Prostaglandins H: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids: Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Alkane 1-Monooxygenase: A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Biphenyl CompoundsMass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Fatty Acid Desaturases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Arachidonic AcidsIntegrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin: Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Peptide Elongation Factor 1: Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4: A subfamily of nuclear receptors that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a diverse group of GENES involved in the synthesis of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and in GLUCOSE; CHOLESTEROL; and FATTY ACIDS metabolism.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14: A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunit, Gi2: A PERTUSSIS TOXIN-sensitive GTP-binding protein alpha subunit. It couples with a variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, has been implicated in INTERLEUKIN-12 production, and may play a role in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Idazoxan: A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.alpha-2-Antiplasmin: A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.OrosomucoidRadioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.QuinolizinesPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Mice, Inbred BALB CCollagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.QuinoxalinesRNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, G12-G13: A ubiquitously expressed family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that signal through interactions with a variety of second messengers as GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS; GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS; and HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS. The G12-G13 part of the name is also spelled G12/G13.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Aconitine: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D23.469.050.175.725.740 --- prostaglandins a MeSH D23.469.050.175.725.750 --- ... large neutral amino acid-transporter 1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.246 --- antigens, cd146 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.247 --- ... transforming growth factor alpha MeSH D23.348.479.992.720 --- transforming growth factor beta MeSH D23.348.479.996 --- wnt ... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D23.469.700.645 --- prostaglandins a, synthetic MeSH D23.469.700.660 --- ...
... undecylenic acids MeSH D10.251.355.337 --- fatty acids, omega-3 MeSH D10.251.355.337.100 --- alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251. ... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D10.251.355.255.100.637.100 --- prostaglandins a MeSH D10.251.355.255.100.637.150 ... arachidonic acid MeSH D10.251.355.096.450 --- Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids MeSH D10.251.355.096.450.425 --- 12-hydroxy-5,8,10, ... linoleic acid MeSH D10.251.355.310.640 --- linolenic acids MeSH D10.251.355.310.640.400 --- alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251. ...
... s are a subclass of eicosanoids consisting of the prostaglandins (mediators of inflammatory and anaphylactic reactions), the thromboxanes (mediators of vasoconstriction), and the prostacyclins (active in the resolution phase of inflammation.) Prostaglandin H2 PGD synthase PGD2 PGJ2 PGE synthase PGE2 PGA2 PGB2 Prostacyclin synthase PGI2 6-keto-PGFα PGE 9- ketoreductase PGF2 Thromboxane-A synthase TXA2 Cyclooxygenase (COX) catalyzes the conversion of the free essential fatty acids to prostanoids by a two-step process. In the first step, two molecules of O2 are added as two peroxide linkages and a 5-member carbon ring is forged near the middle of the fatty acid chain. This forms the short-lived, unstable intermediate Prostaglandin G (PGG). One of the peroxide linkages sheds a single oxygen, forming PGH. (See diagrams and more detail at Cyclooxygenase). All other ...
... (also termed 15-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, and 15S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid. Various cell types metabolize arachidonic acid to 15(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HpETE). This initial hydroperoxide product is extremely short-lived in cells: if not otherwise metabolized, it is rapidly reduced to 15(S)-HETE. Both of these metabolites, depending on the cell type which forms them, can be further metabolized to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-oxo-ETE), 5S,15S-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5(S),15(S)-diHETE), 5-oxo-15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-15(S)-HETE, a subset of specialized pro-resolving mediators viz., the lipoxins, a class of pro-inflammatory mediators, the eoxins, and other products that have less well-defined activities and functions. Thus, 15(S)-HETE and 15(S)-HpETE, in addition to having intrinsic biological ...
... (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, containing a Hydroxyl residue at carbon 12 and a 5Z,8Z,10E,14Z Cis-trans isomerism configuration (Z=cis, E=trans) in its four double bonds. It was first found as a product of arachidonic acid metabolism made by human and bovine platelets through their 12S-lipoxygenase (i.e. ALOX12) enzyme(s). However, the term 12-HETE is ambiquous in that it has been used to indicate not only the initially detected "S" stereoisomer, 12S-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE or 12S-HETE), made by platelets, but also the later detected "R" stereoisomer, 12(R)-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (also termed 12(R)-HETE or 12R-HETE) made by other tissues through their 12R-lipoxygenase enzyme, ALOX12B. The two isomers, either directly or after being further metabolized, have ...
... (13-HODE) is the commonly used term for 13(S)-hydroxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13(S)-HODE). The production of 13(S)-HODE is often accompanied by the production of its stereoisomer, 13(R)-hydroxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13(R)-HODE). The adjacent figure gives the structure for the (S) stereoisomer of 13-HODE. Two other naturally occurring 13-HODEs that may accompany the production of 13(S)-HODE are its cis-trans (i.e., 9E,11E) isomers viz., 13(S)-hydroxy-9E,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13(S)-EE-HODE) and 13(R)-hydroxy-9E,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13(R)-EE-HODE). Studies credit 13(S)-HODE with a range of clinically relevant bioactivities; recent studies have assigned activities to 13(R)-HODE that differ from those of 13(S)-HODE; and other studies have proposed that one or more of these HODEs mediate ...
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Õhulõhe avatust muudavad õhupilu ümbritsevad sulgrakud. Avatuse regulatsioon toimib paljude tegurite keerulisel koostoimel. Kui sulgrakud on suhteliselt lõdvas olekus, on õhulõhe peaaegu suletud. Valguse toimel suureneb sulgrakkudes K⁺ kontsentratsioon ja tõuseb osmootne rõhk, mis põhjustab sulgrakkudes veepotentsiaali langemise. Sellises olukorras on veepotentsiaalid sulgrakkude ja epidermi rakkude vahel erinevad ning vesi liigub osmoosi teel spontaanselt epidermist sulgrakkudesse. Vee sisenemisel sulgrakkudesse tõuseb neis hüdrostaatiline rõhk, rakud paisuvad ja muutuvad nõgusaks - õhupilu suureneb. Õhulõhede avanemisel on oluline roll ka kaasrakkudel, mis reguleerivad mõnel määral sulgrakkudes vee ja lahustunud ainete, näiteks K⁺, sisaldust, muutes sellega sulgrakkudes hüdrostaatilist rõhku.. Õhulõhede avatuse aste sõltub tihti CO₂ sisaldusest sulgrakkudes. Valges on CO₂ sisaldus fotosünteesi tõttu lehe rakuvaheruumides väiksem, mis põhjustab CO₂ ...
... supplementation in daily doses of 1,000-1,500 mg for 50 days has been well tolerated during several clinical studies, with no significant side effects reported. All common markers of health, including kidney and liver function,[35] serum lipids,[39] immunity,[40] and platelet aggregation[34] appear to be unaffected with this level and duration of use. Furthermore, higher concentrations of ARA in muscle tissue may be correlated with improved insulin sensitivity.[41] Arachidonic acid supplementation of the diets of healthy adults appears to offer no toxicity or significant safety risk. While studies looking at arachidonic acid supplementation in sedentary subjects have failed to find changes in resting inflammatory markers in doses up to 1,500 mg daily, strength-trained subjects may respond differently. One study reported a significant reduction in resting inflammation (via marker IL-6) in young men supplementing 1,000 mg/day of arachidonic acid for 50 ...
In 1660, by order of Jan van Riebeeck, a hedge of Wild Almond and brambles was planted to afford some protection to the perimeter of the Dutch colony.[1] Sections of this hedge, named Van Riebeeck's Hedge, still exist in Kirstenbosch. The hedge is a Provincial Heritage Site.[2] The area of the botanical garden was used for the harvesting of timber during this period. The Kirsten part of the name is believed to be the surname of the manager of the land, J.F. Kirsten, in the 18th century. The bosch part of the name is a Dutch word for 'forest' or 'bush'. The handover of ownership of the colony to Britain in 1811 wrought changes in the use of the Kirstenbosch area. Two large land grants were made, with a Colonel Bird building a house, planting chestnut trees, and probably establishing a bath (still extant) fed by a natural spring. The Ecksteen family acquired the land in 1823, and it later came into the possession of the Cloete family (a well-known Cape lineage). It was under their stewardship that ...
Akrilamid ali akril amid je kemična spojina s kemijsko formulo C3H5NO. Njegovo IUPAC ime je prop-2-enamide. Je bela kristalna snov brez vonja, topen v vodi, etanolu, etru in kloroformu. Akrilamid je nezdružljiv s kislinami, bazami, oksidanti, železom in železovimi solmi. Pri ne-termičnem obdelovanju nastaja amonijak, pri termičnem pa proizvaja ogljikov monoksid, ogljikov dioksid in dušikov oksid. Akrilamid se pripravlja na industrijski ravni s hidrolizo akrilonitrila z nitril hidratom. Največ akrilamida se uporablja za sintezo poliakrilamidov, ki nudi veliko načinov uporabe na primer v vodi topnih sredstev za zgoščevanje. Te vključujejo uporabo pri čiščenju odpadne vode, gelsko elektroforezo, izdelavo papirja, predelavo rude in izdelavo trajnih tiskarskih tkanin. Nekaj akrilamida se uporablja za proizvodnjo barv in izdelavo drugih monomerov. Akrilamid se uporablja tudi v mnogih kuhanih škrobnih živilih in se smatra za možno rakotvorno snov.[1] Akrilamid je bil naključno odkrit ...
വിവരങ്ങൾ ക്രിയേറ്റീവ് കോമൺസ് ആട്രിബ്യൂഷൻ-ഷെയർഎലൈക്ക് അനുമതിപത്ര പ്രകാരം ലഭ്യമാണ്; മേൽ നിബന്ധനകൾ ഉണ്ടായേക്കാം. കൂടുതൽ വിവരങ്ങൾക്ക് ഉപയോഗനിബന്ധനകൾ കാണുക ...
... (INN) is a thromboxane receptor antagonist. It is also a DP2 receptor antagonist. It is indicated for the treatment of coronary artery disease. It has also been used for the treatment of asthma. It was developed by the German pharmaceutical company Bayer AG and is co-marketed in Japan by Bayer and Nippon Shinyaku Co. Ltd. under the trade name Baynas. Sugimoto H, Shichijo M, Iino T, et al. (April 2003). "An orally bioavailable small molecule antagonist of CRTH2, ramatroban (BAY u3405), inhibits prostaglandin D2-induced eosinophil migration in vitro". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 305 (1): 347-52. doi:10.1124/jpet.102.046748. PMID 12649388. Royer JF, Schratl P, Carrillo JJ, et al. (September 2008). "A novel antagonist of prostaglandin D2 blocks the locomotion of eosinophils and basophils". Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 38 (9): 663-71. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2362.2008.01989.x. PMID 18837743. Fiedler VB, Seuter F, Perzborn E (December 1990). "Effects of the novel thromboxane antagonist Bay ...
Studies involving guaraná show benefits to cognitive function.[3] They have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or any similar government agencies. In the United States, guaraná holds a GRAS-status, i.e. generally regarded as safe and must be labeled as not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.. The Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics published a study in June 2001. This study shows an average 11.2 pound weight loss in a group taking a mixture of yerba mate, guaraná and damiana, compared to an average 1 pound loss in a placebo group after 45 days.[4]. A university study in Brazil of guaraná extract showed a platelet aggregation decrease of up to 37% of control values and a decrease of platelet thromboxane formation from arachidonic acid of up to 78% of control values.[5] This study may be significant to stroke and heart attack risk reduction because when excess thromboxane formation occurs, an arterial blood clot can develop, resulting in a ...
ಕೆಲವು ಮೆನಿಂಗಿಯೊಮಾಸ್ ಪ್ರಕರಣಗಳಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಬುರುಡೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಅಪರೂಪವಾಗಿರುವ ಗೆಡ್ದೆಗಳನ್ನು ಶಸ್ತ್ರಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆ ಮೂಲಕ ಯಶಸ್ವಿಯಾಗಿ ತೆಗೆಯಬಹುದು. [೮]ಬಹಳಷ್ಟು ಕಠಿಣ ಪ್ರಕರಣಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ಟಿರಿಯಿಟ್ಯಾಕ್ಟಿಕ್ ರೇಡಿಯೊ ಶಸ್ತ್ರಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆ,ಅಂದರೆ ಗಾಮಾ ಚೂರಿ ಬಳಕೆ,ಸೈಬರ್ ನೈಫ್ ಅಥವಾ ನೊವಿಲಿಸ್ Tx ರೇಡಿಯೊ ಶಸ್ತ್ರಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆಯು ಅತ್ಯಂತ ಉಪಯುಕ್ತ [೯]ಆಯ್ಕೆಯಾಗಿದೆ. ಬಹಳಷ್ಟು ಪಿಟ್ಯುಟರಿ ಅಡೆನೊಮಾಗಳನ್ನು ಶಸ್ತ್ರಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆ ಮೂಲಕ ತೆಗೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.ಅಂದರೆ ...
15)- endothelin 1: alanyl residues substituted for cysteinyl in endothelin-1; RN given refers to (all-L)-isomer; has been used ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: 12097*Endothelins: 3957*Ala( ... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid CureHunter Inc. provides medical information and specifically does NOT provide medical ... Ala(1,3,11,15)- endothelin 1. Subscribe to New Research on Ala(1,3,11,15)- endothelin 1 ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid / pharmacology * Adenosine Diphosphate / pharmacology ... Therefore, hericenone B was considered to block collagen signaling from integrin α2/β1 to arachidonic acid release. Moreover, ... Furthermore, hericenone B did not inhibit arachidonic acid- or convulxin (GPVI agonist)-induced platelet aggregation. ... 2010 Dec 1;17(14):1082-5. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.05.004. Epub 2010 Jul 16. ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D23.469.050.175.725.740 --- prostaglandins a MeSH D23.469.050.175.725.750 --- ... large neutral amino acid-transporter 1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.246 --- antigens, cd146 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.247 --- ... transforming growth factor alpha MeSH D23.348.479.992.720 --- transforming growth factor beta MeSH D23.348.479.996 --- wnt ... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D23.469.700.645 --- prostaglandins a, synthetic MeSH D23.469.700.660 --- ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid. 1. + +. 334. Electron Transport Complex IV. 1. + +. ... Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2. 1. + +. 222. Factor IX. 1. + +. 223. Ibotenic Acid. 1. + +. ... 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha. 1. + +. 354. Phosphocreatine. 1. + +. 355. Calcium. 1. + +. 356. NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester. 1 ... Factor XIII. 16. + +. 13. Aquaporin 4. 15. + +. 14. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator. 15. + +. ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid Histocompatibility Antigens Class I ... Influence of essential fatty acid deficiency on response of the prostaglandin (PG) system to high and low sodium diets. Sinaiko ... Inhibition of Renin by Substrate Analogue Inhibitors Containing the Olefinic Amino Acid 5(S)-Amino-7-Methyl-3(E)-octenoic Acid ... Novikov, V. A., Shifman, M. A., Vainshtein, A. I. & Zakharov, V. I., May 24 1984, In : Physics Letters B. 139, 5-6, p. 389-393 ...
Prone position reverses gravitational distribution of perfusion in dog lungs with oleic acid-induced injury. Wiener, C. M., ... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid Temporal, spatial, and oxygen-regulated expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in the ... Lechtzin, N., Wiener, C. M., Clawson, L., Chaudhry, V. & Diette, G. B., Mar 27 2001, In : Neurology. 56, 6, p. 753-757 5 p.. ... Solomon, S. B., White, P., Wiener, C. M., Orens, J. B. & Wang, K. P., Jan 1 2000, In : CHEST. 118, 6, p. 1783-1787 5 p., 37893. ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid (Structural Class). Value Set Concept Status. Published. ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid (Structural Class). ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid Phloretin rho-Associated Kinases ... Saito M, Tanaka H, Sasaki M, Kurose H, Nakahata N. Involvement of aquaporin in thromboxane A2 receptor-mediated, G12/13/RhoA/ ... The cell swelling caused by U46619 was suppressed by expression of p115-RGS, an inhibitory peptide of Gα12/13 pathway and C3 ... The cell swelling caused by U46619 was suppressed by expression of p115-RGS, an inhibitory peptide of Gα12/13 pathway and C3 ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid. Code System Preferred Concept Name. 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5, ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid Peroxynitrous Acid Thromboxanes Vasoconstriction ...
... undecylenic acids MeSH D10.251.355.337 --- fatty acids, omega-3 MeSH D10.251.355.337.100 --- alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251. ... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid MeSH D10.251.355.255.100.637.100 --- prostaglandins a MeSH D10.251.355.255.100.637.150 ... arachidonic acid MeSH D10.251.355.096.450 --- Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids MeSH D10.251.355.096.450.425 --- 12-hydroxy-5,8,10, ... linoleic acid MeSH D10.251.355.310.640 --- linolenic acids MeSH D10.251.355.310.640.400 --- alpha-linolenic acid MeSH D10.251. ...
Lipoic acid biosynthesis: LipA is an iron-sulfur protein. Busby, R. W., Schelvis, J. P. M., Yu, D. S., Babcock, G. T. & ... Schelvis, J. P. M. & Gindt, Y. M., 1 Jan 2017, In : Photochemistry and Photobiology. 93, 1, p. 26-36 11 p.. Research output: ... Chen, Z., Ost, T. W. B. & Schelvis, J. P. M., 24 Feb 2004, In : Biochemistry. 43, 7, p. 1798-1808 11 p.. Research output: ... van Gorkom, H. J. & Schelvis, J. P. M., 1 Jan 1993, In : Photosynthesis Research. 38, 3, p. 297-301 5 p.. Research output: ...
Y1 - 1991/11. N2 - Background and Purpose: NG-substituted analogues of L-arginine are potent and selective inhibitors of nitric ... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid * Xanthine * Thromboxane A2 * Guanosine ... 5-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP). Results: NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) caused concentration-dependent contractions, ... 5-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP). Results: NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) caused concentration-dependent contractions, ...
Jeremy, JY., Apr 2008, In : Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 78, p. 247 - 255 9 p.. Research output: Contribution to ... A randomized trial of tranexamic acid in combination with cell salvage plus a meta-analysis of randomized trials evaluating ... Lew, K. N., Angelini, G. D. & Hollingworth, W., Jan 2016, In : Open Heart. 3, 1, 9 p., e000313.. Research output: Contribution ... Murphy, GJ., Rogers, CA., Caputo, M. & Angelini, GD., Nov 2005, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 80, p. 1965 - 1970 5 p.. ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid Water-Electrolyte Balance Thromboxanes ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors ... Peak relaxation responses to SNAP and NO were attenuated in the presence of N-acetylcysteine, cysteine, ascorbic acid and ... In the presence of N-acetylcysteine (but not cysteine, ascorbic acid or methylene blue) the duration of the relaxation ... Peak relaxation responses to SNAP and NO were attenuated in the presence of N-acetylcysteine, cysteine, ascorbic acid and ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid/pharmacology. *Adenosine Diphosphate/pharmacology ... Epub 2017 Jul 13.. Inhibition of platelet aggregation ex vivo is repressed in apolipoprotein E deficient mice.. Carrier É1, ... 15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid Vasodilation Apiaceae Phenylephrine Medicinal Plants ... BDPH and SNP interacted synergistically under 9,11-dideoxy-9α,11α-methanoepoxyprostaglandin H2 (U-46619)-induced tone. This ... BDPH and SNP interacted synergistically under 9,11-dideoxy-9α,11α-methanoepoxyprostaglandin H2 (U-46619)-induced tone. This ... BDPH and SNP interacted synergistically under 9,11-dideoxy-9α,11α-methanoepoxyprostaglandin H2 (U-46619)-induced tone. This ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid View all 53 research output ... Perez-Diaz, N., Pushkarsky, I., Oweis, N., Lione, L. A. & Mackenzie, L., 31 Dec 2018, In : Current Molecular Pharmacology. 11, ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid Dilatation Thromboxanes Nitroglycerin Vasodilation ... keywords = "acetylcholine, adenosine 5-diphosphate, alcoholism, brain, histamine, nitroglycerin, rats, stroke",. author = " ...
... epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid Serotonin Thromboxanes Cerebral Arteries ... ADP (10-5 M) increased pial arteriolar diameter by 13 ± 1% (mean ± SE) in control rats and did not change diameter of ... ADP (10-5 M) increased pial arteriolar diameter by 13 ± 1{\%} (mean ± SE) in control rats and did not change diameter of ... ADP (10-5 M) increased pial arteriolar diameter by 13 ± 1% (mean ± SE) in control rats and did not change diameter of ...
Lappa, M., 28 Feb 2003, In : Physics of Fluids. 15, 3, p. 776-789 14 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... Weaver, B., 11 Mar 2014, In : Probation Journal. 61, 1, p. 8-26 19 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... Lappa, M. & Piccolo, C., 30 Apr 2004, In : Physics of Fluids. 16, 12, p. 4262-4272 11 p.. Research output: Contribution to ... Lappa, M., 15 Mar 2005, In : Physical Review E. 71, 3, 12 p., 031904.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
  • Facilitates HIF alpha proteins hydroxylation via interaction with EGLN1/PHD2, leading to recruit EGLN1/PHD2 to the HSP90 pathway (PubMed:24711448). (genecards.org)
  • Serotonin (10 -5 M) increased diameter of cerebral arterioles by 9 ± 1% in control rats and constricted arterioles by 5 ± 2% in diabetic rats. (elsevier.com)
  • The motor function of the rats was evaluated at 1, 2, and 5 days post-ischemia. (bvsalud.org)
  • We investigated the effects of saturated fatty acid (SFA, palmitic acid), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, linoleic acid), and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, oleic acid) on the contractility of isolated mesenteric (MA) and deep femoral arteries (DFA) of Sprague-Dawley rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • To evaluate the role of antihypertensive drugs on the effect of Ang-(1-7), AB male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were treated with vehicle or low doses (5 mg·kg-1·day-1, gavage) of losartan, captopril, amlodipine, or spironolactone. (bvsalud.org)
  • The hemodynamic effects of an intravenous injection of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg) were studied in anesthetized rats (N = 12) by monitoring left and right ventricular (LV and RV) systolic and diastolic pressures for 120 min. (bvsalud.org)
  • To examine the interactions of Hg2+ and changes in cholinergic activity we analyzed the effects of acetylcholine (Ach) on mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) in anesthetized rats (N = 9) before and after Hg2+ treatment (5 mg/kg). (bvsalud.org)
  • Totally 72 rats were divided into 6 groups (12 in each group) Rats in 5 experimental groups (n = 12) were fed with a high-fat diet (1% cholesterol, 10% lard, 0.3% sodium tauroglycocholate, 87.3% standard rodent chow as the control group) for 2, 4, 6, 10 and 16 weeks, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • The expression of the lipid peroxidation was detected by immunostaining for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and thromboxane A2 receptor (TxA2r). (bvsalud.org)
  • Materials and Methods: A total of 5 pigs underwent intravenous injection of ex vivo generated ethanol‑induced sludge in which residual ethanol was removed (Group S) and 4 pigs underwent intravenous injection of absolute ethanol (Group E). Hemodynamic parameters related to the pulmonary and systemic circulation were compared between the groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • In each case, this led to maximal hyperpolarization of around 20 mV, which was sensitive to block with 50 nm apamin and abolished by repeated stimulation of mesenteric arteries with the thromboxane mimetic, U46619 (30 nm-0.1 microm), but not the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (PE). (ox.ac.uk)
  • To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on 5-HT-induced constrictions of isolated human intrapulmonary arteries and explore the mechanisms. (bvsalud.org)
  • Intrapulmonary arteries were dissected and cut into rings, which were mounted in a Multi Myograph system to determine the effect of dexmedetomidine (0.3-3 nmol/L) on 5-HT-induced vasoconstrictions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because inflammation, including neutrophil infiltration and release of defensins, may play an important role in atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases, we determined whether alpha-defensin could cause endothelial dysfunction, a major initial event of atherosclerosis, in porcine coronary arteries. (isharonline.org)
  • METHODS: Porcine coronary arteries were sliced into 5-mm rings and treated with different concentrations of human recombinant alpha-defensin for 24 hours. (isharonline.org)
  • Free fatty acid (FFA) intake regulates blood pressure and vascular reactivity but its direct effect on contractility of systemic arteries is not well understood. (bvsalud.org)
  • Incubation with 100 µM of palmitic acid significantly increased PhE-induced contraction in both arteries. (bvsalud.org)
  • The swelling was also inhibited by treatment with Y27632, a Rho kinase inhibitor and 5-(ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), a Na + /H + -exchanger inhibitor. (elsevier.com)
  • This is the first report that the TXA 2 receptor mediates water influx through aquaporins in astrocytoma cells via TXA 2 receptor-mediated activation of Gα 12/13 , Rho A, Rho kinase and Na + /H + -exchanger. (elsevier.com)
  • The swelling was also inhibited by treatment with Y27632, a Rho kinase inhibitor and 5-(ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), a Na+/H+-exchanger inhibitor. (elsevier.com)
  • Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) induces differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) into smooth muscle-like cells expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) via transforming growth factor-beta1/Smad2- and RhoA/Rho kinase-dependent mechanisms. (bvsalud.org)
  • The SPC-induced alpha-SMA expression and Smad2 phosphorylation were abrogated by pretreatment of the cells with the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 or overexpression of a dominant negative RhoA mutant. (bvsalud.org)
  • After breathing three concentrations of inhaled NO (2, 5, and 20 ppm), lambs were divided into two groups. (elsevier.com)
  • In MA, treatment with 100 µM of linoleic acid decreased 1 µM PhE-induced contraction while increasing the response to higher PhE concentrations. (bvsalud.org)
  • Effects of the spin trap-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) in transient forebrain ischaemia in the rat. (naver.com)
  • Alkyl and Aryl Transferases;Anticholesteremic Agents;Astrocytes;Cells, Cultured;Cytokines;Enzyme Induction;Enzyme Inhibitors;Interleukin-1;Interleukin-6;Lipopolysaccharides;Lovastatin;Macrophages;Mevalonic Acid;Microglia;Mitogens;NF-kappa B;Nitric. (musc.edu)
  • The CMMCs and smooth muscle spontaneous contractions were significantly decreased by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), an ANO1 channel blocker, and NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase activity, in DSS-colitis mice compared with that of control mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of pulmonary haemodynamics, pathology and expressions of various genes, including ET (endothelin)-1, ET receptor A (ERA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rat models after bone marrow cell (BMC) transfusion. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2. Acetylcholine (30 nm-3 microm ACh) or cyclopiazonic acid (10 microm CPA, SERCA inhibitor) were used to stimulate EDHF-evoked smooth muscle hyperpolarization. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Single channel activity was recorded by excised inside-out and cell-attached patch clamp configurations at -60 mV holding potential during the perfusion of an ATP-free K-5 solution. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have been known to have beneficial effects in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. (bvsalud.org)
  • 5. It is suggested that the anti platelet effects of naloxone may be caused, at least partly, by the induction of conformational changes in the platelet membrane initially, followed by the inhibition of thromboxane A 2 formation and phosphoinositide breakdown of platelets stimulated by agonists. (elsevier.com)
  • Nodulus-uvula depressor response: central GABA-mediated inhibition of alpha-adrenergic outflow. (naver.com)
  • 5. During smooth muscle contraction and depolarization to either PE or U46619, ACh evoked concentration-dependent hyperpolarization (to -67 mV) and complete relaxation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The cell swelling caused by U46619 was suppressed by expression of p115-RGS, an inhibitory peptide of Gα 12/13 pathway and C3 toxin, an inhibitory protein for RhoA. (elsevier.com)
  • Foram testadas pulverizações cúpricas a cada 7, 14 e 21 dias, com concentrações de 0,15 e 0,30 por cento de cobre metálico, utilizando calda bordalesa no sistema orgânico e oxicloreto de cobre no sistema convencional. (bvsalud.org)