Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Unstable isotopes of barium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ba atoms with atomic weights 126-129, 131, 133, and 139-143 are radioactive barium isotopes.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of tin that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Sn atoms with atomic weights 108-111, 113, 120-121, 123 and 125-128 are tin radioisotopes.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.
Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.
Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.
Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Unstable isotopes of ruthenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ru atoms with atomic weights 93-95, 97, 103, and 105-108 are radioactive ruthenium isotopes.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Unstable isotopes of selenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Se atoms with atomic weights 70-73, 75, 79, 81, and 83-85 are radioactive selenium isotopes.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.
A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.
A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.
Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.
A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.
Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Transmitter receptors on or near presynaptic terminals (or varicosities) which are sensitive to the transmitter(s) released by the terminal itself. Receptors for the hormones released by hormone-releasing cells are also included.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Reaction products of primary cosmic rays, radioisotope half-lifetime, and production reaction.[82]. *Tritium (12.3 years): 14N( ... Cosmic rays kept the level of carbon-14[81] in the atmosphere roughly constant (70 tons) for at least the past 100,000 years,[ ... Carbon-14 (5730 years): 14N(n, p)14C (neutron activation) ... from 0.3 mSv per year for sea-level areas to 1.0 mSv per year ... Carbon and oxygen nuclei collide with interstellar matter to form lithium, beryllium and boron in a process termed cosmic ray ...
4.5×109 y. α. 4267 Primordial. Main Uranium isotope Plutonium-238 94. 144. 87.7 y. α. 5593 Synthetic. used in radioisotope ... Tritium (3H) 1. 2. 12.3 y. β−. 19. Cosmogenic. lightest radionuclide, used in artificial nuclear fusion, also used for ... Carbon-14 6. 8. 5,700 y. β−. 156 Cosmogenic. used for radiocarbon dating ... 717,000 y. β+, EC. 4004 Cosmogenic. exposure dating of rocks, sediment Chlorine-36 17. 19. 301,000 y. β−, EC. 709 Cosmogenic. ...
Lithium-magnesium alloy: tritium Aluminium nitride: carbon-14 Potassium chloride: chlorine-36 Cobalt: cobalt-60 Thulium: ... half-life 30 years), 189 TBq (37 g) each of strontium-90 (half-life 29 years) and its daughter yttrium-90, 9.12 TBq (4.0 kg) of ... In 1968 a paper was published in the journal Nature, on a study of radioisotopes found in oysters from the Irish Sea, using ... "So we got this rigged up," Tuohy recounted, "and we had this poor little tube of carbon dioxide and I had absolutely no hope it ...
Some of these radioisotopes are tritium, carbon-14 and phosphorus-32. Here is a list of radioisotopes formed by the action of ... The 152Eu (half life 13.54 year) and 154Eu (half life 8.59 year) were mainly formed by the neutron activation of the europium ... of nitrogen-14 forms carbon-14. This radioisotope can be released from the nuclear fuel cycle; this is the radioisotope ... The 133Ba (half life 10.5 year) and 241Am (half life 432.6 year) are due to the neutron activation of barium and plutonium ...
Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5,730 years and a decay rate of 14 disintegrations per minute (dpm) per gram of natural carbon. If ... Therefore, given a sample of a particular radioisotope, the number of decay events −dN expected to occur in a small interval of ... such as tritium) have long since decayed. Isotopes of elements heavier than boron were not produced at all in the Big Bang, and ... For example, carbon-14, a radioactive nuclide with a half-life of only 5,730 years, is constantly produced in Earth's upper ...
For many years after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster nuclear power was off the policy agenda in most countries. In recent years, ... "Medical radioisotope supply options for Australia". Friends of the Earth. Robert F. Service (20 February 2012). "Nuclear ... In the old economy, energy was produced by burning something - oil, coal, or natural gas - leading to the carbon emissions that ... claimed that ITER was a hazard because scientists did not yet know how to manipulate the high-energy deuterium and tritium ...
For instance, carbon-14 has a half-life of 5,730 years. After an organism has been dead for 60,000 years, so little carbon-14 ... tritium) to over 100 billion years (e.g., samarium-147). For most radioactive nuclides, the half-life depends solely on nuclear ... radioactive dating or radioisotope dating is a technique which is used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which ... The carbon-14 ends up as a trace component in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). A carbon-based life form acquires carbon during ...
Tritium is a radioisotope of concern in nuclear reactor waste streams. As a metal, beryllium is transparent or translucent to ... This process allows carbon to be produced in stars, but not in the Big Bang. Star-created carbon (the basis of carbon-based ... Symptoms of the disease can take up to five years to develop; about a third of patients with it die and the survivors are left ... natural beryllium bombarded either by alphas or gammas from a suitable radioisotope is a key component of most radioisotope- ...
95 which estimated the dose to the population from 1000 MWe coal and nuclear plants at 4.9 man-Sv/year and 0.048 man-Sv/year ... Groundwater Contamination (Tritium) at Nuclear Plants. EPA "Tritium in drinking water". Canadian Nuclear ... The results commonly narrow the range of carbon emissions for a given energy source. The resulting 2012 study published in the ... The health impact of each radioisotope depends on a variety of factors. Iodine-131 is potentially an important source of ...
He produced solid hydrogen the next year. Deuterium was discovered in December 1931 by Harold Urey, and tritium was prepared in ... This reaction is also a common industrial source of carbon dioxide: CO + H 2O → CO 2 + H 2 Other important methods for CO and H ... is also sometimes considered as a light radioisotope of hydrogen, due to the mass difference between the antimuon and the ... Small amounts of tritium are produced naturally by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric gases; tritium has also been ...
Both lithium-6 and lithium-7 produce tritium when irradiated by neutrons, and are thus useful for the production of tritium by ... These compounds feature covalent metal-carbon bonds that are strongly polarized towards the carbon, allowing them to ... Seven radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 8Li with a half-life of 838 ms and 9Li with a half-life of ... Over the years opinions have been differing about potential growth. A 2008 study concluded that "realistically achievable ...
For example, all carbon atoms contain 6 protons in their atomic nucleus; so the atomic number of carbon is 6. Carbon atoms may ... All of the elements have some isotopes that are radioactive (radioisotopes), although not all of these radioisotopes occur ... "Y" is also often used as a general chemical symbol, although it is also the symbol of yttrium. "Z" is also frequently used as a ... The table shows the twelve most common elements in our galaxy (estimated spectroscopically), as measured in parts per million, ...
It requires the handling of the radioisotope tritium. Similar to hydrogen, tritium is difficult to contain and may leak from ... The removed tritium decays to 3He with a 12.5 year half life. By recycling the 3He produced from the decay of tritium back into ... The sputtering rate of tungsten by the plasma fuel ions is orders of magnitude smaller than that of carbon, and tritium is much ... This work was done at the NOVA laser system, General Atomics, Laser Mégajoule and the GEKKO XII system in Japan. Through this ...
Known year-to-year variation within that period allows correlation with soil and sediment layers. Caesium-134, and to a lesser ... Caesium-137 has been used in hydrologic studies analogous to those with tritium. As a daughter product of fission bomb testing ... Caesium-137 is a radioisotope commonly used as a gamma-emitter in industrial applications. Its advantages include a half-life ... The aluminium sulfate component is converted to insoluble aluminium oxide by roasting the alum with carbon, and the resulting ...
They also react with carbon dioxide and carbon tetrachloride, so that normal fire extinguishers are counterproductive when used ... For several years in the 1950s and 1960s, a by-product of the potassium production called Alkarb was a main source for rubidium ... Radioisotopes of francium would presumably be dangerous as well due to their high decay energy and short half-life, but none ... Caesium-137 has been used as a tracer in hydrologic studies, analogous to the use of tritium. Small amounts of caesium-134 and ...
He produced solid hydrogen the next year.[5] Deuterium was discovered in December 1931 by Harold Urey, and tritium was prepared ... One of the many complications to this highly optimized technology is the formation of coke or carbon: CH. 4 → C + 2 H. 2. ... is also sometimes considered as a light radioisotope of hydrogen, due to the mass difference between the antimuon and the ... Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe ... Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium ...
One noted neutron-producing radioisotope, californium-252 decays (half-life 2.65 years) by spontaneous fission 3% of the time ... For example, carbon, with atomic number 6, has an abundant isotope carbon-12 with 6 neutrons and a rare isotope carbon-13 with ... D-T (deuterium-tritium) fusion is the fusion reaction that produces the most energetic neutrons, with 14.1 MeV of kinetic ... 50-100 years) decay periods as compared to typical half-lives of 10,000 years for fission waste, which is long due primarily to ...
Mohamad O, Tabuchi T, Nitta Y, Nomoto A, Sato A, Kasuya G, et al. (May 2019). "Risk of subsequent primary cancers after carbon ... A major use of systemic radioisotope therapy is in the treatment of bone metastasis from cancer. The radioisotopes travel ... Studies found, for example, that the IQ of 5-year-old children declined each year after treatment by several IQ points.[28]. ... 6 years following treatment, although some haematological malignancies may develop within 3 years. In the vast majority of ...
In December, the Y-12 plant was closed, thereby cutting the Tennessee Eastman payroll from 8,600 to 1,500 and saving $2 million ... Kellex transferred the last unit to the operating contractor, Union Carbide and Carbon, on 11 September 1945. The total cost, ... Starting in mid-1946, Oak Ridge began distributing radioisotopes to hospitals and universities. Most of the orders were for ... which would use the explosive force of a detonating fission bomb to ignite a nuclear fusion reaction in deuterium and tritium. ...
... however the additional neutrons in the hydrogen nuclei cause the tritium to undergo beta decay with a half-life of 12.3 years. ... Gas cooled reactors are cooled by a circulating inert gas, often helium in high-temperature designs, while carbon dioxide has ... Research reactor: Typically reactors used for research and training, materials testing, or the production of radioisotopes for ... As an isotope of hydrogen, tritium (T) frequently binds to oxygen and forms T2O. This molecule is chemically identical to H2O ...
Studies found, for example, that the IQ of 5 year old children declined each year after treatment by several IQ points.[21]. ... A major use of systemic radioisotope therapy is in the treatment of bone metastasis from cancer. The radioisotopes travel ... Charged particles such as protons and boron, carbon, and neon ions can cause direct damage to cancer cell DNA through high-LET ... those who don't is seen mostly in the first 2-3 years and no difference is seen after 5 years.[6] ...
Y.; Peto, R. (November 2011). "Effect of radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery on 10-year recurrence and 15-year breast ... A major use of systemic radioisotope therapy is in the treatment of bone metastasis from cancer. The radioisotopes travel ... Charged particles such as protons and boron, carbon, and neon ions can cause direct damage to cancer cell DNA through high-LET ... Studies found, for example, that the IQ of 5-year-old children declined each year after treatment by several IQ points.[25]. ...
The half-life of carbon-14 is 5,730±40 years.[26] Libby realized that when plants and animals die they cease to ingest fresh ... where he developed the technique for dating organic compounds using carbon-14. He also discovered that tritium similarly could ... "Progress in the Use of Isotopes: The Atomic Triad - Reactors, Radioisotopes and Radiation", United States Department of Energy ... 9] He joined Berkeley's chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma in 1941.[11] That year he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship,[10] and ...
Inggris)Basic Knowledge of Radiation and Radioisotopes (Scientific Basis, Safe Handling of Radioisotopes and Radiation ... Lee, Y. K.; Hoon, Kelvin (1995). "Brownian Motion". Imperial College, London. Diakses tanggal 2007-12-18. Cite uses deprecated ... Diakses tanggal 2007-01-07. -describes the width of a human hair as 105 nm and 10 carbon atoms as spanning 1 nm. ... tritium), dll. Hidrogen-1 adalah bentuk isotop hidrogen yang paling umum. Kadang-kadang ia disebut sebagai protium.[51] Semua ...
Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe ... Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium ... Therefore, 210Po is used as an atomic heat source to power radioisotope thermoelectric generators via thermoelectric materials. ... in the same way as caesium or tritium (as T2O). ... Adloff, J. P. (1996). One hundred years after the discovery of ... The longer-lived 209Po (half-life 125.2±3.3 years, longest-lived of all polonium isotopes)[2] and 208Po (half-life 2.9 years) ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay ... Reaction with carbon Lithium is the only metal that reacts directly with carbon to give dilithium acetylide. Na and K can react ... Radioisotopes of caesium require special precautions: the improper handling of caesium-137 gamma ray sources can lead to ... analogous to the use of tritium.[97] Small amounts of caesium-134 and caesium-137 were released into the environment during ...
There is a section for each radioisotope with a table of radiopharmaceuticals using that radioisotope. The sections are ordered ... Carbon-11Edit. 11C is a positron emitter. Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging ... 3H or tritium is a beta emitter. Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging ... 90Y is a beta emitter. Name Treatment of Route of administration ... Carbon-14Edit. 14C is a beta emitter. Name Investigation Route ...
Zhang, Y. A.; Song, M. T.; Ji, H. S. (2002). "A rope-shaped solar filament and a IIIb flare". Chinese Astronomy and ... "Tunable synthesis and in situ growth of silicon-carbon mesostructures using impermeable plasma". Scientific Reports. 3: 1083. ... Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. *Accidents and incidents. *Policy. *Fusion. *Radioisotope thermoelectric ( ... Archived from the original on 12 August 2015.. *^ a b Langmuir, I. (1928). "Oscillations in Ionized Gases". Proceedings of the ...
In recent years the shortage of PET scans has been alleviated in the US, as rollout of radiopharmacies to supply radioisotopes ... Radionuclides used in PET scanning are typically isotopes with short half-lives[3] such as carbon-11 (~20 min), nitrogen-13 (~ ... Vardi, Y.; L. A. Shepp; L. Kaufman (1985). "A statistical model for positron emission tomography". Journal of the American ... The PET-CT scanner, attributed to David Townsend and Ronald Nutt, was named by Time as the medical invention of the year in ...
Reaction products of primary cosmic rays, radioisotope half-lifetime, and production reaction.[82]. *Tritium (12.3 years): 14N( ... Cosmic rays kept the level of carbon-14[81] in the atmosphere roughly constant (70 tons) for at least the past 100,000 years,[ ... Carbon-14 (5730 years): 14N(n, p)14C (neutron activation) ... from 0.3 mSv per year for sea-level areas to 1.0 mSv per year ... Carbon and oxygen nuclei collide with interstellar matter to form lithium, beryllium and boron in a process termed cosmic ray ...
Carbon-14 is radioactive with a half-life of 5730 years.. CO2 normally has a density of 1.83 g dm-3 but if made with carbon-14 ... The uses of radioisotopes[edit]. 14C in radiocarbon dating[edit]. Living things constantly accumulate carbon-14 but the isotope ... Hydrogen-3 (Tritium, T) is radioactive with a half-life of 12.32 years. ... The shapes of s, px, py and pz orbitals.[edit]. s orbitals are simple spheres:. The three p orbitals are aligned along the x y ...
... tritium bound in animal or plant tissue) can stay in the body for 10 years or more and regular exposure can lead to chronic ... Tritium, Phosphorous, Nickel, Carbon; Alpha and Beta - Strontium 90, Cadmium 113, Europium 155, Krypton 85, Tin 121 (Sn), ... 25 Natural sources of gamma rays on Earth come from natural radioisotopes, and from interactions with cosmic ray particles. The ... than higher tritium doses. Tritium can cause damage two or more times greater per dose than either x-rays or gamma rays ( ...
5. a 1 v i M., H e i d e 1 b e r g e r C, R e i d J. , To 1 ber t B. M.,Y an-k w i h P. E., Isotopic Carbon, Wiley, New York, ... W a r d D. R., Radioisotopes in Industry, Bradford J. (ed.). Chap. 8, New York,. 1953.. 28. W g a n d F S i m n ., Herstellung ... V e r 1 W. G-, Tritium: dosage, preparation de molecules marques et applications biologiques, Review Series 2, I. A. E. A., ... Over man R. . aj., Radioisotopes Techniques, McGraw-Hill, New York,^ 1960.. 18. P e t i I k a V., Metody pro detekef a ...
4.5×109 y. α. 4267 Primordial. Main Uranium isotope Plutonium-238 94. 144. 87.7 y. α. 5593 Synthetic. used in radioisotope ... Tritium (3H) 1. 2. 12.3 y. β−. 19. Cosmogenic. lightest radionuclide, used in artificial nuclear fusion, also used for ... Carbon-14 6. 8. 5,700 y. β−. 156 Cosmogenic. used for radiocarbon dating ... 717,000 y. β+, EC. 4004 Cosmogenic. exposure dating of rocks, sediment Chlorine-36 17. 19. 301,000 y. β−, EC. 709 Cosmogenic. ...
Lithium-magnesium alloy: tritium Aluminium nitride: carbon-14 Potassium chloride: chlorine-36 Cobalt: cobalt-60 Thulium: ... half-life 30 years), 189 TBq (37 g) each of strontium-90 (half-life 29 years) and its daughter yttrium-90, 9.12 TBq (4.0 kg) of ... In 1968 a paper was published in the journal Nature, on a study of radioisotopes found in oysters from the Irish Sea, using ... "So we got this rigged up," Tuohy recounted, "and we had this poor little tube of carbon dioxide and I had absolutely no hope it ...
Some of these radioisotopes are tritium, carbon-14 and phosphorus-32. Here is a list of radioisotopes formed by the action of ... The 152Eu (half life 13.54 year) and 154Eu (half life 8.59 year) were mainly formed by the neutron activation of the europium ... of nitrogen-14 forms carbon-14. This radioisotope can be released from the nuclear fuel cycle; this is the radioisotope ... The 133Ba (half life 10.5 year) and 241Am (half life 432.6 year) are due to the neutron activation of barium and plutonium ...
EnergyNow TV: Carbon and Nuclear Free in 40 Years? Interview with Arjun Makhijani (Video) March, 2011 ... Statement on Tritium before the House Committee on Intergovernmental Coordination, State of Georgia October, 1999 ... Comments on the Draft EIS for the Proposed Consolidation of Nuclear Operations Related to Production of Radioisotope Power ... Carbon-Free and Nuclear-Free August, 2007. *Carbon-Free and Nuclear Free - A Roadmap for U.S. Energy Policy (Issue #39) August ...
Methods of Preparation of Some Carrier-Free Radioisotopes Involving Sorption on Alumina. Report No. BNL-3746. Upton, N.Y.: ... Tritium (hydrogen-3) • To make tritiated water, which is used as a starter for thousands of different research products and ... Although carbon-11-labeled compounds were created shortly after the development of the cyclotron by bombarding boron-10 with ... FRONT MATTER i-xii * EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1-8 * 1 INTRODUCTION 9-18 ... 1 million a year in fiscal years 1990 to 1993 for some specific ...
Radioisotopes have become increasingly more important in many fields in the past 60 years or so. Some radioisotopes are ... The ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 taken in by living cells depends on the amount of cosmic radiation coming through the ... deuterium and the radioactive tritium. Radioisotopes are used in medicine, research and industry. Radioactive dating also uses ... The element carbon , for example, has two stable isotopes, carbon-12 and carbon-13, symbolized as 12C and 13C. The numbers 12 ...
Are half-lives of radioisotopes useful? The imbalance makes carbon 14 a radioisotope with a half-life of 5,700 years. Which ... oxygen-18 i the radioisotopes tritium and carbon-14. Radioisotopic dating uses radioisotopes to determine the age of an object ... Carbon-14, a weakly uses of radioisotopes in carbon dating isotope of Carbon, followed by. He became intrigued by carbon-14, a ... Carbon is the basic building block of organic. Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope of carbon. Carbon-14 exists in the air, and ...
Carbon-14 (C-I4) Cesium-137 (Cs-137) Coba)t-60 (Co-60) Hydrogen-3 (Tritium) (H-3) lodine-125 (1-125) 5,730 years 30 years 5.24 ... These institutions use a wide range of radioisotopes and organic solvents, depending on the type of research the facility is ... 1620 years 28.8 years 86.7 days Technetium-99 Z.lSxlO5 years flc-99) Uranium-235 7.13x108 years (U-235) Uranium-238 (U-238) ... States which already had authorization for the base RCRA program were given one year from July 3,1986 (two years if statutory ...
Natural and anthropogenic radioisotopes can be used to determine not only the mixing and diffusion processes of water masses ... Nozaki Y (1993) Actinium-227: a steady state tracer for the deep-sea basin-wide circulation and mixing studies. In: Teramoto Y ... Natural and anthropogenic radioisotopes can be used to determine not only the mixing and diffusion processes of water masses ... Fridrich J, Rutgers van der Loeff M (2002) A two-tracer(210Po-234Th)approach to distinguish organic carbon and biogenic silica ...
Tritium has a half-life (the length of time it takes for half the radioisotopes in a sample to become stable) of 12.26 years. ... Carbon oxides such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are made as by-products. In some processes, the carbon monoxide is ... Tritium has two neutrons and is radioactive, with a half-life of 12.33 years. In spite of its short lifetime, it remains ... A radioisotope is thus an unstable isotope.. SATURATED:. A term describing a hydrocarbon in which each carbon is already bound ...
Radioisotopes. 2000;49:623-36 31. Kim SG, Ahn YC, Yoon JH. et al. Expression of amino acid transporter LAT1 and 4F2hc in the ... Kanagawa M, Doi Y, Oka S. et al. Comparison of trans-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-[18F]FACBC) ... carbon-11; 14C: carbon-14; CT: computed tomography; DAB: 3,3-diaminobenzidine; DAPI: 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; DH: drill- ... Following this procedure, tritium screen (TR)-IPs (FUJIFILM Corporation) were exposed to dried sections with and without the 12 ...
Besides enzymes, other suitable labels include radioisotopes, such as iodine (125I, 121I), carbon (14C), sulfur (35S), tritium ... Patient ages range from 21 to 89 years (76.5% greater than 50 years old). Colorectal carcinomas were distributed by intestinal ... In the case of a radioisotope moiety, for a human subject, the quantity of radioactivity injected will normally range from ... For X-radiography, suitable labels include radioisotopes such as barium or cesium, which emit detectable radiation but are not ...
Lithium-magnesium alloy: tritium. • Aluminium nitride: carbon-14. • Potassium chloride: chlorine-36. • Cobalt: cobalt-60. • ... Ten years later, the Americans had probably developed alternatives to polonium. But Britain had not.. One highly placed source ... In 1968 a paper was submitted to the journal Nature, on a study of radioisotopes found in oysters from the Irish Sea, using ... Carbon dioxide. Next, the operators tried to extinguish the fire using carbon dioxide. The new gas-cooled Calder Hall reactors ...
where C = 10-7 years. For example, a radioisotope with a half-life of 10-7 years (or 3 seconds) would have an instability index ... "The origin of the carbon and the nature of the carbon reservoir, as well as the process by which microdiamonds can be ... How is 3He produced? Nuclear reactions first produce 3H (tritium), either as a rare fission product, or in one of the following ... "The first 700 million years of Earths 4.5-billion-year existence are known as the Hadean period, after Hades, or, to shed the ...
How many protons electrons and neutron does carbon have?. Carbon has 6 protons and 6 electrons because the atomic number is six ... with a half-life of 2.14 million years, 236 Np with a half-life of 154,000 years, and 235 Np with a half-life of 396.1 days. ... Twenty neptunium radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 237 Np, ... H3 (tritium) has one proton, two neutrons, and one electron. ASK A BRAND. ...
Tritium Detection - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Tirtium ... In addition to this demand, there is a demand for tritium for use as a radioisotope. Tritium can be produced economically in a ... Subsequent work has established the half-life of tritium at 12.36 It 0.03 years. Tritium decays by the emission of a beta ... F. Hagemann et d.;Stratospheric Carbon-14, Carbon Dioxide, and Tritium, Science, 130: ...
The best example of the importance of biological half-life is tritium, with a decay half-life of 12+ years, but a biological ... I also believe we need to move quickly to a low-carbon economy and that nuclear is a reasonable part of at least the short-term ... Dealing with both the short-lived and long-lived radioisotopes is a serious long-term problem, even if there isnt a ... From that I get a rated 1766 KWh per year. Figure a 20 year useful life, and the unsubsidized cost works out to $0.31/KWh, ...
Sulfur-35 waste with a half-life of 87.2 days should not be mixed with Carbon-14 waste having a half-life of 5,730 years. ... B. Requests for Approval of Projects Requiring the Use of Radioisotopes or Designation of a New Radioisotope Research ... 8. Personnel Frequenting Radioisotope Research Labs not Qualified to Conduct Research with Radioisotopes Personnel, students, ... A Radioisotope Inventory Control sheet (Appendix E ), shall be maintained current for each radioisotope present in the ...
Tritium is a byproduct of a nuclear reactor and is used in research. The beta emissions from Tritium are so weak that there are ... The non-occupational dose limits set by the government is 100 mR per year above background per year. It is up to the individual ... The carbon style dosimeters will still operate.. Gamma: If there is an indication of radioactivity, it is most likely gamma or ... Major Uses of Radioisotopes in the United States - Ohio University Dept of Laboratory and Radiatio Safety. ...
Some of these radioisotopes are tritium, carbon-14 and phosphorus-32.. Production modes. Here is a list of radioisotopes formed ... The 152Eu (half life 13.54 year) and 154Eu (half life 8.59 year) were mainly formed by the neutron activation of the europium ... of nitrogen-14 forms carbon-14. This radioisotope can be released from the nuclear fuel cycle; this is the radioisotope ... The 133Ba (half life 10.5 year) and 241Am (half life 432.6 year) are due to the neutron activation of barium and plutonium ...
Review of five years experience.. Bigelow, J. C., Herr, R. H., Wood, J. A. & Starr, A., Oct 1968, In : Circulation. 38, 4, p. ... Type Language Publication Year Top Authors Concepts Research Units Collaborators Open Access ... A review of six years experience with the ball-valve prosthesis.. Herr, R. H., Starr, A., Pierie, W. R., Wood, J. A. & Bigelow ... Técnica y resultados.. Translated title of the contribution. : Mitral commissurotomy with extracorporeal circulation. Technic ...
... carbon-13 for carbon-12, nitrogen-15 for nitrogen-14 or phosphorus-32 for phosphorus-31. More generally, there is an array of ... substitution, and the third set has a single tritium, C. 14. , O. 18. , or P. 33 substitution, respectively. 26. A method of ... The method of claim 17, wherein the radioisotope is an electron capture isotope of Re, Os, Ir, Pt, or Au. 19. The method of ... 550 y). Gold. Au. 191 (3.2 h), Au. 192 (4.8 h), Au. 193 (15.8 h), Au. 194 (39 h), Au. 195. ...
As of a few years ago, Canada was one of the worlds leading producers. Its not cheap, but you can buy some of it. United ... Radioisotope experiments indicate that the differens are due to an enhanced synthesis of lipid. Monkey kidney cells grown in 25 ... Deuterium like tritium appear to increase nondisjunction, but either agent separately is less effective than the two acting ... Since the protons of interest in proteins are most often carbon bound and thus do not exchange under mild conditions, method 3 ...
Several "discovered" just fractionally before the last 100 years, but 100 years ago if the same question had been asked. "what ... Foil carbon is only useful if it is cheap enough, and so it is getting cheaper. A sure sign of competition, or just a ... The Lithium jacket design of ITER is designed to breed tritium for fuel use from the neutrons captured. There is (will be) a ... The neutron activation of these shielding materials yields radioisotopes that must be managed, further shielded, and sometimes ...
A carbon-14 radiolabelled carbon can be incorporated into the side chain by using 14 C labelled precursors which are readily ... Radioisotopes and radioopaque agents include gallium, technetium, indium, strontium, iodine, barium, and phosphorus. ... Radiolabelled diketopiperazines can be prepared, for example, by reacting tritium gas with those compounds listed above that ... generally in the range of one year, more typically a few months, even more typically a few days to a few weeks. Biodegradation ...
  • Cosmogenic isotopes , such as carbon-14 , are present because they are continually being formed in the atmosphere due to cosmic rays . (
  • While some radioisotopes, such as strontium-90 (90Sr) and technetium-99 (99Tc), are only found on Earth as a result of human activity, and some, like potassium-40 (40K), are only present due to natural processes, a few isotopes, e.g. tritium (3H), result from both natural processes and human activities. (
  • 90Sr, 2 Bq/L 137Cs, 5 Bq/L 239Pu, 0.001 Bq/L 241Am, 0.001 Bq/L Jiří Hála's textbook states that soils vary greatly in their ability to bind radioisotopes, the clay particles and humic acids can alter the distribution of the isotopes between the soil water and the soil. (
  • Other reactor-produced radioisotopes continue to play a major role in research, and recent advances in many fields (such as molecular biology, including the Human Genome Project) could not have been accomplished without the use of 32 P. In addition, many of the isotopes useful for therapeutic applications, such as strontium-89 for the palliation of metastatic bone pain, are produced in reactors. (
  • Carbon Isotopes (12C, 13C, 14C). (
  • Whereas carbon-12 and carbon-13 are stable isotopes, carbon-14 is. (
  • The fact that hydrogen's isotopes have separate names, whereas all other isotopes are designated merely by element name and mass number (for example, "carbon-12") says something about the prominence of hydrogen as an element. (
  • In Australia there are about 560,000 per year, 470,000 of these using reactor isotopes. (
  • While some isotopes are only found on earth as a result of human activity (e.g. 90 Sr and 99 Tc), and some isotopes are only present due to natural processes (e.g. 40 K), a few isotopes are present as a result of both natural processes and human activities (e.g. tritium ). (
  • The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supplied isotopes and isotope-related services to the Nation and to foreign countries for more than 50 years. (
  • To simplify and focus the discussions, the isotopes were divided into three broad categories: stable and enriched isotopes, radioisotopes for research and development, and radioisotopes for applications. (
  • An atomic mass of 16 was assigned to oxygen prior to the definition of the unified atomic mass unit based upon 12 C. [6] Since physicists referred to 16 O only, while chemists meant the naturally-abundant mixture of isotopes, this led to slightly different mass scales between the two disciplines. (
  • To put this into perspective, we are all exposed to approximately 3mSv of radiation dose each year from sources like the ultraviolet rays of the sun and small traces of radioactive isotopes, such as uranium found in soil. (
  • By comparing the relative concentrations of both isotopes they could figure out the source of the radioisotopes. (
  • Nunes and co-researcher Richard Norris analyzed carbon isotopes from the shells of single-celled animals called foraminifera. (
  • The karyon problematic hither ar usu entirely(prenominal)y the isotopes of H as it is close exe runwayable to pull off muscularity from the unification of these atoms. (
  • The nucleus of carbon 14 contains 6 protons and 8 neutrons, as opposed to the 6 and. (
  • Carbon-14 is formed when neutrons from cosmic radiation collide with nitrogen atoms in our atmosphere forming. (
  • The unstable (radioactive) isotope is silicon-32 with 18 neutrons (half-life 170 years). (
  • The most stable isotope of sulfur (S-32) has 16 electrons, 16 protons and 16 neutrons. (
  • Neutrons add to the weight of the atom, so an atom of cobalt that has 27 protons and 32 neutrons is called cobalt-59 because 27 plus 32 equals 59. (
  • If this was a carbon-14 atom, with six protons and eight neutrons, through the weak force it just decayed into a nitrogen-14 atom, with seven protons and seven neutrons. (
  • The number '12' refers to its atomic mass, its atomic number is 6, which means that the stable version has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, and an atomic mass of 12. (
  • The glassy trinitite created by the first atom bomb contains radioisotopes formed by neutron activation and nuclear fission. (
  • Observation of Neutron Bursts Produced by Laboratory High-Voltage Atmospheric Discharge," Physical Review Letters , Vol. 111, 12 September 2013, pp. 115003-1 - 115003-5. (
  • September 12, 1933 Leo Szilard conceives the idea of using a chain reaction of neutron collisions with atomic nuclei to release energy. (
  • The global radioisotope market was valued at $9.6 billion in 2016, with medical radioisotopes accounting for about 80% of this, and it is poised to reach about $17 billion by 2021. (
  • Carbon southern belle dating is based upon uses of radioisotopes in carbon dating decay of 14C, a radioactive isotope of. (
  • u "It will be shown that the observations of near-ground AGR [atmospheric gamma radiation] following lightning are consistent with the production and subsequent decay of a combination of atmospheric radioisotopes [and new chemical elements] with 10-100 minute half-lives produced via nuclear reactions on the more abundant elements in the atmosphere. (
  • Decay Chain Examples Teacher Answer Key Cesium (Cs) Americium (Am) The number of years listed in the example is the half-life for each element. (
  • the particles disintegrated during the nuclear fission en Then it will decay over about a month to uranium- 233, which has a half life of about 160, 000 years, and is much less radioactive. (
  • These means that the third isotope, called tritium, can spontaneously decay and change into another isotope. (
  • What is the decay product of americium-241, and approximately what percentage of the original americium-241 will be still around after 1000 years? (
  • A radionuclide ( radioactive nuclide , radioisotope or radioactive isotope ) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable. (
  • Carbon-14 is cating radioactive isotope used to date organic material. (
  • After 32 days, 5 milligrams of an 80-milligram sample of a radioactive isotope. (
  • Carbon-14 is a weakly radioactive isotope of Carbon also known as radiocarbon. (
  • Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope of carbon. (
  • Tritium, hydrogen's one radioactive isotope, will be discussed below. (
  • In the early 1940s, phosphorus-32 and then sulfur-35 and iodine-131, were used to label antigens and antibodies. (
  • This research was conducted to see if the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus levels in this wetland impact the microbial numbers, growth rates, and physiological status in an Ohio fen. (
  • carbon-13 ( 13 C), nitrogen-15 ( 15 N), and phosphorus-32 ( 32 P) have served to map ocean productivity and to track the transfer of CO2 to seawater, marine biota, and organic compounds. (
  • I expect that the point that I should make at first is that radioisotope enters didn't start with the Manhattan Project and reached clear back into the '30's when Irene Curie first made phosphorus-32 using alpha particles. (
  • In this chapter, we focus on various applications of short-lived radionuclides (i.e., 7 Be, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 137 Cs and 234 Th) as tracers for particle and sediment dynamics to quantify several river, estuary and coastal oceanic processes with their concerned timescales ranging from a few days to about 100 years. (
  • DOE's preliminary environmental sampling data for published environmental data and to assess health metals, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, risks associated with Y-12 Weapons Plant releases at radionuclides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (
  • Nuclei that are radioactive are radionuclides and the atoms containing these nuclei are radioisotopes. (
  • Although a more comprehensive picture of the radioisotope content of STPs has emerged from this study, epidemiological evidence suggests that the levels of radionuclides measured in this study appear unlikely to present significant risks to STP users. (
  • Over the last 50 years radionuclides from both natural and anthropogenic sources have served as sensitive and increasingly indispensable tracers of ocean processes that are important in regulating climate change. (
  • The attributes of naturally decaying atoms, known as radioisotopes, give rise to several applications across many aspects of modern day life (see also information paper on The Many Uses of Nuclear Technology ). (
  • 04/23/10 Edit: If you came across this post by Googling to find out how many of our bodies' atoms are replaced each year, would you drop me a comment and tell me WHY? (
  • In social club to originate a merger proce dure, it is demand to inflame the compartmentalisation of deuterium-deuterium ( DD ) or deuterium-tritium 4 ( DT ) up to a temperature of non funkyer than 100 million Kelvin for the karyon to come salutary adequate to from each one new(prenominal) and fuse. (
  • In 1959, the WHO agreed to the IAEA taking primary responsibility for reporting the health effects of nuclear radiation despite the heavy concentration of IAEA expertise in nuclear physics (28 May 1959, WHO WHA 12-40). (
  • rus-32) and radiolabeled iodine (iodine-131) provided valuable information about the selectivity of proposed therapeutic regimens. (
  • Although carbon-11-labeled compounds were created shortly after the development of the cyclotron by bombarding boron-10 with deuterons, the boron-10(d,n) reaction, the production of longer-lived carbon-14 by the nitrogen-14(n,p) reaction in the nuclear reactor at ORNL was instrumental in establishing its widespread use throughout the field of biology. (
  • Proceedings of the Specialist Research Meeting on Science and Engineering of Unstable Nuclei and Their Uses on Condensed Matter Physics,KURRI-KR(CD)-177:8-12 2013(Mar. (
  • In one such variety of bond, with carbon, hydrogen forms the backbone for a vast collection of organic molecules, known as hydrocarbons and their derivatives. (
  • Because it is such a basic elemental building block, figures for the mass of other elements were once based on hydrogen, but the standard today is set by 12 C or carbon-12, the most common isotope of carbon. (
  • We can assume key building blocks of rocky planets like those similar to Earth, knowing to expect silicon, magnesium, hydrogen, iron, oxygen and carbon. (
  • 62], The exotic atom muonium (symbol Mu), composed of an antimuon and an electron, is also sometimes considered as a light radioisotope of hydrogen, due to the mass difference between the antimuon and the electron. (
  • Technical annex no. 12, New applications of nuclear energy: Using nuclear heat for the production of hydrogen and chemonuclear reactions. (
  • 22. Selected Reference Material on Atomic Energy, Vol. VII, Eight Year Isotope Summary, International Conference Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy at Geneva, 195523. (
  • Carbon-11 is an example of a particle that undergoes positron emission C 11 5B + 0 1e Notice the atomic number goes down. (
  • However, an up-to-date, organized description and standardization of research procedures and methodology on the use of radioisotopes for detection of resistant weeds, through different mechanisms of absorption, translocation, and metabolism in comparison with susceptible weeds are lacking in the literature. (
  • The mechanism of mass transfer at adsorption of mixture of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde on different brands of activated carbon is presented. (
  • 8. Krasnova, T.A. Kinetics of formaldehyde adsorption by activated carbon/ T.A.Krasnova, M.P.Kirsanov, N.A. Samoilova, I.V. Chekannikova// Ecological Congress International journal. (
  • Additionally, Lockheed Martin's Skunk Works claims they can put a 100 Megawatt fusion reactor on the back of a truck within a few years. (
  • The vast potential of nuclear fusion as an energy source led to the inclusion of a large section on fusion reactors in Chapter 12 in the second edition. (
  • Just as many new design for fission reactors have been proposed in the past 15 years, many new designs for fusion reactors have also been proposed and several are now under construction in the US and Europe. (
  • More than 50 years after the discovery of nuclear fission by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in 1938 and more than 50 years after the demonstration of a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction by Fermi and coworkers in 1942, the use of reactor products permeates nearly every field of science. (
  • This predates the discovery of fission by more than six years. (
  • The use of carbon-14, also known as radiocarbon, to date organic materials has been an. (
  • Since uses of radioisotopes in carbon dating of a given sample decays in 5730 years, and half of the remaining sample decays in the next 5730 years, radiocarbon dating cannot be used for samples older than around 60,000 years, or ten half-lives (1/210 = 0.001, or 1/1000 of the original sample). (
  • Radiocarbon or Carbon-14 dating is a technique used by scientist to date uses of radioisotopes in carbon dating, wood, paper and cloth. (
  • Radiocarbon measurements indicate that ages of deep waters increase from about 100 years for the North Atlantic to about 2000 years in the North Pacific. (
  • Over nearly 70 years of the 'postwar system', nuclear power has steadily become synonymous with the political order in Japan and deeply integrated it within its international institutional frame. (
  • The insouciant over-confidence displayed by Tokyo Electric Power Company managers (TEPCO) in the first two years of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, was an expression of the long-held technical monopoly over nuclear power plants enjoyed by the Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan. (
  • Estimates are made for production and accumulation of tritium in an expanding nuclear power economy, including the impact of an increased tritium production on local and worldwide populations. (
  • According to the official "German Nuclear Power Station Risk Study - Phase B", a German nuclear power station in operation over some 40 years has a 0.1 percent probability of a worst-case scenario nuclear incident. (
  • Half-lives of radioisotopes can radiiisotopes used in the radiometric dating of organic and. (
  • Carbon is the basic building block of organic. (
  • where A is an alkylating moiety, B is a divalent organic moiety of the formula: ##STR1## where Y is O, NH or N--CHO, x is a number from 1 to 4, y is a number from 2 to 4, and L is a monovalent label moiety, wherein B is exclusive of any portion of the alkylating and label moieties. (
  • Natural radioactivity detected in soil is predominantly due to the following four natural radioisotopes: 40K, 226Ra, 238U, and 232Th. (
  • A recent report on the Sava river in Serbia suggests that many of the river silts contain about 100 Bq kg−1 of natural radioisotopes (226Ra, 232Th, and 238U). (
  • In addition some natural radioisotopes are present. (
  • A recent report on the Sava river in Serbia suggests that many of the river silts contain about 100 Bq kg −1 of natural radioisotopes ( 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 238 U). [2] According to the United Nations the normal concentration of uranium in soil ranges between 300 μg kg −1 and 11.7 mg kg −1 . (
  • According to the IAEA, one kilogram of soil typically contains the following amounts of the following three natural radioisotopes 370 Bq 40 K (typical range 100-700 Bq), 25 Bq 226 Ra (typical range 10-50 Bq), 25 Bq 238 U (typical range 10-50 Bq) and 25 Bq 232 Th (typical range 7-50 Bq). (
  • The half-life of carbon-14 is approximately 5,730 years. (
  • The imbalance makes carbon 14 a radioisotope with a half-life of 5,700 years. (
  • I said that the inclusion of Cs-135 (with 2.3 million year half-life) and I-129 (with 15.7 million years) in his list was fairly subtle sillyness. (
  • The longest-lived radioisotope is 15 O with a half-life of 122.24 seconds , while the shortest-lived isotope is 12 O with a half-life of 580(30)×10 −24 seconds (the half-life of the unbound 11 O was not measured). (
  • 9-79 Americium-241, which is used in some smoke detectors, has a half-life of 432 years and is an alpha emitter. (
  • Cesium-137 has a relatively long half-life (30 years), but it is also present in the ocean as a result of nuclear weapons testing in 1950s and 1960s. (
  • The author reviews published information on tritium production and the pertinent factors that affect the behavior of tritium in the environment. (
  • Yet one of the safest and cleanest energy sources, one which emits no carbon dioxide gas, also elicits hysterical behavior from the Green movement. (
  • However, the main radioisotopes such as Tc-99m cannot effectively be produced without reactors. (
  • 1992). The use of radioisotopes is unique in that it provides a method for measuring biochemical processes in vivo, especially in cases in which the process is easily saturated, since radiation makes it possible to detect and localize quantities as small as only a few thousand radiolabeled molecules. (
  • At the moment of death, no new carbon-14 containing molecules are. (
  • Either way, just because a given neuron stays around for many years, this doesn't mean the cell is made from the same molecules all that time. (
  • In this section we will explore the use of carbon dating to determine the age of fossil. (
  • A dinosaur fossil field discovered this year in eastern China appears to be the largest in the world, a paleontologist told Xinhua on Monday. (
  • The researchers note that modern carbon dioxide input from fossil fuel sources is approaching the same levels estimated for the PETM period, which raises concerns about future climate and changes in ocean circulation. (
  • July 3, 1939 Leo Szilard writes to Fermi describing the idea of using a uranium lattice in carbon (graphite) to create a chain reaction. (
  • Just because a radioisotope lands on the surface of the soil, does not mean it will enter the human food chain. (
  • 12. The method of claim 1, comprising decoupling detection from fractionation by directing the fractions onto a target plate, moving or removing the plate, and subsequently detecting the fractions on the plate. (
  • The laboratory disposal limit for C-14 uses of radioisotopes in carbon dating 3 mCi per month. (
  • MR. LARSON: This was before any real organized plan to extend broadly the uses of radioisotopes, I take it. (
  • With the fiscal year (FY) 2009 President s Budget Request to Congress, DOE proposes to move the Isotope Program, currently in the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), to the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) within the Department s Office of Science. (
  • For the fiscal year ended July 31, 1998 (fiscal 1998), approximately 31% of the Company's operating revenues was derived from product sales and approximately 69% was derived from clinical reference laboratory services. (
  • Global temperatures rose at least 5°C (9°F), and the PETM warmth lasted 200,000 years before the Earth system was able to remove the extra carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. (
  • A recent paper reports the levels of long-lived radioisotopes in the trinitite. (
  • Neanderthal populations disappeared from Europe prior to the arrival of human populations around 40,000 years ago. (
  • Natural and anthropogenic radioisotopes can be used to determine not only the mixing and diffusion processes of water masses but also the sources and sedimentary dynamics of particles in aquatic systems such as rivers, estuaries and oceans. (
  • Do radioisotopes emitted particles influence their chemistry? (
  • Marine scientists have also applied various isotopic techniques to understand the sources, pathways, dynamics, and fate of carbon, as well as pollutants and particles that enter the oceans from land or atmosphere. (
  • The most common radioisotope used in diagnosis is technetium-99 (Tc-99), with some 40 million procedures per year, accounting for about 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures and 85% of diagnostic scans in nuclear medicine worldwide. (
  • There is widespread awareness of the use of radiation and radioisotopes in medicine, particularly for diagnosis (identification) and therapy (treatment) of various medical conditions. (
  • Over 10,000 hospitals worldwide use radioisotopes in medicine, and about 90% of the procedures are for diagnosis. (
  • The use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnosis is growing at over 10% per year. (
  • 12. The method of claim 11 wherein the composition comprises a bile acid selected from the group consisting of cholic acid and deoxycholic acid. (
  • 12. A pharmaceutical composition which is useful in targeting specific biological material which composition comprises an effective amount of the compound of claim 1 or 2 in admixture with at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. (
  • There has been considerable interest in recent years in the chemical composition of smokeless tobacco products (STPs), primarily based around health concerns associated with their use. (
  • People exposed to radioisotopes like Strontium absorb it into their bones and the radiation from these can still be detected many years later, so bone must be a permanent fixture, surely? (
  • In the human body, on the other hand, it is third, after oxygen and carbon, making up 10% of human elemental body mass. (
  • Technical annex no. 18, Applications of radiation and radioisotopes (EURISOTOP office). (
  • DOE) Y-12 Weapons Plant used mercury in a lithium recommendations for other activities to protect the separation process. (
  • The radio of carbon-12 to carbon-13 can provide a lot of information, such as whether the testosterone in your Tour-de-France-winning body came from your own enzymatic production or from a pill bottle , where it was produced from plant sources. (
  • Abstract Young earth and scientific creationism are two distinct but closely related issues: (1) Young earth creationism, often abbreviated as YEC, is a belief that the first 11 chapters of the book of Genesis are scientifically correct, in particular that a literal 6 day creation took place about 6000 and 10,000 years ago, and Noah's Flood was a global event that took place about 1500 years later. (
  • During the initial years after the discovery of plutonium, when its biological and physical properties were very poorly understood, a series of human radiation experiments were performed by the U.S. government and by private organizations acting on its behalf. (
  • In the case of human subjects, this involved injecting solutions containing (typically) five micrograms of plutonium into hospital patients thought to be either terminally ill, or to have a life expectancy of less than ten years either due to age or chronic disease condition. (
  • Intro] Without it, the sun would not shine, we would not have elements like radium or plutonium, and we wouldn't have carbon-14 dating. (
  • Animals and plants have a known proportion of Carbon-14 (a radioisotope of. (
  • Carbon-14 exists in the air, and plants. (
  • For some reason, which I have not yet figured out, at least one person per week has been asking me about the Carbon-14 Radiometric Dating Technique. (
  • Prior to looking at the many flaws in the Carbon-14 Dating Technique, it should be noted that no radiometric technique is reliable. (
  • There is a section for each radioisotope with a table of radiopharmaceuticals using that radioisotope. (
  • His graduate research involved the use of cyclotron-produced radioisotopes, and was thus among the first investigations in the U.S. to use these materials as tracers in uncovering metabolic and physiological processes. (
  • Maintain inventory of radioisotopes in use at VIMS/SMS based on input from researchers, to insure license type and quantities are not exceeded. (
  • For eight years Vemork's scientist had been collecting the exotic liquid for scientific scrutiny, supplying samples to the world's researchers for basic experiments. (
  • The researchers say that although the events unfolded millions of years ago, the findings provide clues that may help us better understand the long-term impacts of today's human-influenced climate warming. (
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Radioisotopes. (
  • Your search returned 32 results. (
  • Annexe technique no. 12, Nouvelles applications de l'energie nucleaire: Utilisation de la chaleur nucleaire pour la production de l'hydrogene et reactions chimionucleaires = Euratom's future activities. (
  • Annexe technique no. 18, Applications des rayonnements et des radioisotopes (Bureau EURISOTOP) = Euratom's future activities. (
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) played a pioneering role in the development of the first full-scale operating reactor prototype and the initial production of radioisotopes for applications in medical and biological research (Mirzadeh et al. (
  • In order to comply with the policies and procedures contained therein, as applicable to VIMS/SMS, this Radiation Safety Plan has been established for all personnel, students, or visitors using radioisotopes on the VIMS/SMS campus or aboard VIMS/SMS research vessels. (
  • The Director of Research and Advisory Services, Dean of Graduate Studies, Department Chairs, and Principal Investigators of radioisotope research laboratories are responsible for supporting the execution of this program within the scope of their respective duties. (
  • It should be noted that although Laboratory Supervisors/Managers may be responsible for the day to day supervision of RAM in radioisotope research laboratories, the Principal Investigator(s) are expected to actively oversee and supervise the use of RAM within their respective laboratories. (
  • All Principal Investigators with laboratories conducting research using radioisotopes must have adequate training and experience and should be named in Section 12 of VIMS/SMS's federal and state licensure. (
  • Research on the findings would be published at the end of next year, he said. (
  • Radioisotopes for Research and Development Who uses them and why? (
  • From its inception in 1927, Swann guided the Foundation for over thirty years, developing it into a major center for research in the physical sciences. (
  • Euratom's second five-year research program 1963-1967. (
  • After 50 years of research, there is now compelling evidence that the use of linear no threshold risk models are inappropriate at exposures comparable to those produced by background radiation. (