Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Pregnancy Tests: Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Battered Women: Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pregnancy, Tubal: The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Patient Readmission: Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Airway Extubation: Removal of an endotracheal tube from the patient.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.United StatesFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Pregnancy, Prolonged: A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Pregnancy, Abdominal: A type of ectopic pregnancy in which the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN implants in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY instead of in the ENDOMETRIUM of the UTERUS.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Great BritainVagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Pregnancy Maintenance: Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Secondary Care: Specialized healthcare delivered as a follow-up or referral from a PRIMARY CARE provider.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Respiratory Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with respiratory conditions requiring special attention receive intensive medical care and surveillance.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Emergency Treatment: First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Device Removal: Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Pregnancy Reduction, Multifetal: Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.Abortion, Therapeutic: Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Spouse Abuse: Deliberate severe and repeated injury to one domestic partner by the other.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Contraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Recovery Room: Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Natural Family Planning Methods: A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.SwedenEndometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Medical Tourism: Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted.[10] Among unintended pregnancies in the United States, 60% of the women used birth ... of recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage.[2] Globally 40% of pregnancies are unplanned. Half of unplanned pregnancies are ... of pregnancies are unplanned, and between a quarter and half of those unplanned pregnancies were unwanted pregnancies.[142][143 ... and a woman in subsequent pregnancies as a multigravida or as multiparous.[15][18] Therefore, during a second pregnancy a woman ...
... , also known as adolescent pregnancy, is pregnancy in females under the age of 20.[2] A female can become ... may be factors in teen pregnancy.[49][50] Most teenage pregnancies in the developed world appear to be unplanned.[50][51] Many ... In reporting teenage pregnancy rates, the number of pregnancies per 1,000 females aged 15 to 19 when the pregnancy ends is ... Teenage pregnancy. everychildmatters.gov.uk *^ "The Psychological Effects of Teenage Women During Pregnancy". Archived from the ...
... of unplanned pregnancies are aborted.[17] Among unintended pregnancies in the United States, 60% of the women used birth ... of pregnancies are unplanned, and between a quarter and half of those unplanned pregnancies were unwanted pregnancies.[154][155 ... and a woman in subsequent pregnancies as a multigravida or as multiparous.[19][22] Therefore, during a second pregnancy a woman ... The number of pregnancies in women ages 15 to 44 is 133 per 1,000 women.[11] About 10% to 15% of recognized pregnancies end in ...
Half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted. Among unintended pregnancies in the United States, 60% of the women used birth ... Globally 40% of pregnancies are unplanned. Half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted. Of pregnancies in 2012 120 million ... of pregnancies are unplanned, and between a quarter and half of those unplanned pregnancies were unwanted pregnancies. Globally ... The number of pregnancies in women ages 15 to 44 is 133 per 1,000 women. About 10% to 15% of recognized pregnancies end in ...
... , also known as adolescent pregnancy, is pregnancy in females under the age of 20. A female can become ... may be factors in teen pregnancy. Most teenage pregnancies in the developed world appear to be unplanned. Many Western ... In reporting teenage pregnancy rates, the number of pregnancies per 1,000 females aged 15 to 19 when the pregnancy ends is ... for women aged 15-44). More than 80% of teen pregnancies are unintended. Over half of unintended pregnancies were to women not ...
... moving to the US in the early 20th century and examines the lives of three women grappling with unplanned pregnancies at three ... Her 2005 novel Younger, about a woman in her forties who pretends to be in her twenties in order to get an entry level job, is ... Her first novel, The Man I Should Have Married, published in 2003, focuses on a woman retracing the decisions of her life and ... Redmond Satran writes novels that explore women's lives and issues from a contemporary and historical perspective. ...
Women in Africa, in general, get married at much earlier ages than women elsewhere - leading to earlier pregnancies. In Nigeria ... undertaken measures to inform the nation's youth about the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancy ... refers to the woman's age when the pregnancy ended. Consequently, actual numbers of pregnancies that occurred among teenagers ... Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of mortality among women between the ages of 15 and 19 in such ...
However, about two-thirds of women seek help outside of the main healthcare system to terminate the unplanned pregnancy, and 12 ... is believed to be the cause of many diseases affecting mainly rural women during their pregnancy. Since pregnancy is considered ... As with the pregnancy diet, warm foods are encouraged, such as hot curries. A woman's diet must consist of rice and vegetables ... During the last weeks of normal pregnancy, a woman may choose to go to a masseuse for "lifting of the uterus (yok thong) to ...
Most of those women reported that it was an unplanned pregnancy. This shows a 15% drop in pregnancies from 2008 to 2010. There ... Teen pregnancy is defined as pregnancies in women under the age of 20, regardless of marital status. Teen pregnancy rates have ... Of all women, 16% will be teen mothers. The largest increases in unintended pregnancies were found among women who were ... Teenage pregnancy imposes lasting hardships on two generations: mother and child. Evidence from U.S. studies show that women ...
... in 1959 by a group of evangelical Christian churches with the purpose of addressing the needs of women in unplanned pregnancy. ... Fertile embryos are then implanted in the woman who will carry the embryo to term. But the process results in a number of ... The Catholic Church has stated that frozen embryos have a right to life even before they are implanted in a woman's uterus. It ... Nightlight is a licensed non-profit Hague accredited adoption agency that provides pro-life counseling to pregnant women and ...
There is also a risk of an unplanned pregnancy in heterosexual relationships. Around the world, sex education programs are run ... In comparison, of women who turned 15 between 1964 and 1993, approximately 91% had premarital sex by age 30. Of women who ... A 1938 survey of American college students found that 52% of men and 24% of women had had sex. 37% of women were virgins but ... In the earlier years of the study, men reported more pleasure and greater anxiety than women, while women reported more ...
Overall, all pregnancies, including ectopic pregnancies, are less common among patients who have had a female sterilization ... or unplanned additional major surgery, while complications from anesthesia itself may include hypoventilation and cardiac ... Most methods of female sterilization are approximately 99% effective or greater in preventing pregnancy.[5] These rates are ... While female sterilization procedures are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, there is a small continuing risk of ...
In the United States, women who have an unintended pregnancy are more likely to have subsequent unplanned pregnancies.[16] ... Women with unintended pregnancies have less education and participate less in the workforce than women whose pregnancies are ... Unintended pregnancies may be unwanted pregnancies or mistimed pregnancies.[5] Worldwide, 38% of pregnancies (about 80 million ... Unintended pregnancies are pregnancies that are mistimed, unplanned or unwanted at the time of conception.[1] Unintended ...
Therefore, younger black women may experience stress with pregnancy due to social and economic factors, but older women ... Unplanned pregnancies and birth intervals of less than twenty-four months are known to correlate with low birth weights and ... Studies suggest that women who experience sexual violence before or during pregnancy are more likely to experience infant death ... Stress is a lead factor in inducing labor in pregnant women, and therefore high levels of stress during pregnancy could lead to ...
For women and men over age 18 the PRI is set at 330 μg/day. PRI for pregnancy is 600 μg/day, for lactation 500 μg/day. For ... are unplanned, and not all women comply with the recommendation. Approximately 53% of the US population uses dietary ... Pregnant women (RDA) Pregnant women (UL) Lactating women (RDA) Lactating women (UL) ... Pregnancy[edit]. Folate intake during pregnancy has been linked to a lessened risk of NTDs.[28] ,a meta-analysis of folate ...
For women and men over age 18 the PRI is set at 330 μg/day. PRI for pregnancy is 600 μg/day, for lactation 500 μg/day. For ... are unplanned, and not all women comply with the recommendation. Approximately 53% of the US population uses dietary ... Women with planned pregnancies and who are over the age of 25 are more likely to use folic acid supplement. Canadian public ... Folic acid is also used as a supplement by women during pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects (NTD) in the baby. Low levels ...
While not all teenage pregnancies are unplanned and unintentional, unplanned pregnancies may be associated with the following ... "Pregnancy and protection: Perceptions, attitudes and experiences of Australian female adolescents". Women and Birth. 22 (2): 50 ... "Teenage Pregnancies" (PDF). "Teenage Pregnancy - an adolescent health issue in Australia" (PDF). "Teen Pregnancy Crisis". ... In Australia, pregnancy and childbirth in teenage women are associated with obstetric and social risks, and there is evidence ...
Therefore, younger black women may experience stress with pregnancy due to social and economic factors, but older women ... Unplanned pregnancies and birth intervals of less than twenty-four months are known to correlate with low birth weights and ... Studies suggest that women who experience sexual violence before or during pregnancy are more likely to experience infant death ... Women carrying unapproved pregnancies faced state consequences and social stigma and were thus less likely to use prenatal care ...
Women of low socioeconomic status in urban areas are more liable to contract sexually transmitted diseases and have unplanned ... pregnancies. Global studies demonstrate that risk for contracting cervical cancer, exclusive to women, increases as ... AIDS-affected Hispanic women hold smaller salaries than average women, are part of poorer families, and are more likely to head ... "Globally, girls missing at birth and deaths from excess female mortality after birth add up to 6 million women a year, 3.9 ...
Brief Interventions for alcohol abuse reduce the incidence of unsafe sex, sexual violence, unplanned pregnancy and, likely, STD ... The number of women regularly drinking alcohol has almost caught up with men. 0-0-1-3 - a United States Air Force program for ... In the USA, binge drinking is defined as consuming more than five units in men and four units in women. It increases chances ... The chances of becoming dependent are increased greatly in men who have 15 or more drinks each week or women who have 12 or ...
Pregnancies by Polish women-workers were subject to abortion, and in case of birth, the children were taken by SS Lebensborn. ... and estimates a total of about 450,000 including unplanned and undocumented expulsions. Eberhardt notes that on top of these ... One practice that had terrible effects on Polish women was the refusal for female slave workers to travel home for birth. ... Łódź demanded that Polish women be kept at work until reaching 8.5 months of pregnancy. The aim was to help in miscarriage and ...
Most of those women reported that it was an unplanned pregnancy. This shows a 15% drop in pregnancies from 2008 to 2010. There ... Teen pregnancy is defined as pregnancies in women under the age of 20, regardless of marital status. Teen pregnancy rates have ... Of all women, 16% will be teen mothers.[11] The largest increases in unintended pregnancies were found among women who were ... Teenage pregnancy in the United States refers to females under the age of 20 who become pregnant. 89% of these births take ...
... unplanned pregnancy, unconsensual sexual activity and the struggle for access to abortion create other burdens for women. While ... Women are particularly vulnerable at the two extremes of life. Young women and adolescents are at risk from STIs, pregnancy and ... Women's health refers to the health of women, which differs from that of men in many unique ways. Women's health is an example ... Women who are socially marginalized are more likely to die at younger ages than women who are not. Women who have substance ...
... of the women planned for vaginal delivery still ended up having Cesarean section for unplanned reasons such as pregnancy ... Care in pregnancyEdit. Women with a multiple pregnancy are usually seen more regularly by midwives or doctors than those with ... As preterm birth is such a risk for women with multiple pregnancies, it has been suggested that these women should be ... As recently as 2015, there was no way to stop twins being born early.[26] In women with single pregnancies drugs called ...
Pregnancy interval makes a difference as women with a six-month span or less between pregnancies have a two-fold increase in ... the number of unplanned antenatal visits and may reduce the number of babies admitted to special care when compared with women ... Increased risk has not been shown in women who terminated their pregnancies medically. Pregnancies that are unwanted or ... Additional support during pregnancy does not appear to prevent low birthweight or preterm birth. Women are identified to be at ...
... s (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. Problems may include an abnormal appearance, short height, low body weight, small head size, poor coordination, low intelligence, behavior problems, and problems with hearing or seeing. Those affected are more likely to have trouble in school, legal problems, participate in high-risk behaviors, and have trouble with alcohol or other drugs. The most severe form of the condition is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Other types include partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD). Some accept only FAS as a diagnosis, seeing the evidence as inconclusive with respect to other types. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Surveys from the United States have found about 10% of pregnant women have drunk ...
... are health problems that are related to pregnancy. Complications that occur primarily during childbirth are termed obstetric labor complications, and problems that occur primarily after childbirth are termed puerperal disorders. Severe complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium are present in 1.6% of mothers in the US[1] and in 1.5% of mothers in Canada.[2] In the immediate postpartum period (puerperium), 87% to 94% of pregnant individuals report at least one health problem.[3][4] Long-term health problems (persisting after six months postpartum) are reported by 31% of pregnant individuals.[5] In 2016, complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium resulted globally in 230,600 deaths, down from 377,000 deaths in 1990. The most common causes of maternal mortality are maternal bleeding, maternal sepsis and other infections, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, obstructed labor, and pregnancy ...
... (HG) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and possibly dehydration. Signs and symptoms may also include vomiting several times a day and feeling faint. Hyperemesis gravidarum is considered more severe than morning sickness. Often symptoms get better after the 20th week of pregnancy but may last the entire pregnancy duration. The exact causes of hyperemesis gravidarum are unknown. Risk factors include the first pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, obesity, prior or family history of HG, trophoblastic disorder, and a history of eating disorders. Diagnosis is usually made based on the observed signs and symptoms. HG has been technically defined as more than three episodes of vomiting per day such that weight loss of 5% or three kilograms has occurred and ketones are present in the urine. Other potential causes of the symptoms should be excluded including urinary tract ...
... , also known as tubal pregnancy, is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo attaches outside the uterus.[4] Signs and symptoms classically include abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding.[1] Less than 50 percent of affected women have both of these symptoms.[1] The pain may be described as sharp, dull, or crampy.[1] Pain may also spread to the shoulder if bleeding into the abdomen has occurred.[1] Severe bleeding may result in a fast heart rate, fainting, or shock.[4][1] With very rare exceptions the fetus is unable to survive.[5]. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy include: pelvic inflammatory disease, often due to Chlamydia infection, tobacco smoking, prior tubal surgery, a history of infertility, and the use of assisted reproductive technology.[2] Those who have previously had an ectopic pregnancy are at much higher risk of having another one.[2] Most ectopic pregnancies (90%) occur in the ...
Alcohol in pregnancy is the use of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) during gestation. This also includes the time period between conception and awareness of the pregnancy. Alcohol use not only can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), but it can result in one or many other disorders and conditions. Not all women who consume alcohol during pregnancy will have a baby with all of the features and characteristics of FASP. Alcohol use during pregnancy also can cause spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, low birthweight, and prematurity. Not all infants exposed to alcohol in utero will have defects related to the alcohol consumption. Alcohol use during pregnancy can also result in the inability to care for an infant after the birth if the drinking continues. The use of alcohol during pregnancy is associated with domestic violence and potential harm to the infant. ...
... is a form of counseling that provides information and support regarding a women's pregnancy. Woman seeking pregnancy options counseling are typically doing so in the case of an unintended pregnancy. Limited access to birth control and family planning resources, as well as misuse of birth control are some of the major contributing factors to unintended pregnancies around the world. In 2012, the global rate of unintended pregnancies was estimated to be 40 percent, or eighty-five million pregnancies. Pregnancy options counselors educate women about the different options that are available and help guide them to a decision on how to proceed with their pregnancy. The options include abortion, adoption, or parenting. The job of a pregnancy options counselor is to neither encourage nor discourage a woman's particular decision, nor do they ...
Most pregnant women can engage in sexual activity during pregnancy throughout gravidity. Most research suggests that, during pregnancy, sexual desire and frequency of sexual relations decrease. In context of this overall decrease in desire, some studies indicate a second-trimester increase, preceding a decrease. However, these decreases are not universal: a significant number of women report greater sexual satisfaction throughout their pregnancies. Sex during pregnancy is a low-risk behaviour except when the physician advises that sexual intercourse be avoided, because it may, in some pregnancies, lead to serious pregnancy complications or health issues such as a high-risk for premature labour or a ruptured uterus.[citation needed] Such a decision may be based upon a history of difficulties in a previous childbirth. However, it has been observed that evidence in this area is ...
... , that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. When widespread vaccination is used, the risk for an unvaccinated pregnant patient to be exposed to a related infection is low, allowing for postponement, in general, of routine vaccinations to the postpartum period. Nevertheless, immunization during pregnancy may occur either inadvertently, or be indicated in a special situation, when it appears prudent to reduce the risk of a specific disease for a potentially exposed pregnant woman or her fetus. As a rule of thumb the vaccination with live virus or bacteria is contraindicated in pregnancy. BCG vaccine is used against tuberculosis and is contraindicated in pregnancy. Inactivated bacterial vaccine is used during pregnancy for women who have a specific risk of ...
Drug use during pregnancy can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus. Any drug that acts during embryonic or fetal development to produce a permanent alteration of form or function is known as a teratogen. Drugs may refer to both pharmaceutical drug and recreational drugs. The apprehension is not necessarily data driven and is a cautionary response to the lack of clinical studies in pregnant women. The indication is a trade-off between the adverse effects of the drug, the risks associated with intercurrent diseases and pregnancy complications, and the efficiency of the drug to prevent or ameliorate such risks. In some cases, the use of drugs in pregnancy carries benefits that outweigh the risks. For example, high fever is harmful for the fetus in the early months, thus the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) is generally associated with lower risk than the fever itself. Similarly, diabetes mellitus during ...
Tobacco smoking and pregnancy is related to many effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects of tobacco. A number of studies have shown that tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers, and that it contributes to a number of other threats to the health of the fetus. Ideally, women should not smoke before, during or after pregnancy. If this is not the case, however, the daily number of cigarettes can be reduced to minimize the risks for both the mother and child. This is particularly important for women in developing countries where breastfeeding is essential for the child's overall nutritional status. It is recommended for women planning pregnancy to stop smoking. It is important to examine these effects because smoking before, during and after pregnancy is not an unusual ...
... follows a system of behavior determined by local beliefs, traditions and attitudes, and is also affected by economic conditions and limitations of available health care facilities. In Haiti, infertility carries a negative social stigma; women are expected to bear children. The period of pregnancy and birth is viewed as a happy, celebratory time for a family, not a medical health problem. Pregnant women are expected to fulfill their work obligations up until their delivery. It is normal for pregnant women to experience an increase in salivation and to spit frequently, since they do not believe in swallowing their excess saliva. Women may sometimes carry a spit cup with them and feel no embarrassment in using it in public. Pregnant women are restricted from eating spices, which they believe may irritate the fetus. ...
... is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus". In biology, the phrase describes the state of an embryo or fetus. In legal contexts, the phrase is used to referred to an unborn child, i.e., gestational age until birth. Under common law, unborn children are still considered to exist for property transfer purposes. ...
目前科學界尚未就同性戀、雙性戀、異性戀的形成原因達成共識[42]。不過他們相信性傾向是由生物因子(包括基因)[43][44]和環境因子(包括出生順序、接觸特定的產前激素[45][46]、母親的產前壓力(英语:prenatal stress))的共同作用所促成[47][48][49]。 ...
Half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted. Among unintended pregnancies in the United States, 60% of the women used birth ... Globally 40% of pregnancies are unplanned. Half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted. Of pregnancies in 2012 120 million ... of pregnancies are unplanned, and between a quarter and half of those unplanned pregnancies were unwanted pregnancies. Globally ... The number of pregnancies in women ages 15 to 44 is 133 per 1,000 women. About 10% to 15% of recognized pregnancies end in ...
Teenage pregnancy, also known as adolescent pregnancy, is pregnancy in females under the age of 20. A female can become ... may be factors in teen pregnancy. Most teenage pregnancies in the developed world appear to be unplanned. Many Western ... In reporting teenage pregnancy rates, the number of pregnancies per 1,000 females aged 15 to 19 when the pregnancy ends is ... for women aged 15-44). More than 80% of teen pregnancies are unintended. Over half of unintended pregnancies were to women not ...
... that is to say 2 of each 5 pregnancies (OMS, 2010). In Colombia, there is an estimate of 89 unplanned pregnancies for each 1000 ... of the pregnant women imagined their baby, only 52.4% had planned their pregnancy, 69.5% had desired a pregnancy and 93.9% ... The proportion of women that felt increased anxiety during their pregnancy coincides with Rubertsson et al.,43 who found a 15.6 ... The ratio of women who said they felt increased anxiety during their pregnancy reached 32.5% in the third trimester. On the ...
Unplanned Pregnancy in Women. The same women at risk of HIV infection are also at high risk of becoming pregnant, often ... Unplanned pregnancy is not uncommon among HIV-infected women. In a study of 83 HIV-infected pregnant women in Atlanta, most ... 46 Programs for HIV prevention and decreasing the rate of unplanned pregnancy targeted to high-risk young women are important ... pregnancy rates in youth continue to be high. In 1995, the pregnancy rate for the overall population of women 15 to 19 years ...
Taking folic acid before and during pregnancy can reduce the risk of certain birth defects. These include spina bifida, ... This is because many pregnancies are unplanned. Also, birth defects often occur in the early days before you may know you are ... Women with a history of delivering a baby with a neural tube defect may need a higher dose of folic acid. If you have had a ... Nutrition during pregnancy. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 7th ed ...
If national statistics hold true, 50 percent of those pregnancies - approximately 46,500 - are unplanned. ... Colorado Women Need a Plan A for Plan B. Wendy Norris November 20, 2006 Uncategorized 34 Comments ... In the face of those figures and the well-known economic and health impacts of unplanned motherhood, Gov. Bill Owens still ... now available to women age 18 and over without a prescription as an emergency preventive measure against unexpected pregnancy. ...
Teenage pregnancy, also known as adolescent pregnancy, is pregnancy in females under the age of 20.[2] A female can become ... may be factors in teen pregnancy.[49][50] Most teenage pregnancies in the developed world appear to be unplanned.[50][51] Many ... In reporting teenage pregnancy rates, the number of pregnancies per 1,000 females aged 15 to 19 when the pregnancy ends is ... Teenage pregnancy. everychildmatters.gov.uk *^ "The Psychological Effects of Teenage Women During Pregnancy". Archived from the ...
Half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted.[10] Among unintended pregnancies in the United States, 60% of the women used birth ... of recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage.[2] Globally 40% of pregnancies are unplanned. Half of unplanned pregnancies are ... of pregnancies are unplanned, and between a quarter and half of those unplanned pregnancies were unwanted pregnancies.[142][143 ... and a woman in subsequent pregnancies as a multigravida or as multiparous.[15][18] Therefore, during a second pregnancy a woman ...
... of unplanned pregnancies are aborted.[17] Among unintended pregnancies in the United States, 60% of the women used birth ... of pregnancies are unplanned, and between a quarter and half of those unplanned pregnancies were unwanted pregnancies.[154][155 ... and a woman in subsequent pregnancies as a multigravida or as multiparous.[19][22] Therefore, during a second pregnancy a woman ... The number of pregnancies in women ages 15 to 44 is 133 per 1,000 women.[11] About 10% to 15% of recognized pregnancies end in ...
Unplanned pregnancies, including teenage pregnancy, perpetuated by lack of access to family planning are linked with higher ... Access to contraception is a key strategic lever for development - to empower women, improve investments in children, and ... three in 10 Ghanaian women who want contraception to space or limit births currently lack access. ... the first 1000 days. Securing access to family planning services therefore remains a critical component of building human ...
Conclusions: The results support a policy of offering healthy women with low risk pregnancies a choice of birth setting. Women ... Planned caesarean sections and caesarean sections before the onset of labour and unplanned home births were excluded. Main ... Participants: 64,538 eligible women with a singleton, term (≥37 weeks gestation), and "booked" pregnancy who gave birth between ... Perinatal and Maternal Outcomes by Planned Place of Birth for Healthy Women with Low Risk Pregnancies: the Birthplace in ...
What if she happens to be breech at term in the pregnancy following an unplanned and often unwanted cesarean? These women, who ... Overall, women with a prior cesarean had a VBAC success rate of 87%. Most of these were HBACs. While some women who who ... Women with no prior vaginal birth may be at slightly increased risk of perinatal loss with planned HBAC compared with women ... We take that to mean that when women have the option to try VBAC in the hospital, there is less pressure to attend those women ...
... and has supported comprehensive sexuality education as one measure to prevent unwanted or unplanned pregnancies. (General ... Church of Christ has affirmed and re-affirmed since 1971 that access to safe and legal abortion is consistent with a woman s ... 6 posted on 01/25/2007 10:00:30 AM PST by frogjerk (REUTERS: We give smoke and mirrors a bad name) ...
... women who initially preferred a home birth were less likely to be diagnosed with a medical indication during pregnancy. Women ... and the course of pregnancy and labor in low-risk nulliparous women in the Netherlands. As part of a Dutch prospective cohort ... we compared medical indications during pregnancy and birth outcomes of 576 women who initially preferred a home birth (n = 226 ... Low-risk nulliparous women who preferred a home birth with midwife-led care were less likely to be diagnosed with a medical ...
Eighty-six percent of pregnancies among unmarried women in their twenties are unplanned. [10] ... The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. "Unplanned Pregnancy Among 20-somethings: The Full Story." May ... Young Women In Their Twenties Experience Many Unintended Pregnancies. *One-third of all unintended pregnancies are to young ... Unintended pregnancy among young women in their twenties affects women of all races, education levels, and income levels. [10] ...
The Pregnancy Care Centre exists to offer support to women and families affected by an unplanned pregnancy. We provide ... Our services include unplanned pregnancy support provided by nurses and trained client advocates, prenatal education, doula ... This phone line offers clients the opportunity to discuss their anxieties surrounding an unplanned pregnancy and ask any health ... others were calling because they were seeking support for an unplanned pregnancy. ...
... female sex of baby, twin birth, unplanned pregnancy and residence in the central region. ... unplanned pregnancies and more pregnancy complications (29,35).. Mothers education might affect birth weight directly or ... Only 952 (9.8%) of the pregnancies were unplanned, and the interval since the previous birth was less than 2 years for 2366 ( ... Smoking during pregnancy and harm reduction in birth weight: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):67. ...
Most pregnancies are unplanned in the RLS studied, and AEDs were altered during pregnancy. Congenital anomalies occurred at ... This study aimed to assess obstetric outcomes and effects on babies of women with epilepsy (WWE) exposed to Anti-epileptic ... Management of epilepsy during pregnancy in a resource-limited setting (RLS) is challenging. ... Most pregnancies are unplanned in the RLS studied, and AEDs were altered during pregnancy. Congenital anomalies occurred at ...
Approximately 50% of pregnancies that occur in the United States yearly are unplanned. Approximately 50% of those pregnancies ... It was generally used to terminate pregnancies after visualization of the pregnancy on sonogram and a positive pregnancy test ... The decision to end a pregnancy is one of the most difficult a woman will ever have to make. It involves considering the ... Some form of birth control was being used in over 50% of women 30 days prior to women visiting the abortion clinic who are in ...
Counselling for unplanned pregnancy Not every unplanned pregnancy is unwanted, but many women will be faced with a decision ... popular choice for resolving an unplanned pregnancy. The majority of women (56%) resolved their unplanned pregnancy by choosing ... Unplanned pregnancy is a reality of womens lives. It is important that women have access to correct information and non- ... Three quarters of women told a national survey about unplanned pregnancy options that they felt no need to speak to a ...
Teenage pregnancy is a social problem that affects the entire community. It is important to examine the causes of ... ... surviving an unplanned pregnancy). As that may come as a shock, those statistics are realistic and accurate. In 2012 alone ... Historically, women have tended to begin childbearing during their teens and early twenties. During the past two decades the U ... Find Another Essay On TEENAGE PREGNANCY. Teenage Pregnancy Essay. 588 words - 2 pages Teenage Pregnancy There are a lot of teen ...
Background Unplanned pregnancy is a significant problem in Australia. Local data pertaining to use of the levonorgestrel- ... among whom rates of unplanned pregnancy and abortion are high [8, 9]. Local data indicate LARC use is associated with womens ... Unplanned pregnancy is a significant problem in Australia. Local data pertaining to use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intra- ... Health care providers can influence on womens choice of contraceptive: lower prescriptions for young women may reflect ...
Method: Women who had an unplanned and unwanted pregnancy within 12 months of their last pregnancy received standard abortion ... particularly the women who had had an unplanned pregnancy within 12 months of giving birth. Aims: To discover if women know how ... women had never experienced an unintended pregnancy whereas 220 (22%) women had had at least one unintended pregnancy. Users ... Background: Unplanned pregnancy is a multifactorial problem affecting up to 7% of women each year. Despite emergency ...
With these pregnancies representing large risk to the womens and childrens lives and health. ... If this need was to be met, 2.1 million unplanned births, 3.2 million abortions, and 5600 maternal deaths could be averted each ... "female assigned female at birth", as well as: cis man and cis woman, and cissexism and cissexual assumption. ... 47,000 Women Die From Unsafe Abortions Yearly.. For over 214 million women in developing countries, even the simplest and most ...
  • Although this statistic is appalling, it is an example of the rollercoaster of emotions related to pregnancy.Birth rates for United States teenagers age 15-19 declined steadily throughout the 1990s, falling from 62.1 births per 1000 teens in 1990 "to 43 in 2002, a reduction of 28%" ("U.S. Birth Rate Reaches Record Low" 2003). (brightkite.com)
  • that is, prevent bodily fluid contact, the spread of STIs and well, unwanted pregnancy. (chloepedley.com)
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies can have long-lasting and costly impacts on both individuals and wider society. (datawand.info)
  • Economic modelling estimates that the wider publicsector costs of unintended pregnancy and STIs will be £27-57bn cumulatively between 2015 and 2020 (FPA, 2015). (datawand.info)
  • Planned Parenthood is a place where both male and female patients can come to learn about proper birth control methods, be tested for STDs/STIs, to have cancer screenings performed, and receive many other services in regards to reproductive health. (arcataeye.com)
  • 4. Furthermore, violence against women, particularly domestic violence and rape, is widespread, and rising numbers of women are at risk from AIDS and other STIs as a result of high-risk sexual behaviour on the part of their partners. (coe.int)
  • As a result, young people shoulder a disproportionate burden of adverse reproductive health outcomes, leaving Americans ages 15 to 24 with nearly half of all new sexually transmitted infections, or STIs, and women ages 20 to 24 with the highest unintended pregnancy rate . (americanprogress.org)
  • Also, reproductive health policies and services often overlook the needs of young men, and few clinics provide young men with meaningful contraceptive counseling to prevent STIs or unplanned pregnancy. (americanprogress.org)
  • Disproportionately high AIDS rates among women of color may be markers for socioeconomic factors, such as the relationship of race or ethnicity with poverty and the association of poverty with substance abuse, prostitution, and sexually transmitted diseases. (aappublications.org)
  • Risk factors for adolescent pregnancy include: * Younger age * Poor school performance * Economic disadvantage * Older male partner * Single or teen parents Symptoms Pregnancy symptoms include: * Abdominal distention * Breast enlargement and breast tenderness * Fatigue * Light-headedness or actual fainting Missed period * Nausea/vomiting * Frequent urination Signs and tests The adolescent may or may not admit to being involved sexually. (phdessay.com)
  • Women and couples should be given full information on all methods, how each works, the benefits, side effects, impact of breastfeeding, and the level of protection that each provides against pregnancy and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. (wvi.org)
  • Inappropriate use and abuse of alcohol is often associated with lower academic performance and failures, sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies, vandalism, aggressive behaviors including sexual assault and rape, injuries, death, and prosecution for crimes related to the consumption of alcohol. (pace.edu)
  • Another limitation is that women with fetal death or abortion are excluded. (cdc.gov)
  • After an intrapartum referral most women will receive fetal monitoring, augmentation of labour, pharmacological pain relief, or a combination of these interventions. (springer.com)
  • Adolescent pregnancy and childbearing have distinct and reproductive health problems (2). (who.int)
  • Along with parents and mentors, Planned Parenthood is helping to guide the youth of today in understanding all the choices that are available in regards to reproductive health, whether it is reproductive health, birth control, unplanned pregnancies, or even healthy living. (arcataeye.com)
  • 1. At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, 179 countries agreed that population and development are inextricably linked and that empowering women and meeting individuals' and couples' needs on education and health, including reproductive health, were necessary for both individual advancement and international development. (coe.int)
  • According to U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein , an effective response to Zika "requires that governments ensure women, men and adolescents have access to comprehensive and affordable quality sexual and reproductive health services and information, without discrimination. (americanprogress.org)
  • Zika is an STI that can affect pregnancy and create potentially sensitive health issues for Millennials who want to keep details about their sex lives and reproductive health private. (americanprogress.org)
  • Planned Parenthood is an organization that provides low cost health care to women with an emphasis on reproductive health . (hubpages.com)
  • An updated systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing planned home births to planned hospital births among women with uncomplicated pregnancies. (mana.org)
  • Studies of planned home births attended by registered midwives have been limited by incomplete data, nonrepresentative sampling, inadequate statistical power and the inability to exclude unplanned home births. (cmaj.ca)
  • However, studies have identified folic acid supplements as an important source needed by most women to achieve the recommended amount of folic acid daily. (cdc.gov)
  • For adults, there is a daily upper limit of 1000 micrograms for the amount of folic acid obtained from fortified foods and supplementation. (vegansociety.com)
  • This recommendation applies to women who are planning or capable of pregnancy, but it does not apply to women who have had a previous pregnancy affected by neural tube defects or women taking certain antiseizure medicines. (annals.org)
  • It's good to be aware that the government is considering mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid, which has the potential to improve the folic acid status and health of our nation, including a reduction in the number of pregnancies affected by neural tube defects. (vegansociety.com)
  • Perinatal loss to the 64 women who booked for hospital delivery but delivered outside and to the 67 women who delivered outside hospital without ever making arrangements to receive professional care during labour accounted for the high perinatal mortality (134 deaths in 3466 deliveries) among all births outside hospital. (iastate.edu)
  • life expectancy is 9.3 years lower for men and 4.5 years lower for women in the most deprived areas of Wandsworth than in the least deprived areas (JSNA, 2018). (datawand.info)
  • The symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy are those presentations and conditions that result from pregnancy but do not significantly interfere with activities of daily living or pose a threat to the health of the mother or baby. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examination of the research literature shows, generally speaking, that increased involvement by men in fatherhood can benefit men, as well as women and children, in the form of better health. (who.int)
  • This phone line offers clients the opportunity to discuss their anxieties surrounding an unplanned pregnancy and ask any health questions they may have. (canadahelps.org)
  • Moreover, even women who fulfill the requirement of restrictive laws do not have access to abortion due to administrative, professional economical and health system barriers. (fiapac.org)
  • The lack of access to safe abortion and its social and health consequences for women in developing countries is one of the most unfair imbalances between rich and poor countries. (fiapac.org)
  • Hence, providing community health education based on radio and/or mobile phone messaging could be useful in positively influencing the knowledge and attitude of women on preconception care. (annalsofglobalhealth.org)
  • or where adverse social conditions alone, without reference to health, could justify termination of pregnancy. (glowm.com)
  • A statute authorizing abortion to avert a threat to the pregnant woman's mental health may be interpreted strictly or may allow most women to obtain abortions. (glowm.com)
  • Those such a grave health consequences teenage pregnancies segment of population aged from 10-24 years are labeled are termed a death sentence in poorest countries. (who.int)
  • Pregnancy and early childhood represent critical periods that impact health throughout the life-course. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Our data show that the majority of the mothers had already had contact with hospitals for mental health and substance use issues which suggests there could have been numerous opportunities to intervene to prevent unplanned pregnancy and provide intensive support with antenatal care and substance abuse treatment. (innovations-report.com)
  • The eating regimen performs a significant role in sustaining the health of a woman and making sure that the surroundings in which the embryo grows is a conducive and nurturing one. (christianlouboutinshoeoutlets.com)
  • Many women faced barriers to health facility-based care for nutrition, such as distance, time, quality of care, stocking of supplies, and the capacity and nutrition knowledge of healthcare professionals (105, 119). (lose-weight-exercise.com)
  • significant public health benefits for women, couples and children throughout the world. (who.int)
  • Future leaders in SRH are necessary to ensure the provision of high-quality services that can prevent future unplanned pregnancies and sustain positive public health outcomes for teenagers and other women. (fsrh.org)
  • SEATTLE and SAN FRANCISCO -- The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation announced today a $1 million grant to the Global Fund for Women, a grantmaking foundation that will provide smaller, strategic grants to women's groups striving to transform their communities by improving access to quality health care, education and economic opportunity for women. (gatesfoundation.org)
  • Race-ethnicity differences in folic acid intake in women of childbearing age in the United States after folic acid fortification: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2002. (cdc.gov)
  • SUBJECTS: All 558,691 registered births to women normally resident in the former Northern Regional Health Authority area during 1981-94. (iastate.edu)
  • Whilst it is clear that rural women experience disparities in relation to access to health care, there is a gap in the evidence on rural women's experiences of accessing an abortion. (rrh.org.au)
  • Services closer to home may help reduce inequities in access to health care experienced by rural women. (rrh.org.au)
  • Strategies such as broader use of tele-health and willingness of general practitioners to become authorised prescribers for medical abortions could help to reduce long distances to travel to services and the financial burden experienced by rural women. (rrh.org.au)
  • Despite global and national guidelines that set out obligations for health professionals to care for women seeking an abortion 5 , negative attitudes of doctors and nurses create obstacles for women 7-9 . (rrh.org.au)
  • OBJECTIVES: We applied our recently developed sensitive PCR (viability PCR) technique to measure viable bacterial CT load and explore associated determinants in 524 women attending Dutch sexual health centres (STI clinics), and who had genital or rectal CT. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our staff members and volunteers offer treat you with the utmost respect while providing the encouragement and health services you need for your pregnancy. (ccano.org)
  • Oxford Textbook of Women and Mental Health. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The vast majority of young women say that it is important to them that their use of health services remains confidential. (americanprogress.org)
  • The fact that the vast majority of their services are vital to the health of millions of low income women makes no difference to them. (hubpages.com)
  • the rate in the group of planned hospital births was 0.57 (95% CI 0.00-1.43) among women attended by a midwife and 0.64 (95% CI 0.00-1.56) among those attended by a physician. (cmaj.ca)
  • The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on folic acid supplementation in women of childbearing age published since the 1996 USPSTF recommendation. (annals.org)
  • Clinical studies show folic acid supplementation of 10mg per day may improve and normalize Pap smear results in women diagnosed with mild to moderate cervical dysplasia. (natural-fertility-info.com)