TritiumFood Contamination, RadioactiveInterleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Tamaricaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Radioactive Pollutants: Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Water Pollution, RadioactiveNorepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Nuclear Reactors: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Ketosteroids: Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.Crotonates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Propionibacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Autoreceptors: Transmitter receptors on or near presynaptic terminals (or varicosities) which are sensitive to the transmitter(s) released by the terminal itself. Receptors for the hormones released by hormone-releasing cells are also included.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.ThymidineIntegrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.UracilReceptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phenoxybenzamine: An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Nicardipine: A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Diltiazem: A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Body Fluid Compartments: The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Desipramine: A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.DNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Poly U: A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Mice, Inbred C57BLPhosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.beta Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta: A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Thymidylate Synthase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.1.1.45.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Being an unstable isotope with a half-life of 12.32 years, the rate of beta emissions decreases by half in that period. ... or beta light (since the tritium undergoes beta decay). The tritium in a gaseous tritium light source undergoes beta decay, ... Tritium lights or beta lights were formerly[when?] used in fishing lures. Some flashlights have slots for tritium vials so that ... Tritium lumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. Tritium emits ...
Later that year, Chien-Shiung Wu and coworkers conducted the Wu experiment showing an asymmetrical beta decay of cobalt-60 at ... Neutrino Betavoltaics Particle radiation Radionuclide Tritium illumination, a form of fluorescent lighting powered by beta ... The two types of beta decay are known as beta minus and beta plus. In beta minus (β−) decay, a neutron is converted to a proton ... Thus, ββ decay is usually studied only for beta stable nuclei. Like single beta decay, double beta decay does not change A; ...
Tritium is considered a weak radionuclide because of its low-energy radioactive emissions (beta particle energy up to 18.6 keV ... with a half-life of 12.3 years. It is produced in small amounts in nature (about 4 kg/year globally), by cosmic ray ... 2 million each for the next twelve. In addition, Canadian companies would supply a varying amount of equipment for the reactors ... Tritium is generated in the fuel of all reactors; CANDU reactors generate tritium also in their coolant and moderator, due to ...
An FRC is a magnetized plasma configuration notable for its closed field lines, high Beta and lack of internal penetrations. To ... Helion and MSNW published articles describing a deuterium-tritium implementation which is the easiest to achieve but generate ... Gradual displacement of existing supplies enables continued growth to 20% of world electrical generation after 20 years with a ... Russell, Kyle (14 August 2014). "Y Combinator And Mithril Invest In Helion, A Nuclear Fusion Startup". TechCrunch. ...
... however the additional neutrons in the hydrogen nuclei cause the tritium to undergo beta decay with a half-life of 12.3 years. ... The thorium-233 beta decays to protactinium-233 and then to uranium-233, which in turn is used as fuel. Hence, like uranium-238 ... The following year the U.S. Government received the Frisch-Peierls memorandum from the UK, which stated that the amount of ... Y.; Kochetkov, L. A.; Korobeinikov, V. V.; Liforov, V. G.; Manturov, G. N.; Matveenko, I. P.; Tsibulya, A. M. (1993). "Fast- ...
At the Solvay conference of that year, measurements of the energy spectra of beta particles (electrons) were reported, showing ... "Detecting non-relativistic cosmic neutrinos by capture on tritium: phenomenology and physics potential". JCAP. 1408 (8): 038. ... Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Earl, M.; Habig, A.; et al. (1998). "Measurements of the Solar Neutrino Flux from ... Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Martens, K.; Miura, M.; Nakahata, M.; ...
The helium hydride ion is formed during the decay of tritium in the molecule HT or tritium molecule T2. Although excited by the ... Pauzat and Y. Ellinger Where do noble gases hide in space? Archived 2007-02-02 at the Wayback Machine., Astrochemistry: Recent ... recoil from the beta decay, the molecule remains bound together. HeH+ is thought to exist in the interstellar medium, although ... Decay of tritium to 3He+ followed by its extraction of a hydrogen atom yields 3HeH+ which is then surrounded by the organic ...
30.1 years Gamma & beta G: 32, 661.6 B: 511.6, 1173.2 Americium-241 129.5 TBq/kg (3.5 Ci/g) 432.2 years Gamma & alpha G: 59.5, ... Tritium (3H) 1. 2. 12.3 y. β−. 19. Cosmogenic. lightest radionuclide, used in artificial nuclear fusion, also used for ... 717,000 y. β+, EC. 4004 Cosmogenic. exposure dating of rocks, sediment Chlorine-36 17. 19. 301,000 y. β−, EC. 709 Cosmogenic. ... 102,000 y. EC. Cosmogenic. exposure dating of carbonate rocks Cobalt-60 27. 33. 5.3 y. β−. 2824 Synthetic. produces high energy ...
Tritium is also used as a source of radiation in various products utilizing tritium illumination. ... ZnS:Ag - (Zn,Cd)S:Cu,Al - Y2O2S:Eu3+ or Y2O3:Eu3+ ... and beta-decaying isotopes, to create luminescent paint for ... Cerium(III)-doped YAG (YAG:Ce3+, or Y3Al5O12:Ce3+) is often used; it absorbs the light from the blue LED and emits in a broad ... Y3(Al,Ga)5O12:Ce (YGG), green (530 nm), 250 ns decay, low afterglow, for electrons, suitable for photomultipliers ...
For several years in the 1950s and 1960s, a by-product of the potassium production called Alkarb was a main source for rubidium ... Caesium-137 has been used as a tracer in hydrologic studies, analogous to the use of tritium. Small amounts of caesium-134 and ... Perey then attempted to determine the proportion of beta decay to alpha decay in actinium-227. Her first test put the alpha ... Redko, M. Y.; Huang, R. H.; Jackson, J. E.; Harrison, J. F.; Dye, J. L. (2003). "Barium azacryptand sodide, the first alkalide ...
Lost hair begins regrowing in 9 weeks and is completely restored in about half a year. The acute dose-dependent effects of beta ... in part attributed to exposure to tritium. Beta burns were a serious medical issue for some victims of the Chernobyl disaster; ... The beta activity was extremely high, with beta/gamma ratio reaching 10-30 and beta energy high enough to damage basal layer of ... Beta burns tend to be shallow as beta particles are not able to penetrate deep into the person; these burns can be similar to ...
A pebble is recycled from the bottom to the top about ten times over a few years, and tested each time it is removed. When it ... During this examination it became also obvious that the AVR is the most heavily beta-contaminated (strontium-90) nuclear ... which led to contamination of soil and groundwater by strontium-90 and by tritium. The leak in the steam generator, leading to ... In January 2016 X-energy was awarded a five-year $53M U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Reactor Concept Cooperative Agreement ...
This prompts a number of countries to begin fusion research; Japan, France and Sweden all start programs this year or the next ... They achieved compression of a deuterium-tritium pellet from laser-energy in December 1973, and on May 1, 1974 carried out the ... The experiment would eventually achieve a record beta (plasma pressure compared to magnetic field pressure) of 40% using a ... Work on linear pinch machines begins that year. 1952 Ivy Mike shot off Operation Ivy, the first detonation of a thermonuclear ...
13.8 billion years), and another 4 nuclides with half-lives long enough (> 100 million years) that they are radioactive ... Even the lightest element, hydrogen, has a well-known radionuclide, tritium. Elements heavier than lead, and the elements ... Severijns, Nathal; Beck, Marcus; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar (2006). "Tests of the standard electroweak model in nuclear beta decay ... Signs of cancerous cells might not show up until years, or even decades, after exposure." Following is a summary table for the ...
Antagonisti: Antipsihotici: Iloperidon • Risperidon • Sertindol; Beta blokatori: Alprenolol • Cianopindolol • Jodocianopindolol ... Nichols DE, Frescas SP, Chemel BR, Rehder KS, Zhong D, Lewin AH (2008). „High Specific Activity Tritium-Labeled N-(2- ... Y. Hemijski podaci. Formula. C18H22INO3. ... Ligandi 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, i 5-HT7 receptora ... 5-HT3. Agonisti: Piperazini: BZP • Hipazin; Triptamini: 2-Metil-5-HT • 5-CT; Drugi: Hlorofenilbiguanid • Butanol • Etanol • ...
Usually, they beta-decay to their nearby even-even isobars that have paired protons and paired neutrons. Of the nine primordial ... This is most pronounced by far for protium (1 H ), deuterium (2 H ), and tritium (3 H ), because deuterium has twice the mass ... Primordial nuclides include 32 nuclides with very long half-lives (over 100 million years) and 253 that are formally considered ... Soddy recognized that emission of an alpha particle followed by two beta particles led to the formation of an element ...
The production of beta particles is termed beta decay. They are designated by the Greek letter beta (β). There are two forms of ... For occupational exposure, the limit is 50 mSv in a single year with a maximum of 100 mSv in a consecutive five-year period. ... tritium), airport X-ray systems, smoke detectors (americium), electron tubes, and gas lantern mantles (thorium). Of lesser ... Bremsstrahlung is of concern when shielding beta emitters, as the interaction of beta particles with the shielding material ...
... through beta-emission, with a half-life of 22 years to bismuth-210 which decays, through beta-emission, with a half-life of 5 ... such as tritium) have long since decayed. Isotopes of elements heavier than boron were not produced at all in the Big Bang, and ... In this process, beta electron-decay of the parent nuclide is not accompanied by beta electron emission, because the beta ... 187Re normally beta decays to 187Os with a half-life of 41.6 × 109 years, but studies using fully ionised 187Re atoms (bare ...
The removed tritium decays to 3He with a 12.5 year half life. By recycling the 3He produced from the decay of tritium back into ... and tritium (tritons). A theory was verified by Hans Bethe in 1939 showing that beta decay and quantum tunneling in the Sun's ... This work was done at the NOVA laser system, General Atomics, Laser Mégajoule and the GEKKO XII system in Japan. Through this ... Tritium is a natural isotope of hydrogen, but because it has a short half-life of 12.32 years, it is hard to find, store, ...
This starts with a development of a useful beta for a highly asymmetric volume: β = μ 0 p ⟨ B 2 ⟩ . {\displaystyle \beta ={\ ... 225 Y-K Martin Peng, "Compact DT Fusion Spherical Tori at Modest Fields", CONF-850610-37 (December 1985) T.J. McManamy et al ... both to protect the rest of the reactor mass from these neutrons as well as produce tritium for fuel. The size of the blanket ... beta _{\text{max}}\,} with aspect ratio is evident. Beta is an important measure of performance, but in the case of a reactor ...
Tritium emits very low-energy beta radiation (even lower-energy than the beta radiation emitted by promethium) which cannot ... Where long-lasting self-luminosity in darkness was required, safer radioactive promethium-147 (half-life 2.6 years) or tritium ... Four of these - 223Ra (half-life 11.4 days), 224Ra (3.64 days), 226Ra (1600 years), and 228Ra (5.75 years) - occur naturally in ... "Tritium: The environmental, health, budgetary, and strategic effects of the Department of Energy's decision to produce tritium ...
His only sister, Maria, was two years older than he was, and his brother Giulio was a year older. After the two boys were sent ... This includes his theory of beta decay, his work with non-linear systems, his discovery of the effects of slow neutrons, his ... Along with Stanislaw Ulam, he calculated that not only would the amount of tritium needed for Teller's model of a thermonuclear ... During his years at the Scuola Normale Superiore, Fermi teamed up with a fellow student named Franco Rasetti with whom he would ...
U-239 rapidly undergoes beta decay to form neptunium-239, which rapidly undergoes a second beta decay to form plutonium-239. ... As an example, plutonium-239 has a half-life of 24,100 years, and a decay of ten half-lives is required before a sample is ... The WHO guidelines for radionuclides in drinking-water limits levels of iodine-129 at 1 Bq/L, and tritium at 10,000 Bq/L. ... Most of the reactors were shut down between 1964 and 1971, with an average individual life span of 22 years. The last reactor, ...
Beta emitters including H-3 and C-14 may be used when it is feasible to use sampling techniques to detect the presence of the ... Radium (Ra) is a product of Uranium-238 decay, and is the longest-lived isotope of radium with a half-life of 1601 years; next ... Tritium, Zinc-65, and Zirconium-95. Concerns have been expressed that both naturally occurring radionuclides and radioactive ... Their half-lives range from 40.2 hours (Lanthanum-140) to 28.90 years (Strontium-90). Amounts per injection of radionuclide are ...
The concept would need 300 tonnes of argon propellant for a 1-year round trip to the Jupiter system. Robert Bussard published a ... 41 tonnes of deuterium/tritium (D-T) fusion fuel would be required, plus 4,124 tonnes of hydrogen expellant. The exhaust ... Helium-3 is also produced via beta decay of tritium, which in turn can be produced from deuterium, lithium, or boron. Even if a ... Helium-3, an isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron, could be fused with deuterium in a reactor. The resulting ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay ... Odd-odd primordial nuclides are rare because most odd-odd nuclei are highly unstable with respect to beta decay, because the ... analogous to the use of tritium.[97] Small amounts of caesium-134 and caesium-137 were released into the environment during ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Royal Society of Chemistry. "Visual Elements: Group 1 ...
... it is formed by the beta decay of tritium. Tritium (half-life 12 years) forms the very rare and non-radioactive helium-3, which ... Renewing this source takes millions of years. Nuclear fusion is currently a poor method for making helium on Earth, but the ... In the past a great deal of tritium was made for nuclear bomb programmes, but I suspect arms reduction and the end of the Cold ... This reduction and increased demand for neutron detectors containing helium-3 after 9/11, when security agencies began to ...
The radioactive isotope of Hydrogen is Tritium. It is a beta emitter and its half life is 12.26 years 3 3 0 1T →2 He + - 1e (β ... Ordinary Hydrogen contains Tritium and protium in the ratio 1 : 1017. Tritium can be obtained in the nuclear transformations ... iii) Transition elements such as Sc, Y, La, Ac, Tc, Zr, Hf and to lesser extent V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Cu and Zn • On the basis of ... In the study of mechanism of various chemical reactions, Deuterium and Tritium are used as tracers. As the mass number ...
Tritium:. Tritium was used from the 1960s until the late 1990s. Also being radio-active, but more mildly so (beta waves). The ... The tritium light sources require no charging as in the case of Luminova and are guaranteed for 10 years although the life of ... Tritium Vials or Gaseous Tritium Light Sources (GTSL). Tritium lighting is made using glass tubes or vials with a phosphor ... The tritium in a gaseous tritium light source undergoes beta decay, releasing electrons which cause the phosphor layer to ...
Tritium Detection - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Tirtium ... Subsequent work has established the half-life of tritium at 12.36 It 0.03 years. Tritium decays by the emission of a beta ... W. M. Jones, Thermodynamic Functions for Tritium and Tritium Hydride. The EquiLibrium of Tritium and Hydrogen with Tritium ... 68. K. Yang and P. L. Gant, Reactions Initiated by Beta Decay of Tritium. IV. Decay and Beta labeling, J. Phys. Chem., 66(9): ...
... with a lifetime of 25 years. Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, H3, with one proton and two neutrons. It has a half ... This decay process is very low-energy, and the beta particles can penetrate just 6 mm of air. They are unable to penetrate ... Tritium gas tubes, absolutely safe. The dial comprises 51 micro gas tubes on the 46 mm model, and 48 tubes on the 40 mm model. ... In this Ball watch, tritium gas is sealed in a mineral glass tube, whose interior is coated with luminescent material that ...
Being an unstable isotope with a half-life of 12.32 years, the rate of beta emissions decreases by half in that period. ... or beta light (since the tritium undergoes beta decay). The tritium in a gaseous tritium light source undergoes beta decay, ... Tritium lights or beta lights were formerly[when?] used in fishing lures. Some flashlights have slots for tritium vials so that ... Tritium lumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. Tritium emits ...
... beta].sup.+]-decay positrons in deuterium. by Progress in Physics; Deuterium Properties Positron annihilation Observations ... from the tritium channel. The accumulation method with exposition time [t.sub.e[??]p ~ 0.32 years and a high-sensitivity ... N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... 13.] Zeldovich Y.B. Gravity, charges, cosmology and coherence. Physics-Uspekhi, 1977, v. 123, 502. [14.] Ogievetskii V.I. and ...
Tritium micro lights remain luminous for over twelve years, maintenance-free. Shock, water, sand proof, and functional from -50 ... Cammenga Beta Blade Tritium Folder Knife. Cammenga Beta Blade Tritium Folder Knife. 4 3/8" closed length. 3 1/4" Matte Finish ... Cammenga Beta Blade Tritium Fixed Blade Knife. Cammenga Beta Blade Tritium Fixed Knife. 9 3/8" overall length. 4 3/4" Matte ... Cammenga Tritium Wrist Compass. Cammenga Tritium Wrist Compass. Provides easy on-the-go referencing for land navigation at day ...
Later that year, Chien-Shiung Wu and coworkers conducted the Wu experiment showing an asymmetrical beta decay of cobalt-60 at ... Neutrino Betavoltaics Particle radiation Radionuclide Tritium illumination, a form of fluorescent lighting powered by beta ... The two types of beta decay are known as beta minus and beta plus. In beta minus (β−) decay, a neutron is converted to a proton ... Thus, ββ decay is usually studied only for beta stable nuclei. Like single beta decay, double beta decay does not change A; ...
A nuclear battery is provided by the incorporation through chemical bonding of radioactive tritium in a body of amorphous ... where t1/2 is the 12.3 year half-life of tritium), of 1.78×10-9 s-1, and mean energy of tritium decay beta, Em, of 5.7 keV, the ... The p and n regions contain a uniform fraction of tritium. Tritium decay betas lose their energy, throughout the p-n junction, ... Tritium decay beta particles traverse a p-i-n junction of the present invention, losing energy to the formation of electron- ...
alpha () and beta rays (-). Beta rays are electrons. *Using Thorium gas, Rutherford Soddy measured how much radioactivity is ... Parent X Daughter Y. Radioactive element decaying in a crystal 17. (No Transcript) 18. (No Transcript) 19. (No Transcript) ... Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium 0 neutrons 1 neutrons 2 neutrons. Radioactive isotopes spontaneously break down to more stable ... years of exposure to radiation. 3. WHAT IS RADIOACTIVITY?*REVIEW DEFINITIONS *Atom the smallest particle that retains all the ...
The Mainz Neutrino Mass Experiment measures the shape of the beta decay spectrum of tritium very precisely. ... A university is in Mainz, and several festivals are held in the city throughout the year. ... rich patrician homes and a one-thousand-year-old Cathedral (Dom) which continually commands a famous view over this regional ... The neutrinos are 3 of the 12 fundamental particles out of which the matter is made of. ...
Quarterly samples for beta emitters and I-131 and annual samples for tritium and Sr-90, beginning within one quarter after ... One sample every three years at every entry point when monitoring results are above half of the MCL but at or below the MCL.7,8 ... Quarterly samples for beta particle and annual samples for tritium and Sr-90, beginning within one quarter after being notified ... If the gross beta particle activity minus the naturally occurring K-40 beta particle activity at a sampling point has a running ...
Leakage] Density of beta nuclide increased by 17%, radiation detected from 2 more reservoirs ... Radioactive material released from Fukushima plant doubled up since last year. March 23, 2019 ... Tritium density keeps increasing beside groundwater bypass wells / 34,000,000 Bq/m3 from the latest data. ... Tritium density is also increasing upstream of the groundwater bypass wells.. From Fukushima Diarys research, at least it has ...
No other radioactive elements are in the water and tritium just isnt very radioactive - it self-dilutes in water really ... Slowly releasing Fukushima tritium-contaminated water into the Pacific Ocean is a very good idea. ... So while tritiums radioactive half-life is 12.3 years, its biological half-life in our bodies is only 10 days. Therefore, ... Tritium emits an incredibly weak beta particle that is easily stopped by our dead skin layer. It only goes a quarter inch in ...
Y and Tokunaga, N 1979 A low-background liquid scintillation counter for measurement of low-level tritium. In Behaviour of ... Kojola, H, Polach, H, Nurmi, J, Oikari, T and Soini, E 1984 High resolution low-level liquid scintillation beta-spectrometer. ... Jiang, H, Luu, S, Fu, S, Zhang, W, Zhang, T, Ye, Y, Li, M, Fu, P, Wang, S, Peng, Ch and Jiang, P 1983 Model DYS low-level ... In Chatters, RM and Olson, EA, eds, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Radiocarbon and Tritium Dating. USAAEC, ...
... at least as higher Beta is reached?. 6. How much did the internal magnetic field measuring coaxial cables limit achievable Beta ... We hear the target fuel for the first reactor is D+T. Is that to play it safe? What are the prospects for D+D, Tritium ... Do you feel that electron recirculation is a needed feature for the Polywell, or can primary high Beta cusp confinement of ... 7. Is there a reconciliation between this machines low Beta cusp confinement numbers and those claimed for WB6? WB6 was ~ 60 ...
Tritium, because of its low beta energy, cannot be monitored directly, so special care is needed to keep the working ... 2.6 years. 10 days (tissue). 500 days (bones). 327.5 days. 180%. 100%. 90%. ... Beta Energy. Radioactive Half-Life Effective Half-Life Biological Half-Life Maximum Beta range in air. Maximum Beta range in ... beta range in plastic. 14.26 days. 1155 days. 14.1 days (bone) 13.5 days (whole body). 611 cm (20 feet). 0.76 cm (0.29 in). ...
Beta - Tritium, Phosphorous, Nickel, Carbon; Alpha and Beta - Strontium 90, Cadmium 113, Europium 155, Krypton 85, Tin 121 (Sn ... tritium bound in animal or plant tissue) can stay in the body for 10 years or more and regular exposure can lead to chronic ... than higher tritium doses. Tritium can cause damage two or more times greater per dose than either x-rays or gamma rays ( ... See Folkers C., Tritium: Health Consequences, NIRS, 2006, here. 59 Mycle Schneider, Antony Froggatt et al., The World Nuclear ...
Table 1 Atomic number 38 Mass number 90 Half-life 28.1 years Strontium-90 emits ß (beta) particles. Table ... Tritium and carbon-14 are examples of these. Cosmogenic radioactive materials are also extremely widespread, with tritium ... Note] In the questions Y-N means that the mass number of nuclide Y is N. Problem Set #1: Nuclear Transformations [Note] In the ... Topics 1. Subatomic particles a. Alpha, α 42He 2+ b. Beta, β 0-1e c. Positron, β + 0 +1e 0 d. gamma, γ 0γ 1 e. neutron, n 0n 1 ...
Tritium is a relatively simple isotope with an 8-day half-life. Its health effects can be substantial, but its short half-life ... Strontium-90s half-life is around 29 years. It mimics calcium and goes to our bones.. That these are among the isotopes being ... The natural radioactivity of a 70kg human is about 5400 Bq (mostly due to beta-decay of potassium-40).. The additional ... And their make-up is far more lethal than the "mere" tritium that has dominated the headlines to date.. Tepco, the owner/ ...
  • The reticle on the SA80's optical SUSAT sight as well as the LPS 4x6° TIP2 telescopic sight of a PSL rifle, contains a small amount of tritium for the same effect as an example of tritium use on a rifle sight. (wikipedia.org)
  • However unless the amount of tritium is large the chances of something bad happening are slim, and none involve any kind of virus (retro or not). (biology-online.org)
  • Tritium (half-life 12 years) forms the very rare and non-radioactive helium-3, which can be separated from tritium gas. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • This reduction and increased demand for neutron detectors containing helium-3 after 9/11, when security agencies began to install more detectors at ports and border crossings, have made this rare helium isotope, vital for some research, even more expensive. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • Isn't Tritium converting to Helium an example of converting one element to other? (fstdt.com)
  • At such high temperatures, the chances of having tritium and helium in any other form but gaseous is nearly impossible. (fstdt.com)
  • In roughly 4 billion years the H-He balance will start a new reaction which will mean the Sun will become a Helium star and expand to a size that will engulf Mercury and Venus. (fstdt.com)
  • Helium tritium merge file: nas_he3-tu.orig.Z from WHOI P.I.: W.J. Jenkins Received from J.L.Reid office Jan 19, 2006. (ucsd.edu)
  • WHOI Helium Isotope Lab Data Release #3.0 August 31, 1989 Tritium and 3He from TTO-NAS and NATS 1981 Dear Colleague, The files on this disk (TTO.DAT and NAT.DAT) are a listing of tritium, helium and hydrographic data taken on two expeditions which took place in the summer of 1981. (ucsd.edu)
  • There are a total of 3235 tritium and 2893 helium measurements. (ucsd.edu)
  • We present the helium-3 data in two 'units' for use at your own discretion. (ucsd.edu)
  • C) salt salinity (PSU) oxygen dissolved oxygen (uM/Kg) trit tritium (T.U.) at time of station sigt uncertainty in tritium (T.U.) he3 excess helium-3 (T.U.)* del3 helium isotope ratio anomaly (permil)** che helium concentration (ncc/g)*** * the excess helium-3 is computed according to Jenkins (1987). (ucsd.edu)
  • 8. The reported neutron counts for the relatively large reaction space in WB7 seem modest compared to simple amateur fusor reports with only modestly higher voltages, and this is ~ 3 orders of magnitude less than that claimed for WB6. (talk-polywell.org)
  • A study of neutron source devices is also a possible area of investigation along with a new IFE study, but perhaps not for a year or so. (ucsd.edu)
  • The Process uses beta electron emissions that occur when a neutron decays into a proton which causes a forward bias in the semiconductor. (borntohack.in)
  • 23 The s-process Timescale for capturing a neutron can be 10 years or longer! (docplayer.net)
  • Its beta radioactivity travels roughly a quarter inch in open air and cannot penetrate a Kleenex tissue, so the glass vial its contained in is quite safe. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • In their study, food items were divided into eight groups, and the levels of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity varied tremendously from 70 to 10,885 Bq/kg and from 132 to 48,285 Bq/kg on dry mass basis, respectively. (springer.com)
  • 6. It is being projected that the radioactivity of coastal waters off the U.S. west coast could double over the next five to six years. (mondialisation.ca)
  • The potential of detection of ionizing radiations from 3 H, 14 C and 32 P, isotopes used extensively as tracers in biomedical and biological research, was the trigger that prompted the commercial development of LS counters, first by Lyle Packard, the founder of the Packard Instrument Company, USA and then by many others in the USA and Europe. (springer.com)
  • That these are among the isotopes being dumped into the Pacific is the worst news to come from Japan since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, whose bombings occurred 68 years ago this week, and whose fallout has been vastly exceeded at Fukushima. (economicpolicyjournal.com)
  • Since neither the characteristics of the Sun, nor the properties of radioactive isotopes for 5 years have changed, we will further adhere to the technique of primary work with the discovery (awareness), as it became obvious after 1 - 2 years of the ANRI effect. (scirp.org)
  • Using carbon-14 the battery would take 5,730 years to reach 50 per cent power, which is about as long as human civilization has existed. (phys.org)
  • Carbon-14, for instance, is used for estimating the age of objects within a relatively recent span of time - up to about 5,000 years - whereas geologists and other scientists use uranium-238 to date minerals of an age on a scale with that of the Earth . (encyclopedia.com)
  • With respect to carbon-14 and tritium, brief comments are made in response to issue 3. (nap.edu)
  • Alam, TA , Pollard, RD and Snowden, CM (1997) The determination of on-wafer noise parameters at W-band In: 27th European Microwave Conference and Exhibition- Bridging the Gap Between Industry and Academia (EuMC 97), 1997-09-08 - 1997-09-12, JERUSALEM, ISRAEL. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Cheng Y.S., Dahl A.R., Jow H.N. (1997) Dissolution of Metal Tritides in a Simulated Lung Fluid, Health Phys. (radioprotection.org)
  • The reported yearly air effluent releases of radioactive gases, halogens and particulates, and liquid effluent fission and activation products and of tritium from these plants are evaluated on a Ci/10/sup 3/ MW(e) basis, and the overall yearly averages for the various types of reactors (boiling water (BWR), pressurized water (PWR) and high temperature gas-cooled (HTGR)! (unt.edu)
  • Even if every nuclear reactor in the world melted down without containment in the same year, we would actually run out of nuclear reactors before we could get to this level. (newmars.com)
  • In addition, the core melt frequency of 1970s era reactors was about 1 in 10,000 years. (newmars.com)
  • Even at 1970s standards of safety, a world powered by thousands of reactors would not experience a major accident more often than once every few years. (newmars.com)
  • For that matter, without a deep potential well, are ion cusp losses dominating the picture over electron cusp losses in this machine, at least as higher Beta is reached? (talk-polywell.org)
  • The assessment of risks resulting from tritium exposure is based on ICRP models that enable calculation of doses in the tissues, by the use of a weighting factor W R , based on the relative biological effectiveness of the various radioactive emissions. (radioprotection.org)
  • Fluorescence-based microplate assays (ELISAs) were successfully developed and validated (Year 2) for the quantification of these two biochemical endpoints, and represent potential screening tools for EDC exposure assessments. (epa.gov)
  • citation needed] During manufacture, a length of borosilicate glass tube that has had the inside surface coated with a phosphor-containing material is filled with radioactive tritium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tritium is formed naturally by atmospheric processes as well as in nuclear weapons testing and in nuclear power plants . (forbes.com)
  • Over nearly 70 years of the 'postwar system', nuclear power has steadily become synonymous with the political order in Japan and deeply integrated it within its international institutional frame. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Several years ago, the authors were finally convinced of the reality of the existence of the anomalous neutrino radioisotope (ANRI) absorption. (scirp.org)
  • Five year Jubilee of Discovery Abnormal Neutrino Radio-Isotope (ANRI) absorption were began of existing in time from appear publisher article. (scirp.org)
  • Question Question #3 #3 How How were were the the elements elements from from iron iron to to uranium uranium made made? (docplayer.net)
  • Some porcelain teeth, artificially colored with uranium containing metal oxides to improve the reflective appearance, can expose the mouth to 1000 millirem per year for each cap. (flatrock.org.nz)
  • 3. An electrically active display according to claim 1 wherein the electrode comprises a metal oxide. (google.ca)
  • 4. An electrically active display according to claim 3 wherein the electrode comprises indium tin oxide. (google.ca)
  • The post acceleration beam transport system comprises 3 focusing solenolds, 4 sets of steering magnets and a 90/degree/ double focusing bending magnet. (unt.edu)
  • Tritium lighting is made using glass tubes with a phosphor layer in them and tritium gas inside the tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, phosphor degradation will cause the brightness of a tritium tube to drop by more than half in that period. (wikipedia.org)
  • If there weren't phosphor or glass in the way of the junction maybe, is a solar panel a beta-voltaic in the opposite direction? (hackaday.com)
  • [3] Thin coating of aluminium phosphate or lanthanum(III) phosphate is effective in creation a barrier layer blocking access of oxygen to the BAM phosphor, for the cost of reduction of phosphor efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seven tritium micro lights allow for navigation in low-light conditions, without the need for a flashlight or any other light source. (knifesupply.com)
  • this would be difficult to notice unless you had a newer vial to compare it to, and you'd be hard-pressed to find a flashaholic who is still using the same flashlight after 12 years. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • The vial is usually placed within a counter-sunk slot in the flashlight body and then entombed in optical adhesive - it would be very difficult for anything external to affect the tritium at this point. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • As tritium illumination requires no electrical energy, it has found wide use in applications such as emergency exit signs, illumination of wristwatches, and portable yet very reliable sources of low intensity light which won't degrade human night vision or easily alert others to your presence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The health risks of tritium-contaminated water are so low that all the countries of the world have no idea what regulatory limits to put on it. (forbes.com)
  • abstract download pharmaceutical dosage forms tablets second edition volume 3 1990 with automatic F, gonna, or j part. (inkcitybell.com.ar)
  • Higher effectiveness is seen in vitro in cellular studies when tritium is incorporated into DNA ( e.g. , as tritiated thymidine). (nap.edu)
  • The evidence available indicates that the relative biological effectiveness of β-irradiation from tritium is generally greater (by two- to threefold) than that of γ-irradiation and similar to or slightly greater (one- to twofold) than X-irradiation. (nap.edu)
  • Most watches with genuine tritium dials and hands are now quite old and over time, this paint will become very dusty and it is important not to inhale any of this dust. (timepieceservices.net)
  • The tritium toxicity is well-known but its health consequences are more difficult to evaluate, due to difficulties for assessing doses and to the very few cases of contamination over the years. (radioprotection.org)
  • I have always wondered how a solar cell painted with a gamma source and sealed would perform, perhaps it would just wear out like the pre tritium (zinc oxide? (hackaday.com)
  • Solar System formed ~4.6 billion years ago from gravitational collapse of interstellar dust cloud. (docplayer.net)
  • 3 If a system is vulnerable to asbestos contamination due to source water and corrosion of asbestos cement pipe or solely to corrosion of asbestos cement pipe, it shall take one sample at a tap served by asbestos cement pipe and under conditions where asbestos contamination is most likely to occur. (westlaw.com)
  • La toxicité du tritium est bien connue mais ses effets sanitaires restent délicats à appréhender du fait d'une dosimétrie difficile et du faible nombre de cas de contamination survenus depuis son utilisation. (radioprotection.org)
  • Battle Tested - Shock, Water, Sand Proof and functional from -50 degrees F to +150 degrees F. Seven Tritium Micro Lights allow for navigation in low-light conditions. (knifesupply.com)
  • The variables read are STATION HEADER: ista station number ndeps number of depths to be read stalat station latitude (N positive) in decimal degrees stalon station longitude (W positive) in dec. degrees id,im,iy station date (day, month, year) DEPTH RECORDS: icast cast number ibott bottle number pres pressure in decibars temp in situ temperature (deg. (ucsd.edu)