Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Vitamin B 6: VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Vitamin B Complex: A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Transcobalamins: A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Vitamin B Deficiency: A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Vitamin E Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Anemia, Pernicious: A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Vitamin K Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Intrinsic Factor: A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.Vitamin B 6 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Methylmalonic Acid: A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Anemia, Megaloblastic: A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Hydroxocobalamin: Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.Pyridoxic Acid: The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.Pyridoxal: The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.Avitaminosis: A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)Schilling Test: A diagnostic test in which vitamin B12 is tagged with radioactive cobalt, taken orally, and gastrointestinal absorption is determined via measurement of the amount of radioactivity in a 24-hour urine collection.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Zinc Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Zinc Isotopes: Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Pyridoxal Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 22.214.171.124.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.CobamidesNutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Euglena: A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.Pyridoxamine: The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Postgastrectomy Syndromes: Sequelae of gastrectomy from the second week after operation on. Include recurrent or anastomotic ulcer, postprandial syndromes (DUMPING SYNDROME and late postprandial hypoglycemia), disordered bowel action, and nutritional deficiencies.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.Diet, Vegetarian: Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.AzetidinesFerritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Bhutan: A kingdom in the eastern Himalayas on the northeast border of India, bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Assam, on the south by Assam and West Bengal, and on the west by Sikkim and Tibet. From 1720 to 1970 it was under Chinese or Indian domination. In 1971 it became a member of the United Nations. The name comes from the Sanskrit bhota, the name for Tibet, + anta, end, with reference to its location at the southern extremity of Tibet. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p144 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p64)Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Corrinoids: Cyclic TETRAPYRROLES based on the corrin skeleton.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding: Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 126.96.36.199.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Milk, HumanFood: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC 188.8.131.52.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.CystathionineInjections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Xanthurenates25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Tocopherols: A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pyridoxaminephosphate Oxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the deamination of pyridoxaminephosphate to pyridoxal phosphate. It is a flavoprotein that also oxidizes pyridoxine-5-phosphate and pyridoxine. EC 184.108.40.206.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2: 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC 220.127.116.11.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Sprue, Tropical: A chronic malabsorption syndrome, occurring mainly in residents of or visitors to the tropics or subtropics. The failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients from the SMALL INTESTINE results in MALNUTRITION and ANEMIA that is due to FOLIC ACID deficiency.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Propionibacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.XyloseGastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.PhotochemistrySodium-Coupled Vitamin C Transporters: Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Tetrahydrofolates: Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Benfotiamin is a lipid derivative of thiamine vitamin. It has very low solubility in water or other aqueous solvents. . As of ... Yamazaki, M (1968). "Studies on the absorption of S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate : (I) Metabolism in tissue homogenates". ... Benfotiamine (rINN, or S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) is a synthetic S-acyl derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1). It is ... Benfotiamine is a synthetic S-acyl Vitamin B1 analogue; its chemical name is S-benzoylthiamine O-monophoshate. ...
Vitamin D is added to some calcium supplements. Proper vitamin D status is important because vitamin D is converted to a ... Some studies suggests that the absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate is similar to the absorption of calcium from milk. ... The absorption of calcium from most food and commonly used dietary supplements is very similar. This is contrary to what many ... The U.S. Preventive Service Task Force therefore recommends against a daily supplement of calcium or Vitamin D. A study ...
Force R. W., Nahata M. C. (1992). "Effect of histamine H2-receptor antagonists on vitamin B12 absorption". The Annals of ... H2 blockers may also reduce the absorption of drugs (azole antifungals, calcium carbonate) that require an acidic stomach. ... All drugs in its class have the potential to cause vitamin B12 deficiency secondary to a reduction in food-bound vitamin B12 ... Archived from the original on 2016-12-20.. *^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health ...
Mineral oil may decrease the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and some minerals. Hyperosmotic laxatives are substances that ... Lubricant laxatives are substances that coat the stool with slippery lipids and retard colonic absorption of water so that the ... which occurs subsequent to the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. Thus, studies of laxative abuse have found that ... Retrieved 2017-12-12. Rush EC, Patel M, Plank LD, Ferguson LR (2002). "Kiwifruit promotes laxation in the elderly". Asia Pac J ...
Fibroblast growth factor 23
... reducing its ability to activate vitamin D and subsequently impairing calcium absorption. FGF23 is located on chromosome 12 and ... FGF23 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family which is responsible for phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. The ... Perwad F (2007). "Fibroblast growth factor 23 impairs phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism in vivo and suppresses 25- ...
"Association of long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy with bone fractures and effects on absorption of calcium, vitamin B12, ... The rate of omeprazole absorption is decreased by concomitant food intake. In addition, the absorption of lansoprazole and ... and some studies have shown possibilities for interference with absorption of iron, calcium, magnesium, and vitamin B12. With ... However, stomach acids are needed to digest proteins, vitamin B12, calcium, and other nutrients, and too little stomach acid ...
These lead to poor absorption of vitamin B12.. *Macrocytic anemia can also be caused by removal of the functional portion of ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Table 12-1 in: Mitchell RS, Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N (2007). Robbins ... Vitamin supplements given orally (folic acid or vitamin B12) or intramuscularly (vitamin B12) will replace specific ... Vitamin C aids in the body's ability to absorb iron, so taking oral iron supplements with orange juice is of benefit. In ...
... monooxygenase into two molecules of vitamin A. Absorption efficiency is estimated to be between 9 and 22%. The absorption and ... This mechanism is regulated by the individual's vitamin A status. If the body has enough vitamin A, the conversion of β- ... A Cochrane review looked at supplementation of β-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E, independently and combined, on people to ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, ...
Through activation of vitamin D the absorption (intestinal) of Phosphate is increased. ... PTH increases gastrointestinal calcium absorption by activating vitamin D, and promotes calcium conservation (reabsorption) by ... Hypoparathyroidism may present with symptoms associated with decreased calcium, and is generally treated with Vitamin D ... Parathyroid hormone has effects antagonistic to those of calcitonin.. *Calcium. PTH increases blood calcium levels by ...
... may interfere in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E, and K. No special ... be taken at least one hour before or four to six hours after colestyramine to reduce possible interference with absorption. ... 87 (12): 1852-4. PMID 1449156. Danley T, St Anna L (October 2011). "Clinical inquiry. Postcholecystectomy diarrhea: what ... diuretic pills Thyroid medication Warfarin Leflunomide Most interactions are due to the risk of decreased absorption of these ...
فرابنفش - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Reptiles need UVB for biosynthesis of vitamin D, and other metabolic processes. Specifically cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), ... UV absorption leads to chain degradation and loss of strength at sensitive points in the chain structure. Aramid rope must be ... "Vitamin D and Ultraviolet Light - a remarkable process". UV Guide UK. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 13 ... Vitamin D promotes the creation of serotonin. The production of serotonin is in direct proportion to the degree of bright ...
Ranitidin - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija
"Effect of histamine H2-receptor antagonists on vitamin B12 absorption." The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 26.10 (1992): 1283-1286. ... Pridobljeno dne 8. 12. 2016.. *↑ "Reflux Remedies: ranitidine". PharmaSight OTC Health. PharmaSight.org. Pridobljeno dne 16. 11 ... Pridobljeno dne 1. 12. 2015.. *↑ Fedorowicz, Z; van Zuuren, EJ; Hu, N (14. 3. 2012). "Histamine H2-receptor antagonists for ... sočasno z difenhidraminom kot sekundarna oblika zdravljenja anafilaksije (adrenalin je sicer zdravilo izbora). ...
Reptiles need UVB for biosynthesis of vitamin D, and other metabolic processes. Specifically cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), ... UV absorption leads to chain degradation and loss of strength at sensitive points in the chain structure. Aramid rope must be ... "Vitamin D and Ultraviolet Light - a remarkable process". UV Guide UK. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 13 ... Vitamin D can also be obtained from food and supplementation. Excess sun exposure produces harmful effects, however. ...
RAE takes into account carotenoids' variable absorption and conversion to vitamin A by humans better than and replaces the ... Vitamins and Hormones. Vitamins & Hormones. 75. pp. 117-30. doi:10.1016/S0083-6729(06)75005-1. ISBN 978-0-12-709875-3. PMID ... Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients (2001). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, ... Absorption efficiency is estimated to be between 9 and 22%. The absorption and conversion of carotenoids may depend on the form ...
... vitamins, and dietary minerals. It is also a source of phytic acid, an antinutrient that prevents nutrient absorption. The high ... The high levels of oleic acid makes it particularly well absorbed by human skin, and it contains over 100 known vitamins, ... a form of vitamin E), gamma-oryzanol and beta-sitosterol; all these constituents may contribute to the lowering of the plasma ... A major rice bran fraction contains 12%-13% oil and highly unsaponifiable components (4.3%). This fraction ...
IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, ... Absorption. Copper is absorbed in the gut, then transported to the liver bound to albumin. After processing in the liver, ... Tolerable Upper Intake Levels For Vitamins And Minerals (PDF), European Food Safety Authority, 2006. ... For lactation, 1,300 μg. As for safety, the IOM also sets Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for vitamins and minerals ...
Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. For example, avidin is a protein in ... Every Vitamin Page. All Vitamins and Pseudo-Vitamins. Davidson, Michael W. (2004) Anthranilic Acid (Vitamin L) Florida State ... vitamin E and sometimes vitamin C). The largest number of vitamins, the B complex vitamins, function as enzyme cofactors ( ... In humans there are 13 vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C). Water-soluble ...
Zinc deficiency can also impair absorption, transport, and metabolism of vitamin A because it is essential for the synthesis of ... 2008 Vitamin A of Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese ... and vitamin A. In 1931, Swiss chemist Paul Karrer described the chemical structure of vitamin A. Vitamin A was first ... Vitamin A can be found in two principal forms in foods: Retinol, the form of vitamin A absorbed when eating animal food sources ...
... vitamin B12, but not of supplemental vitamin B12. Gastric acid is needed to release vitamin B12 from protein for absorption. ... vitamin B12, but not supplemental vitamin B12. Gastric acid is needed to release vitamin B12 from protein for absorption. ... Due to impairment of vitamin B12 absorption during aging, people over age 60 are at risk of deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency ... Butler, C. C. (2006). "Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: A systematic review of ...
... vitamin D metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at ... the absorption of the calcium into the body is higher. Other foods that contain calcium include calcium-set tofu, ... Vitamin D2. *Plants *Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), shoot: 4.8 μg (192 IU) vitamin D2, 0.1 μg (4 IU) vitamin D3 ... Vitamin D. Main article: Vitamin D. Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and ...
... may reduce the absorption of important nutrients, vitamins, and minerals, including certain medications, leaving users at ... Acidity: Due to its effect of reducing stomach acidity, use of pantoprazole can affect absorption of drugs that are pH- ... vitamin B-12 deficiency, and low magnesium. Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor drug that inhibits gastric acid secretion. ... 12 (6): 437-447. doi:10.1007/s11894-010-0149-5. ISSN 1522-8037. PMC 2974194 . PMID 20924727. Senn-Bilfinger, Jörg; Sturm, Ernst ...
Vitamin E deficiency
Some dietary fat is needed for the absorption of vitamin E from the gastrointestinal tract. Anyone diagnosed with cystic ... Vitamin E deficiency or hypovitaminosis E is a deficiency of vitamin E. It causes nerve problems due to poor conduction of ... Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. ... The treatment is some form of Vitamin E supplementation. Aggressive vitamin E replacement therapy has been shown to either ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
Intrinsic Factor Secretion, Vitamin B12 Absorption and Genetic Aspects of Gastric Autoimmunity". British Journal of Haematology ... June 2006). "Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: a systematic review of randomized ... Serum vitamin B12 levels are used to detect its deficiency, but they do not distinguish its causes. Vitamin B12 levels can be ... addition of intrinsic factor in the second step results in an increase in vitamin B12 absorption (over the baseline established ...
Because they are soluble in water, excess B vitamins are generally readily excreted, although individual absorption, use and ... Vitamin B20: L-carnitine. Vitamin Bf: carnitine. Vitamin Bm: myo-inositol, also called "mouse antialopaecia factor". Vitamin Bp ... Vitamin Bv: a type of B6 other than pyridoxine. Vitamin BW: a type of biotin other than d-biotin. Vitamin Bx: an alternative ... B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Though these vitamins share ...
Vitamin D deficiency in Australia
Vitamin D plays an important role in which it supports calcium absorption in the body, sustaining good bone health as well as ... "Calcium, Vitamin D and Osteoporosis" (PDF). "Vitamin D , Nutrient Reference Values". www.nrv.gov.au. Retrieved 2015-09-02. Daly ... Additionally, if you consume vitamin D through your diet, or make vitamin D in your skin from UVB exposure, it is processed ... "VItamin D in Australia" (PDF). "Vitamin D deficiency and multicultural Australia". The Medical Journal of Australia. 2001. ...
Absorption and excretion. Vitamin B6 is absorbed in the jejunum and ileum by passive diffusion. With the capacity for ... vitamin B2) i.e. in this biochemical pathway, dietary vitamin B6 cannot be used without vitamin B2. ... For example, milk can lose 30-70% of its vitamin B6 content when dried. Vitamin B6 is found in the germ and aleurone layer ... Vitamin B6 is part of the vitamin B group of essential nutrients. Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme ...
Because they are soluble in water, excess B vitamins are generally readily excreted, although individual absorption, use and ... Vitamin BW: a type of biotin other than d-biotin.. *Vitamin Bx: an alternative name for both pABA (see vitamin B10) and ... B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Though these vitamins share ... See also: Vitamin deficiency § Water-soluble vitamins. Several named vitamin deficiency diseases may result from the lack of ...
Vitamin C megadosage
Aspirin may also inhibit the absorption of vitamin C. There are regulations in most countries that limit the claims on the ... People who practice vitamin C megadosage may consume many vitamin C pills throughout each day or dissolve pure vitamin C ... "Vitamin C". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National ... Vitamin C is necessary for production of collagen and other biomolecules, and for the prevention of scurvy. Vitamin C is an ...
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Vitamin B injections mentioned. *↑ 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 Chris Woolston (July 14, 2008). "B vitamins don't boost energy ... Halsted, Charles; Picciano, M.F., Stokstad, E.L.R. and Gregory, J.F. (eds) (1990). Intestinal absorption of dietary folates (in ... "Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and ... "Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and ...
Modulation of Small-Intestinal Secretion and Absorption in Chronic Vitamin E Deficiency: Studies in Rat Jejunum in vitro |...
Modulation of Small-Intestinal Secretion and Absorption in Chronic Vitamin E Deficiency: Studies in Rat Jejunum in vitro. K. J. ... We have studied the effects of chronic vitamin E deficiency on small-inestinal secretion and absorption in the rat. ... Modulation of Small-Intestinal Secretion and Absorption in Chronic Vitamin E Deficiency: Studies in Rat Jejunum in vitro ... Modulation of Small-Intestinal Secretion and Absorption in Chronic Vitamin E Deficiency: Studies in Rat Jejunum in vitro ...
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Vitamin B Complex Liquid Drops with Fast Absorption - Super B Liquid Complex Vitamins B2, B3, B5, B6 & B12 - Natural Energy ... ABSORPTION - Liposomal Vitamin B12 is Fast-Acting &. * will be absorbed into your body faster than capsules so that you will ... Swanson Methylcobalamin High Absorption Vitamin B-12 2.5 Milligrams 60 Tabs. -15% ... Vitamin B12 Drops in Liquid form for Best Absorption - Methylcobalamin B12 Great for Energy, Sublingual Nutrition and Weight ...
12 Choline | Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid,...
Read chapter 12 Choline: Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source ... Physiology of Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion. Dietary choline is absorbed from the lumen of the small intestine via ... The minimum vitamin requirements of the L and HeLa cells in tissue culture, the production of specific vitamin deficiencies, ... Human studies on interrelationships among requirements for choline, methionine, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 to compare ...
Omeprazole and Vitamin B-12 Deficiency | Livestrong.com
The higher the dose of omeprazole, the less vitamin B-12 you are able to absorb. ... you should be aware that the drug interferes with your bodys ability to absorb vitamin B-12. ... However, an acidic environment is needed for optimal absorption of vitamin B-12, because your stomach acid activates intrinsic ... Association of Long-term Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy with Bone Fractures and Effects on Absorption of Calcium, Vitamin B12, ...
Vitamin B-12 Deficiency Might be Causing Your Chronic Cough
Vitamin B12 deficiency has been linked to chronic cough so consider taking a vitamin B12 supplement to boost your respiratory ... Vitamin B12 deficiency has been linked to chronic cough so consider taking a vitamin B12 supplement to boost your respiratory ... The Role of Intrinsic Factor in B12 Absorption. The reason your body needs intrinsic factor is because vitamin B12 is a very ... Vitamin B12 is one of the eight B complex vitamins and is naturally present in foods that come from animals, including meat, ...
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Volume 11, Issue 5 | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Absorption of Vitamin B12 in Tropical Sprue Julio V. Rivera and R. Bernabe-Prida ... The absorption of cyanocobalamin labelled with radioactive isotopes of cobalt was studied in 42 cases of tropical sprue. ... Impaired absorption was found in 34 patients. Abnormality was usually present even during clinical remissions of the disease. ... Absorption was not usually improved by the administration of intrinsic factor or calcium lactate. ...
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... s largest Swanson Health Products Tablet Vitamins & Minerals selection. Find the perfect Christmas gift with eBay this ... Plus, we use patented Albion buffered glycinate chelate for optimum absorption and digestive comfort. Absorption is further ... Swanson - Vitamin C with Bioflavonoids, 1000mg - 90 tablets. Vitamin C with Bioflavonoids, 1000mg - 90 tablets. Vitamin C with ... Bolstered by a veritable compendium of necessary minerals and vitamins ranging from B complex vitamins, beta-carotene, vitamin ...
Association of Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy with Bone Fractures and Effects on Absorption of Calcium, Vitamin B12,...
This article is a recent general review of all adverse effects of PPIs, including the absorption of vitamins and nutrients and ... Association of Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy with Bone Fractures and Effects on Absorption of Calcium, Vitamin B12, ... McColl KE: Effect of proton pump inhibitors on vitamins and iron. Am J Gastroenterol 2009, 104(Suppl 2):S5-S9.CrossRefPubMed ... Dutta SK: Editorial: vitamin B 12 malabsorption and omeprazole therapy. J Am Coll Nutr 1994, 13:544-545.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Correctable Intestinal Defect of Vitamin B12 Absorption in Pernicious Anemia | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College...
Reduced Absorption of Vitamin B12 in Two Patients with Folic Acid Deficiency Annals of Internal Medicine; 69 (1): 111-114 ... Combined therapy with folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 did not affect cancer risk in women at high risk for CV disease Annals ... Neomycin Absorption in Man: Studies of Oral and Enema Administration and Effect of Intestinal Ulceration Annals of Internal ... Sucralfate, Intestinal Aluminum Absorption, and Aluminum Toxicity in a Patient on Dialysis Annals of Internal Medicine; 111 (2 ...
Vitamin K-absorption From Dairy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Vitamin K-absorption From Dairy. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor ... Experimental: vitamin K-rich dairy product one single intake of a dairy product containing several K-vitamins: phylloquinone, ... Vitamins. Vitamin K. Micronutrients. Growth Substances. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antifibrinolytic Agents. Fibrin ... Dietary Supplement: vitamin K-rich dairy product several forms of vitamin K: phylloquinone, menaquinone-7,-8,-9,and -10. ...
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Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors did not adversely impact vitamin B12 status, researchers here reported. ... They defined low vitamin B12 levels as less than 150 pmol/L, which was observed in 3% of users versus 2% of non-users (P ... "But in this study, the average vitamin B12 level was 345 pmol/L among the drug users and 339 pmol/L among non-users," she said ... Source Reference: den Elzen W, et al "Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors and vitamin B12 status in elderly individuals" ...
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Sometimes eating the right foods that contain vitamin B-12 is not the solution for the individual who suffers from this problem ... Vitamin B-12 deficiency and the related B-12 malabsorption syndrome, is a real illness that is often overlooked by physicians ... and depression are only a few of the medical issues that are a result of a deficiency of this important and essential vitamin. ... The Process Of Vitamin B12 Absorption And The Related Intrinsic Factor. It may certainly appear to many that this illustration ...
Cobalamin Absorption From Fortified Food - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Vitamin B Complex. Vitamins. Micronutrients. Growth Substances. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Hematinics. ... Cobalamin Absorption From Fortified Food (FL-72). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency is highly prevalent in the US and worldwide. Deficiency is most common in the elderly, with ... Cobalamin Absorption From Fortified Food in Older Adults With and Without Proton Pump Inhibitor Induced Achlorhydria. ...
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21 Things You Don't Know About Vitamins
"Calcium absorption is best when a person consumes no more than 500mg at one time," says Hayim. "So, a person who takes 1,000mg ... "The major water-soluble vitamins are vitamin C and a group of B- vitamins generally referred to as B-complex," she says. " ... And if youre anything like us, vitamins can be a tricky category to wrap our heads around. "Is it okay to take a vitamin ... 1. Pair vitamins A, D, E, and K with fat in order to absorb them. View photos ...
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Here, look at how to get more iron in the diet and increase its absorption. We also cover recommend daily allowance, the ... Vitamin C. To increase iron absorption, include foods that are high in vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, in the same meal as iron- ... How to increase iron absorption. Certain foods and drinks can affect iron absorption:. Tannins. Tea may inhibit absorption of ... In this article, we look at the different types of iron, which foods are rich in iron, and how to increase absorption of iron. ...
Vitamin D crucial to calcium absorption | The Daily Courier | Prescott, AZ
Garlic plus vitamin C may reduce blood pressure
Sabinsa Corporation , Download Technical / White Paper Targeting Optimal Nutrient Absorption * Soft Gel Technologies, Inc. , ... Finally, after the last washout, garlic and vitamin C were given together for 10 days. They report that the daily vitamin C ... Related topics: Research, Vitamins & premixes, Polyphenols, Cardiovascular health Subscribe to our FREE newsletter. Subscribe ... A combination of garlic supplements and vitamin C reduced blood pressure back to normal levels in people with mildly elevated ...
Effect of hypochlorhydria due to omeprazole treatment or atrophic gastritis on protein-bound vitamin B12 absorption
... and ingestion of an acidic drink improves protein-bound vitamin B12 absorption. ... there was a further increase in vitamin B12 absorption (p , 0.001). Conclusion: Omeprazole causes protein-bound vitamin B12 ... Methods: Absorption of protein-bound vitamin B12 was examined in elderly normal subjects (n = 8), and in hypochlorhydric ... Effect of hypochlorhydria due to omeprazole treatment or atrophic gastritis on protein-bound vitamin B12 absorption J Am Coll ...
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Various factors can affect the absorption of VitD, including dosage and formulation. The primary study objective was to examine ... Vitamin D (VitD) has a critical role in phosphorous-calcium metabolism as well as an important role in the immune system. In ... Keywords: vitamin D3; cholecalciferol; absorption; deficiency; supplementation; buccal spray; capsules vitamin D3; ... Vitamin D (VitD) has a critical role in phosphorous-calcium metabolism as well as an important role in the immune system. In ...
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The Role of Vitamin B-12 in Thyroid Health
Vitamin B-12 is crucial to thyroid health. B-12 deficiency compromises thyroid hormone synthesis and can even cause symptoms of ... Absorption issues can result from inadequate intrinsic factor, digestive enzyme issues, or organ damage. Symptoms of deficiency ... Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12. The most common sources of B-12 are meat, seafood, eggs, and dairy. Since vitamin B-12 ... "MIT biologists solve vitamin puzzle." Web. 21 Mar. 2007.. †Results may vary. Information and statements made are for education ...
Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem
Dietary deficiency of vitamin B12 due to vegetarianism is increasing and causes hyperhomocysteinemia. The breast-fed infant of ... Intestinal Absorption * Vitamin B 12 / administration & dosage* * Vitamin B 12 / pharmacokinetics * Vitamin B 12 Deficiency / ... Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency is not prevalent in Asia, except in vegetarians. Areas for research include intermittent vitamin ... Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem Annu Rev Nutr. 2004;24:299-326. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.24.012003.132440. ...
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Vitamin B-12: Functions, deficiency, and sources
The vitamin is found in many animal products such as poultry, beef, eggs, and dairy products. The article examines its benefits ... Vitamin B-12 is an essential vitamin necessary for healthy nerve tissue, brain function, and red blood cell production. ... and the health problems that accompany a deficiency of vitamin B-12. ... Metformin might reduce the absorption of vitamin B-12.. Treatment includes vitamin B-12 injections. A vitamin B-12 injection ...
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Force R. W., Nahata M. C. (1992). "Effect of histamine H2-receptor antagonists on vitamin B12 absorption". The Annals of ... H2 blockers may also reduce the absorption of drugs (azole antifungals, calcium carbonate) that require an acidic stomach. ... All drugs in its class have the potential to cause vitamin B12 deficiency secondary to a reduction in food-bound vitamin B12 ... Archived from the original on 2016-12-20.. *^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health ...
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Increases absorption of fluid and electrolytes from the GI tract and increases transit time. ... Thyroxine, vitamin B12: decreased levels. Drug-food.Fats: altered octreotide absorption ... Absorption: Well absorbed following subcut administration and IM administration of depot form. ... increasing fluid and electrolyte absorption from GI tract. Also suppresses growth hormone, insulin, and glucagon. ...
IntestinalMetabolismOralDietsMegaloblasticCalciumMetabolismSupplementsSupplementationDeveloping vitamin B-12 deficAbility to absorb vitamin B-SupplementMagnesiumSymptomsDigestionRisk of vitamin B 12 deficDietarySubstancesFolateForm of B-12ImprovesAssociated with vitamin B12 deficiLead to vitamin B-12 deficMethylcobalaminSerumHydrochloric AcidVegansSmall intestineFatsStomachBody's absorptionGastricOmeprazoleAdultsHomocysteineResearchersEnough vitaminMicrogramsAscorbic acidProton pump inhibMineralTreat vitamin B12 deficiIncreasesNutritionalIron deficiencyChronicAbsorb enoughDosesBodyAffect the absorptionLevelsDeficiency can leadWater-soluble vitaminsDeficient in vitaminFoodsPrevalenceHollis BWPromotes energy productionSources of vitaminInterfere with vitaminAmount of vitaminRetinol
- Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional benefits, including lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein as well as higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals. (csvv.cz)
- Some have alleged that a vegan diet could offer potential performance benefits due to the antioxidant (polyphenols), micronutrient (vitamin C, E) and carbohydrate-rich foods typical of plant-based diets assisting training and enhancing recovery [ 10 , 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- What Inhibits Calcium Absorption? (reference.com)
- Kelp contains over 40 minerals including salt, iron, potassium, phosphorus and calcium, 16 amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and 11 different vitamins. (ebay.co.uk)
- Swanson Buffered C features vitamin C that's bonded to calcium through a special process that neutralizes the vitamin's acidity, making it gentler on the stomach, even at high intakes. (ebay.co.uk)
- Interest in this area has led to examination of the effects of PPIs on calcium absorption/metabolism and numerous cohort, case-control, and prospective studies of their ability to affect bone density and cause bone fractures. (springer.com)
- Vitamin D (VitD) has a critical role in phosphorous-calcium metabolism as well as an important role in the immune system. (mdpi.com)
- Schiff® Super Calcium-Magnesium provides 800 IU Vitamin D per serving for better calcium absorption. (ebay.co.uk)
- Magnesium also improves calcium absorption. (ebay.co.uk)
- Calcium and Vitamin D help build and maintain strong bones. (ebay.co.uk)
- Adequate Calcium and Vitamin D are important factors that may reduce the risk of osteoporosis. (ebay.co.uk)
- This formula combines both calcium and vitamin D in order to promote bone and teeth health. (ebay.co.uk)
- Vitamin D regulates the absorption of calcium. (ebay.co.uk)
- Factors that can block or decrease calcium absorption include medications you take and the foods you eat. (livestrong.com)
- Acid-blocking medications used for heartburn and other gastrointestinal conditions can block the absorption of calcium through the stomach walls. (livestrong.com)
- Vitamin D and calcium go hand in hand in maintaining bone health and regulating various balances within your body. (livestrong.com)
- One of vitamin D's main roles in the body is to maintain your balance of calcium. (livestrong.com)
- If you are not getting enough vitamin D, your body won't be able to process calcium properly. (livestrong.com)
- The thought sounds contradictory, but taking too much calcium at one time may actually inhibit its absorption into your body. (livestrong.com)
- Is Vitamin B-12 Needed for Calcium Absorption? (livestrong.com)
- What Foods Block Calcium Absorption? (livestrong.com)
- Through the reduction in pH, prebiotics can enhance absorption of minerals such as calcium and magnesium and they have been proposed to potentially improve iron absorption. (bioportfolio.com)
- The large intestine (colon) is responsible for reabsorption of water, sodium, potassium, and vitamin K. However, retrospective studies have shown that the large intestine also is responsible for absorption of small amounts of calcium and magnesium. (o-wm.com)
- I have systemic lupus and although I take calcium that includes Vitamin D, I think I will purchase an extra Vitamin D supplement! (cnn.com)
- Milk is fortified with vitamin D that helps with the absorption of calcium. (answers.com)
- For example, iron is absorbed more efficiently alongside vitamin C, and iron absorption is slowed by calcium consumption. (wikihow.com)
- What safe dosage of Vitamin D3 supplements should I take and should I also take a calcium supplement to maximize absorption. (healthboards.com)
- Do you take Calcium supplements with your Vitamin D3 to maximize absorption. (healthboards.com)
- I have not heard that calcium is needed for absorption of vit. (healthboards.com)
- Calcium wont help with vitamin d absorbsion (fat does that - so always take it with a food containing some fat) but it will assist the vitamin d in keeping your bones strong. (healthboards.com)
- The potential benefits for the vitamin, alone or in combination with calcium, for colorectal health remain somewhat controversial, however, with some studies reporting benefits while others report null results. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
- Indeed, back in 2006 results from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) stated that daily supplements of vitamin D and calcium 'had no effect' on the risk of colorectal cancer. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
- If you're in the third trimester of your pregnancy, Vitamin D and calcium are important for building healthy bones and teeth for your baby, which you're able to easily absorb through a prenatal multivitamin. (mydd.com)
- Vitamin D helps to promote the absorption of calcium. (recipeland.com)
- Let's begin by considering one of the "bad" things that can cause low 25(OH)D besides a deficiency of vitamin D itself: a deficiency of calcium. (westonaprice.org)
- In order to understand why a deficiency of calcium can cause low 25(OH)D, we need only consider the most well established and best understood role of vitamin D: to regulate the level of calcium in our blood. (westonaprice.org)
- Our parathyroid glands ramp up their production of parathyroid hormone, which sends a signal to our kidneys to ramp up their conversion of 25(OH)D to calcitriol, the most active form of vitamin D. Calcitriol then increases serum calcium in two ways: preventing loss of calcium in the urine and feces, and extracting calcium from bone. (westonaprice.org)
- Calcium absorption varies within the reference range for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Am Coll Nutr . (medscape.com)
- L ow-fat dairy products, like milk, yogurt and cheese are packed with calcium and vitamin D, both found to increase bone strength. (arthritis.org)
- Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption, and it has been shown to boost the immune system. (arthritis.org)
- If dairy doesn't agree with you, aim for other calcium and vitamin D-rich foods like leafy green vegetables. (arthritis.org)
- These observations underlie the recent understanding that vitamin D does much more than regulate bone mineral metabolism through its actions on intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption, renal calcium and phosphate reabsorption, and bone development and remodeling. (springer.com)
- Our vitamin B complex can help with energy metabolism, immune function, nervous system health and improves focus. (babyonelife.com)
- FIGURE 12-1 Choline, folate, and methionine metabolism are closely interrelated. (nap.edu)
- Vitamins comprise a varied group of dietary chemicals essential to maintaining a healthy metabolism and are divided into water-soluble and fat-soluble compounds. (yahoo.com)
- The metabolism of every cell in the body depends on vitamin B-12, as it plays a part in the synthesis of fatty acids and energy production. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Shearer MJ, McBurney A, Barkhan P (1974) Studies on the absorption and metabolism of phylloquinone (vitamin K 1 in man. (springer.com)
- Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin that plays essential roles in red blood cell formation, cell metabolism, nerve function and the production of DNA. (mayoclinic.org)
- These include variations in the genetics of vitamin D metabolism, intakes of other nutrients, crisis states such as inflammation, and disease states such as cancer. (westonaprice.org)
- The approach used in this chapter will be to present a short statement on the major role of each vitamin and mineral in human metabolism, followed by a review of reported dietary intakes or status in various populations living or working in cold climates or at moderate to high altitudes. (nap.edu)
- Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism 6. (elsevier.com)
- A water-soluble vitamin, B-12 is essential for proper energy metabolism, nerve and mental function, red blood cell formation, and cardiovascular health. (nutritionexpress.com)
- Some have hormone-like functions as regulators of mineral metabolism (e.g. vitamin D), or regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation (e.g. some forms of vitamin A ). Others function as antioxidants (e.g. vitamin E and sometimes vitamin C ). [ 3 ] The largest number of vitamins (e.g. (thefullwiki.org)
- B complex vitamins) function as precursors for enzyme cofactors , that help enzymes in their work as catalysts in metabolism . (thefullwiki.org)
- In this chapter, I will review the production of vitamin D in the skin, its subsequent metabolism to the major circulating metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by the different 25-hydroxylases in the liver and elsewhere, and the metabolism of 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH) 2 D in the kidney and elsewhere. (springer.com)
- The active metabolite of vitamin B12 is required for the methylation of homocysteine in the production of methionine, which is involved in a number of biochemical processes including the monoamine neurotransmitters metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- Your doctor might recommend taking over-the-counter vitamin B-12 supplements to prevent deficiency or replenish B-12 stores. (livestrong.com)
- Are Vitamin C Injections Better Than Oral Supplements? (livestrong.com)
- After being given B-12 supplements, their symptoms and laryngeal, bronchial, and cough thresholds significantly improved. (mercola.com)
- Vitamin D Supplements and Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease. (annals.org)
- Persons who used parenteral vitamin B 12 supplements, folic acid supplements, H2-blockers, and antacids for the three years preceding study entry were excluded. (medpagetoday.com)
- In developed nations that have access to healthy food, doctors don't recommend vitamin A supplements because they can increase the risk of cancer, heart disease, and bone fractures. (yahoo.com)
- A combination of garlic supplements and vitamin C reduced blood pressure back to normal levels in people with mildly elevated levels, says a pilot study. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
- Certain vitamin and mineral supplements may reduce psychiatric symptoms in some people with schizophrenia. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Consider vitamin supplements. (wikihow.com)
- This study is novel because we measured the absorption of Vitamin E from real foods, rather than supplements, which contain mega-dose amounts of Vitamin E. (medicalxpress.com)
- Despite this benefit, there's no evidence to show that vitamin B-12 supplements prevent heart disease. (mayoclinic.org)
- Vitamin B-12 deficiency is associated with dementia and low cognitive function, but it's not clear whether vitamin B-12 supplements might help prevent or treat dementia. (mayoclinic.org)
- Unless you have a vitamin B-12 deficiency, there's no evidence that vitamin B-12 supplements will boost your energy or make you a better athlete. (mayoclinic.org)
- However, older adults, vegetarians and people who have conditions that affect their ability to absorb vitamin B-12 from foods might benefit from the use of oral supplements. (mayoclinic.org)
- Vitamin B-12 supplements also are recommended for women who are pregnant or breast-feeding exclusively and follow vegetarian or vegan diets. (mayoclinic.org)
- When taken at appropriate doses, vitamin B-12 supplements are generally considered safe. (mayoclinic.org)
- Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) supplements. (mayoclinic.org)
- Based on Pharmacy Times Survey of pharmacists recommending letter vitamin supplements). (giantfood.com)
- While our bodies do manufacture vitamin D on exposure to sunshine, the levels in some northern countries are so weak during the winter months that our body makes no vitamin D at all, meaning that dietary supplements and fortified foods are seen by many as the best way to boost intakes of vitamin D. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
- To enhance a newborn's blood clotting ability, the mother may take vitamin supplements before delivery. (celiac.com)
- and the need for caution in the use of vitamin and mineral supplements to attempt to prevent cold stress (Thomas et al. (nap.edu)
- Drug-Nutrient Interactions boxes highlight important safety information and cover topics such as nutritional supplements for athletics, drugs interfering with vitamin absorption, and over-the-counter weight loss aids. (elsevier.com)
- Recent data show that between 28% and 30% of U.S. adults use supplements containing vitamins A, C, and E, and 18% to 19% report using selenium ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- A recent systematic review of 78 primary and secondary prevention trials by the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that use of β-carotene, vitamin E, or high doses of vitamin A supplements was associated with increased all-cause mortality, while the role of vitamin C or selenium supplementation was not clear ( 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Scientific Opinion: Benfotiamine, thiamine monophosphate chloride and thiamine pyrophosphate chloride, as sources of vitamin B1 added for nutritional purposes to food supplements" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
- While vitamin A supplementation likely improves immunity in children in developing countries, there is no evidence to expect improvement in immunity from taking vitamin A supplementation for those in the developed world who already have access to good food and nutrients," offers Lisa Hayim, registered dietitian and founder of The Well Necessities. (yahoo.com)
- [ 10 ] The USDA recommends B-12 supplementation for people at risk of deficiency because it's more easily absorbed than B-12 from food sources. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- As many as 30% of adults over 50 are unable to absorb B-12 in food, making supplementation the best source. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- B-12 supplementation is not a cure for Alzheimer's disease but preliminary reports suggest a link between vitamin B-12 deficiency and Alzheimer's disease. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- Vitamin B supplementation was effective in reducing serum homocysteine levels. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Plus, studies now show that the prescription drug Metformin can lower B12 absorption and may indicate a need for supplementation. (purityproducts.com)
- Vitamins have been produced as commodity chemicals and made widely available as inexpensive pills for several decades, [ 5 ] allowing supplementation of the dietary intake. (thefullwiki.org)
- Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (springer.com)
Developing vitamin B-12 defic1
Ability to absorb vitamin B-2
- Vitamin complex - Zoomavit liquid drops B complex contains vitamins B2, B3, B5, B6 and B12, which makes it a unique supplement that can help your mind and body get extra energy, mental balance and immune system health. (babyonelife.com)
- Will taking a vitamin C supplement (multivitamin) effect the absorption of Vyvanse? (drugs.com)
- Taking vitamins on an empty stomach can cause nausea because sometimes your body excretes more acidic digestive juices than needed, just to break down just the supplement by itself-which can irritate the stomach's lining. (yahoo.com)
- Areas for research include intermittent vitamin B12 supplement dosing and better measurements of the bioavailability of B12 in fermented vegetarian foods and algae. (nih.gov)
- Vitamin B-12 is naturally available in meats, but people who do not eat meat, such as vegans, can obtain vitamin B-12 in supplement form. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- women with low iron stores in our lab (publication under review), we found that 15 g of GOS given with an iron supplement in the form of iron fumarate acutely increased iron absorption when given with water and a bread based meal. (bioportfolio.com)
- I too have systemic lupus and in addition to the Caltrate D that I take my dr has also prescribed a high dose vitamin D supplement that I take every Sunday. (cnn.com)
- They should have checked your vitamin D levels immediately and put you on a D-3 supplement if you have lupus or any systemic autoimmune disease. (cnn.com)
- Lutein ester from enriched egg yolk has been reported to have superior absorption than lutein from certain vegetable or supplement sources, said the researchers. (nutraingredients.com)
- The research team, which included scientists from Ohio State University and OhioHealth, explained that lutein ester from enriched egg yolk has been reported to have superior absorption than lutein from certain vegetable or supplement sources, and this raises the possibility that the phospholipids in egg yolk may be contributing to this enhanced availability. (nutraingredients.com)
- In some countries, staple foods such as milk, flour and margarine are artificially fortified with vitamin D, and it is also available as a supplement in pill form. (answers.com)
- 4,211 On this basis, it has been suggested that the best vitamin E supplement would be a mixture of all these. (stdavids.com)
- Vitamin B-12 is also added to some foods and is available as an oral supplement. (mayoclinic.org)
- To avoid this interaction, take vitamin C two or more hours after taking a vitamin B-12 supplement. (mayoclinic.org)
- Houghton LA, Vieth R. The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement. (springer.com)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency may occur in between 40% to 80% of the vegetarian population who are not also consuming a vitamin B12 supplement. (wikipedia.org)
- Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may be unable to effectively absorb vitamin B12 naturally occurring in foods, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with vitamin B12 or a supplement containing vitamin B12. (wikipedia.org)
- In this article, these studies are systematically examined, as are studies of the effects of chronic PPI use on absorption of VB 12 , iron, and magnesium. (springer.com)
- Norfloxacin and absorption of magnesium-aluminum. (webmd.com)
- Effects of aluminum and magnesium antacids and ranitidine on the absorption of ciprofloxacin. (webmd.com)
- PPIs also can lower absorption of magnesium and vitamin B-12. (onlineathens.com)
- Pathologic effects of primary nutritional deficiency of magnesium occur infrequently in infants ( 11 ) but are even less common in adults unless a relatively low magnesium intake is accompanied by prolonged diarrhoea or excessive urinary magnesium losses ( 12 ). (fao.org)
- Most of the early pathologic consequences of magnesium depletion are neurologic or neuromuscular defects ( 12, 15 ), some of which probably reflect the influence of the element on potassium flux within tissues. (fao.org)
- One difficulty in diagnosing B-12 deficiency is that symptoms are often vague and could be caused by many other conditions -- you may experience fatigue, weakness, rapid heartbeat, pale skin, easy bruising and GI upset. (livestrong.com)
- And despite all of the correct things you are doing good and putting into your body, you still may find that when your Complete Blood Count is reviewed by your physician, that it is apparent to him/her that you still are plagued and have all the signs and symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency. (hubpages.com)
- Adding supplementary B-12 to these patients' routines improved weakness, memory, mood, and other symptoms. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- Since you don't have insurance, you could try to determine if you are deficient in D by looking up symptoms for vitamin D deficiency. (healthboards.com)
- To learn more about vitamin K, review the accompanying lesson, Vitamin K: Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms. (study.com)
- Aging more likely lessens some of the many factors needed for ideal absorption of B12, so deficiency symptoms are more common in older people. (healthy.net)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency can also cause symptoms of mania and psychosis. (wikipedia.org)
Risk of vitamin B 12 defic1
- This study describes a dietary intervention experiment for one single cocktail containing several K-vitamins as part of a dairy product. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Dietary deficiency of vitamin B12 due to vegetarianism is increasing and causes hyperhomocysteinemia. (nih.gov)
- Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency is a severe problem in the Indian subcontinent, Mexico, Central and South America, and selected areas in Africa. (nih.gov)
- Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency is not prevalent in Asia, except in vegetarians. (nih.gov)
- Vitamin E, which is absorbed along with dietary fats, is often found in oils, seeds and nuts. (medicalxpress.com)
- This research supports a way to increase the absorption of Vitamin E found in foods that contain low dietary fat. (medicalxpress.com)
- Therefore, to meet the new dietary recommendations for vitamin E (15 mg per day), you need to get either 22 IU natural vitamin E (22 IU x 0.67 = 15 mg) or 33 IU synthetic vitamin E (33 IU x 0.45 = 15 mg). (stdavids.com)
- They play a vital role in the maintenance of health, and there is evidence that dietary sources of vitamins have beneficial effects in the prevention of heart-related diseases, bone diseases and possibly cancer. (wiley.com)
- Requires some dietary fat for absorption. (celiac.com)
- Finally, for each vitamin and mineral, a micronutrient intake goal will be suggested and compared to the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) (NRC, 1989), the Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA) (AR 40-25, 1985), and the anticipated intake of each nutrient provided by the Ration, Cold Weather (RCW) as formulated by the U.S. military. (nap.edu)
- [ 1 ] The term vitamin was derived from "vitamine", a combination word from vital and amine, because it was suggested that the organic micronutrient food factors which prevented beriberi and perhaps other similar dietary-deficiency diseases, might be chemical amines . (thefullwiki.org)
- The U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) updated Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin B12 in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
- Healthy men with normal folate and vitamin B 12 status fed a choline-deficient diet have diminished plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations and develop liver damage (Zeisel et al. (nap.edu)
- Folate is a B vitamin that helps prevent neural tube defects such as spinal bifida and anencephaly. (healthline.com)
- Vitamin B-12, in combination with vitamin B-6 and folate (vitamin B-9), has been shown to control high levels of homocysteine in the blood. (mayoclinic.org)
- Whether it be one of the best prenatal vitamins with DHA, one with added folate, or an organic prenatal, there are many options to choose from to aid in fertility, reproductive, immunity, and digestive support. (mydd.com)
- Folic acid is derived from folate, and is a better form of Vitamin B9 that's water-soluble. (mydd.com)
- Think of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies. (saem.org)
Form of B-122
- Vitamin B-12 in the form of (Methylcobalamin), is usually used more efficiently by the bodies cells.The reason being is that instead of orally taking this form of B-12, you would place it under the tongue (sublingually) and let it dissolve slowly. (hubpages.com)
- Methylcobalamin, or methylated B-12 is the most pure, active, bioavailable coenzyme form of B-12 and when paired with adenosylcobalamin, the other coenzyme form of B-12, forms the most potent B-12 combination available. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- Omeprazole causes protein-bound vitamin B12 malabsorption, and ingestion of an acidic drink improves protein-bound vitamin B12 absorption. (nih.gov)
- A blue-green algae product improves vitamin B12 status and reduces homocysteine. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Improves retinol/vitamin A absorption and uptake . (marksdailyapple.com)
Associated with vitamin B12 defici1
- That can be cosidered a really inexpensive Vitamin B12 (Methyl B12) Sublingual - 5000 mcg Methylcobalamin B 12 for Maximum Absorption and Active Energy - Natural Cherry Flavor, Sugar-Free, Vegan - 60 Micro Lozenges in comparison to other offers. (herbalsupplements.pro)
- I had no idea where can I buy Vitamin B12 (Methyl B12) Sublingual - 5000 mcg Methylcobalamin B 12 for Maximum Absorption and Active Energy - Natural Cherry Flavor, Sugar-Free, Vegan - 60 Micro Lozenges until I stumbled upon this store. (herbalsupplements.pro)
- Low cost Vitamin B12 (Methyl B12) Sublingual - 5000 mcg Methylcobalamin B 12 for Maximum Absorption and Active Energy - Natural Cherry Flavor, Sugar-Free, Vegan - 60 Micro Lozenges is something i was searching for quite a long time. (herbalsupplements.pro)
- When such a cheap Vitamin B12 (Methyl B12) Sublingual - 5000 mcg Methylcobalamin B 12 for Maximum Absorption and Active Energy - Natural Cherry Flavor, Sugar-Free, Vegan - 60 Micro Lozenges is available online, it's logical to buy it instantly. (herbalsupplements.pro)
- VeganSafe B-12 is a certified organic blend of methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin, the two most bioactive forms of vitamin B-12. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- VeganSafe B-12 is a certified organic, vegan formula that contains methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin, the two most bioactive forms of B-12. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- Some research shows that injecting vitamin B12 in the form of methylcobalamin under the skin six times weekly for 4 weeks reduces pain more than taking vitamin B12 by mouth or injecting lidocaine under the skin in people with nerve damage from shingles. (rxlist.com)
- Why don't you first check with them to see if they had also recently ordered a CBC-(Complete Blood Count), which includes a comprehensive test that gives your total levels of serum B-12. (hubpages.com)
- Lambert WE, De Leenheer AP, Lefevere MF (1986) Determination of vitamin K in serum using HPLC with post-column reaction and fluorescence detection. (springer.com)
- While there was a significant increase in vitamin D levels following treatment, serum vitamin D levels normalized in only 28percent of these patients. (thaindian.com)
- Normal serum vitamin D levels. (medscape.com)
- Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2. (medscape.com)
- 1988-1994), a large nationally representative cohort of U.S. adults, we examined whether serum levels of micronutrients with antioxidant properties (vitamins C and E, β-carotene, and selenium) and vitamin A, predicted the risks of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality outcomes. (aacrjournals.org)
- Subjects underwent absorption tests of protein-bound vitamin B12 ingested with water, cranberry juice and 0.1 N hydrochloric acid. (nih.gov)
- It was later found that a mucoprotein enzyme produced by the stomach (by the parietal cells that also make hydrochloric acid) was also needed for vitamin B12 to be absorbed into the body from the intestines. (healthy.net)
- In the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine, the B-12-R protein complex splits apart. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- Once it reaches the last part of the small intestine, the ileum, it's absorbed from the GI tract where B-12 detaches from IF and joins transcobalamin to become B-12 - TC-II. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- 9. Chronic vitamin E deficiency is prosecretory in the small intestine and may predispose to the perpetuation of protracted diarrhoeal diseases. (clinsci.org)
- Even with as little as one third of the small intestine present, the body continues to maintain adequate vitamin and mineral stores as long as the patient maintains a healthy diet. (o-wm.com)
- Sugars and vitamin C, as well as thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and folic acid, are absorbed in the upper third of the small intestine. (o-wm.com)
- Vitamin B 12 is absorbed just before the small intestine joins the large intestine. (o-wm.com)
- Offering twice as much absorption as other forms, our unique ion-exchange resin protects vitamin B-12 from gastric acid of the stomach, delivering the nutrient to the small intestine where absorption takes place. (nutritionexpress.com)
- It works in lipids (fats and oils), which makes it complementary to vitamin C, which fights free radicals dissolved in water. (stdavids.com)
- "A previous animal study observed that consuming unsaturated fats enhances activity of the enzyme that converts inactive provitamin A carotenes to vitamin A. This suggests that consuming avocados with a provitamin A rich food could enhance conversion," he told NutraIngredients. (nutraingredients.com)
- Avocados boost the body's absorption of lycopene, as well as simply being a supreme source of healthy fats. (lifehack.org)
- The elderly -- even healthy elderly people -- also tend to be at risk, because stomach acid and vitamin B-12 absorption both normally decrease with age. (livestrong.com)
- Studies have shown that removal of the H. pylori bacteria from the stomach increases absorption of B12. (mercola.com)
- Betaine HCL (5mg) - acidifies the stomach for easy vitamin and mineral absorbtion. (ebay.co.uk)
- Taking omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid) or other stomach acid-reducing drugs might decrease your absorption of vitamin B-12. (mayoclinic.org)
- The higher the dose of omeprazole, the less vitamin B-12 you are able to absorb. (livestrong.com)
- In young, healthy adults there is no evidence that long-term omeprazole use leads to vitamin B-12 deficiency. (livestrong.com)
- Absorption of protein-bound vitamin B12 was examined in elderly normal subjects (n = 8), and in hypochlorhydric subjects due to omeprazole treatment (n = 8) or with atrophic gastritis (n = 3). (nih.gov)
- With cranberry juice ingestion, the omeprazole-treated group showed an increase in absorbed protein-bound vitamin B12 (p = 0.025). (nih.gov)
- Although daily B-12 requirements are fairly low (just 2.4 micrograms for teenagers and adults [ 4 ] ), it plays a crucial role in metabolic and cellular processes. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- In the U.S., the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend that teens and adults over the age of 14 years should consume 2.4 micrograms (mcg) of vitamin B-12 a day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The recommended daily amount of vitamin B-12 for adults is 2.4 micrograms. (mayoclinic.org)
- Health news websites have been zeroing in on this member of the "B" family of vitamins recently, pointing out that between 9% and 39% of adults are either deficient or bordering on being deficient in this essential nutrient. (purityproducts.com)
- Studies have shown that more than 50% of adults are not getting enough Vitamin D. For those under the age of 50, it is recommended that you get 600 IUs daily. (recipeland.com)
- Seasonal prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in institutionalized older adults. (medscape.com)
- Vitamin D insufficiency among free-living healthy young adults. (medscape.com)
- Elevated methylmalonic acid and/or total homocysteine are sensitive indicators of vitamin B12-deficient diets and correlate with clinical abnormalities. (nih.gov)
- As a defense against homocysteine, B-12 is nutritional support for your cardiovascular and nervous systems. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- Taking vitamin B12 by mouth, along with folic acid and sometimes pyridoxine ( vitamin B6 ), can lower blood levels of homocysteine. (rxlist.com)
- Other roles of cobalamin include working with pyridoxine (vitamin B 6 and folic acid to reduce harmful homocysteine levels, participating in the metabolization of food, and keeping the immune system operating smoothly. (encyclopedia.com)
- The intracellular concentrations of vitamin B12 can be inferred through the total plasma concentration of homocysteine, which can be converted to methionine through an enzymatic reaction that uses 5-methyltetrahydrofolate as the methyl donor group. (wikipedia.org)
- Consequently, the plasma concentration of homocysteine falls as the intracellular concentration of vitamin B12 rises. (wikipedia.org)
- WASHINGTON, May 2 -- Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors did not adversely impact vitamin B 12 status, researchers here reported. (medpagetoday.com)
- While scientists aren't exactly sure how vitamin D works with the genes, United Kingdom researchers are convinced the relationship exists. (cnn.com)
- VDR [vitamin D receptor] was found to bind to a number of genes associated with autoimmune disease and cancer, in line with epidemiological data," the researchers wrote. (cnn.com)
- Vitamins is aimed at nutritionists, biochemists, physiologists and physicians whether they be researchers, teachers or students. (wiley.com)
- In people using NSAIDs, the potential risk reduction of higher vitamin D levels was increased to 66 per cent, added the researchers. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
- Researchers at Hasbro Children's Hospital have called for further studies to determine if normalizing vitamin D levels will help to lower the health risks associated with obesity. (thaindian.com)
- The researchers explained that Vitamin D may be sequestered in body fat and this likely is the major reason for the lack of response. (thaindian.com)
- If you are constantly tired, this may be in result of not getting enough Vitamin B12. (babyonelife.com)
- Although your body may still absorb enough vitamin B-12 to meet your needs, certain groups are at risk for vitamin B-12 deficiency. (livestrong.com)
- This article will explore the functions of vitamin B-12, how a person would know they are not consuming enough vitamin B-12, and where to source more. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Vitamin B-12 deficiency occurs when the body does not receive enough vitamin B-12. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Most people get enough vitamin B-12 from a balanced diet. (mayoclinic.org)
Proton pump inhib1
Treat vitamin B12 defici1
- J. E. Kim et al, Egg Consumption Increases Vitamin E Absorption from Co-Consumed Raw Mixed Vegetables in Healthy Young Men, Journal of Nutrition (2016). (medicalxpress.com)
- Vitamin B12 is the "energy" vitamin, as it often increases the energy level, whether obtained from eating the B12 foods or from supplemental use. (healthy.net)
- loss of bone increases fracture risk ( 12 ). (lww.com)
- Changes in nutritional absorption have been found to cause higher numbers of gallstones among patients who have short bowel syndrome than among the normal population. (o-wm.com)
- Each section of the intestine is responsible for the absorption of a particular nutritional element. (o-wm.com)
- Following introductory chapters on historical and nutritional aspects of vitamins, the next four chapters cover relevant and detailed aspects of physiology and functional anatomy, biochemistry, immunology and the regulation of protein synthesis by nuclear hormone receptors. (wiley.com)
- Fortification of orange juice with vitamin D: a novel approach for enhancing vitamin D nutritional health. (medscape.com)
- Is Vitamin B12 Causing Your Chronic Cough? (mercola.com)
- This study suggests that [vitamin B-12 deficiency] may contribute to chronic cough by favoring sensory neuropathy as indicated by laryngeal hyperresponsiveness and increased NGF expression in pharyngeal biopsies of [vitamin B-12 deficiency] patients. (mercola.com)
- Vitamin B-12 deficiency] should be considered among factors that sustain chronic cough, particularly when cough triggers cannot be identified. (mercola.com)
- We have studied the effects of chronic vitamin E deficiency on small-inestinal secretion and absorption in the rat. (clinsci.org)
- ️ BOOSTS ENERGY LEVEL: Vitamin B-12 promotes energy production by supporting the adrenal glands, red blood cell formation, and converting carbohydrates to glucose, the fuel your body uses for energy. (babyonelife.com)
- Methyl B12 provides optimal absorption and retention by the body so you get the most out of every lozenge. (babyonelife.com)
- will be absorbed into your body faster than capsules so that you will get more of the vitamin into your system. (babyonelife.com)
- Vitamin B-12 is the only water-soluble vitamin stored in the body. (livestrong.com)
- Bile salts boost the absorption rate of iron, needed by your body to transport oxygen. (ebay.co.uk)
- No, the B Vitamin(s) are water-soluable meaning that they arn't stored in the body and that they flow through the blood stream. (drugs.com)
- While many vitamins are water soluble-which means they will dissolve and be absorbed into the body when taken with a glass of water at almost any time of the day-there are four fat-soluble vitamins that can only be absorbed when in the presence of fat: A, D, E, and K." Translate that for us, doc! (yahoo.com)
- Now that you know more about what the soluble vitamins mean from the first tip, here's another insight to remember: "Water-soluble vitamins need to be replenished often because they're not stored in large amounts in the body," comments Zorich. (yahoo.com)
- Some research suggests that tannins may reduce iron absorption in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The human body can store vitamin B-12 for up to four years . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Vitamin B-12 enables the release of energy by helping the human body absorb folic acid . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This means that the body requires vitamin B12 to work properly. (webmd.com)
- Some people use vitamin B12 by mouth for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), multiple sclerosis, preventing the eye disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition in which the body products too much thyroid hormone, Lyme disease and gum disease. (webmd.com)
- Vitamin B12 is required for the proper function and development of the brain, nerves, blood cells, and many other parts of the body. (webmd.com)
- Wayne W. Campbell, professor of nutrition science, and the research team found that adding whole eggs to a colorful salad boosts the amount of Vitamin E the body absorbs from the vegetables. (medicalxpress.com)
- Adding whole eggs to a colorful salad boosts the amount of Vitamin E the body absorbs from the vegetables, according to research from Purdue University. (medicalxpress.com)
- Because your body is capable of storing several years' worth of vitamin B-12, deficiency is rare. (mayoclinic.org)
- Taking vitamin B-12 with vitamin C might reduce the available amount of vitamin B-12 in your body. (mayoclinic.org)
- Our time release formula extendeds vitamin absorption by the body. (giantfood.com)
- With B12 Energy Berry Lemonade Melts ™ , you're giving your body a vitamin-backed boost of smooth, sustainable energy without the jitters and without the crash. (purityproducts.com)
- The body converts these plant pigments into an active and usable form of vitamin A. (nutraingredients.com)
- "The results of this study strengthens the current body of research on this topic and complement a previous study conducted in my lab that showed a similar enhancement in carotenoid absorption with one half of an avocado," said Dr Schwartz. (nutraingredients.com)
- In order for vitamins to be utilized by the body, they must first be converted into their active coenzyme forms. (health4youonline.com)
- Weishaar T, Rajan S, Keller B. Probability of Vitamin D Deficiency by Body Weight and Race/Ethnicity. (medscape.com)
- Eat iron-rich foods along with foods that contain vitamin C, which helps the body absorb the iron. (care2.com)
- Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form of the vitamin in the body, and are sometimes inter-convertible to one another, as well. (thefullwiki.org)
- The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is found in nearly every cell in the body. (springer.com)
- The vitamer is produced by bacteria as hydroxocobalamin, but conversion between different forms of the vitamin occurs in the body after consumption. (wikipedia.org)
Affect the absorption1
- Our liquid B-vitamin complex will maximize your body's natural energy and reduce stress levels. (babyonelife.com)
- If this approach fails this new study suggests it would be worthwhile to consider a trial of of optimizing your vitamin B12 levels. (mercola.com)
- In a study of 125 couples in which one partner used the drugs and the other did not, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of low vitamin B 12 levels, said Wendy P.J. den Elzen, M.Sc. (medpagetoday.com)
- Indeed, measurements of NO levels after garlic administration showed a two-fold increase, relative to placebo, while administration of both garlic and vitamin C resulted in a three-fold increase, relative to the control. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
- Deficiency can result when levels of vitamin B-12 are too low. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The production of red blood cells reduces if vitamin B-12 levels are too low. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Vitamin B12 is taken by mouth to treat and prevent vitamin B12 deficiency, a condition in which vitamin B12 levels in the blood are too low. (webmd.com)
- Lefevere MF, De Leenheer AP, Claeys AE, Claeys IV, Steyaert H (1982) Multidimensional liquid chromatography: a breakthrough in the assessment of physiological vitamin K levels. (springer.com)
- My vitamin D-3 levels were insanely low, even though I'm an outdoorsy person who gets plenty of sun exposure and drinks lots of fortified milk. (cnn.com)
- Lower vitamin B12 levels are associated with increased rates of double incontinence. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Yes, I have blood work done regularly (which includes testing vitamin D levels) because I have Lyme Disease. (healthboards.com)
- Increased blood levels of vitamin D may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by 40 percent, according to a pooled analysis of data. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
- Furthermore, a meta-analysis published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine in 2007 reported that higher blood levels of vitamin D were associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
- The Emory scientists correlated blood levels of vitamin D3 - 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) - against colorectal cancer risk in 616 people with colorectal cancer and 770 polyp-free controls. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
- Repeat multiple courses of vitamin D treatment in the patients who did not normalize their vitamin D levels after initial course, failed to normalize their low vitamin D status. (thaindian.com)
- 3 So, it can be difficult to keep our Vitamin B12 levels where they need to be each day. (purityproducts.com)
- We observed a dose-response decrease in cancer and overall mortality risks with higher vitamin C levels. (aacrjournals.org)
- In contrast, for vitamin A, risk of cancer death decreased from Q1-Q2, with no further decline in risk at higher levels. (aacrjournals.org)
- For vitamin E, having levels in Q4 was associated with the lowest cancer mortality risk. (aacrjournals.org)
Deficiency can lead2
- Vitamin K transports clotting factors from the kidneys to the blood, therefore vitamin K deficiency can lead to increased bleeding and easy bruising. (study.com)
- Vitamin K is needed to produce certain clotting factors, therefore vitamin K deficiency can lead to increased bleeding and easy bruising. (study.com)
- Nora Zorich, M.D., Ph.D. and Chair on Arbonne Scientific Advisory Board, breaks down why this matters: "The major water-soluble vitamins are vitamin C and a group of B- vitamins generally referred to as 'B-complex," she says. (yahoo.com)
- If you have low amounts of the water-soluble vitamins in your diet, you can become deficient relatively quickly. (yahoo.com)
Deficient in vitamin3
- A sluggish thyroid, or hypothyroidism, may cause you to be deficient in vitamin B-12, and the resulting vitamin B-12 deficiency can further exacerbate the slow thyroid or negatively affect energy. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- Washington, April 28 (ANI): Most obese adolescents are deficient in vitamin D, which may increase their risk of diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, according to new study. (thaindian.com)
- Health Tip: Are You Deficient in Vitamin B-12? (celiac.com)
- Vitamin B12 is one of the eight B complex vitamins and is naturally present in foods that come from animals, including meat, fish, eggs, milk and milk products. (mercola.com)
- Cooking the eggs and pasteurizing the milk denatures the fragile proteins in these amazing foods and may interfere with B12 absorption as well. (mercola.com)
- Often it is important to eat a variety of foods that contain a high amount of vitamin B-12 as well as folic acid. (hubpages.com)
- Which foods increase iron absorption? (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In this article, we look at the different types of iron, which foods are rich in iron, and how to increase absorption of iron. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Vitamin B12 can be found in foods such as meat, fish, and dairy products. (webmd.com)
- Why are Foods fortified with vitamin D important? (answers.com)
- Why are foods fortified with vitamin d important for miners and people who live in the arctic? (answers.com)
- Vitamin D is found in green vegetables and sunlight.Vitamin D occurs naturally in fish and a few other foods. (answers.com)
- In what foods can you find vitamin D? (answers.com)
- What foods have a high amount of vitamin D in them? (answers.com)
- Is vitamin D common in foods? (answers.com)
- Most foods contain little or no vitamin D. (answers.com)
- Where do you find foods that naturally contain Vitamin D? (answers.com)
- Few foods contain Vitamin D. The best source is sunlight. (answers.com)
- Many other foods are fortified with vitamin d by the manufacturers: Bread, milk and some orange juices are fortified, but the amounts vary and the stated amount of vitamin d on the label is not always the amount the food actually contains. (answers.com)
- What foods are rich in vitamin D? (answers.com)
- Other foods rich in vitamin D include soymilk, Vitamin D enriched milk, orange juice and oatmeal. (answers.com)
- However, if you follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, you might be prone to deficiency because plant foods don't contain vitamin B-12. (mayoclinic.org)
- Vitamin B12 is found in significant amounts only in the animal protein foods. (healthy.net)
- Lipid-rich fresh avocado and beta-carotene rich foods improve bioavailability of the carotenoids from these foods and convert them into an active form of vitamin A, according to a study published in the Journal of Nutrition. (nutraingredients.com)
- A recent study showed that vitamin B-12 deficiency patients had a higher prevalence of laryngeal hyperresponsiveness. (mercola.com)
- Lead author Zeev Harel and his team explored the prevalence of low vitamin D status among 68 obese adolescents, and examined the impact of treatment of low vitamin D status in these patients. (thaindian.com)
- What is the global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency? (medscape.com)
- A greater prevalence of vitamin D deficiency exists in Middle Eastern countries. (medscape.com)
Promotes energy production1
Sources of vitamin4
- What are 3 good sources of vitamin D? (answers.com)
- Sunshine contains the best and most efficiently absorbed vitamin D. A fair skinned person can make up to 20,000 IU's of Vitamin D in a half and hour with no risk of ever overdosing on vitamin D. Fatty fish and cod liver oil are the richest natural sources of vitamin d. (answers.com)
- The best food sources of vitamin E are polyunsaturated vegetable oils, seeds, and nuts. (stdavids.com)
- Food sources of vitamin B-12 include poultry, meat, fish and dairy products. (mayoclinic.org)
Interfere with vitamin1
Amount of vitamin2
- of folic acid and an equal amount of vitamin B-12, than perhaps we should revisit the breakdown of the type and amount of vitamins we are really consuming on a daily basis. (hubpages.com)
- Sun dried or UV light exposed mushrooms contain a surprising amount of vitamin D, up to 2500 IU's per serving. (answers.com)