History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Famous PersonsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Codon, Initiator: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E: A peptide initiation factor that binds specifically to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE of MRNA in the CYTOPLASM. It is a component of the trimeric complex EIF4F.Medicine in ArtEukaryotic Initiation Factor-4G: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)HistoryRNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.PaintingsPersia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Eukaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Leper Colonies: Residential treatment centers for individuals with leprosy.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4F: A trimeric peptide initiation factor complex that associates with the 5' MRNA cap structure of RNA (RNA CAPS) and plays an essential role in MRNA TRANSLATION. It is composed of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4A; EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4E; and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4G.History of MedicineNucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Codon, Terminator: Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.Nobel PrizePaleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Peptide Chain Termination, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the terminal amino acid is added to a lengthening polypeptide. This termination process is signaled from the MESSENGER RNA, by one of three termination codons (CODON, TERMINATOR) that immediately follows the last amino acid-specifying CODON.Peptide Chain Elongation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F that as an RNA helicase involved in unwinding the secondary structure of the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGION of MRNA. The unwinding facilitates the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Scurvy: An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)History of NursingAnthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Literature, MedievalPlague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid: Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.SculpturePlasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.BooksRNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.EuropeRibosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic: The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peptide Termination Factors: Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Manuscripts, MedicalGreenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1: A eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 40S ribosomal subunits. Although initially considered a "non-essential" factor for eukaryotic transcription initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor-1 is now thought to play an important role in localizing RIBOSOMES at the initiation codon of MRNA.RNA Cap Analogs: Analogs of RNA cap compounds which do not have a positive charge. These compounds inhibit the initiation of translation of both capped and uncapped messenger RNA.United StatesRNA, Transfer, Met: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Encephalomyocarditis virus: The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.ArtRibonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Magic: Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA Cap-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to RNA CAPS and form nuclear cap binding protein complexes. In addition to stabilizing the 5' end of mRNAs, they serve a diverse array of functions such as enhancing mRNA transport out of the CELL NUCLEUS and regulating MRNA TRANSLATION in the CYTOPLASM.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2: The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Philosophy, MedicalPhosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Poly(A)-Binding Protein I: A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Codon, Nonsense: An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein: A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.Nuclear Cap-Binding Protein Complex: A heterodimeric protein complex of RNA cap-binding proteins, which binds with high affinity to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE in the CELL NUCLEUS. The complex contains two subunits, one of 80-kDa molecular weight and another of 20-kDa molecular weight.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Engraving and EngravingsCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Paromomycin: An oligosaccharide antibiotic produced by various STREPTOMYCES.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Frameshifting, Ribosomal: A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A prokaryotic initiation factor that plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits for a new round of translational initiation. It binds to 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and stimulates the dissociation of vacant 70S ribosomes. It may also be involved in the preferential binding of initiator tRNA to the 30S initiation complex.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Numismatics: Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.Awards and PrizesConserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
ISBN 3-498-01323-8. English title (translation): Christianity's Criminal History. Volume 8. The 15th and 16th century. From the ... Partial or complete translations of this work have been published in Italian, Spanish, Greek, Polish, and Russian. In the ... ISBN 3-498-01327-0. English title (translation): Christianity's Criminal History. Volume 9. Middle of 16th century till ... English title (translation): Christianity's Criminal History. Volume 10. 18th century and outlook onto the aftermath. Kings by ...
List of 16th-century printed editions English translations Ovid's Metamorphoses trans. by Sir Samuel Garth, John Dryden et al ... Around the later half of the 20th century a greater number of translations appeared as literary translation underwent a revival ... This trend has continued into the late 20th century. In 1994, a collection of translations and responses to the poem, entitled ... From the 9th and 10th centuries there are only fragments of the poem; it is only from the 11th century onwards that manuscripts ...
Various longer Latin forms and vernacular translations appear in 16th and early 17th century; these are discussed below. The ... In this position et works as a short form of etiam; meaning: "also, too" or "even". So a correct translation is "and we too", ... Fasti was popular in the 16th century, and this passage, near the end of the last extant book of the Fasti, is interpreted as ... Instead, it dates to early/mid 16th century Germany, in the context of the Protestant Reformation, and it subsequently was ...
Other translations from Greek and Slavonic books were printed later in the 16th century. Dosoftei, a Moldavian published in ... the translation being checked for accuracy using Hungarian translations of the Bible. The entire Bible was not published in ... The 18th century in the Romanian lands was dominated by the Ottoman Empire, which decided not to allow Romanian rulers in ... For example, one of the greatest poets of this century was Alecu Văcărescu, who wrote love songs in the tradition of ancient ...
A full translation of the Bible was published in the 16th century. The most prominent poet of the 18th century was Eggert ... Ólafsson (1726-1768), while Jón Þorláksson á Bægisá (is) (1744-1819) undertook several major translations, including the ... Paradísarmissir, a translation of John Milton's Paradise Lost. In the beginning of the 19th century, there was a linguistic and ... It is best known for the sagas written in medieval times, starting in the 13th century. As Icelandic and Old Norse are almost ...
It became the chief textbook of the mathematical schools of Western Europe until the 16th century. Latin translations of the ... The work that Adelard of Bath is known for in the Latin world is his translation of the astronomical tables of al-Khwarizmi, ... in 11th-century England. It is believed that he left England toward the end of the 11th century for Tours, likely on the advice ... It was used heavily in schools into and beyond the 13th century but the teaching on natural things would ultimately be ...
Witchcraft is a feature of traditional mythology in Kazakhstan and Tajikistan documented since the 16th century. It is believed ... Quran 113:1-5, translation by YusufAli) Many Muslims believe that the shabib haque taught sorcery to mankind: And they follow ... There is some discrepancy between translations; compare with that given in the Catholic Encyclopedia article on Witchcraft ( ... is a translation of the Hebrew kashaph, "sorceress". The Bible provides some evidence that these commandments were enforced ...
Sarvajña (Kannada: ಸರ್ವಜ್ಞ) was a Kannada poet, pragmatist and philosopher of the 16th century. The word "Sarvajna" in Sanskrit ... with English translations) Picture of Sarvjna's Manuscript Sarvajna's vachana in Kannada Sarvagna's Tripadi with translation, ... historians estimate that he may have lived during the first half of the 16th century. Some references in his works indicate ... Majjige illada oota Majjanava kaanida lajjegetta Hennanthe Sarvajna Translation : Dinner without butter milk (yogurt) is like a ...
The texts that he used had been edited since the 16th century, but were interrupted by lacunae; Taylor's understanding of the ... 1834 Translations from the Greek of the following treatises of Plotinus: On Suicide, to which is added an Extract from the Harl ... His aim was the translation of all the untranslated writings of the ancient Greek philosophers. Taylor was an admirer of ... His translations were influential on William Blake, Percy Bysshe Shelley and William Wordsworth. In American editions they were ...
... to which 16th-century Latin translations gave the name Adversus Haereses (Latin: "Against Heresies"), is the most important of ... A full Russian translation was published in the 19th century. A partial translation exists in German and another in English (by ... Three Latin versions were published in the 16th and 17th centuries, from writers focused on ecclesiastical interests. Since ... The Panarion furnishes very valuable information concerning the religious history of the fourth century, either because the ...
He may have based his analysis of misinterpreted Spanish translations of the Motul Maya word for sail. "Bub" is a 16th-century ... He warned other archaeologists that the translation may be inaccurate since the informant through personal agency may have ... Although parts of his legacy are now outdated, Thompson undoubtedly is one of the greatest Mayanists of the 20th century. ... of the earlier part of the 20th century. This perspective stems from an elitist tradition is biased since it presents the Maya ...
This goes back to early translation work by Francis Xavier in the 16th century. The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by Albert ... Mainstream Bible translations in the language use Allah as the translation of Hebrew Elohim (translated in English Bibles as " ... as the translation of the Dutch word "Godt". Ruyl also translated Matthew in 1612 to Malay language (first Bible translation to ... Some inscriptions seem to indicate the use of Allah as a name of a polytheist deity centuries earlier, but we know nothing ...
4 Translation of herbals. *5 Early modern era *5.1 16th century. *5.2 17th century ... These differences in conclusions stem from the lack of complete knowledge of the Egyptian language: many translations are ... 16th century[edit]. The first herbal to be published in English was the anonymous Grete Herball of 1526. The two best-known ... "In the 16th and 17th century an interest in botany revived in Europe and spread to America by way of European conquest and ...
In the 16th century, the Protestant reformers challenged the canonicity of the books and partial-books found in the surviving ... a 14th-century Christian Humanist, had declared in his biblical translation that "whatever book is in the Old Testament besides ... The Journey from Texts to Translations: The Origin and Development of the Bible. Baker Academic. p. 14. ISBN 978-0801027994. ... The term was coined in the 16th century. The Style Manual for the Society of Biblical Literature recommends the use of the term ...
J. M. Jones (1894)[3] A 15th century Czech translation [4] 16th century Nuremberg, 1509.[5] Nuremberg, 1512.[6] Landshut, 1514 ... and was embellished further in later editions and vernacular translations. Written in the 1090s in England, it was translated ... A 13th century translation into Old French by the Dominican Jeffrey of Waterford A 13th-century translation into Middle High ... An important early translation is that into Old Icelandic, dated to the late 12th century. The Old Icelandic translation ...
During the 16th century, the most representative among them were Ermolao Barbaro, Jean Ruel, Broyeurinus, Michel de Villeneuva ... His translation was made from one of the Latin editions of Jean Ruel. It was also based on classes Laguna took from Ruel as his ... Laguna points out some of his teacher's erroneous translations, and adds many commentaries, which make up more than half of the ... These qualities and the number of woodcuts made this work very popular and appreciated in medicine far beyond the 16th century ...
In the early 16th century, Spain had a different political and cultural milieu from its Western and Central European neighbors ... Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive moment in the spread of literacy, and stimulated as well the ... In 1563, the Brest Bible was published (see also Bible translations into Polish). The period of tolerance ended during the ... The early Puritan movement (late 16th-17th centuries) was Reformed or Calvinist and was a movement for reform in the Church of ...
Sigmund Freud read the German translation of the works of Hayyim ben Joseph Vital (1542-1620). Vital was a 16th-century rabbi ... Carl Jung read the German translations by Richard Wilhelm of The Secret of the Golden Flower, the I Ching. He also read the ... of the Fourth Century B.C., being a translation, now made for the first time, from the Original Pāli of the First Book in the ... including charts of Tibetan psychopharmacology and translation of three chapters of the 8th Century text Gyu-Zhi Rumi (1995) ...
This was then followed in the 16th century of other Italian translations by Luca Antonio Ridolfi and Giuseppe Betussi. The ... In the early part of the 15th century Antonio di S. Lupidio made a volgare translation and Laurent de Premierfait put it in ... The only complete 16th century printed Latin version to survive is from a Mathias Apiarus done around 1539. From that time it ... In the beginning of the 16th century a Henry Parker translated about half into English and dedicated it to Henry VIII. ...
... refers to translation of meaning!) In the 16th century biblical translations were rife, with the growth of The Church of ... The Sidney Psalms or Sidneian Psalms was a 16th-century translation into English of the Psalms. It was the work of Philip and ... This caused issues during the 16th century as the translations show different interpretations of what is the word of God. The ... They do what the law asks under the Spirit's guidance". This suggests that by the time of the 16th Century the Old Testament ...
Several translations of the book in English are available. Two translations from 19th century, now in public domain, are those ... Hall suggests Anugita may have been composed and inserted into the original sometime during the 16th or 17th century AD. ... English Translation by Kisari Mohan Ganguli Ashvamedhika Parva, English Translation by Manmatha Nath Dutt Ashvamedhika Parva in ... The translations vary with each translator's interpretations. Debroy, in 2011, notes that updated critical edition of ...
Since the 16th century, collections of translations of the prayer have often been used for a quick comparison of languages. The ... WORD Translation Good News Translation New International Reader's Version New International Version New Living Translation ... Two publications that are updates of the Authorized King James Version rather than new translations keep it: 21st Century King ... Most modern translations use a text similar to this one. Most older translations are based on a Byzantine-type text with ἐπὶ ...
... were available since the 16th century. The first complete English translation of The Book of Concord was the 1851 Henkel ... in square brackets the translations of variant readings of either the Latin translation of the German or the German translation ... consisting of ten credal documents recognized as authoritative in Lutheranism since the 16th century. They are also known as ... of the Jonas translation that is more like a paraphrase than a translation. With the appearance of the 1930 Bekenntnisschriften ...
The earliest surviving writing in Latin script was a late 16th-century Transylvanian text which was written with the Hungarian ... The specific problem is: This section presents modern Romanian translations as if they were historical sources. Please help ... Advertisements as well as other public messages must bear a translation of foreign words,[60] while trade signs and logos shall ... Romanian remains unattested throughout the Middle Ages, and only enters the historical record in the early 16th century. ...
In Polish poetry (in contrast to the Sapphic stanza which was extremely popular since 16th century) Alcaics were used very ... Even in translation Horace's Alcaic stanzas were usually turned into different forms. An example (perhaps the only) of an ... They were introduced by Klopstock, and used by Hölderlin, by Johann Heinrich Voss in his translations of Horace, by August ... Odes 1.37, lines 5-8) An English translation, which suggests the metre, is : -- u - - : - u u - u - Prior to this, 'twas , ...
The coastline of the modern state is not quite coterminous with what the 15th- and 16th-century merchants knew as the "Teeth" ... Literal translations include Elfenbeinküste (German), Costa d'Avorio (Italian), Norsunluurannikko (Finnish), Бе́рег Слоно́вой ... Despite the Ivorian government's request, the English translation "Ivory Coast" (often "the Ivory Coast") is still frequently ... Originally, Portuguese and French merchant-explorers in the 15th and 16th centuries divided the west coast of Africa, very ...
Middle English Bible translations. 16th-17th century. *Tyndale. *Coverdale. *Matthew. *Great Bible ... a b Bible Translations (March 2014 Bestsellers) *^ a b "Introduction to the New Living Translation". Retrieved 30 September ... Translation properties[edit]. The New Living Translation is (according to its publisher) intended to be easily accessible to ... The New Living Translation (NLT) is a translation of the Bible into modern English. Originally starting out as an effort to ...
The known history of the Bible translation into Kashubian began in the 16th century with Szimón Krofey. Four Gospels of the New ... Bible translations into Polish date to the 13th century. The first full translations were completed in the 16th century. Today ... The known history of the Bible translation into Ukrainian began in the 16th century with Peresopnytsia Gospels, which included ... Among modern translations the Ecumenical Version of 1979 is commonly used. The newest translation in modern Czech was completed ...
For the later Latin translation movement, see Latin translations of the 12th century. ... Persian Translation of Pedanius Dioscorides, 16th century. The Abbasid revolution and the move to a new capital in Baghdad ... The translation movement took place in Baghdad from the mid-eighth century to the late tenth century.[1][2] ... The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early Abbasaid Society (2nd-4th 5th-10th centuries). Routledge. ...
Records of the Past: Being English Translations of the Ancient Monuments of Egypt and Western Asia. (new series, 6 volumes; ... 71 volumes; English translation only), ed. by Reuben Gold Thwaites (HTML at Creighton) ... 16th century -- Sources. Filed under: Book industries and trade -- England -- History -- 16th century -- Sources*. A Transcript ... Filed under: Publishers and publishing -- England -- History -- 16th century -- Sources*. A Transcript of the Registers of the ...
Medieval medical scholar who initiated the translation of Arabic medical works into Latin, a development that profoundly ... his work was studied by European scholars until the 16th century. ... These translations were the first works that gave the West a view of Greek medicine as a whole. ... medieval medical scholar who initiated the translation of Arabic medical works into Latin, a development that profoundly ...
Yoma 38b) or writing without a pen. By the 16th century the derivatives from defus in the verb-forms of hidpis and nidpas - ... From the middle of the 18th century onward complete prayer books (maḥzorim with English translations) began to appear. In the ... Albertus Magnus brought out a handsome Seder Berakhot with Spanish translation in 1687; G. Surenhuys printed a famous and ... The first half of the 16th century was in many ways the golden age of Hebrew printing, with Italy and the house of *Soncino ( ...
James T. Dennison, Jr., ed. Reformed Confessions of the 16th and 17th Centuries in English Translations. ... Reformed Confessions of the 16th and 17th Centuries in English Translation, Volume 1: 1525-1552; Volume 2: 1552-1566 ... Kevin DeYoung. The Good News We Almost Forgot: Rediscovering the Gospel in a 16th Century Catechism. ... Thomas Piketty. Capital in the Twenty-First Century.. *Jacques Roets. Barnabas Piper. The Pastors Kid: Finding Your Own Faith ...
This goes back to early translation work by Francis Xavier in the 16th century.[61][62] The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by ... Mainstream Bible translations in the language use Allah as the translation of Hebrew Elohim (translated in English Bibles as " ... Chinese (Mandarin): 真主 Zhēnzhǔ (semantic translation as "the true lord"),[74] 安拉 Ānlā, 阿拉 Ālā; or 胡大 Húdà (Khoda, from Farsi: ... They adopted the Muslim bismillāh, and also created their own Trinitized bismillāh as early as the 8th century.[30] The Muslim ...
From the 7th century onwards, men and women of different faiths and cultures built on knowledge from ancient civilisations ... Library of the Topkapi Palace Museum, 3302/1. A 16th-century Latin translation of the manuscript is kept at Cambridge ... Abdel-Halim, Rabie E. 2008: Contributions of Ibn Al-Nafis to the progress of medicine and urology: A study and translations ... Arabic translation (Kuwait, 2004).. * Hill, D.R. 1993: Science and Technology in Ninth-Century Baghdad. In: Science in ...
Folio 15th and 16th Centuries.. I. [16th Century. Some of these items are in the hand of T. Robson.]. 1. f2 [Anonymous ... 17th Century.. [Extracts written by Ashmole.]. 1. f1-12v The Looking Glass of Philosophy [translation of Dastins Speculum ... 17th Century.. [Notes on the Theatrum Chemicum Brittanicum.]. 5. [Note about two translations of Ripleys Medulla.]. 10. ... End of 16th Century.. Ripley Scroll.. 577. Oxford, Bodleian Library MS. Ashmole Rolls 53. [Ashmole 1530.]. Paper. 16th Century ...
From the 16th century onwards, it was not only translations that were published, but an increasing number of the original ... Professors Al -Hassani and Professor Abattouy awarded prestigious King Abdullahs Award for Translation. by News Desk ... several centuries before the invention of printing by Gutenberg in the 15th century ... By the 18th century, both the ruling classes and some intellectuals in the leading Muslim power among Europes neighbours, the ...
Lithuanian Tatars lost their mother tongue for various reasons in 16th-17th centuries, but have preserved their faith and Tatar ... The time of the Commentaries translation is under discussion, its dating ranging from the last decades of the ninth to the ... Lithuanian Tatars felt the need for translations in order to fulfill their religious needs. This gave birth to the tradition of ... Many lexemes can be found which are particular to the early written codices and testify to the antiquity of the translation. ...
There were also translations of the Meno and the Phaedo made in the twelfth century by a certain Henry Aristippus of Catania,[8 ... Marius Victorinus is said to have translated some of the Enneads into Latin in the fourth century, but his translation, if in ... A site dedicated to the study of Late Scholasticism, both Catholic and Protestant (16th-17th centuries). Includes a growing ... 5. The Twelfth Century and the Rise of Universities. 5.1 New Translations[21]. As part of the cultural revival described above ...
Until the Reformation in the 16th century and in Roman Catholicism until the 20th century, malakoi was thought to mean mas. ... 1. Those than toss around 1 Corinthians 6:9 as justification for bigotry need to look at different translations of the Bible ( ... go to their online NAB translation for 1 Corinthians 6, and look at the 3rd footnote, even they acknowledge that all of Pauls ... We really want people who, in the 21st Century, still believe in sky-gods and evil ground-devils, based on 2,000 year-old ...
... by Latin translations of Sextus Empiricus in the 16th century. Michel de Montaignes work (1533-1592), in common with others ... But his thesis of the indeterminacy of translation makes the stronger claim that different incompatible manuals of translation ... a philosophical movement which arose in the late 18th century and the early 19th century in opposition to the Enlightenment, ... The English term "relativism" came into usage only in the 19th Century. John Grote was probably the first to employ it when in ...
This volume offers English translations of six French farces dating from the beinning to the mid-16th century. Each play ... This work is a translation of a Spanish drama of the nineteenth century. It was first performed in Madrid in 1872. The play is ... Brings together for the first time a modern translation of the 19th century novella, a discussion of the literary and ... Alsfeld Passion Play Text and Translation with Introduction. West, Larry. 1997 0-7734-8698-4 686 pages. This translation and ...
THe 16th century is a wonderful book, but it does, of course, exclude the drama, which for most people is the real heart of ... It was said to be the translation of an old manuscript. Sounds like a bibliomystery to me. To my knowledge there has never been ... For 2006, Im ready to dive into Proust and just read the NY Review piece comparing translations. Im tempted to try Davis, but ... Michael Dirda: Sure, you might try The Lunar Men, about a similar group in 18th century England, by Jenny Uglow; John Brewers ...
It sounds silly, but for two centuries it was the most-favored plot device in Western literature. Don Juan was the invention of ... It went through 30 Spanish editions during the 16th century alone, as well as translations into the major European languages, ... I found a translation of Tirso in the public library 45 years ago, after learning of Da Pontes source from the liner notes in ... how are European leaders of the 16th-19th centuries any more "sociopathic" than the leaders of colonial America or modern or ...
Greek NT used in many 16th century translations 1471-1484 Pope Sixtus IV 1473-1481 Sistine Chapel built, under supervision of ... 1970 Confraternity Version, new Catholic translation from the originals which began before 1939 as a translation from the ... 11th century), Mark, Luke, Epistles of Paul (14th century), Apocalypse (11th century) 1553-1558 Mary I ruler of England, ... 200? Latin Bible translations begun in Carthage?, originals no longer extant 200? Sahidic Coptic cop(sa) Bible translations ...
Usually they were done in the 16th century. Posted by: somebody , May 13 2014 5:42 utc , 85 ... Modern translations of the Bible ignore the Vulgate and use Hebrew texts for the Old Testament and Greek texts for the New ... Bible translation usually is first documentation of written language across Europe as universal state and church language used ... Bible translation usually is first documentation of written language across Europe as universal state and church language used ...
... starting properly with the conquests of Sicily and Toledo in the 11th century. The early 16th century saw the climax of a ... 9] Latin translations of the complete Almansor were printed in Milan in 1481, Venice in 1497, and Lyon in 1510. A Basel 1544 ... Vesalius rendered the ninth book of Rhazes Almansor... from the barbaric version into a readable translation [3]. Singer and ... In the early 16th century, the time of Vesalius early education, a change in attitude towards the Arab authors came to a ...
Around the 16th century prystrunky were added to the bandura, and from that time only one note was obtained from each string... ... In Ukrainian translation he staged Schillers Die Rauber, Karl Gutzkows Uriel Acosta, and Shakespeares Othello. He is the ... The imprimery issued several hundred titles on various subjects, both original works and translations, in Ukrainian, Church ... In the 16th and 17th centuries the imprimery played an important role in raising the level of education and culture in Ukraine ...
... cellos and double basses have been made since 16th century. The "Traditional violin craftsmanship in Cremona" was declared an ... Translation of the week/2017 translations/Archive. From Meta, a Wikimedia project coordination wiki ... Translation of the week/Translation candidates#New criteriaproposal for a Fifth criteria: "Well sourced". Épico (talk)/( ... Its well sourced and, at the moment, theres no translations on any other languages. --- Épico (talk)/(contribs) 00:37, 23 ...
I cant speak for the best translation of the word as used in the 16th century, as in Иван Грозный (Ivan the Terrible) - my ... Naked Translations. No-sword. The Cassandra Pages. Transblawg. Haquelebac. Far Outliers. paperpools. Lizoks Bookshelf. A Bad ... The amazing thing about this translation, aside from the quality, is that Gnedich spent years composing an entirely different ... author of the classic Russian translation of the Iliad. As soon as I read the opening few lines, I was hooked; it creates a ...
  • The first translation of a sentence from the Bible (Mt 25:34) to Slovene appeared in the Freising Manuscripts, dating to the 10th or the 11th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pharmacopoeia also appeared in Spain in the 11th century and passed from there to. (britannica.com)
  • It was founded by Saint Anthony of the Caves in the mid-11th century near the village of Berestove in a cave that the future metropolitan of Kyiv, Ilarion, had excavated and lived in until 1051. (encyclopediaofukraine.com)
  • Its founding at the end of the 11th century was connected with the painting (1083-9) of the Dormition Cathedral of the Kyivan Cave Monastery by Greek masters and the Kyivan artists Master Olimpii and Deacon Hryhorii. (encyclopediaofukraine.com)
  • At the end of the 11th century many additions to the cathedral were built, including Saint John's Baptistry in the form of a small church on the north side. (encyclopediaofukraine.com)
  • Pagination of pages is rather rare at first, exceptions being the works of Stephanus at Paris, Plan-tin at Antwerp, and Zanetti at Rome in the 16th century. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • After England broke with Rome in the 16th century and vernacular translations were produced, contrary to popular belief that English Bibles were eagerly sought out and read by the general populace, so tiny were the purchase rates that various acts of Parliament were needed to compel those of means to purchase copies! (ad2000.com.au)
  • Philip makes an appearance in The Trickster of Seville , lightly disguised as the 14th-century king Alfonso XI, who also peopled the Spanish royal line with bastards. (tabletmag.com)
  • But they made a distinction between the Textus Receptus (TR) and the MT. So they published this critical text with Thomas Nelson and there were two editions done of it, so he was interested in the MT tradition, not necessarily the TR which was the translation that the KJV was based on. (bible-researcher.com)
  • The method combined an attempt to translate the original texts simply and literally with a dynamic equivalence synergy approach used to convey the thoughts behind the text where a literal translation may have been difficult to understand or even misleading to modern readers. (wikipedia.org)
  • New possibilities opened up by the concept of four-dimensional space (and difficulties involved in trying to visualize it) helped inspire many modern artists in the first half of the twentieth century. (wikimedia.org)
  • This completely evil connotation of the name, which makes it truly an opprobrious epithet, carried through the 16th century and on down through the following centuries until modern times. (gameo.org)
  • Preparation for online publication of materials from the pre-congressional career of Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), 16th president of the United States. (neh.gov)
  • Preparation for publication of translations of an Afghan historian's account of the rise to power and rule of Habib Allah Kalakani (a rebel who seized Afghanistan's throne in 1929) and the historian's description of the different tribes and groups who lived in Afghanistan. (neh.gov)
  • In the case of the latter, Graham notes that Tyndale's translation contained numerous errors as he lacked the linguistic knowledge to translate the text accurately, a fact recognised by Protestant authorities who attempted to rectify the situation by issuing subsequent translations. (ad2000.com.au)
  • Some inscriptions seem to indicate the use of Allah as a name of a polytheist deity centuries earlier, but we know nothing precise about this use. (wikipedia.org)
  • A century and a half later, another converted Jew-Emmanuele Conegliano, known as Lorenzo da Ponte-reworked Tirso's play as a libretto for Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and the result was an utterly unique work of art. (tabletmag.com)
  • In his translation work he was joined by another man on the DTS faculty, Edwin A. Blum. (bible-researcher.com)
  • Abundant citations could be given showing that the term "Anabaptist" in all its forms and translations was always essentially one of condemnation as of grievous heresy and crime. (gameo.org)
  • According to that hypothesis, the Kaaba was first consecrated to a supreme deity named Allah and then hosted the pantheon of Quraysh after their conquest of Mecca , about a century before the time of Muhammad . (wikipedia.org)