalked that up to stress, sitting all day at work, the wrong or nonexistent snacks perhaps. But, no, its more than that. Do I wake up feeling energized? Rarely. Have I had a ridiculously hard time trying to lose a small amount of weight? YES! Does anyone in my family have a history of thyroid problems? (It can be genetic.) Yes, yes, YES. My Grandma E, who I am pretty sure I take after biologically, was diagnosed with ...
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Medical definition of desmolase: an enzyme (as aldolase) capable of breaking or forming a carbon-to-carbon bond in a molecule and playing a role in…
Diagnosis of patients with even mild hirsutism should include assessment of ovulation and ovarian ultrasound , due to the high prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) , as well as 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (because of the possibility of finding
La steroide 21-monoossigenasi è un enzima appartenente alla classe delle ossidoreduttasi, che catalizza la seguente reazione: uno steroide + AH2 + O2 ⇄ un 21-idrossisteroide + A + H2O È un sistema enzimatico che coinvolge una proteina eme-tiolata (P-450) ed una flavoproteina. Ryan, K.J. and Engel, L.L., Hydroxylation of steroids at carbon 21, in J. Biol. Chem., vol. 225, 1957, pp. 103-114, Entrez PubMed 13416221. Plager, J.E. and Samuels, L.T., Synthesis of C14-17-hydroxy-11-desoxycorticosterone and 17-hydroxycorticosterone by fractionated extracts of adrenal homogenates, in Arch. Biochem. Biophys., vol. 42, 1953, pp. 477-478, Entrez PubMed 13031650. Hayano, M. and Dorfman, R.I., The action of adrenal homogenates on progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 21-desoxycortisone, in Arch. Biochem. Biophys., vol. 36, 1952, pp. 237-239 ...
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             - Penn State  Find Research Output - Penn State
17 O Knight shift study in the superconducting state of Sr2RuO4. Mukuda, H., Ishida, K., Kitaoka, Y., Mao, Z., Mori, Y. & Maeno ... 17O NMR probe of spin fluctuations in triplet superconductor Sr2RuO4 Mukuda, H., Ishida, K., Kitaoka, Y., Asayama, K., Mao, Z. ... 17O/16O and18O/16O isotope measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide and its sources. Huff, A. K. & Thiemens, M. H., Sep 15 ... 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase dysregulation is not caused by mutations in the coding regions of CYP17. Witchel, S. F., Lee, P., ...
more infohttps://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/?format=&ordering=type&descending=false&page=3
Research  | Reuniting  Research | Reuniting
Comment: Level of 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone increased significantly, whereas the other circulating steroids - including DHEA ... mating behavior after repeated ejaculations is associated with changes in both androgen receptor and estrogen receptor-alpha ... The circulating level of 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone increased significantly, whereas the other circulating steroids were not ... "Prolactin: An integral player in hormonal politics" By Jeremy P.W. Heaton, MD Contemporary Urology, v.15:17-25 (2003) ...
more infohttps://www.reuniting.info/science/research
Life Extension Abstracts - Life Extension  Life Extension Abstracts - Life Extension
... but the levels of free alpha-tocopherol remained low. Neither alpha-tocopheryl acetate nor alpha-tocopheryl succinate prevented ... and 25 mg d-alpha-tocopheryl succinate, respectively. Thus neither alpha-tocopheryl acetate nor alpha-tocopheryl succinate ... Thus alpha-tocopheryl acetate or alpha-tocopheryl succinate not only failed to prevent photocarcinogenesis, but may have ... The current study was designed to ask whether the thermostable esters of vitamin E, alpha-tocopheryl acetate, or alpha- ...
more infohttps://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/1998/4/abs
Classical pathway of steroidogenesis, including diseases (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways  Classical pathway of steroidogenesis, including diseases (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways
5-alpha-Reductase2. P450Aro. P450c17. POR. H6PD. Cortisone. 17-beta-HSD3. P450scc. P450c21. Cytochrome b5. 11-HSD2. 11beta-HSD1 ... 5-alpha-reductase type II deficiency. 9. Aromatase deficiency. 19. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency. 22. 3-beta-HSD type II ... 5-alpha-Reductase2. GeneProduct. ENSG00000277893 (Ensembl) Aldosterone. Metabolite. CHEBI:2563 (ChEBI) Androstenedione. ... Makridakis NM, di Salle E, Reichardt JK; Biochemical and pharmacogenetic dissection of human steroid 5 alpha-reductase type ...
more infohttps://www.wikipathways.org/index.php?title=Pathway:WP4523&oldid=103290
6beta-hydroxyprogesterone hemisuccinate - Ontology Browser - Rat Genome Database  6beta-hydroxyprogesterone hemisuccinate - Ontology Browser - Rat Genome Database
hydroxypregnenolone + imidapril + iminoaspartic acid itaconic acid + kidjoranin-3-O-alpha-diginopyranosyl-(1->4)-beta- ... 3beta-hydroxy-16alpha,17alpha-epoxypregnenolone + 3beta-hydroxy-16alpha,17alpha-epoxypregnenolone 3-beta-D-glucoside ... acetic acid [(3S,5S,9S,14S)-17-acetyloxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,16-bis(1-methyl-1-piperidin-1-iumyl)-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16, ... acetic acid [2-[(3R,5R,10S,13S,17R)-3-acetyloxy-17-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-11-oxo-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,12,14,15,16-dodecahydro-1H- ...
more infohttps://crrd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/ontology/view.html?acc_id=CHEBI:62116
Cypermethrin - Wikipedia  Cypermethrin - Wikipedia
alpha-cypermethrin in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB). *zeta-cypermethrin in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB) ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cypermethrin
hydrocortamate - Ontology Browser - Rat Genome Database  hydrocortamate - Ontology Browser - Rat Genome Database
17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone + 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone 17alpha-hydroxywithanolide D 17beta-hydroxy-2alpha,17-dimethylestr-4- ... 8-demethyl-8-(2,3,4-O-trimethyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyl)tetracenomycin C ... 8-demethyl-8-(2,3-O-dimethyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyl)tetracenomycin C ... 8-demethyl-8-(2-O-methyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyl)tetracenomycin C 8- ... 17-Hydroxycorticosterone, 21-(diethylamino)acetate ; Formula=C27H41NO6 ; InChI=1S/C27H41NO6/c1-5-28(6-2)15-23(32)34-16-22(31)27 ...
more infohttps://crrd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/ontology/view.html?acc_id=CHEBI:50851
Artemisinin - Wikipedia  Artemisinin - Wikipedia
17 August 2007.. *^ Newton, P.; Proux, S.; Green, M.; et al. (June 2001). "Fake artesunate in southeast Asia". Lancet. 357 ( ... 17 (3): 187-193.. *^ Le, W.; You, J.; Mei, J. (1983). "Chemotherapeutic effect of artesunate in experimental schistosomiasis". ... Neil, D. M. (January 17, 2012). "For Intrigue, Malaria Drug Gets the Prize". New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2013.. ... InChI=1S/C15H22O5/c1-8-4-5-11-9(2)12(16)17-13-15(11)10(8)6-7-14(3,18-13)19-20-15/h8-11,13H,4-7H2,1-3H3/t8-,9-,10+,11+,13-,14-, ...
more infohttp://wikien3.appspot.com/wiki/Artemisinin
Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy  on Methylprednisolone  Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy on Methylprednisolone
1S,2R,8S,10S,11S,14R,15S,17S)-14,17-dihydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,8,15-trimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.02,7.011,15]heptadeca-3,6- ... 17,19,23,25,27H,5,7-8,10-11H2,1-3H3/t12-,14-,15-,17-,19+,20-,21-,22-/m0/s1 Y ... 6α, 11β)-11,17,21-trihydroxy-6-methyl-pregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione. ...
more infohttp://hitchhikersgui.de/Methylprednisolone
CorrectCodeChek | CPT 84403 | Testosterone; total  CorrectCodeChek | CPT 84403 | Testosterone; total
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP); AFP-L3 fraction isoform and total AFP (including ratio) ... Evaluation of cervicovaginal fluid for specific amniotic fluid protein(s) (eg, placental alpha microglobulin-1 [PAMG-1], ...
more infohttps://correctcodechek.decisionhealth.com/CPT/Detail.aspx?Code=84403
CorrectCodeChek | CPT 83864 | Mucopolysaccharides, acid, quantitative  CorrectCodeChek | CPT 83864 | Mucopolysaccharides, acid, quantitative
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP); AFP-L3 fraction isoform and total AFP (including ratio) ... Evaluation of cervicovaginal fluid for specific amniotic fluid protein(s) (eg, placental alpha microglobulin-1 [PAMG-1], ...
more infohttps://correctcodechek.decisionhealth.com/CPT/Detail.aspx?Code=83864
CorrectCodeChek | CPT 82239 | Bile acids; total  CorrectCodeChek | CPT 82239 | Bile acids; total
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP); AFP-L3 fraction isoform and total AFP (including ratio) ... Evaluation of cervicovaginal fluid for specific amniotic fluid protein(s) (eg, placental alpha microglobulin-1 [PAMG-1], ...
more infohttps://correctcodechek.decisionhealth.com/CPT/Detail.aspx?Code=82239
CorrectCodeChek | CPT 83060 | Hemoglobin; sulfhemoglobin, quantitative  CorrectCodeChek | CPT 83060 | Hemoglobin; sulfhemoglobin, quantitative
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP); AFP-L3 fraction isoform and total AFP (including ratio) ... Evaluation of cervicovaginal fluid for specific amniotic fluid protein(s) (eg, placental alpha microglobulin-1 [PAMG-1], ...
more infohttps://correctcodechek.decisionhealth.com/CPT/Detail.aspx?Code=83060
CorrectCodeChek | CPT 83775 | Malate dehydrogenase  CorrectCodeChek | CPT 83775 | Malate dehydrogenase
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP); AFP-L3 fraction isoform and total AFP (including ratio) ... Evaluation of cervicovaginal fluid for specific amniotic fluid protein(s) (eg, placental alpha microglobulin-1 [PAMG-1], ...
more infohttps://correctcodechek.decisionhealth.com/CPT/Detail.aspx?Code=83775
CorrectCodeChek | CPT 82757 | Fructose, semen  CorrectCodeChek | CPT 82757 | Fructose, semen
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP); AFP-L3 fraction isoform and total AFP (including ratio) ... Evaluation of cervicovaginal fluid for specific amniotic fluid protein(s) (eg, placental alpha microglobulin-1 [PAMG-1], ...
more infohttps://correctcodechek.decisionhealth.com/CPT/Detail.aspx?Code=82757
CorrectCodeChek | CPT 84510 | Tyrosine  CorrectCodeChek | CPT 84510 | Tyrosine
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP); AFP-L3 fraction isoform and total AFP (including ratio) ... Evaluation of cervicovaginal fluid for specific amniotic fluid protein(s) (eg, placental alpha microglobulin-1 [PAMG-1], ...
more infohttps://correctcodechek.decisionhealth.com/CPT/Detail.aspx?Code=84510
CorrectCodeChek | CPT 83993 | Calprotectin, fecal  CorrectCodeChek | CPT 83993 | Calprotectin, fecal
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP); AFP-L3 fraction isoform and total AFP (including ratio) ... Evaluation of cervicovaginal fluid for specific amniotic fluid protein(s) (eg, placental alpha microglobulin-1 [PAMG-1], ...
more infohttps://correctcodechek.decisionhealth.com/CPT/Detail.aspx?Code=83993
16α-Hydroxy-DHEA  16α-Hydroxy-DHEA
"DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta". Steroids. 78 (1): 15-25. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.10.002. PMC ... 11β-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α-Hydroxypregnenolone. *21-Hydroxypregnenolone. *17α,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone ... 3S,8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,16R)-3,16-Dihydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16-dodecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one ... InChI=1S/C19H28O3/c1-18-7-5-12(20)9-11(18)3-4-13-14(18)6-8-19(2)15(13)10-16(21)17(19)22/h3,12-16,20-21H,4-10H2,1-2H3/t12-,13+, ...
more infohttps://readtiger.com/wkp/en/16%CE%B1-Hydroxy-DHEA
Progestin Androgenic Activity - Trip Database  Progestin Androgenic Activity - Trip Database
Harnessing Androgen-Receptor Pathway Activation for Targeted Alpha Particle Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer. The impact of ... 4. Harnessing Androgen-Receptor Pathway Activation for Targeted Alpha Particle Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer. (PubMed). ... We then evaluated an anti-hK2-targeted radiotherapy platform (hu11B6), labeled with alpha (α)-particle emitting Actinium-225, ... 17. First Generation Progestin Generation Progestin Aka: First Generation Progestin , Norethindrone , Norethynodrel II. Class ...
more infohttps://www.tripdatabase.com/search?criteria=Progestin+Androgenic+Activity&page=1