Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.United StatesMice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.JapanDisease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Radon: A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsSex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.SwedenSkin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.EuropeForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Mice, Inbred BALB CGenes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.DeoxycytidineDrug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
... lung cancer and cerbrovascular diseases. Among women the leading causes were breast cancer, alcohol related deaths, accidents, ... The number of overweight 12- to 18-year-olds has nearly tripled in the past four decades. 10% of boys and 15% of girls in ... According to a study from 2008, the percentage of the population aged 15 to 69 who had at some point in their lives tried ... "Causes of Death 2009". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2011-12-13. "Leading causes of death among men aged 15 to 64 in 2010". ...
... of all deaths inside China are from one or more cancers. , The ageing of the population is the major force driving the epidemic ... Br J Cancer 2004; 90: 2157-2166. Wang Y, Huang Y, Li A, et al. A survey of adolescent smoking and tobacco knowledge in four ... for boys aged 7-9 years, 25% for boys aged 10-12 years, 17% for girls aged 7-9 years, and 14% for girls aged 10-12 years. In ... For cardiovascular disease alone, Chinese people aged 35-64 years lost 6.7 million years of productive life during the year ...
... accounting for 1.4 percent of all cancers and 2.8 percent of all cancer deaths.[58] Median age of diagnosis was 58 years old, ... Nevertheless, statistics suggest that certain forms of primary brain tumors are more common among certain populations.[55] ... "Cancer Stat Facts: Brain and Other Nervous System Cancer". National Cancer Institute. 31 March 2019.. ... The average survival rate for all primary brain cancers in children is 74%.[61] Brain cancers are the most common cancer in ...
Norway has a birth register, death register, cancer register, and population register, which enables to authorities to have an ... The total population in Norway as of 2012, was 4,994,000. The life expectancy at birth was 80 years for males and 84 years for ... The probability of dying between 15 and 60 years for males is 73 and 44 for females per 1000 in population. The total ... Tuberculosis caused many deaths in the late 1800s while leprosy rates declined. Mortality of tuberculosis was high around 1900 ...
Statistisk sentralbyrå (2017). "Table: 06913: Population 1 January and population changes during the calendar year (M)" (in ... More than 90 persons, Norwegian and Sami, were given death sentences. After 1850, the town saw a marked expansion. The ... interfere with television and radio reception and have been blamed by some residents for a rash of miscarriages and cancer ... The municipality's population density is 3.6 inhabitants per square kilometre (9.3/sq mi) and its population has decreased by 8 ...
Because treatment and diagnosis of cancer and diabetes decreased in the 1990s, complications and deaths resulting from those ... In 2010 was the life expectancy 58 years, down from 65 years 30 years prior. By 2011 tuberculosis had reached levels 6 times ... Health services was free and available for the majority of the population. The country had a good sanitary infrastructure and ... For females it was 71.85 years ranked as country number 127 higher than that for males which was 67,44 years but ranked as ...
It is one of the reasons for acid rains and cancers in the local population, near the cosmodrome. Valery Yakovlev, a head of ... Russia wanted to sign a 99-year lease for Baikonur, but agreed to a $115 million annual lease of the site for 20 years with an ... Russian scientist Afanasiy Ilich Tobonov researched mass animal deaths in the 1990s and concluded that the mass deaths of birds ... The rent price-which remained fixed at US$115,000,000 per year - is the source of a long-running dispute between the two ...
Carcinogens induce cancer, or increase the likelihood of cancer occurring.. *Reproductively toxic substances cause adverse ... Matsumura Y, Ananthaswamy HN (March 2004). "Toxic effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin". Toxicology and Applied ... A single exposure to a toxic substance which may result in severe biological harm or death; acute exposures are usually ... a population-level measure of toxicity is often used which relates the probabilities of an outcome for a given individual in a ...
... a decrease of 1 in 2000 deaths from breast cancer over 10 years or a relative decrease of 15% from breast cancer).[10] ... "Population attributable risks for modifiable lifestyle factors and breast cancer in New Zealand women". IMJ. 43 (11): 1198-1204 ... In 2008, breast cancer caused 458,503 deaths worldwide (13.7% of cancer deaths in women and 6.0% of all cancer deaths for men ... Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)". NCI ...
Gunn, L; Ding, C; Liu, M; Ma, Y; Qi, C; Cai, Y; Hu, X; Aggarwal, D; Zhang, HG; Yan, J (Sep 15, 2012). "Opposing roles for ... On the other hand, many cells of the immune system contribute to cancer immunology, suppressing cancer. Molecular intersection ... Recent studies demonstrated that caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis, a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death, drives CD4 ... though this concern rarely applies to the general population. Given that localized acute inflammation is a necessary component ...
Often, there are prayers to fit specific occasions, such as the blessing of a meal, the birth or death of a loved one, other ... However, two hundred years later, the perception of spirituality, in many instances, appears to be gaining in strength (2009). ... He therefore compared longevity in the British Royal family with that of the general population, and found no difference. While ... "Pell adamant prayer cures cancer". The Age. Melbourne. 2009-12-21. Anonymous (July 20, 2005), "Skeptico - Prayer still useless ...
Gutman Y, Berenbaum M (1998). Anatomy of the Auschwitz death camp (1st ed.). Bloomington: Publ. in association with the United ... Anguiano L, Mayer DK, Piven ML, Rosenstein D (Jul-Aug 2012). "A literature review of suicide in cancer patients". Cancer ... There is little data on the effects of screening the general population on the ultimate rate of suicide.[165][166] Screening ... Deaths. 793,000 / 1.5% of deaths (2016)[8][9]. The most commonly used method of suicide varies between countries, and is partly ...
Average population (x 1000)[145] Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) ... Chaney, Sandra (15 July 2013). Nature Of The Miracle Years: Conservation in West Germany, 1945-1975. Berghahn Books. ISBN ... Federal grants were increased, especially for the Cancer Research Centre in Heidelberg, while a Federal Institute for Sport ... Population and vital statistics[edit]. Total population of West Germany from 1950 to 1990, as collected by the Statistisches ...
Tyagi, T; Ahmad, S; Gupta, N; Sahu, A; Ahmad, Y; Nair, V; Chatterjee, T; Bajaj, N; Sengupta, S; Ganju, L; Singh, S. B; Ashraf, ... The normal range has been confirmed to be the same in the elderly and Spanish populations. Structurally the platelet can be ... Sometimes a person such as a cancer patient who requires routine transfusions of platelets will receive repeated donations from ... 2007). "Programmed anuclear cell death delimits platelet life span". Cell. 128 (6): 1173-86. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.037. ...
Population density - (population/km2) 1,070/km2 People below poverty line - 60% Population doubling rate - 25-30 years GDP ( ... In Bangladesh the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 8 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women 1 in 110. ... Cancer and Communicable diseases: Tuberculosis, HIV, Tetanus, Malaria, Measles, Rubella, leprosy and so on. The health problems ... Doctor to population ratio - 1:2,000 Nurse to population ratio - 1:5,000 Population - 157.9 million Rural population - 77% ...
The deaths of many centenarians had not been reported, casting doubt on the country's reputation for having a large population ... "Population 31 Dec by Area, Urban-rural classification, Sex, Age and Year-Tilastokeskuksen PX-Web tietokannat". Tilastokeskuksen ... Bernstein H, Payne CM, Bernstein C, Garewal H, Dvorak K (2008). Cancer and aging as consequences of un-repaired DNA damage. In ... "Population by age, sex and urban/rural residence: latest available year, 2003-2012" Retrieved 20 May 2016. "Popolazione ...
In India, 250,000 snakebites are recorded in a single year, with as many as 50,000 recorded initial deaths. The WHO estimates ... The cytotoxic effect of snake venom is being researched as a potential treatment for cancers. Amphibians and reptiles portal ... and a small unusual population of garter snakes in the U.S. state of Oregon retains enough toxins in their livers from the ... An older snake may shed its skin only once or twice a year. But a younger snake, still growing, may shed up to four times a ...
Population ageing has three possible causes: migration, longer life expectancy (decreased death rate) and decreased birth rate ... at 508 years, the Greenland shark at 400 years, various deep-sea tube worms at over 300 years, fish like the sturgeon and the ... "Physical activity and risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke events: ... These numbers are close to the ratio of the maximum longevities of the two species (120 years vs. 20 years, a 6/1 ratio). The ...
... out of black male prison population of 95,000] and save $230-$320 million per year in direct costs."[70] The majority of the ... "Black Patients Miss Out On Promising Cancer Drugs - ProPublica". ProPublica. Caroline Chen,Riley Wong. 2018-09-19. Retrieved ... A 2014 study on the application of the death penalty in Connecticut over the period 1973-2007 found "that minority defendants ... "Centro de Estudios de Políticas y Prácticas en Educación CEPPE de la U. Católica y Ediciones UC (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-05 ...
Ghosh, Pallab (1 March 2018). "'Oldest tattoo' found on 5,000-year-old Egyptian mummies". BBC. Retrieved 8 March 2018.. ... "Women choose body art over reconstruction after cancer battle: Undergoing a mastectomy is a harrowing experience, but tattoos ... Many studies have been done of the tattooed population and society's view of tattoos. In June 2006, the Journal of the American ... or each tear represents the death of a friend. At the same time, members of the U.S. military have an equally well-established ...
Kravchenko J, Akushevich I, Manton, KG (2009). Cancer mortality and morbidity patterns in the U. S. population: an ... "How much of the decrease in cancer death rates in the United States is attributable to reductions in tobacco smoking?". Tob ... www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerglossary/index. pristupljeno September 11, 2013. *↑ "What is cancer?". cancer.gov. National Cancer ... "Heredity and Cancer". American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/geneticsandcancer/heredity-and-cancer ...
On 25 November 1974, he died of complications from cancer. Thant's death occurred only two years after a transition of Ne Win's ... down the People's Peace Committee in November 1963 and the way that the protests spread from students to the general population ... According to Thant Myint-U, U Thant's grandson who was eight years old at the time, a large number of members of the public ... Selth, Andrew (1989). Death of a Hero: The U Thant Disturbances in Burma, December 1974. Griffith University, Brisbane: Centre ...
Maternal mortality or maternal death is defined by WHO as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination ... cervical cancer, or ovarian cancer. Women and men may have different symptoms of an illness and may also respond to medical ... most Western countries currently experience a sub replacement fertility rate which may lead to population ageing and population ... 15-year-old girls tend to show much higher expectations for their careers than boys of the same age. While women account for ...
Yip J, Shen Y, Berndt MC, Andrews RK (February 2005). "Primary platelet adhesion receptors". IUBMB Life. 57 (2): 103-8. doi: ... The normal range has been confirmed to be the same in the elderly[12] and Spanish populations.[13] ... Berridge, Michael J. (1 October 2014). "Module 11: Cell Stress, Inflammatory Responses and Cell Death". Cell Signalling Biology ... Sometimes a person such as a cancer patient who requires routine transfusions of platelets will receive repeated donations from ...
Reksten was at the time badly marked by his cancer. The following year he died of his disease, was declared bankrupt post ... At his death in 1980, all was lost; he left behind a debt of about £100,000,000. Hilmar Reksten grew up in a small flat at ... Among the general population of Bergen, he was well-liked. In 2014 Bergens Tidende said that "When the Dagsrevyen reporter ... In August 1939 his wife Bjørg Elisabeth Johannessen died, only 36 years old, and after only 14 years of marriage. At that time ...
According to a meta-analysis in the Cochrane Collaboration, two large trials in Russia and Shanghai found no beneficial effects of screening by breast self-examination "but do suggest increased harm in terms of increased numbers of benign lesions identified and an increased number of biopsies performed". They concluded, "At present, screening by breast self-examination or physical examination cannot be recommended."[1]. Although breast self-examination increases the number of biopsies performed on women, and thus revenue for the breast cancer industry[citation needed], it does not reduce mortality from breast cancer. In a large clinical trial involving more than 260,000 female Chinese factory workers, half were carefully taught by nurses at their factories to perform monthly breast self-exam, and the other half were not. The women taught self-exam detected more benign (normal or harmless lumps) or early-stage breast disease, but equal ...
Breast cancer is cancer in the breast. In the world, breast cancer is the fifth-most common cause of cancer death. The first four are lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colon cancer. In 2005, breast cancer caused 502,000 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths) in the world.[1] Among all women in the world, breast cancer is the most common cancer.[1] In the United States, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of ...
This is a timeline of pancreatic cancer, describing especially major discoveries and advances in treatment of the disease. Timeline of colorectal cancer Timeline of kidney cancer Timeline of lung cancer Timeline of brain cancer Timeline of liver cancer Timeline of bladder cancer "Pancreatic Cancer". Kolodecik, T; Shugrue, C; Ashat, M; Thrower, EC (2013). "Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: underlying mechanisms and potential targets". Front Physiol. 4: 415. doi:10.3389/fphys.2013.00415. PMC 3893685 . PMID 24474939. "Pancreatic cancer statistics". Retrieved 18 September 2016. "Pancreatic cancer: yesterday, today and tomorrow". Retrieved 13 ...
According to the latest numbers released by the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, surpassed only by heart disease. The CDC reports over half a million deaths from cancer in 2014, and the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) reports 454.8 new cases of cancer per 100,000 people per year, with an estimate of 1,685,210 new cases of cancer diagnosed in 2016. Between 2008 and 2012, the number of cancer deaths was 171.2 per 100,000 men and women per year. Globally, the leading cause of cancer death in high income economies in 2015 was trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers (49.5 ...
... is research into cancer to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure. Cancer research ranges from epidemiology, molecular bioscience to the performance of clinical trials to evaluate and compare applications of the various cancer treatments. These applications include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy and combined treatment modalities such as chemo-radiotherapy. Starting in the mid-1990s, the emphasis in clinical cancer research shifted towards therapies derived from biotechnology research, such as cancer immunotherapy and gene therapy. Cancer research has been ongoing for centuries. Early research focused on the causes of cancer. Percivall Pott identified the first environmental trigger ...
Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cancer among men in terms of both incidence and mortality, and among women has the third highest incidence, and is second after breast cancer in mortality. In 2012, there were 1.82 million new cases globally, and 1.56 million deaths due to lung cancer, representing 19.4% of all deaths from cancer.[19] The highest rates are in North America, Europe and East Asia, with over a third of new cases in 2012 in China. Rates in Africa and South Asia are much lower.[147]. The population segment most likely to develop lung cancer is people aged over 50 who have a history of smoking. In contrast to the mortality rate in men, which began declining more than 20 years ago, women's lung ...
... is an interdisciplinary branch of biology that is concerned with understanding the role of the immune system in the progression and development of cancer; the most well known application is cancer immunotherapy, which utilises the immune system as a treatment for cancer. Cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting are based on protection against development of tumors in animal systems and (ii) identification of targets for immune recognition of human cancer. Cancer immunology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology concerned with the role of the immune system in the progression and development of cancer; the most well known application is cancer immunotherapy, where the immune system is used to treat ...
... is defined as active measures to decrease the risk of cancer. The vast majority of cancer cases are due to environmental risk factors, and many, but not all, of these environmental factors are controllable lifestyle choices. Greater than 75% of cancer deaths could be prevented by avoiding risk factors including: tobacco, overweight / obesity, an insufficient diet, physical inactivity, alcohol, sexually transmitted infections, and air pollution. Not all environmental causes are controllable, such as naturally occurring background radiation, and other cases of cancer are caused through hereditary genetic disorders and thus it is not possible to prevent all cases of cancer. Anyone can get cancer, the age is one of the biggest factors that can make a person more likely to get ...
A cancer survivor is a person with cancer of any type who is still living. Whether a person becomes a survivor at the time of diagnosis or after completing treatment, whether people who are actively dying are considered survivors, and whether healthy friends and family members of the cancer patient are also considered survivors, varies from group to group. Some people who have been diagnosed with cancer reject the term survivor or disagree with some definitions of it. How many people are cancer survivors depends on the definition used. Currently nearly 65% of adults diagnosed with cancer in the developed world are expected to live at least five years after the cancer is discovered. In the U.S. for example, about 11 million Americans alive today-one in 30 ...
Although many diseases (such as heart failure) may have a worse prognosis than most cases of cancer, cancer is the subject of widespread fear and taboos. The euphemism of "a long illness" to describe cancers leading to death is still commonly used in obituaries, rather than naming the disease explicitly, reflecting an apparent stigma.[198] In Nigeria, one local name for cancer translates into English as "the disease that cannot be cured".[199] This deep belief that cancer is necessarily a difficult and usually deadly disease is reflected in the systems chosen by society to compile cancer statistics: the most common form of cancer-non-melanoma skin cancers, accounting for about one-third of cancer cases ...
Although many diseases (such as heart failure) may have a worse prognosis than most cases of cancer, cancer is the subject of widespread fear and taboos. The euphemism of "a long illness" to describe cancers leading to death is still commonly used in obituaries, rather than naming the disease explicitly, reflecting an apparent stigma.[190] In Nigeria, one local name for cancer translates into English as "the disease that cannot be cured".[191] This deep belief that cancer is necessarily a difficult and usually deadly disease is reflected in the systems chosen by society to compile cancer statistics: the most common form of cancer-non-melanoma skin cancers, accounting for about one-third of cancer cases ...
Cancer is the leading cause of death in dogs. It is estimated that 1 in 3 domestic dogs will develop cancer, which is the same incidence of cancer among men. Dogs can develop a variety of cancers and most are very similar to those found in humans. Dogs can develop carcinomas of epithelial cells and organs, sarcomas of connective tissues and bones, and lymphomas or leukemias of the circulatory system. Selective breeding of dogs has led certain pure-bred breeds to be at high-risk for specific kinds of cancer. Veterinary oncology is the medical study of cancer in animals, and can be diagnosed and treated by specialized veterinarians called veterinary oncologists. Cancer is a complex, multifactorial disease. Carcinogenesis is linked with DNA mutations, chromosomal ...
این پرونده حاوی اطلاعات اضافه‌ای‌است که احتمالاً دوربین دیجیتال یا پویشگری که در ایجاد یا دیجیتالی‌کردن آن به کار رفته آن را افزوده‌است. اگر پرونده از وضعیت ابتدایی‌اش تغییر داده شده باشد آنگاه ممکن است شرح و تفصیلات موجود اطلاعات تصویر را تماماً بازتاب ندهد. ...
Death attributed to CRC was the most common cause of death in both age groups (Box 1). Overall 5-year survival was ... For colorectal cancer in persons under 50 years of age, each extra year was associated with an estimated 2.6% reduction in ... Colorectal cancer in US adults younger than 50 years of age, 1998-2001. Cancer 2006; 107: 1153-1161. ... 5-year cancer-specific survival rates and risks of death compared with older patients. ...
Diseases , Cancer , Cancer death rate (per 100,000 population): The number of people that will die from cancer out of 100,000 ... Deaths , Deaths of infants: An infant death is the death from any cause of a live-born child under one year of age. ... Diseases > Cancer > Cancer death rate (per 100,000 population) 133 2004. 86th out of 189 ... Life expectancy , Years of potential life lost from premature death , Females: Female YPLL. Years lost to premature death. No ...
... and clinical studies related to breast cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, ... paediatric oncology, neurooncology as well as genitourinary cancer. The journal provides a multidisciplinary forum for ... the most common cause of mortality from gynecologic cancer and will be responsible for 14 600 cancer related deaths this year. ... The lifetime risk of ovarian cancer in the general population is 1.7 percent. Most women who are diagnosed with epithelial ...
Results There were 1997 incident cancers and 8956 deaths during 267145 person-years of follow-up, and 11.9% of decedents had a ... we calculated population-attributable fractions (PAFs), estimating the proportion of deaths due to cancer. Calculations were ... A large proportion of cancer-attributable deaths were associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, and liver cancer. ... of deaths) and 7.1% for non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs: lung cancer, 2.3%; liver cancer, 0.9%). PAFs for NADCs were higher in ...
Individuals of 65-75 years contributed to 28% of DALYs. Among females, lung cancer ranked highest by death rates, whereas the ... Although metrics based on deaths alone capture most effects of cancer on population health levels, important additional ... DALYs are the sum of years of life lost due to mortality and years lost due to disability. Annual DALYs due to cancer were ... This study aims to estimate the burden of cancer in England and Wales using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and to ...
Australian population, 2001) cancer death rates per 100,000 (95% confidence limits) in South Australia by calendar year* Cancer ... Age-standardised cancer mortality rates per 100,000 population, kidney cancer, by sex, EU, 2002, Age-standardised cancer death ... rates per 100,000 population, 1970-2000;, Trends in annual age-standardised ( ... statistics on Age-standardised cancer death rates per 100000 population: ...
FREQUENCY OF DEATH BY SELECTED LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH AND AGE MONTANA RESIDENTS, 2005-2009, Leading causes of death and their ... MT Vital Statistics), Age Adjusted Death Rates for Major Causes of Death--States and Island Areas: 2007... ... statistics on LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH BY AGE MONTANA RESIDENTS: ... Year CAUSE OF DEATH Years Years ALL CAUSES HIV INFECTION CANCER ... and Growing Population, The Many Faces of Aging, U.S. Administration on Aging (1998 .... Causes of Death. Chronic Diseases and ...
13-year outcomes following treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer in a population based cohort. J Urol 2007;177:932 ... Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer in men and the third leading cause of cancer-related death among ... Available: www.cancer.ca/~/media/cancer.ca/CW/cancer%20information/cancer%20101/Canadian%20cancer%20statistics/Canadian-Cancer- ... Risk factors for prostate cancer. Toronto: Canadian Cancer Society. Available: www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/ ...
ViDA study general population(58%) 66 years. CVD 3.3 years (range: 2.5-4.2 years). Vit D3 versus placebo Vit D3: Initial bolus ... For total cancer mortality, five trials were included [1591 deaths; 3-10 years of follow-up; 54-135 nmol/l of attained levels ... RECORD general population (15%) 77 years. Fracture 2-5.2 years with 3 years post-intervention follow-up. Vit D3 (w, w/o Ca) ... NA postmenopausal women (0%) 65 years. Total cancer excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers 4 years. Vit D3+Ca versus placebo Vit D3 ...
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the world with 1.7 million new cases and 521 900 deaths per year, making it the ... The Cancer Registry Centre of Nemazi Hospital in Shiraz, a population-based cancer registry founded in 1971, is responsible for ... Around 25% of all cancer cases and 15% of all cancer deaths are associated with female breast cancer (1). It is the most ... Cancer of the breast: 5-year survival in a tertiary hospital in Uganda. Br J Cancer. 2008;99(1):63-7. PMID:18577991 ...
... and breast and prostate cancers. Stroke was the leading NCD cause of death; accounting for 17.5% of total NCD deaths. Compared ... ASDRs were calculated using mid-year population estimates and the World Health Organization world standard.RESULTS:Of 594 071 ... OBJECTIVES:National trends in age-standardised death rates (ASDRs) for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa (SA) ... Garbage codes were redistributed proportionally to specified codes by age; sex and population group. ...
Frequency of cancer-related deaths in human and dog. Approximately 50% of all human cancer deaths in the USA each year are a ... The remarkable similarity in cancers shared by human and dog. The cancers shown are found in both human and canine populations ... Approximately 50% of all human cancer-related deaths in the USA in 2014 were the result of just four types of cancer, all of ... www.cancer.org)). (c) The estimated annual frequencies of death-related malignant cancers in pet dogs in the USA are shown ( ...
HCC is the most common form of liver cancer. Moreover, a quarter of these cases occur among the least privileged fifth of ... according to a new study that is to be presented at the 201th NCRI Cancer Conference on November 2, 2019. Both the number of ... Liver cancer is rapidly moving up the cancer killer ranks in England, ... When they looked at the bottom fifth of the population with respect to their socioeconomic status, they found that a full 25% ...
There will be 497 fewer lung cancer deaths, and these persons will on average gain 10.6 life-years per death averted. They will ... to 80-year-old age group would be eligible for lung cancer screening. Applying these percentages to the current U.S. population ... to 25 years since quitting (A-55-80-30-25) or 20 or fewer pack-years (A-55-80-20-25 or A-55-80-10-25). More lung cancer deaths ... reduction in lung cancer mortality, 497 lung cancer deaths averted, and 5250 life-years gained per the 100 000-member cohort. ...
Cancer Res. 2004;64:696-703. [PubMed]. 45. Kanzawa T, Kondo Y, Ito H, Kondo S, Germano I. Induction of autophagic cell death in ... Itoh T, Ito Y, Ohguchi K, Ohyama M, Iinuma M, Otsuki Y, Nozawa Y, Akao Y. Eupalinin A isolated from Eupatorium chinense L. ... Autophagic cell death induced by 5-FU in Bax or PUMA deficient human colon cancer cell. Cancer Lett. 2010;288:68-74. [PubMed] ... Autophagic cell death (type II programmed cell death) is an important cell death process besides apoptosis. Beclin 1, a ...
The societal burden of SCD is high relative to other major causes of death. Accordingly, improved national surveillance with ... leading causes of death among men and women from 2009 US death certificate reporting; (2) individual cancer mortality rates ... and national population data for 2009 from the US Census Bureau; and (4) SCD rates from the Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death ... The burden of premature death for men (2.04 million years of potential life lost; 95% uncertainty interval, 1.86-2.23 million) ...
United Kingdom estimate is that 1000 women must be screened once every 5 years for 35 years to avoid one cervical cancer death. ... The absolute risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis is low. In Australia, the incidence among the screening target population is ... 4. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC handbooks of cancer prevention. Vol. 10: cervix cancer screening. Lyon: ... Women aged under 25 years are least likely to benefit from screening, due to the very low incidence of cervical cancer in this ...
7.8 versus 5.2 deaths/million population/year) and asbestosis (1.0 versus 0.8 deaths/million population/year) than the ... asbestos-related lung cancer and asbestosis. In 2005 occupational exposure to asbestos was estimated to cause 43 000 ... Worldwide, the use of asbestos has declined by 55% from its historical peak of 4.7 million metric tonnes per year in 1980, but ... In Europe mercury pollution exacts a toll of €5.1 billion/year.. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals realize their effects, either ...
... thereby rendering it easy to ascertain person-years by multiplying the populations by 5. ... Individual death entries for the period 1989-98 were used to ascertain the number of pleural cancer deaths corresponding to ICD ... Although pleural cancer is extremely infrequent in Spain, during the last 10 years for which mortality data are available, the ... Results: There was a higher risk of death due to pleural cancer in well defined towns and areas, many of which correspond to ...
It is the leading cause of preventable cancer death worldwide. Clearly, there have been advances in the diagnosis, staging, and ... Also, for the responding population, there is an improvement in quality of life.47,48 Despite these apparent advantages for ... National Cancer Institute. Cancer rates and risks: Cancer Statistics Branch Division of Cancer Prevention and Control. Bethesda ... American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2006. ...
J M Dixon With 1 million new cases in the world each year… ... ABC of Breast Diseases Breast cancer-epidemiology, risk factors ... years) Percentage of all deaths in women attributable to breast cancer Gambia India, Madras China, Shanghai Japan, Osaka ... risk The following categories identify women who have three or more times the population risk of developing breast cancer A ... Cancer J Clin 1995;45:263-78. x Black DM. The genetics of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 1994;30a:1957-61. x Brinton LA, Devesa SS ...
For men and women combined, cancer is the main cause of premature death: In 2006 a total of 186 916 potential years of life ... using data of resident population (in five year groups) from the Federal Statistical Office. The European population was used ... The concept of years of life lost to premature death involves both frequency of death and age at which death occurs. This ... Cancer caused most premature deaths in women. Cancer was also the category showing the least decline: -17% over the whole ...
Evidence-based information on testicular cancer from hundreds of trustworthy sources for health and social care. Make better, ... Cancer. incidence and mortality among young adults aged 20-39 years worldwide in 2012: a population-based study 27 October 2017 ... 975,396 new cancer cases and 358,392 cancer-associated deaths occurred among young adults worldwide in 2012, which equated to ... Cancer. Plan established cancer. networks as the vehicle for the delivery of cancer. care.... ...
... of all deaths from cancer. Death from lung cancer is often related to the initial stage of diagnosis. The average 5-year ... Population:. This recommendation applies to asymptomatic adults aged 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and ... Lung cancer is the third most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States (1). The most ... Lung cancer-related mortality is one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide. Detecting lung cancer at an earlier ...
The table is taken from Cancer Research UKs leaflet Cancer Statistics - Key Facts.1, Five year survival (%) of patients ... Lung cancer statistics in the UK (Cancer Research UK, 2008), Recent statistics for lung cancer survival. ... diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1996-1999, Figure 3.3 :Five year survival (%) of patients diagnosed with... ... statistics on 5 year survival rates lung cancer uk by stage: ... survival and death. Both cancer-related deaths .... were ...
  • Table 1 shows that diseases of the circulatory system and cancer (malignant neoplasms) were, by far, the leading causes of death in the EU. (europa.eu)
  • METHODS: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 participants with self-report of diagnosed diabetes (N=3335), measured HbA1c, BP and non-HDL cholesterol were linked to the National Death Index through December 31, 2011. (cdc.gov)
  • Over the period the standardised rate has ranged between a minimum of 2.1 deaths per 100 000 population in 1999 and a maximum of 2.7 in 2001. (apo.org.au)
  • The absolute size and percentage of the cancer contribution to excess mortality increased from 1981-86 to 2006-11 in Māori males (SRD 72.5 to 102.0 per 100,000) and females (SRD 72.2 to 109.4), and Pacific females (SRD −9.8 to 42.2) each compared to European/Other. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 0.01) and liver cancers (Māori males p = 0.04), and for cervical cancer it decreased (Māori females p = 0.03). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, one in 270 women and one in 600 males who go through CT coronary angiography at the age of 40 is supposed to develop cancer. (oxagile.com)
  • There were 8 females and 9 males, and the median age (excluding the 14-yearold) was 58 years. (scielo.org.za)
  • Seventeen patients (12 males, 5 females, mean age 63 years, BMI 27.7) with histologically confirmed Barrett's oesophagus were treated with esopmeprazole 40 mg bd for 12 weeks. (scielo.org.za)
  • In 2012, prostate cancer was the 5th cause of death from cancer in males (6.6%) ( 2 ). (numonthly.com)
  • RESULTADOS: La tasa de mortalidad relacionada con la diabetes en mexicanoestadounidenses (251 muertes por cada 100 000 habitantes) y en puertorriqueños (204 muertes por cada 100 000) fue dos veces mayor que dicha tasa en cubanoestadounidenses (101 muertes por cada 100 000). (scielosp.org)
  • La tasa estandarizada de mortalidad por 100 000 habitantes aument de 0,67 en 2005 a 0,72 en 2015, siendo la regi n de la sierra la de mayor incremento. (medwave.cl)
  • All patients at increased inherited risk of pancreatic cancer should be referred to a specialist centre offering specialist clinical advice and genetic counselling and appropriate genetic testing (grade B). (bmj.com)
  • However, some communications are not clear about the risk of cervical cancer and the protective capacity and reliability of the Pap test. (mja.com.au)
  • Improved communications could include providing patients with information on the absolute risk of cervical cancer, and the morbidity and mortality benefits and harms of screening. (mja.com.au)
  • It has a long history, it appears to be very effective, and Australia has among the lowest incidence of cervical cancer in the world. (mja.com.au)
  • Objectives To investigate, using a Dutch model, whether and under what variables framed for other European countries screening for human papillomavirus (HPV) is preferred over cytology screening for cervical cancer, and to calculate the preferred number of examinations over a woman's lifetime. (bmj.com)
  • In countries that have a history of cervical cancer screening (or consider setting up screening), it is being debated whether or not to replace cytology by HPV screening. (bmj.com)
  • Calibration results of age-specific incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. (zanran.com)
  • to develop cervical cancer . (zanran.com)
  • To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP) of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). (scielo.org.mx)
  • We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3) and cervical cancer. (scielo.org.mx)
  • For most countries around the world, including Mexico, cervical cytology, or the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, serves as the principal diagnostic tool for the detection of cervical cancer. (scielo.org.mx)
  • He welcomes the work for its potential to change health policies, to allocate more resources towards the more effective prevention and treatment of liver cancers. (news-medical.net)
  • While globalization increases the demand for infectious control and knowledge, the Norwegian population demands more from the government in regards to health and treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The municipal populations, broken down by age group (18 groups) and sex, were drawn from the 1991 census and 1996 voters roll. (bmj.com)
  • New Zealand census data from 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006, were all probabilistically linked to three to five subsequent years of mortality (68 million person-years) and cancer registrations (87 million person years) and weighted for linkage bias. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Objective To compare the long-term economic impact of melanoma prevention by sun protection, with the corresponding impact of early detection of melanoma to decrease melanoma deaths. (bmj.com)
  • The decrease in smoking is the only encouraging risk factor trend, and is consistent with the plateau of tobacco consumption over this same period in the face of a rising adult population, as has occurred in other countries where tobacco taxes have been raised sharply. (wikipedia.org)
  • How many infants, out of 1000, who will die before attaining one year of age. (nationmaster.com)
  • This would translate to one new case per 1000 population per year. (bmj.com)
  • The Appalachian Region stretches from southern New York to northeastern Mississippi, a distance of more than 1609 km (1000 miles), covering 329 916 km 2 (205 000 miles 2 ) across 420 counties 5 . (rrh.org.au)
  • The lifetime risk of ovarian cancer in the general population is 1.7 percent. (hindawi.com)
  • In 1980, vitamin D was hypothesized to lower risk of cancer incidence and mortality. (medscape.com)
  • Studies based on circulating levels of 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] (approximate range: ≤13-≥150 nmol/l) have generally not confirmed associations with the risk of most cancers, [ 3-11 ] except for colorectal cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Comparative oncology is a quickly expanding field that examines both cancer risk and tumour development across species. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • There was a higher risk of death due to pleural cancer in well defined towns and areas, many of which correspond to municipalities where asbestos using industries once existed for many years, the prime example being the municipal pattern registered for Barcelona Province. (bmj.com)
  • 1 2 3 Furthermore, combined use of opioids with other depressants of the central nervous system, most commonly benzodiazepines, has been highlighted as an important risk factor for death due to overdose. (bmj.com)
  • Although the evidence of such a trend is limited ( Schouten et al , 2002 ), a future increase may be expected because of an increasingly large pool of prevalent cancer patients at risk of developing metastatic disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Rural residents have an increased risk of dying from some forms of respiratory disease, although little is known about the healthcare utilization or location of death for persons with advanced respiratory illness in rural settings. (rrh.org.au)
  • The purpose of this Communicable disease risk assessment and interventions: Middle East crisis - Lebanon technical note is to provide health professionals in United Nations (UN) agencies, nongovernmental organizations, donor agencies and local authorities working with conflict-affected populations with up-to- date technical guidance on the major communicable disease threats faced by the emergency-affected populations. (who.int)
  • The lifetime risk of colorectal cancer is 5%, with an incidence of 15 to 20 per 100000 in persons 60 to 65 years old. (bcmj.org)
  • We found that risk factors for dysplasia were similar to those previously identified as risk factors for OSCC in this population. (bmj.com)
  • The Risk Evaluation of Viral Load Elevation and Associated Liver Disease/Cancer-Hepatitis B Virus (REVEAL-HBV) study carried out in Taiwan was used to investigate the natural history of chronic hepatitis B. (natap.org)
  • Although no causal inference can be made, these results not only support an association between chronic HBV infection with active replication and increased pancreatic cancer risk, but represent the most provocative finding from the REVEAL-HBV study to date. (natap.org)
  • Inoue and her research team are monitoring more than 100 000 Japanese residents over their lifetimes to identify the interlay between certain risk factors and pathologies in later life. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It currently is formatted as a single schedule for children ages 0 through 18 years, with footnotes that highlight vaccine recommendations for individuals in specific circumstances, including those with high-risk conditions. (aappublications.org)
  • We also simulated the distribution of genetic risk for colorectal cancer based on the expected number of inherited risk alleles of 45 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported as associated with colorectal cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • La baja sensibilidad de la citología genera un alto número de falsos negativos que resultan en costos elevados para la institución por el tratamiento de estos casos no detectados. (scielo.org.mx)