Ginger: Deciduous plant rich in volatile oil (OILS, VOLATILE). It is used as a flavoring agent and has many other uses both internally and topically.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.SwitzerlandCD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Steroid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Hydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.Brassinosteroids: Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Ketosteroids: Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.17-Ketosteroids: Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Receptors, Leukotriene B4: A class of cell surface leukotriene receptors with a preference for leukotriene B4. Leukotriene B4 receptor activation influences chemotaxis, chemokinesis, adherence, enzyme release, oxidative bursts, and degranulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There are at least two subtypes of these receptors. Some actions are mediated through the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Leukotriene A4: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta(1E,3E,5Z,8Z)))-3-(1,3,5,8-Tetradecatetraenyl)oxiranebutanoic acid. An unstable allylic epoxide, formed from the immediate precursor 5-HPETE via the stereospecific removal of a proton at C-10 and dehydration. Its biological actions are determined primarily by its metabolites, i.e., LEUKOTRIENE B4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes. Alternatively, leukotriene A4 is converted into LEUKOTRIENE C4 by glutathione-S-transferase or into 5,6-di-HETE by the epoxide-hydrolase. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Receptors, Leukotriene: Cell-surface receptors that bind LEUKOTRIENES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. The leukotriene receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their affinities for the endogenous leukotrienes LTB4; LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Leukotriene E4: A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Leukotriene C4: The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.Leukotriene D4: One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)

Oxidoreductases in lipoxin A4 metabolic inactivation: a novel role for 15-onoprostaglandin 13-reductase/leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase in inflammation. (1/10)

The lipoxins (LX) are autacoids that act within a local inflammatory milieu to dampen neutrophil recruitment and promote resolution. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and 15-oxoprostaglandin 13-reductase, also termed leukotriene B(4) 12-hydroxydehydrogenase (PGR/LTB(4)DH), are two enzymatic activities appreciated for their roles in the metabolism of prostaglandins and LTB(4). Here, we determined whether these oxidoreductases also catalyze the conversion of lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) and assessed the activities of these LXA(4) metabolites. 15-Oxo-LXA(4) was generated by incubating LXA(4) with 15-PGDH and NAD(+) for studies of its further conversion. PGR/LTB(4)DH catalyzed the NADH-dependent reduction of 15-oxo-LXA(4) to yield 13,14-dihydro-15-oxo-LXA(4). With NADH as a cofactor, 15-PGDH acted as a 15-carbonyl reductase and catalyzed the conversion of 13,14-dihydro-15-oxo-LXA(4) to 13, 14-dihydro-LXA(4). Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) exposed to native LXA(4), 15-oxo-LXA(4), or 13,14-dihydro-LXA(4) did not produce superoxide anions. At concentrations where LXA(4) and a metabolically stable LXA(4) analog potently inhibited leukotriene B(4)-induced superoxide anion generation, the further metabolites were devoid of activity. Neither 15-oxo-LXA(4) nor 13, 14-dihydro-LXA(4) effectively competed with (3)H-labeled LXA(4) for specific binding to recombinant LXA(4) receptor (ALXR). In addition, introducing recombinant PGR/LTB(4)DH into a murine exudative model of inflammation increased PMN number by approximately 2-fold, suggesting that this enzyme participates in the regulation of PMN trafficking. These results establish the structures of LXA(4) further metabolites and indicate that conversion of LXA(4) to oxo- and dihydro- products represents a mode of LXA(4) inactivation in inflammation. Moreover, they suggest that these eicosanoid oxidoreductases have multifaceted roles controlling the levels of specific eicosanoids involved in the regulation of inflammation.  (+info)

Antioxidative function and substrate specificity of NAD(P)H-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase. A new role for leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15-oxoprostaglandin 13-reductase. (2/10)

There are several known routes for the metabolic detoxication of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones, including conjugation to glutathione and reduction and oxidation of the aldehyde to an alcohol and a carboxylic acid, respectively. In this study, we describe a fourth class of detoxication that involves the reduction of the alpha,beta-carbon=carbon double bond to a single bond. This reaction is catalyzed by NAD(P)H-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase (AO), an enzyme heretofore known as leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase, 15-oxoprostaglandin 13-reductase, and dithiolethione-inducible gene-1. AO is shown to effectively reduce cytotoxic lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) (k(cat) = 4.0 x 10(3) min(-1); k(cat)/K(m) = 3.3 x 10(7) min(-1) M(-1)) and acrolein (k(cat) = 2.2 x 10(2) min(-1); k(cat)/K(m) = 1.5 x 10(6) min(-1) M(-1)) and common industrial compounds such as ethyl vinyl ketone (k(cat) = 9.6 x 10(3) min(-1); k(cat)/K(m) = 8.8 x 10(7) min(-1) M(-1)) and 15-oxoprostaglandin E1 (k(cat) = 2.4 x 10(3) min(-1); k(cat)/K(m) = 2.4 x 10(9) min(-1) M(-1)). Furthermore, transfection of human embryonic kidney cells with a rat liver AO expression vector protected these cells from challenge with HNE. The concentration of HNE at which 50% of the cells were killed after 24 h increased from approximately 15 microM in control cells to approximately 70 microM in AO-transfected cells. Overexpression of AO also completely abolished protein alkylation by HNE at all concentrations tested (up to 30 microM). Thus, we describe a novel antioxidative activity of a previously characterized bioactive lipid-metabolizing enzyme that could prove to be therapeutically or prophylactically useful due to its high catalytic rate and inducibility.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical localization of guinea-pig leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15-ketoprostaglandin 13-reductase. (3/10)

We have cloned cDNA for leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase (LTB4 12-HD)/15-ketoprostaglandin 13-reductase (PGR) from guinea-pig liver. LTB4 12-HD catalyzes the conversion of LTB4 into 12-keto-LTB4 in the presence of NADP+, and plays an important role in inactivating LTB4. The cDNA contained an ORF of 987 bp that encodes a protein of 329 amino-acid residues with a 78% identity with porcine LTB4 12-HD. The amino acids in the putative NAD+/NADP+ binding domain are well conserved among the pig, guinea-pig, human, rat, and rabbit enzymes. The guinea-pig LTB4 12-HD (gpLTB4 12-HD) was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein in Escherichia coli, which exhibited similar enzyme activities to porcine LTB4 12-HD. We examined the 15-ketoprostaglandin 13-reductase (PGR) activity of recombinant gpLTB4 12-HD, and confirmed that the Kcat of the PGR activity is higher than that of LTB4 12-HD activity by 200-fold. Northern and Western blot analyses revealed that gpLTB4 12-HD/PGR is widely expressed in guinea-pig tissues such as liver, kidney, small intestine, spleen, and stomach. We carried out immunohistochemical analyses of this enzyme in various guinea-pig tissues. Epithelial cells of calyx and collecting tubules in kidney, epithelial cells of airway, alveoli, epithelial cells in small intestine and stomach, and hepatocytes were found to express the enzyme. These findings will lead to the identification of the unrevealed roles of PGs and LTs in these tissues.  (+info)

Structural basis of leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15-Oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase catalytic mechanism and a possible Src homology 3 domain binding loop. (4/10)

The bifunctional leukotriene B(4) 12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15-oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase (LTB(4) 12-HD/PGR) is an essential enzyme for eicosanoid inactivation. It is involved in the metabolism of the E and F series of 15-oxo-prostaglandins (15-oxo-PGs), leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), and 15-oxo-lipoxin A(4) (15-oxo-LXA(4)). Some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which primarily act as cyclooxygenase inhibitors also inhibit LTB(4) 12-HD/PGR activity. Here we report the crystal structure of the LTB(4) 12-HD/PGR, the binary complex structure with NADP(+), and the ternary complex structure with NADP(+) and 15-oxo-PGE(2). In the ternary complex, both in the crystalline form and in solution, the enolate anion intermediate accumulates as a brown chromophore. PGE(2) contains two chains, but only the omega-chain of 15-oxo-PGE(2) was defined in the electron density map in the ternary complex structure. The omega-chain was identified at the hydrophobic pore on the dimer interface. The structure showed that the 15-oxo group forms hydrogen bonds with the 2'-hydroxyl group of nicotine amide ribose of NADP(+) and a bound water molecule to stabilize the enolate intermediate during the reductase reaction. The electron-deficient C13 atom of the conjugated enolate may be directly attacked by a hydride from the NADPH nicotine amide in a stereospecific manner. The moderate recognition of 15-oxo-PGE(2) is consistent with a broad substrate specificity of LTB(4) 12-HD/PGR. The structure also implies that a Src homology domain 3 may interact with the left-handed proline-rich helix at the dimer interface and regulate LTB(4) 12-HD/PGR activity by disruption of the substrate binding pore to accommodate the omega-chain.  (+info)

Identification of a novel prostaglandin reductase reveals the involvement of prostaglandin E2 catabolism in regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation. (5/10)

This report identifies a novel gene encoding 15-oxoprostaglandin-Delta13-reductase (PGR-2), which catalyzes the reaction converting 15-keto-PGE2 to 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE2. The expression of PGR-2 is up-regulated in the late phase of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and predominantly distributed in adipose tissue. Overexpression of PGR-2 in cells decreases peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma)-dependent transcription and prohibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation without affecting expression of PPARgamma. Interestingly, we found that 15-keto-PGE2 can act as a ligand of PPARgamma to increase co-activator recruitment, thus activating PPARgamma-mediated transcription and enhancing adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. Overexpression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the oxidation reaction of PGE2 to form 15-keto-PGE2, significantly increased PPARgamma-mediated transcription in a PGE2-dependent manner. Reciprocally, overexpression of wild-type PGR-2, but not the catalytically defective mutant, abolished the effect of 15-keto-PGE2 on PPARgamma activation. These results demonstrate a novel link between catabolism of PGE2 and regulation of ligand-induced PPARgamma activation.  (+info)

Restoration of leukotriene B(4)-12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15- oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase (LTBDH/PGR) expression inhibits lung cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. (6/10)

 (+info)

Up-regulation of human prostaglandin reductase 1 improves the efficacy of hydroxymethylacylfulvene, an antitumor chemotherapeutic agent. (7/10)

 (+info)

Inhibition of pulmonary prostaglandin metabolism by exposure of animals to oxygen or nitrogen dioxide. (8/10)

The effects of exposure of animals to 100% O2 and NO2 on the rate of prostaglandin metabolism by lung and kidney were studied in vitro. Exposure of guinea pigs to 100% O2 for 48 h inhibited the metabolism of prostaglandin F2 alpha by both NAD+- and NADP+-dependent prostaglandin dehydrogenase in lung, but had no effect on the metabolism in kidney. Succinate dehydrogenase, but not glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, in guinea-pig lung was inhibited by exposure to 100% O2. Exposure to 46 p.p.m. but not 16 or 29 p.p.m. NO2 for 6 h inhibited guinea-pig lung prostaglandin dehydrogenase in vitro. The inhibition of pulmonary prostaglandin dehydrogenase by exposure to 100% O2 or to 49 p.p.m. NO2 was dependent on the duration of exposure, but returned to control values within 7 days after cessation of the exposure. The pulmonary transport system responsible for removing circulating prostaglandins from the blood was not affected by exposure to 100% O2 as measured by using the isolated perfused lung. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of pulmonary prostaglandin dehydrogenase activity in guinea pig exposed to 100% O2 showed non-competitive inhibition with respect to both prostaglandin F2 alpha and NAD+, which suggests destruction or inactivation of the enzyme. Pulmonary prostaglandin dehydrogenase appears to be inhibited by exposure to oxidant gases, which may lead to elevated prostaglandin concentrations in the lungs or in the systemic circulation.  (+info)

*2-alkenal reductase

In enzymology, a 2-alkenal reductase (EC 1.3.1.74) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction n-alkanal + NAD(P)+ ⇌ {\ ... A new role for leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15-oxoprostaglandin 13-reductase". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (44): 40803-10. doi ...

*15-oxoprostaglandin 13-oxidase

... prostaglandin Delta13-reductase, prostaglandin 13-reductase, and 15-ketoprostaglandin Delta13-reductase. As of late 2007, 4 ... In enzymology, a 15-oxoprostaglandin 13-oxidase (EC 1.3.1.48) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (5Z)-(15S)- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (5Z)-(15S)-11alpha-hydroxy-9,15-dioxoprostanoate:NAD(P)+ Delta13-oxidoreductase. ... Hansen HS (1982). "Purification and assay of 15-ketoprostaglandin delta 13-reductase from bovine lung". Methods Enzymol. 86: ...

*Prostaglandin-E2 9-reductase

9-keto-prostaglandin E2 reductase, 9-ketoprostaglandin reductase, PGE-9-ketoreductase, PGE2 9-oxoreductase, PGE2 reductase-9- ... In enzymology, a prostaglandin-E2 9-reductase (EC 1.1.1.189) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (5Z,13E)-(15S)- ... Watkins JD, Jarabak J (1985). "The effect of NaCl intake on 9-ketoprostaglandin reductase activity in the rabbit kidney". ... Schlegel W, Kruger S, Korte K (1984). "Purification of prostaglandin E2 reductase-9-oxoreductase from human decidua vera". FEBS ...

*Prostaglandin-F synthase

Other names in common use include prostaglandin-D2 11-reductase, reductase, 15-hydroxy-11-oxoprostaglandin, PGD2 11- ... prostaglandin-D2 11-reductase, PGF synthetase, NADPH-dependent prostaglandin D2 11-keto reductase, and prostaglandin 11-keto ... Reingold DF, Kawasaki A, Needleman P (1981). "A novel prostaglandin 11-keto reductase found in rabbit liver". Biochim. Biophys ... Wong PY (1981). "Purification and partial characterization of prostaglandin D2 11-keto reductase in rabbit liver". Biochim. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... gmp reductase MeSH D08.811.682.655.500 --- nitrate reductases MeSH D08.811.682.655.500.124 --- nitrate reductase MeSH D08.811. ... 682.655.500.200 --- nitrate reductase (nadh) MeSH D08.811.682.655.500.249 --- nitrate reductase (nad(p)h) MeSH D08.811.682.655. ... reductase (nadh) MeSH D08.811.682.660.390 --- enoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) reductase (nadph, b-specific) MeSH D08.811.682.660. ... ferredoxin-nitrite reductase MeSH D08.811.682.655.750.500 --- nitrite reductase (NAD(P)H) MeSH D08.811.682.657.163 --- aldehyde ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 1)

... flavin reductase (NADH) EC 1.5.1.37: FAD reductase (NADH) EC 1.5.1.38: FMN reductase (NADPH) EC 1.5.1.39: FMN reductase (NAD(P) ... zeatin reductase EC 1.3.1.70: D14-sterol reductase EC 1.3.1.71: D24(241)-sterol reductase EC 1.3.1.72: D24-sterol reductase EC ... nitrite reductase (NAD(P)H) EC 1.7.1.5: hyponitrite reductase EC 1.7.1.6: azobenzene reductase EC 1.7.1.7: GMP reductase EC 1.7 ... reductase EC 1.3.1.93: very-long-chain enoyl-CoA reductase EC 1.3.1.94: polyprenol reductase EC 1.3.1.95: acrylyl-CoA reductase ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Adaikan, G P., Tai, M.Y., Lau, L.C. (1984). A comparison of some pharmacological actions of prostaglandin E1, 6-oxo-PGE1and PGI2. Prostaglandins 27 (4) : 505-516. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-6980(84)90086- ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Define mantis: any of an order or suborder (Mantodea and especially family Mantidae) of large usually green insects that feed on other insects and…
Pulmonary specific prostacyclin synthase overexpression (and resulting elevations in pulmonary prostaglandin I2 levels) significantly decreases both tumor incidence and multiplicity in a smoke exposure model involving 22 weeks of exposure to a smoke mixture, followed by 20 weeks of recovery in ambient air. The observed chemoprevention in the smoking model complements our previous report showing prostacyclin synthase overexpression prevents lung tumorigenesis in multiple chemical induction models (12) . The results additionally support that prostaglandin I2 likely plays a pivotal role in preventing lung tumorigenesis (the overwhelming majority of which is tobacco smoking associated) and makes prostaglandin I2 an attractive agent for human chemoprevention trials.. Using inhaled tobacco smoke as a mouse lung carcinogen represents an advanced method in murine modeling of lung cancer and will allow for the evaluation of potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. There are several ...
Advanced targeted therapies have the potential to slow lung cancer growth and improve patient outcomes. according to a series of studies presented at the 13th World Conference on Lung Cancer
5185 The potent induction of apoptosis in various types of tumor cells, contrasted to largely reversible non-apoptotic effects in normal cells is one of the hallmarks of a novel dual-action DNA- and protein-alkylating drug, irofulven (hydroxymethylacylfulvene). Previous studies suggested the contribution of both nuclear and cytoplasmic signaling to apoptosis by irofulven. To better understand the nature of the differential responses of tumor and normal cells, we used a cell-free apoptosis mimicking system consisting of isolated nuclei and cytosolic extracts. We examined homologous and heterologous mixes of nuclei and cytosols from cancer cells (CEM and LNCaP-Pro5), which initiate apoptosis in response to irofulven, and from normal cells (NCM 460), which display a non-apoptotic cytostatic response. Cytosols were obtained either from untreated or drug-treated cells. In the latter case, irofulven concentrations were adjusted to provide equal levels of intracellular drug-macromolecule adducts in ...
Human ζ-crystallin is a Zn(2+)-lacking medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) included in the quinone oxidoreductase (QOR) family because of its activity with quinones. In the present work a novel enzymatic activity was characterized: the double bond α,β-hydrogenation of medium-chain 2-alkenals and 3-alkenones. The enzyme is especially active with lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxyhexenal, and a role in their detoxification is discussed. This specificity is novel in the QOR family, and it is similar to that described in the distantly related alkenal/one reductase family. Moreover, we report the X-ray structure of ζ-crystallin, which represents the first structure solved for a tetrameric Zn(2+)-lacking MDR, and which allowed the identification of the active-site lining residues. Docking simulations suggest a role for Tyr53 and Tyr59 in catalysis. The kinetics of Tyr53Phe and Tyr59Phe mutants support the implication of Tyr53 in binding/catalysis of alkenal/one substrates, while Tyr59 is
1. We studied the effect of oral administration of acetylsalicylic acid (1200 mg/day for 3 days) on the urinary excretion of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1α in normal human subjects as an index of prostacyclin production in vivo.. 2. The concentrations and excretion rate in urine fell to 45% of pretreatment levels in 3 days, but returned to pretreatment values after 7 days.. 3. These results suggest that production of prostacyclin in vivo is only partially inhibited by high doses of aspirin and that there are sites of production of prostacyclin which are protected from inhibition by aspirin and which contribute to urinary 6-ketoprostaglandin F1α. The measurement of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1α in urine may therefore be of only limited value as an index of the metabolism of vascular tissue in vivo.. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [T W Moody, F Zia, M Draoui, D E Brenneman, M Fridkin, A Davidson, I Gozes].
Glutathione is at present one of many most analyzed antioxidants. This is likely because of it being endogenously synthesized all all through the body and it is basically located in all cells, at times in fairly high concentrations. Investigations have highlighted several roles in which it is used which includes antioxidant protection, detoxification of electrophilic xenobiotics, modulation of redox controlled sign transduction, storage and transportation of cysteine, regulation of mobile proliferation, synthesis of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, regulation of immune responses, and regulation of leukotriene and prostaglandin metabolism[thirteen ...
Weve reviewed the documented benefits of curcurmin - the bioactive ingredient in turmeric - extensively on this blog, yet it seems that, with each new day, researchers from around the world are unearthing yet more immune-boosting applications for this natural compound. Past research has already indicated that curcumin supplements may prevent the spread of certain cancers including colon and prostate. Now, a new study from the General Hospital of Chinese PLA has indicated that this substance might help manage lung cancer as well.. The American Cancer Society estimates that 228,190 Americans are diagnosed with lung cancer each year, with smokers facing a much higher risk of developing the disease. The source notes that lung cancer has a higher mortality rate than any other form of the condition.. According to a study abstract released by Pubmed, the scientists projected that curcumin may be able to restrict the growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells based on evidence of such behavior with ...
Žmogaus papilomos viruso (ŽPV) ginekologiškai aukštos rizikos genotipų (16,18,26,31,33,35,39,45,51,52,53,56,58,59,66,68,69,73,82) nustatymas PGR ...

PTGR1 - Prostaglandin reductase 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - PTGR1 gene & proteinPTGR1 - Prostaglandin reductase 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - PTGR1 gene & protein

Functions as 15-oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase and acts on 15-oxo-PGE1, 15-oxo-PGE2 and 15-oxo-PGE2-alpha. Has no activity ... Prostaglandin reductase 1Add BLAST. 329. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view ... Cluster: Prostaglandin reductase 1. 25. Q14914-2. UPI000053E997. UPI0001F55035. UPI0005D0077E. A0A2I3S9F2. UPI0007DB8DD4. ... Cluster: Prostaglandin reductase 1. 42. Q14914-2. UPI000053E997. UPI0001F55035. UPI0005D0077E. A0A2I3S9F2. UPI0007DB8DD4. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q14914

Recombinant Human ZADH1 protein (ab124605) | AbcamRecombinant Human ZADH1 protein (ab124605) | Abcam

Functions as 15-oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase and acts on 15-keto-PGE1, 15-keto-PGE2, 15-keto-PGE1-alpha and 15-keto-PGE2- ... Prostaglandin reductase 2. *PTGR 2. *PTGR2. *PTGR2_HUMAN. *Zinc binding alcohol dehydrogenase domain containing 1 ... alpha with highest activity towards 15-keto-PGE2. Overexpression represses transcriptional activity of PPARG and inhibits ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-zadh1-protein-ab124605.html

A microarray study of MPP+-treated PC12 Cells: Mechanisms of toxicity (MOT) analysis using bioinformatics tools | BMC...A microarray study of MPP+-treated PC12 Cells: Mechanisms of toxicity (MOT) analysis using bioinformatics tools | BMC...

Przedborski S, Jackson-Lewis V: Mechanisms of MPTP toxicity. Mov Disord 1998, 13(1):35-38.PubMedGoogle Scholar. ... PC12 cells at passage 15-20 (ATCC, Manassas, VA) were grown in 75 cm2tissue culture flasks at 37°C under an atmosphere of 5% CO ... Within the subset of genes expressed at a 2-fold or greater level in the MPTP microarray experiments, these 13 were found co- ... A new role for leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15-oxoprostaglandin 13-reductase. J Biol Chem 2001, 276(44):40803-40810. ...
more infohttps://bmcbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2105-6-S2-S8

Metabolism of [6]-Shogaol in Mice and in Cancer Cells | Drug Metabolism & DispositionMetabolism of [6]-Shogaol in Mice and in Cancer Cells | Drug Metabolism & Disposition

... the aldo-keto reductases and the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (Oppermann, 2007). It is worthwhile to further ... Thirteen metabolites were detected and identified, seven of which were purified from fecal samples collected from [6]-shogaol- ... shogaol to generate M11 and whether aldo-keto reductases and/or short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases can reduce [6]-shogaol ... 2007) Carbonyl reductases: the complex relationships of mammalian carbonyl- and quinone-reducing enzymes and their role in ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/40/4/742.full

2-alkenal reductase - Wikipedia2-alkenal reductase - Wikipedia

In enzymology, a 2-alkenal reductase (EC 1.3.1.74) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction n-alkanal + NAD(P)+ ⇌ {\ ... A new role for leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15-oxoprostaglandin 13-reductase". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (44): 40803-10. doi ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-alkenal_reductase

humchr09.txthumchr09.txt

HUMAN 604296 Glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (EC 1.1.1.79) (EC 1.1.1.81) [GLXR] [MSTP035] GRIN1 9q34.3 Q05586 ... XV) chain precursor [Contains: Restin (Endostatin-XV) (Related to endostatin) (Restin-I); Restin-2 (Restin-II); Restin-3 ( ... Ferric-chelate reductase 1-like protein) [C9orf4] FSD1L 9q31 Q9BXM9 FSD1L_HUMAN 609829 FSD1-like protein (Coiled-coil domain- ... Short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 13C member 1) [C9orf99] [SDR13C1] HSPA5 9q33-q34.1 P11021 GRP78_HUMAN 138120 78 kDa ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/docs/humchr09

EC 1.3.1.1to 1.3.1.50EC 1.3.1.1to 1.3.1.50

... cortisone Δ4-5β-reductase; steroid 5β-reductase; testosterone 5β-reductase; Δ4-3-ketosteroid 5β-reductase; Δ4-5β-reductase; Δ4- ... 5β-reductase; androstenedione 5β-reductase; cholestenone 5β-reductase; cortisone 5β-reductase; cortisone β-reductase; ... reductase; NADPH 2-enoyl Co A reductase; enoyl-ACp reductase; enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADPH2, A-specific); acyl ... reductase; NADPH 2-enoyl Co A reductase; enoyl acyl-carrier-protein reductase (ambiguous); enoyl-ACP reductase (ambiguous); ...
more infohttp://www.sbcs.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/EC1/0301a.html

ZADH1抗体| Abcam中国ZADH1抗体| Abcam中国

Prostaglandin reductase 2 antibody. *PTGR 2 antibody. *PTGR2 antibody. *PTGR2_HUMAN antibody ... Functions as 15-oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase and acts on 15-keto-PGE1, 15-keto-PGE2, 15-keto-PGE1-alpha and 15-keto-PGE2- ... alpha with highest activity towards 15-keto-PGE2. Overexpression represses transcriptional activity of PPARG and inhibits ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/zadh1-antibody-ab84711.html

ENZYME: 1.3.-.ENZYME: 1.3.-.

... reductase 1.3.1.93 Very-long-chain enoyl-CoA reductase 1.3.1.94 Polyprenol reductase 1.3.1.95 Acryloyl-CoA reductase (NADH) 1.3 ... reductase 1.3.1.105 2-methylene-furan-3-one reductase 1.3.1.106 Cobalt-precorrin-6A reductase 1.3.1.107 Sanguinarine reductase ... sterol reductase 1.3.1.72 Delta(24)-sterol reductase 1.3.1.73 1,2-dihydrovomilenine reductase 1.3.1.74 2-alkenal reductase (NAD ... 2-enoate reductase 1.3.1.32 Maleylacetate reductase 1.3.1.33 Protochlorophyllide reductase 1.3.1.34 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase ( ...
more infohttps://enzyme.expasy.org/EC/1.3.-.-

Prostaglandin Reductase 1 (PTGR1) AntikörperProstaglandin Reductase 1 (PTGR1) Antikörper

Am meisten referenzierte anti-Prostaglandin Reductase 1 Antikörper. Show all anti-Prostaglandin Reductase 1 (PTGR1) Antikörper ... Weitere Antikörper gegen Prostaglandin Reductase 1 Interaktionspartner. Human Prostaglandin Reductase 1 (PTGR1) ... Prostaglandin Reductase 1 (PTGR1) Antigen-Profil Protein Überblick This gene encodes an enzyme that is involved in the ... Top anti-Prostaglandin Reductase 1 Antikörper auf antikoerper-online.de. Showing 10 out of 50 products:. Katalog Nr.. ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Prostaglandin+Reductase+1+

15-oxoprostaglandin 13-oxidase - Wikipedia15-oxoprostaglandin 13-oxidase - Wikipedia

... prostaglandin Delta13-reductase, prostaglandin 13-reductase, and 15-ketoprostaglandin Delta13-reductase. As of late 2007, 4 ... In enzymology, a 15-oxoprostaglandin 13-oxidase (EC 1.3.1.48) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (5Z)-(15S)- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (5Z)-(15S)-11alpha-hydroxy-9,15-dioxoprostanoate:NAD(P)+ Delta13-oxidoreductase. ... Hansen HS (1982). "Purification and assay of 15-ketoprostaglandin delta 13-reductase from bovine lung". Methods Enzymol. 86: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/15-oxoprostaglandin_13-oxidase

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase | Profiles RNSProtoporphyrinogen Oxidase | Profiles RNS

Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier Protein) Reductase (NADPH, B-Specific). *Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH) ...
more infohttps://profiles.rush.edu/display/17909

Gentaur Molecular :Biochai \ cDNA   Guinea Pig Normal Tissue  Small Intestine \ C1G34226Gentaur Molecular :Biochai \ cDNA Guinea Pig Normal Tissue Small Intestine \ C1G34226

Aldose reductase-like) (Aldose reductase-related protein) (ARP) (hARP) (Small intestine reductase) (SI reductase). ... Ptgr1 Ltb4dh] Prostaglandin reductase 1 (PRG-1) (EC 1.3.1.-) (15-oxoprostaglandin 13-reductase) (PGR) (EC 1.3.1.48) (NADP- ... AKR1B10 AKR1B11] Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (EC 1.1.1.300) (EC 1.1.1.54) (ARL-1) ( ... 11733004] Immunohistochemical localization of guinea-pig leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15-ketoprostaglandin 13- ...
more infohttps://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product321639/biochai-cdna-guinea-pig-normal-tissue-small-intestine.html

leukotriene B - oileukotriene B - oi

Crystal Structure of Anti-Configuration of Indomethacin and Leukotriene B4 12-Hydroxydehydrogenase/15-Oxo-Prostaglandin 13- ... Reductase Complex Reveals the Structural Basis of Broad Spectrum Indomethacin Efficacy More Like This. Show all results sharing ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100102778

Prostaglandin 2 biosynthesis and metabolism Pathway Map - PrimePCR | Life Science | Bio-RadProstaglandin 2 biosynthesis and metabolism Pathway Map - PrimePCR | Life Science | Bio-Rad

Carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 2 (CBR2) [27], [28], Carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 3 [29] and Dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member ... Carbonyl reductase from human testis: purification and comparison with carbonyl reductase from human brain and rat testis. ... Carbonyl reductase from human testis: purification and comparison with carbonyl reductase from human brain and rat testis. ... Involvement of two basic residues (Lys-17 and Arg-39) of mouse lung carbonyl reductase in NADP(H)-binding and fatty acid ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/pathway/prostaglandin-2-biosynthesis-metabolism-fm

Find Research Outputs
             - the UWA Profiles and Research RepositoryFind Research Outputs - the UWA Profiles and Research Repository

PRESENCE OF GLUTATHIONE AND GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE IN CHLOROPLASTS - PROPOSED ROLE IN ASCORBIC-ACID METABOLISM. Foyer, C. & ... Barrow, N. J. & Shaw, T. C., 1 Jan 1976, In : Geoderma. 16, 2, p. 109-123 15 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › ... MORRISON, I. S., GLANCY, J. J. & CALA, L. A., 1977, In : Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 13, 1, p. 39-43 5 p.. ... Armstrong, W., Booth, TC., Priestley, P. & Read, D., 1976, In : Journal of Applied Ecology. 13, 2, p. 585-&. Research output: ...
more infohttps://research-repository.uwa.edu.au/en/publications/?format=&%3Bpage=3&descending=false&page=5

Find Research Outputs
             - the UWA Profiles and Research RepositoryFind Research Outputs - the UWA Profiles and Research Repository

PRESENCE OF GLUTATHIONE AND GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE IN CHLOROPLASTS - PROPOSED ROLE IN ASCORBIC-ACID METABOLISM. Foyer, C. & ... Barrow, N. J. & Shaw, T. C., 1 Jan 1976, In : Geoderma. 16, 2, p. 109-123 15 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › ... MORRISON, I. S., GLANCY, J. J. & CALA, L. A., 1977, In : Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 13, 1, p. 39-43 5 p.. ... Armstrong, W., Booth, TC., Priestley, P. & Read, D., 1976, In : Journal of Applied Ecology. 13, 2, p. 585-&. Research output: ...
more infohttps://research-repository.uwa.edu.au/en/publications/?page=5&descending=false&showAdvanced=false&allConcepts=true&inferConcepts=true&originalSearch=&improvedLayoutOrganisationUuid=&format=

NAVER Academic | Primary preventive and secondary interventionary effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on diabetic neuropathy in the...NAVER Academic | Primary preventive and secondary interventionary effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on diabetic neuropathy in the...

Aldose reductase inhibitors: an approach to the treatment of diabetic nerve damage. (1993) D A Greene et al. Diabetes / ... Production of 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha and prostaglandin E2 by isolated glomeruli from normal and diabetic rats. (1982) S P ... Aldose reductase-deficient mice develop nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. (2000) H T Ho et al. ... Diabetic late complications: Will aldose reductase inhibitors or inhibitors of advanced glycosylation endproduct formation hold ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/article.naver?doc_id=329855562

1v3u - Summary - PDBj Mine PDB Explorer1v3u - Summary - PDBj Mine PDB Explorer

... crystal structure of leukotriene b4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15-oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase in apo form ... Structural basis of leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15-Oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase catalytic mechanism and a possible ... leukotriene b4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase/prostaglandin 15-keto reductase, CHLORIDE ION (3 entities in total). ... Crystal structure of leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15-oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase in apo form. ...
more infohttps://pdbj.org/mine/summary/1v3u?lang=ko

15-oxoprostaglandin F2alpha - Ontology Report - Chinchilla Research Resource Database15-oxoprostaglandin F2alpha - Ontology Report - Chinchilla Research Resource Database

prostaglandin reductase 1. 5. 76,110,746. 76,129,361. RGD:6480464. Term paths to the root one shortest. all shortest. one ... 15-Keto-PGF2a; 15-Keto-PGF2alpha; 15-Keto-prostaglandin F2a; 15-Keto-prostaglandin F2alpha; 15-Ketoprostaglandin F2alpha; ... CAS:35850-13-6 "ChemIDplus"; KEGG:C05960; LIPID_MAPS_instance:LMFA03010026 "LIPID MAPS". ... A prostaglandin Falpha obtained by formal oxidation of the 15-hydroxy group of prostaglandin F2alpha. ...
more infohttps://crrd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/ontology/annot.html?acc_id=CHEBI:28442&species=Rat

EzCatDB


S00543EzCatDB S00543

Carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1. Carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1. carbonyl reductase (NADPH). (EC 1.1.1.184). aldehyde reductase 1. ( ... carbonyl reductase (NADPH). (EC 1.1.1.184). prostaglandin-E2 9-reductase. (EC 1.1.1.189). PGE2-9-OR. (EC 1.1.1.189). reductase ... carbonyl reductase. (EC 1.1.1.184). nonspecific NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase. (EC 1.1.1.184). aldehyde reductase 1. (EC ... xenobiotic ketone reductase. (EC 1.1.1.184). NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase. (EC 1.1.1.184). ALR3. (EC 1.1.1.184). ...
more infohttp://ezcatdb.cbrc.jp/EzCatDB/search/get.do?dbcode=S00543
  • The latter subsequently catalyzes the reduction of 15-oxo-PGE2 to 15-ketoprostaglandin F2 alpha ( 15-Keto-PGF2alpha ) that is in turn reduced by CBR1 to PGF2 alpha . (bio-rad.com)
  • M9 and M11 were identified as the major metabolites in four different cancer cell lines (HCT-116, HT-29, H-1299, and CL-13), and M13 was detected as a major metabolite in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thirteen metabolites were detected and identified, seven of which were purified from fecal samples collected from -shogaol-treated mice. (aspetjournals.org)