Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Dacryocystorhinostomy: Surgical fistulization of the LACRIMAL SAC for external drainage of an obstructed nasolacrimal duct.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adenovirus E4 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Methanocaldococcus: A genus of obligate anaerobic METHANOCALDOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are non-motile despite possessing long thin flagella. These methanogens are found in deep-sea vent and other hydrothermal environments.alpha-Crystallin A Chain: One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).Ehrlichia ruminantium: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, that causes HEARTWATER DISEASE in ruminants.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Mice, Inbred BALB CMembrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Mycobacterium leprae: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Adenovirus E3 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.Necatoriasis: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus NECATOR. The resulting anemia from this condition is less severe than that from ANCYLOSTOMIASIS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.DiariesMice, Inbred C57BLVirulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.PhosphoproteinsReceptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Leprosy: A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D: A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR C in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Receptors, Interleukin-4: Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.Interleukin-11: A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Mice, Inbred C3HInterleukin-7: A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Orientia tsutsugamushi: A gram-negative, rod-shaped to coccoid bacterium. It is the etiologic agent of SCRUB TYPHUS in humans and is transmitted by mites from rodent reservoirs.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The secreted protein consists of 133`amino acids (mouse Alect2 consists of two varieties a typical 151 amino acid protein and ... This location is close to several immune modulating genes including interleukins 3, 5, and 9 and granulocyte-macrophage colony ... The protein was detected in and purified from cultures of Phytohaemagglutinin-activated human T-cell leukemia SKW-3 cells. ... LECT2 protein is widely expressed in vascular tissues, smooth muscle cells, adipocytes, cerebral neurons, apical squamous ...
"Structural basis for competitive inhibition of eIF4G-Mnk1 interaction by the adenovirus 100-kilodalton protein". J. Virol. 78 ( ... Grund EM, Spyropoulos DD, Watson DK, Muise-Helmericks RC (2005). "Interleukins 2 and 15 regulate Ets1 expression via ERK1/2 and ... Knauf U, Tschopp C, Gram H (2001). "Negative regulation of protein translation by mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting ... 1999). "Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo ...
"A novel 14-kilodalton protein interacts with the mitogen-activated protein kinase scaffold mp1 on a late endosomal/lysosomal ... and is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to interleukin-6". FEBS Lett. 401 (2-3): 133-7. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(96)01456-1. ... induces the formation of protein complexes involving Stat5, Erk2, Shc and serine phosphorylated proteins". Mol. Cell. ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, also known as MAPK1, p42MAPK, and ERK2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK1 ...
This dissociation enables the adaptor protein TRADD to bind to the death domain, serving as a platform for subsequent protein ... The 17-kilodalton (kDa) TNF protomers (185-amino acid-long) are composed of two antiparallel β-pleated sheets with antiparallel ... Large amounts of TNF are released in response to lipopolysaccharide, other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1). In the ... An inhibitory protein, IκBα, that normally binds to NF-κB and inhibits its translocation, is phosphorylated by IKK and ...
2001). „A novel 14-kilodalton protein interacts with the mitogen-activated protein kinase scaffold mp1 on a late endosomal/ ... and is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to interleukin-6". FEBS Lett. NETHERLANDS. 401 (2-3): 133-7. ISSN 0014-5793. PMID ... Protein kinaza C (EC 2.7.11.13). Protein kinaza C, Protein kinaza Cζ, PKC alfa, PRKCB1, PRKCD, PRKCE, PRKCH, PRKCG, PRKCI, ... Protein kinaza C (EC 2.7.11.13). Protein kinaza C, Protein kinaza Cζ, PKC alfa, PRKCB1, PRKCD, PRKCE, PRKCH, PRKCG, PRKCI, ...
... tyrosine kinase 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, tyrosine kinase 2, c-jun, JNK1, Janus kinase 1, TNF-a, interleukin-6 ... Ross DD, Gao Y, Yang W, Leszyk J, Shively J, Doyle LA (December 1997). "The 95-kilodalton membrane glycoprotein overexpressed ... Thioredoxin is a protein crucial to the reduction-oxidation reactions involved in metabolism within a cell, and is often found ... The expression of H19 in these cells is also independent of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and the cell cycle marker Ki-67. ...
This 11 kilobase pair gene consists of 14 exons and 13 introns coding for a 75 kiloDalton protein composed of 662 amino acids. ... Nassar GM, Morrow JD, Roberts LJ, Lakkis FG, Badr KF (November 1994). "Induction of 15-lipoxygenase by interleukin-13 in human ... One or both of these compounds stimulates cells by binding with and activating two G protein-coupled receptors, GPR31 and the ... Human ALOX15 protein is highly expressed in circulating blood eosinophils and reticulocytes, cells, bronchial airway epithelial ...
"Interleukin-4 upregulates the heat shock protein Hsp90alpha and enhances transcription of a reporter gene coupled to a single ... "Sequence and regulation of a gene encoding a human 89-kilodalton heat shock protein". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 9 (6): ... Kang J, Kim T, Ko YG, Rho SB, Park SG, Kim MJ, Kwon HJ, Kim S (Oct 2000). "Heat shock protein 90 mediates protein-protein ... Heat shock protein HSP 90-alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSP90AA1 gene. The gene, HSP90AA1, encodes the ...
negative regulation of interleukin-6 production. • protein import into nucleus, translocation. • positive regulation of ... The common house mouse TNFα and human TNF are structurally different.[28] The 17-kilodalton (kDa) TNF protomers (185-amino acid ... protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding ... positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ...
... is composed of 14 exons divided by 13 introns encoding the mature 78 kilodalton (kD) ALOX5 protein consisting of 673 amino ... interleukin-18-mediated signaling pathway. • long-chain fatty acid biosynthetic process. • lipoxin biosynthetic process. ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ... protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; b) moves to bind with ...
The molecular weight is very commonly used as a synonym of molar mass, particularly for molecular compounds; however, the most authoritative sources define it differently (see molecular mass). The formula weight is a synonym of molar mass that is frequently used for non-molecular compounds, such as ionic salts. The molar mass is an intensive property of the substance, that does not depend on the size of the sample. In the International System of Units (SI), the base unit of molar mass is kg/mol. However, for historical reasons, molar masses are almost always expressed in g/mol. The mole was defined in such as way that the molar mass of a compound, in g/mol, is numerically equal (for all practical purposes) to the average mass of one molecule, in daltons. Thus, for example, the average mass of a molecule of water is about 18.0153 daltons, and the molar mass of water is about 18.0153 g/mol. For chemical elements without isolated molecules, such as carbon and metals, the molar mass is computed ...
Protein electrophoresis is a method for analysing the proteins in a fluid or an extract. The electrophoresis may be performed with a small volume of sample in a number of alternative ways with or without a supporting medium: SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (in short: gel electrophoresis, PAGE, or SDS-electrophoresis), free-flow electrophoresis, electrofocusing, isotachophoresis, affinity electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, counterelectrophoresis, and capillary electrophoresis. Each method has many variations with individual advantages and limitations. Gel electrophoresis is often performed in combination with electroblotting immunoblotting to give additional information about a specific protein. Because of practical limitations, protein electrophoresis is generally not suited as a preparative method. SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, describes a collection of related techniques to separate ...
The molecular mass (m) is the mass of a given molecule: it is measured in unified atomic mass units (u or Da).[1][2] Different molecules of the same compound may have different molecular masses because they contain different isotopes of an element. The related quantity relative molecular mass, as defined by IUPAC, is the ratio of the mass of a molecule to the unified atomic mass unit and is unitless. The molecular mass and relative molecular mass are distinct from but related to the molar mass. The molar mass is defined as the mass of a given substance divided by the amount of a substance and is expressed in g/mol. The molar mass is usually the more appropriate figure when dealing with macroscopic (weigh-able) quantities of a substance. The definition of molecular weight is most authoritatively synonymous with molecular mass; however, in common practice, it is also highly variable as are the units used in conjunction with it. Many common preparatory sources use g/mol and effectively define it as ...
double-bonded > single bonded molecules, and also lower molecular weight molecules are faster than higher ones. So acetylene is faster than ethylene, and ethylene is faster than propene, etc. The molecular weight factor in polymer deposition is dependent on the monomer flow rate, in which a higher molecular weight monomer typically near 200 g/mol needs a much higher flow rate of 15×104 g/cm2, whereas lower molecular weights around 50 g/mol require a flow rate of only 5×104 g/cm2. A heavy monomer therefore needs a faster flow, and would likely lead to increased pressures, decreasing polymerization rates. Increased pressure tends to decrease polymerization rates reducing uniformity of deposition since uniformity is controlled by constant pressure. This is a reason that high-pressure plasma or atmospheric-pressure plasmas are not usually used in favor of low-pressure systems.At pressures greater than 1 torr, oligomers are formed on the electrode surface, and the monomers also on the surface can ...
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a pheesical property defined as the mass o a gien substance (chemical element or chemical compoond) dividit bi the amoont o substance.[1] The base SI unit for molar mass is kg/mol. Houever, for historical raisons, molar masses are awmaist always expressed in g/mol.. ...
... s (CDKs) are a family of sugar kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle. They are also involved in regulating transcription, mRNA processing, and the differentiation of nerve cells. They are present in all known eukaryotes, and their regulatory function in the cell cycle has been evolutionarily conserved. In fact, yeast cells can proliferate normally when their CDK gene has been replaced with the homologous human gene. CDKs are relatively small proteins, with molecular weights ranging from 34 to 40 kDa, and contain little more than the kinase domain. By definition, a CDK binds a regulatory protein called a cyclin. Without cyclin, CDK has little kinase activity; only the cyclin-CDK complex is an active kinase. CDKs phosphorylate their substrates on serines and threonines, so they are serine-threonine kinases. The consensus sequence for the phosphorylation site in the amino acid sequence of a CDK substrate is [S/T*]PX[K/R], where S/T* is the ...
Nascido na Irlanda, no Condado de Wexford em 1888, Ferguson emigrou para os Estados Unidos, onde trabalhou no cinema. Ele começou a atuar na era muda, em 1912, em um filme produzido pela Selig Polyscope Company, The Whiskey Runners.[1] Em meados de 1920, ele dirigiu quatro filmes em que também foi o protagonista, produzidos por J. J. Fleming Productions[2], uma pequena empresa independente ativa de 1924 a 1925.. Nos 300 filmes em que atuou, a grande maioria não deu os créditos ao ator, que fazia pequenos papeis. Atuou em grandes filmes, tais como The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923), Gaslight (1944), Johnny Belinda (1948), East of Eden (1955) e A Place in the Sun (1951), todos atravésd e pequenos papeis não creditados.. A última participação de Ferguson em um filme foi em The Law and Jake Wade,[3] de John Sturges, em 1958, onde fez um pequeno papel não-creditado.. Ele também participou regularmente da série de televisão Sky King, que veiculou entre 1951 e 1962.. Faleceu em Long ...
The curing process transforms the resin into a plastic or rubber by a cross-linking process. Energy and/or catalysts are added that cause the molecular chains to react at chemically active sites (unsaturated or epoxy sites, for example), linking into a rigid, 3-D structure. The cross-linking forms a molecule with a larger molecular weight, resulting in a material with a higher melting point. During the reaction, the polymer's molecular weight increases to the point that its melting point is higher than the surrounding ambient temperature. So, the material forms into a solid material. Uncontrolled reheating of the material results in reaching the decomposition temperature before the melting point is reached. So, a thermoset material cannot be melted and re-shaped after it is cured. This implies that thermosets cannot be recycled, except as filler material.[1] ...
Frank Ferguson a tourné dans près de 200 films pour le grand écran. Pour la plupart, ses apparitions ne concernaient que quelques scènes, voire une seule comme dans Le Massacre de Fort Apache, de John Ford. Deux grands cinéastes lui donnèrent cependant des rôles plus conséquents : Max Ophüls dans Pris au piège, où il incarne un médecin accoucheur, collègue de James Mason, et Nicholas Ray dans Johnny Guitare, où il tente de s'interposer entre Joan Crawford et Mercedes McCambridge, en y perdant la vie.. Il fut tout aussi actif à la télévision, en collaborant à différents feuilletons Le Virginien, La Petite Maison dans la prairie ou Bonanza. Mais c'est surtout son personnage du contremaître Gus Broeberg dans Mon amie Flicka aux côtés de Gene Evans et Anita Louise qui lui permet de devenir une figure familière du petit écran.. ...
4, has an average mass of approximately 180.157 Da. However, there are no acetylsalicylic acid molecules with this mass. The two most common masses of individual acetylsalicylic acid molecules are 180.04228 Da and 181.04565 Da. The molecular masses of proteins, nucleic acids, and other large polymers are often expressed with the units kilodaltons (kDa), megadaltons (MDa), etc.[4] Titin, one of the largest known proteins, has a molecular mass of between 3 and 3.7 megadaltons.[5] The DNA of chromosome 1 in the human genome has about 249 million base pairs, each with an average mass of about 650 Da, or 156 GDa total.[6] The mole is a unit of amount of substance, widely used in chemistry and physics, which was originally defined so that the mass of one mole of a substance, measured in grams, would be numerically equal to the average mass of one of its constituent particles, measured in daltons. That is, the molar mass of a chemical compound was meant to be ...
AEBtako San Frantzisko (Kalifornia) hiriko Scottie Ferguson detektibeak (James Stewart) bertigoa jasaten du eta gaizkile baten atzetik doalarik bere lankide bat etxe bateko teilatutik nola erortzen den ikusi ondoren bere lanpostua lagatzen du. Egun batez, bere ikastetxeko lagun zaharra den Gavin Elster aberatsak (Tom Helmore) haren emaztea Madeleine (Kim Novak) diskretuki zelatatzeko eskatzen dio. Madeleinek malenkonia pairatzen du eta orain dela urte urte hildako bere amona Carlota Valdésen espiritua berau hiltzeko asmoz beraz jabetu omen da. Egun batzuez jarraitu eta zelatatu ostean, Fergusoni Madeleinekiko obsesioa areagotuko zaio. Hortik aurrera Ferguson atera ezingo den istorio batean barneratuko da. ...
life and works of Adolf Zsigmondy and Ottó Zsigmondy in the history of dentistry]». Fogorv Sz 82 (12): 357-63. PMID 2689240. Ferguson J (2005). «The ...
인공지진(人工地震), 유도지진, 유발지진(Induced seismicity)이란 인간이 지구의 지각에 있는 응력이나 변형력을 인위적으로 변화시켜 일어나거나, 직접적인 폭발 등으로 땅을 흔들리게 만드는[1] 미약한 지진 및 미진 현상을 총체적으로 일컫는다. 자연적인 단층 현상으로 일어나는 자연 지진과는 구분된다.[2] 거의 대부분의 인공지진은 그 규모가 작다. 하지만 미국 오클라호마주에서 일어난 규모 Mw5.8의 군발지진이나 더 가이저의 규모 Mw5.0 지진과 같이 지열 발전소나 폐유정에서 물을 주입하게 되면 정기적으로 M4-5 이상의 중형 지진이 일어나기도 한다.[3] 인공적으로 유발하여 일어난 유도지진과 비슷하게 촉발지진(triggered seismicity)도 존재한다. 촉발지진의 경우에는 유도지진과 같이 인간이 지각을 인위적으로 변화시켜 일어난다는 점에는 같으나, 촉발지진은 ...
The secreted protein consists of 133`amino acids (mouse Alect2 consists of two varieties a typical 151 amino acid protein and ... This location is close to several immune modulating genes including interleukins 3, 5, and 9 and granulocyte-macrophage colony ... The protein was detected in and purified from cultures of Phytohaemagglutinin-activated human T-cell leukemia SKW-3 cells. ... LECT2 protein is widely expressed in vascular tissues, smooth muscle cells, adipocytes, cerebral neurons, apical squamous ...
Interleukin. kDa. Kilodalton. LMW. Low molecular weight. LPS. Lipopolysaccharide. MCP-1. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 ... Retinol-binding protein 4 and insulin resistance in lean, obese, and diabetic subjects. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:2552-63.PubMed ... Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2005;436:356-62. ... Janke J, Engeli S, Boschmann M, Adams F, Bohnke J, Luft FC, Sharma AM, Jordan J. Retinol-binding protein 4 in human obesity. ...
Depressed interleukin-12 (IL-12), but not IL-18, production in response to a 30- or 32 kiloDalton mycobacterial antigen in ... Interleukin-8 secretion from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected monocytes is regulated by protein tyrosine kinases but not by ... The mycobacterial 38-kiloDalton glycolipoprotein antigen activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and release of ... Role of mitogen activated protein kinase pathways in the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10, and ...
"Structural basis for competitive inhibition of eIF4G-Mnk1 interaction by the adenovirus 100-kilodalton protein". J. Virol. 78 ( ... Grund EM, Spyropoulos DD, Watson DK, Muise-Helmericks RC (2005). "Interleukins 2 and 15 regulate Ets1 expression via ERK1/2 and ... Knauf U, Tschopp C, Gram H (2001). "Negative regulation of protein translation by mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting ... 1999). "Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo ...
A 66-kilodalton heat shock protein of Salmonella typhimurium is responsible for binding of the bacterium to intestinal mucus. ... Dendritic cell activation and cytokine production induced by group B Neisseria meningitidis: interleukin-12 production depends ... Molecular characterization of FrpB, the 70-kilodalton iron-regulated outer membrane protein of Neisseria meningitidis. Infect. ... The opacity proteins (Opa) are a family of invasion-associated outer membrane proteins that bind to CEACAM and heparan sulfate ...
... rapid Mycobacterium species assignment based on species-specific allelic variation in the 65-kilodalton heat shock protein gene ... Only 2 patients were identified with adult-onset innate immunodeficiency (2,3); 1 patient had innate interleukin-12 receptor ... No relapse occurred during 16 months of treatment.. Recent studies have described disseminated NTM infection in patients in ... Mycobacterium genavense infections: a retrospective multicenter study in France, 1996-2007. Medicine (Baltimore). 2011;90:223- ...
... which is followed by distinct increases in their protein and enzymatic activity levels. Direct UVA exposure of human ... mesenchymal paracrine cytokine interactions between UVB-exposed-keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts and found that interleukin ... Senior, R.M.; Griffin, G.L.; Fliszar, C.J.; Shapiro, S.D.; Goldberg, G.I.; Wegus, H.G. Human 92- and 72-kilodalton type IV ... TNFα or IL-8 increases the protein levels of neprilysin [40]. Although TNFα has distinct effects at the gene and protein levels ...
... the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β protein and mRNA levels were increased by 1.3- and 10-fold, respectively, and ... on brain histone acetylation and interleukin-1β expression in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation. The ... histone H4 acetylated at lysine 8 and histone H4 acetylated at lysine 16. However, unlike a single dose of glyceryl triacetate ... kiloDaltons. LPS: lipopolysaccharide. MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase. MKP-1: mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
Adenovirus E1B 19-kilodalton protein overcomes the cytotoxicity of E1A proteins. J. Virol. 65: 2968-2978. ... Proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1) stimulate release of high mobility group protein-1 by ... High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1)3 is a nonhistone nuclear protein that has both intracellular and extracellular functions ... High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is a nonhistone nuclear protein whose function depends on cellular location. Inside the ...
... including Interleukin 1, Interleukin 6 and Interleukin 8 in intestinal and immune cells.[4] WGA has been shown to induce NADPH- ... Protein Powders I use, List Note this list will contain plain protein powders, no emulsifiers, gums, or blends (exceptions to ... The intestines will allow passage of molecules up to 1,000 kilodaltons in size. Moreover, one wheat kernel contains 16.7 ... Since human antibodies to WGA have been shown to cross react with other proteins, even if WGA does not directly transform the ...
Right: molecular weight (in kilodaltons). Bottom: S1, 1% Triton X-100-solubilized proteins; S2, 0.5% Doc-0.1% SDS-solubilized ... Regulation of the levels of human trabecular matrix metalloproteinases and inhibitor by interleukin-1 and dexamethasone. Invest ... Many proteins lead a dual existence as both integral membrane proteins and soluble proteins; the classic examples are ... 46 Triton X-100 binds to the hydrophobic domains of proteins without disrupting protein-protein interactions. A 20-amino-acid ...
Price D. J., Grove J. R., Calvo V., Avruch J., Bierer B. E. Rapamycin-induced inhibition of the 70-kilodalton S6 protein kinase ... Nourse J., Firpo E., Flanagan W. M., Coats S., Polyak K., Lee M-H., Massague J., Crabtree G. R., Roberts J. M. Interleukin-2- ... 4A ⇓ , a protein band at Mr ∼240,000 was detected using the anti-AU-1 antibody only in Rh1 and Rh30 clones transfected with the ... Brown E. J., Albers M. W., Shin T. B., Ocjlawa K., Keith C. T., Lane W. S., Schreiber S. L. A mammalian protein targeted by G1- ...
The protein Lepp12 contains 87 amino acid sequence and exhibits 5 potential phosphorylation sites by protein kinase C (PKC). ... The natural Lepp12 protein is present in L. infantum promastigotes, as evidenced using specific anti-Lepp12 antibodies produced ... We report cloning and characterization of a novel Leishmania infantum protein which we termed Lepp12, and we examine its ... and 18-kilodalton nuclear proteins of Leishmania infantum. Infect Immun. 1995, 63: 3765-3771.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
... of adjuvant arthritis in Lewis rats by recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the human 60-kilodalton heat shock protein. Infect ... The interleukin 2 receptor. Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 1989. 5:397-425. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ... myelin basic protein (MBP); purified protein derivative (PPD); resting A6 T cells (A6-R); stimulated A6 T cells (A6-S); ... The dominant and the cryptic T cell repertoire to myelin basic protein in the Lewis rat. J. Neurosci. Res. 1996. 45:670-679. ...
Protein Sequencing.. Protein spots were excised from the Coomassie-stained gel and destained. The proteins were digested with ... 1995) Inhibition of angiogenesis in vivo by interleukin 12. J Natl Cancer Inst 87:581-586, pmid:7538593.. ... IFN-γ inducible protein-10. MBP. maltose-binding protein. Mig. monokine induced by IFN-γ. VEGF. vascular endothelial growth ... 1995) Human interferon-inducible protein 10 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo. J Exp Med 182:155-162, pmid:7540647. ...
... adenovirus death protein, interleukin-4 (IL-4), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and angiostatin. ... 1998) "p53 Status Does Not Determine Outcome of E1B 55-Kilodalton Mutant Adenovirus Lytic Infection;" J. Virol. 72(12):9479- ... or genes encoding fluorescent proteins (green fluorescent protein, red fluorescent protein etc.). Luminescence or fluorescence ... The HIF-1 protein complex, which is a heterodimer composed of the two basic helix-loop-helix proteins HIF-1α and HIF-1β, ...
Identification of an immunodominant 32-kilodalton membrane protein of Leishmania donovani infantum promastigotes suitable for ... Production of interferon gamma, interleukin 2, interleukin 4, and interleukin 10 by CD4+ lymphocytes in vivo during healing and ... Electroelution of proteins with 63- and 72-kDa bands by SDS-PAGE.Proteins with molecular masses of 63 and 72 kDa were eluted ... the preferential entrapment of some proteins by these liposomes, including proteins of 63 kDa, has been observed (Fig. 1 and 4 ...
Mouse colitis induced by Escherichia coli producing Arsenio enterocolitica 60-kilodalton heat-shock protein - Light and ... Antibiotic therapy attenuates colitis in interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice. Gastroenterology, 2000, Vol 118, Iss 6, pp 1094+. ... Antibiotic therapy attenuates colitis in interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice. Gastroenterology, 2000, Vol 118, Iss 6, pp 1094+. ... Further studies show that heat shock protein can be removed from the common intestinal bacteria, E. Coli, and when given to ...
When cells are treated with TNF or IL-1, protein kinase cascades are activated that lead to phosphorylation of IκB proteins on ... The activity of IKK-β was stimulated by tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 treatment. IKK-α and IKK-β formed heterodimers ... Numbers at left of all panels indicate positions of molecular size markers in kilodaltons. (A) Comparison of IκB-α ... Arrowheads indicate the positions of IKK proteins, NIK, and IκB-α(1-250) proteins. Lanes 3 and 5 contain identical samples; the ...
... and interleukin 3 (IL-3) mRNAs were placed 3′ of the c-fos promoter and the β-globin protein coding sequence (23). Coexpression ... in kilodaltons); Con, control. The arrow indicates the position of TTP. The sharp band of M r44,000 present in all the ... 2). Protein immunoblotting showed that increases in TTP protein were evident in the cytosol 30 min after treatment of cells ... The data also suggest that the CCCH proteins as a class may be RNA-binding proteins; this should help in the elucidation of ...
Lyme arthritis resolution with antiserum to a 37-kilodalton Borrelia burgdorferi protein. Infect. Immun.68:4169-4173. ... Borrelia burgdorferi stimulates the production of interleukin-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected humans ... outer surface protein A (ospA), and arthritis-related protein (arp), as described previously (23, 24). In addition, primers and ... Humoral immunity to Borrelia burgdorferi N40 decorin binding proteins during infection of laboratory mice. Infect. Immun.66: ...
1997) Increase of interleukin-1 mRNA and protein in the spinal cord following experimental traumatic injury in the rat. Brain ... 1987) Demonstration that the 90-kilodalton heat shock protein is bound to the glucocorticoid receptor in its 9S nondeoxynucleic ... Such effects may be a result of direct protein-protein interaction (GR-NF-κB interaction) or may take place at the promotor ... through protein-protein interaction in the cytoplasm, (2) binds to and inactivates NF-κB in the nucleus, and (3) upregulates ...
2004). Aerosolized gamma interferon (IFN-γ) induces expression of the genes encoding the IFN-γ-inducible 10-kilodalton protein ... Interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and NOS2 are up regulated concomitantly in AM following exposure to Mtb ( ... These proteins either recognize damaged proteins and deliver them to the proteasome or repair the damaged proteins. Mice ... and this is counteracted by the removal of the damaged or modified proteins (Rhee et al., 2005). The key Mtb proteins involved ...
A recombinant 15-kilodalton carboxyl-terminal fragment of Plasmodium yoelii yoelii 17XL merozoite surface protein 1 induces a ... Opposing signals from the Bcl6 transcription factor and the interleukin-2 receptor generate T helper 1 central and effector ... we used a B cell tetramer comprising the C-terminal portion of the merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) protein of P. yoelii (17 ... DNS provided PyMSP1 protein. NSB, SHIK, and SEL designed and constructed Py GP66+ parasites. JAH and MG provided expertise and ...
Price D. J., Grove J. R., Calvo V., Avruch J., Bierer B. E. Rapamycin-induced inhibition of the 70-kilodalton S6 protein kinase ... Kuo C. J., Chung J., Fiorentino D. F., Flanagan W. M., Blenis J., Crabtree G. R. Rapamycin selectively inhibits interleukin-2 ... Sabers C. J., Martin M. M., Brunn G. J., Williams J. M., Dumont F. J., Wiederrecht G., Abraham R. T. Isolation of a protein ... Dudley D. T., Pang L., Decker S. J., Bridges A. J., Saltiel A. R. A synthetic inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
  • In mammalian cells, overexpression of COOH-terminal fragments of WASP family proteins leads to delocalization of the Arp2/3 complex, resulting in the complete loss of lamellipodia and stress fibers ( Machesky and Insall 1998 ). (rupress.org)
  • Accepted April 16, 1998. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is expected that the world population would increase to 7.5 billion by 2020 and of this number, approximately 16 million new cancer cases will be diagnosed and 12 million cancer patients will die [ 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2), which is produced by Th1 cells, is one of the potent inflammatory cytokines mediating multiple immune responses on activated B cells, monocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 6- 9 Increased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) have been prospectively associated with increased cardiovascular risk. (bmj.com)
  • To develop a vaccine against Ascaris infection, an immunodominant antigen, As37 of A. suum, was cloned and expressed as a soluble recombinant protein in E. coli. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here we show that this 145-kD protein is the cagA product of H . pylori , an immunodominant, cytotoxin-associated antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Sandwich ELISA was used to measure antibody responses to two P. falciparum merozoite surface antigens: merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, direct UVA exposure of human fibroblasts significantly stimulates the secretion of IL-6 and also elicits a significant increase in the gene expression of matrix metallo-protease(MMP)-1 as well as neprilysin (to a lesser extent), which is followed by distinct increases in their protein and enzymatic activity levels. (mdpi.com)
  • To determine whether IKK-β might have a role in NF-κB activation, we compared the ability of IKK-α and IKK-β to activate an NF-κB-dependent reporter gene in transiently transfected 293 cells ( 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The cellular segregation of ORF II gene products suggests specific roles for these proteins in the regulation of the expression of HTLV-1 or as determinants of virus-cell interactions. (asm.org)
  • Gene therapy represents an attractive alternative to recombinant protein administration for several reasons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recombination signal binding protein Jκ (RBP-Jκ), also designated KBF2 or CBF1, was originally purified based on its binding to the recombination signal of the Jκ immunoglobulin gene ( 38 ). (asm.org)
  • When epithelial cells were infected with [ 35 S]methionine-labeled H . pylori , a radioactive 145-kD protein was detected in the immunoprecipitates with antiphosphotyrosine antibody or anti-CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) antibody. (rupress.org)
  • The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The CagA surface protein is one of the most investigated putative virulence factors, encoded by the cagA gene. (bmj.com)
  • 7 , 8 The gene is found in about 50-70% of H pylori isolates in Western countries, and the production of CagA protein is reported to be associated with advanced gastroduodenal diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, within these complexes, EZH2 proteins serve as the key histone code writers of the H3-K27me3 mark that leads to long-term epigenetic gene silencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the role of ROS in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and secretion of the CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8) and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) by human monocytes stimulated with the 30-kDa Ag of M . tuberculosis H37Rv. (springer.com)
  • FIG. 1 shows diagrammatically a construct of a defective recombinant adenoviral vector employing an insertion sequence coding for an interleukin (IL-2, IL-4 and the like).In this figure, "leaders" corresponds to a tripartite leader, "Del" corresponds to a "deletion" and Ad dl 324 corresponds to an adenovirus provided with the above-mention "deletions. (google.com)
  • Thereafter, animals were treated with intratracheal injection of 1) phosphate buffer saline, 2) AdHSP, or 3) an adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein. (huji.ac.il)
  • J. Löffler and G. Huber, " β -Amyloid precursor protein isoforms in various rat brain regions and during brain development," Journal of Neurochemistry , vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 1316-1324, 1992. (hindawi.com)
  • ECP: Extracellular release of cationic proteins. (isciii.es)
  • Compositions include polypeptides which are identical or homologous to a certain cationic protein (CAP18) obtained from mammalian granulocytes, particularly including a reactive nitrogen inhibiting peptide (RNIP) fragment found at the carboxy-terminus of CAP18. (google.com)
  • More particularly, the present invention relates to the preparation and use of certain mammalian cationic proteins for such treatment and diagnosis. (google.com)
  • In vitro monocyte interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) release after lipopolysaccharide stimulation were assessed with and without co-incubation with increasing doses of dexamethasone and hydrocortisone separately. (bmj.com)
  • Among the most abundant proteins expressed by myeloid cells are MRP-8 (S100A8) and MRP-14 (S100A9), which, in humans, form a heterodimer constituting ≈45% of neutrophil and ≈1% of monocyte cytosolic proteins ( 9 , 19 , 31 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • An increase in the binding activity of nuclear proteins to the glucocorticoid responsive element was also observed after SCI, demonstrating a functional element of GR activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Epithelial cells infected with various H . pylori clinical isolates resulted in generation of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins ranging from 130 to 145 kD in size that were also induced in vitro by mixing host cell lysate with bacterial lysate. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, the amino acid sequence of the phosphorylated 145-kD protein induced by H . pylori infection was identical to the H . pylori CagA sequence. (rupress.org)
  • These results reveal that the tyrosine-phosphorylated 145-kD protein is H . pylori CagA protein, which may be delivered from attached bacteria into the host cytoplasm. (rupress.org)
  • The identification of the tyrosine-phosphorylated protein will thus provide further insights into understanding the precise roles of CagA protein in H . pylori pathogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • These studies thus suggest that Cag proteins, including CagA encoded by the cag PAI, play important roles in the pathogenicity of H . pylori ( 8 )( 9 )( 11 )( 12 ). (rupress.org)
  • Previous studies have reported that attachment of H . pylori to cultured gastric epithelial cells such as AGS cells can induce tyrosine phosphorylation of a 145-kD host protein and accumulation of F-actin beneath the bacterium ( 14 )( 15 ) and also the subsequent evoked activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and release of IL-8 ( 16 )( 17 )( 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • 9-16 CagA positive H pylori strains are known to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from gastric epithelial cells. (bmj.com)
  • Further studies show that heat shock protein can be removed from the common intestinal bacteria, E. Coli, and when given to mice, causes terrible bloody ulcers to form in the intestines (1a). (drmirkin.com)
  • Mouse colitis induced by Escherichia coli producing Arsenio enterocolitica 60-kilodalton heat-shock protein - Light and electron microscope study. (drmirkin.com)
  • A number of molecules have been proposed, including members of the heat shock protein (hsp) families. (ahajournals.org)
  • We previously have shown that an adenoviral vector expressing the heat shock protein (Hsp)70 (AdHSP) protects against experimental sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in part by limiting neutrophil accumulation in the lung. (huji.ac.il)
  • J. G. Sheng, F. A. Boop, R. E. Mrak, and W. S. T. Griffin, "Increased neuronal β -amyloid precursor protein expression in human temporal lobe epilepsy: association with interleukin-1 α immunoreactivity," Journal of Neurochemistry , vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 1872-1879, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • A U.S. patent application entitled A Method of Preventing Acute Pulmonary Cell Injury, No. 10/150,054, was submitted May 16, 2002. (huji.ac.il)
  • H. Misonou, M. Morishima-Kawashima, and Y. Ihara, "Oxidative stress induces intracellular accumulation of amyloid β - protein (A β ) in human neuroblastoma cells," Biochemistry , vol. 39, no. 23, pp. 6951-6959, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • The 16-kilodation N-terminal fragment of human prolactin is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis", Endocrinology, vol. 133, pp. 1292-1299 (1993). (patentgenius.com)
  • S. S. Sisodia, E. H. Koo, P. N. Hoffman, G. Perry and D. L. Price, "Identification and Transport of Full-Length Amyloid Precursor Proteins in Rat Peripheral Nervous System," Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 13, 1993, pp. 3136-3142. (scirp.org)
  • The biological consequence was an exceptional increase of transcriptional activity for a family of proteins that, for this particular reason, were generically named heat-shock proteins (HSPs). (oatext.com)
  • Inhibition of binding between Fyb/SLAP and Ena/VASP proteins or WASP and the Arp2/3 complex impairs TCR-dependent actin rearrangement, suggesting that these interactions play a key role in linking T cell signaling to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • Functionally, the N-terminal domain allows the transglutaminase-mediated immobilization of elafin to ECM (extracellular matrix) proteins [ 10 ] and the C-terminus harbours the protease inhibition domain. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • More recently, it was demonstrated that inhibition of NF-κB/Rel induces apoptosis in various cell types, suggesting an antiapoptotic potential of NF-κB/Rel proteins ( 6 , 36 , 56 , 60 , 62 ). (asm.org)
  • The three-dimensional structure of a member of the beta subfamily of chemokines, human macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (hMIP-1 beta), has been determined with the use of solution multidimensional heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (bionmr.com)
  • The chemokines CXCL10/interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa, CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, or CCL5/RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted) did not enhance HIV-infected leukocyte transmigration or BBB permeability. (jneurosci.org)
  • Full-length human cDNAs corresponding to the EST sequence were isolated from a Jurkat T cell cDNA library and found to encode a 756-amino acid protein very similar to IKK-α, which we designate IKK-β (Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Detailed examination of Rep-κB-DNA interaction revealed the sequence requirements for binding to be almost identical to those of recombination signal binding protein Jκ (RBP-Jκ), the mammalian homolog of the protein encoded by Drosophila suppressor of hairless [Su(H)]. In addition, in electromobility shift assays, Rep-κB binding activity is recognized by an antibody directed against RBP-Jκ. (asm.org)
  • 90% amino acid sequence identity compared to corresponding proteins in the other four strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Histone proteins are instrumental in the packaging of DNA and play a central role in transcription through a process of acetylation that regulates the accessibility of DNA to proteins involved in transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The abundance and Ca 2+ binding ability of S100 proteins suggested that they might act as Ca 2+ buffers, but more recent evidence that Ca 2+ binding both induces conformational change and regulates function in S100 proteins indicates that these proteins function as Ca 2+ sensors ( 1 , 8 , 16 , 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Allam A, Niiro H, Clark EA, Marshall AJ (2004) The adaptor protein Bam32 regulates Rac1 activation and actin remodeling through a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. (springer.com)
  • In addition to numerous components in immune responses, chaperone proteins are also detected in the extracellular fluids and have been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases acting as pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. (oatext.com)
  • In this article we review the basics of the stress response, summarize current controversies over the role of extracellular chaperones in inflammatory reactions and autoimmunity, and discuss the cytoprotective and immunoregulatory roles of heat-shock proteins, a challenging subject that may open a new avenue for the drug discovery and treatment of diseases related to autoimmune disturbs. (oatext.com)
  • Neutrophil protein and peptide antibiotics are deployed by degranulation either extracellularly into inflammatory fluids or intracellularly into the phagolysosome, thereby exposing microorganisms to high concentrations of these agents. (asm.org)
  • These include LPS-binding protein (LBP) and bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI). (google.com)
  • Here the focus is on a remarkably selective anti-infective component of human neutrophils known as the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI). (asm.org)
  • Given that modern bread wheat (Triticum Aestivum) is a hexaploid species containing three distinct sets of chromosomes capable of producing well over 23,000 unique proteins, it is not surprising that we are only now beginning to unravel the complexities of this plant's many secrets. (celiac.com)
  • To a limited extent, these proteins can form homo- and heterodimers with distinct DNA-binding specificity ( 39 , 43 , 49 ). (asm.org)
  • The structure is a five-helix bundle that is distinct from known RNA-binding motifs and instead is similar to the carboxy-terminal domain of the yeast spliceosome protein PRP18, which stabilizes specific protein-protein interactions within a multisubunit mRNA splicing complex. (stanford.edu)
  • However, the quaternary structures of the two proteins are entirely distinct, and the dimer interface is formed by a completely different set of residues. (bionmr.com)
  • Plasma is not only the primary clinical specimen but also represents the largest and deepest version of the human proteome present in any sample: in addition to the classical "plasma proteins," it contains all tissue proteins (as leakage markers) plus very numerous distinct immunoglobulin sequences, and it has an extraordinary dynamic range in that more than 10 orders of magnitude in concentration separate albumin and the rarest proteins now measured clinically. (mcponline.org)
  • The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II acts as an assembly platform for distinct WW domain-containing proteins that affect the function of the RNA polymerase II. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Integration of our data with protein-protein interaction data from the Human Proteome Reference Database allowed us to build a comprehensive interactome map of NDRG1. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Binding of the RBD to 23S rRNA in the late stages of ribosome subunit maturation would position the ATP-binding duplex destabilization fragment of the protein for interaction with rRNA in the peptidyl transferase cleft of the subunit, allowing it to "melt out" unstable secondary structures and allow proper folding. (stanford.edu)
  • The natural Lepp12 protein is present in L. infantum promastigotes, as evidenced using specific anti-Lepp12 antibodies produced by immunopurification from acute phase VL patient sera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 16, 17), a fragment of prolactin (( 18 )), synthetic analogues of fumagillin (( 19 )), thalidomide (( 20 )), platelet factor-4 (( 21 )), and thrombospondin (( 22 )) are multifunctional compounds that inhibited angiogenesis and exerted antitumor effects. (rupress.org)
  • A complex between a fragment of 23S rRNA and the RNA binding domain (RBD) of the Bacillus subtilis DbpA protein YxiN was crystallized and its structure was determined to 2.9 A resolution, revealing an RNA recognition mode that differs from those observed with other RNA recognition motifs. (stanford.edu)
  • Aunque algunos modelos animales para estudio in vivo de alergia alimentaria hayan sido descriptos, ninguno de ellos utiliza el alergeno en la dieta de los animales. (isciii.es)