History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Famous PersonsMedicine in ArtHistoryHistory of MedicinePaintingsPersia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Leper Colonies: Residential treatment centers for individuals with leprosy.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Nobel PrizePaleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.History of NursingMedicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Scurvy: An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Literature, MedievalEuropeSculptureBooksMummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.United StatesMythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.ArtPhilosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Manuscripts, MedicalPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Magic: Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Philosophy, MedicalForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Engraving and EngravingsReligion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Numismatics: Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.ItalyTheology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Communicable DiseasesEconomic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Societies, Hospital: Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Periostitis: Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Theft: Unlawful act of taking property.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Symbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Citrus aurantiifolia: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar lime fruit. Its common name of lime is similar to the limetree (TILIA).Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Genealogy and HeraldryEnglandTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Awards and PrizesWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.GermanyGenetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.GreeceGreat BritainRain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.North AmericaOceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)HungaryIslam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.South AmericaInterleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.PortugalEducation, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Europe, EasternSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.RussiaSuntan: An induced skin pigment (MELANIN) darkening after exposure to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. The degree of tanning depends on the intensity and duration of UV exposure, and genetic factors.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Cercopithecinae: A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)PolandSocieties, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred BALB CSwitzerlandBrazilAge Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Pacific OceanSocial Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.LondonModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Mice, Inbred C57BLAfricaNutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.MexicoBiomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.WalesHistory of DentistryCD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.JapanChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
  • Documents have been discovered indicating that chocolate was used naturopathically and prescribed to patients by some physicians for a variety of diseases during the 18th and 19th century in America, including cholera, consumption (tuberculosis), scarlet fever, smallpox, typhus, and yellow fever. (drugs.com)
  • But, Caracciolo says, "Art historians must visit Padua's La Montecchia (doubles from $308, including breakfast, two-night minimum) -a 16th-century folly designed and frescoed by Dario Varotari, a pupil of painter Paolo Veronese. (travelandleisure.com)
  • And although almost all historians would agree that a genuine alteration of an exceptionally radical nature ( the Scientific Revolution) occurred in the sciences at some time between the late fifteenth (or early sixteenth) century and the end of the seventeenth century, the question of exactly when this revolution occurred arouses as much scholarly disagreement as the cognate question of precisely what it was. (todayinsci.com)
  • but in the post-Reformation annals few names of great significance occur though Archbishops Tait, Benson, and Temple in the latter half of the nineteenth century were men of broad and statesmanlike abilities. (ccel.org)
  • After the Reformation divided Europe into Protestant and Catholic in the early 16th century, both sides hunted witches. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The name given to the southern part of The Netherlands , territory accumulated by the French Duke of Burgundy in the 15th century and eventually inherited by Charles V , from the 16th Century Protestant Reformation (when the northern half broke away from Spanish rule) until handed over to Austria as a prize in The War of the Spanish Succession . (everything2.com)
  • Ovide Brunet and the Botanical Imagination: Photography, Illustration, and Education in Nineteenth-Century Québec. (queensu.ca)
  • Nineteenth-century photography, Canadian science images, botanical illustration, visual culture of science, international networks of science and art. (queensu.ca)
  • Though Lieberman is arguably the best-known and best-documented nineteenth-century Russian Jewish revolutionary, scholars have largely overlooked the content of his writings and their significance for understanding the early reception of Marx's ideas. (jhu.edu)
  • Illustrated History of Landscape Design takes an optical sweep of the iconic landscapes constructed throughout the ages. (worldcat.org)
  • I llustrated History of Landscape Design provides an overview of landscape design, including the iconic spaces throughout the centuries, starting from landscapes in prehistory to current trends in landscape design. (worldcat.org)
  • Karl Marx is known as one of the great critics of religion in Western intellectual history. (jhu.edu)
  • Physicians like Ambroise Paré, the official barber-surgeon for the Kings of France during the 16th century, noted the unfortunate effects of prevailing surgical methods and sought better ways to heal patients. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Reading Augustine in the Fifteenth Century', in Cultures of religious reading in the late middle ages, edited by S. Corbellini (Brepols, 2013), pp.141-72 and 'Printing at Oxford in its European Context 1478-1584', in A History of Oxford University Press, vol. 1, edited by I. Gadd (OUP, 2013), pp. 29-49. (cerl.org)
  • Leah Chang explores the invention of Louise Labe, one of the most important female authors of sixteenth-century France. (loc.gov)
  • She is responsible for the survey of seventeenth-century Italian editions for the Universal Short Title Catalogue of the University of St Andrews. (cerl.org)
  • There is an old stone tower in Rhode Island that was built in the 15th century. (jerseycitymuseum.org)
  • An important trading center since the 15th century when it was built for Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror, it was enlarged during the 16th century for Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. (cnn.com)
  • Although the property dates back to the18th century and had frequently changed hands, the mansion and grounds we see today were built in the early 1900's. (travelblog.org)
  • In Split, visit Jupiter Temple, built for worshipping the Roman God and the Roman emperor Diocletian, and the 4th-century Diocletian's Palace, a well-preserved fortress and UNESCO World Heritage Site. (makemytrip.com)
  • In Mostar, see the Old Bridge, the city's symbol built in the 16th century, and Turkish House, built in 1635 and one of the best-preserved residential structures from the Turkish period. (makemytrip.com)
  • In Romanian modern and contemporary history, the period that begins with the outbreak of World War I, in the summer of 1914, would lead to the great turning point the realization of the secular dream of the Great Union, the birth of the Great Romania. (jewishgen.org)
  • Tales of the supernatural had been circulating in Romanian folklore for centuries when Irish writer Bram Stoker picked up the thread and spun it into a golden tale of ghoulishness that has never been out of print since its first publication in 1897. (romaniatourism.com)
  • Count Dracula, a fictional character in the Dracula novel, was inspired by one of the best-known figures of Romanian history, Vlad Dracula, nicknamed Vlad Tepes (Vlad the Impaler), who was the ruler of Walachia at various times from 1456-1462. (romaniatourism.com)
  • For two centuries, the church served as coronation ground for Romanian princes. (romaniatourism.com)
  • The distinctive cough with its whooping sound was mentioned in a 15th century Korean medical text The first documented epidemic arose in Paris in the year 1578. (nhpr.org)
  • Paris has endured numerous sieges throughout its long history. (atlasobscura.com)
  • An abbey was founded there in the 7th century, possibly by the Kings of Northumbria. (english-heritage.org.uk)
  • [ citation needed ] The metal continued to be mined by the eleventh century kings of South India, the Vijayanagara Empire from 1336 to 1560, and later by Tipu Sultan , the king of Mysore state and the British. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, we must apply the materialist interpretation of history to Marxism itself: not consider its appearance as a matter of course, but understand that it requires an explanation, and try to provide one. (grenzeloos.org)
  • Religious reformer John Calvin, who helped shape the Protestant Church from his base in Geneva in the 16th century, further boosted banking by applying a liberal interpretation of the Catholic ban on usury - or gaining interest on loans. (swissinfo.ch)
  • For several centuries, many Christians rejected bathing for its connection to the sin of pride or vanity. (theweek.com)