Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.United StatesMice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.JapanDisease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Radon: A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsSex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.SwedenSkin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.EuropeForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Mice, Inbred BALB CGenes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.DeoxycytidineDrug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
... lung cancer and cerbrovascular diseases. Among women the leading causes were breast cancer, alcohol related deaths, accidents, ... The number of overweight 12- to 18-year-olds has nearly tripled in the past four decades. 10% of boys and 15% of girls in ... According to a study from 2008, the percentage of the population aged 15 to 69 who had at some point in their lives tried ... "Causes of Death 2009". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2011-12-13. "Leading causes of death among men aged 15 to 64 in 2010". ...
... of all deaths inside China are from one or more cancers. , The ageing of the population is the major force driving the epidemic ... Br J Cancer 2004; 90: 2157-2166. Wang Y, Huang Y, Li A, et al. A survey of adolescent smoking and tobacco knowledge in four ... for boys aged 7-9 years, 25% for boys aged 10-12 years, 17% for girls aged 7-9 years, and 14% for girls aged 10-12 years. In ... For cardiovascular disease alone, Chinese people aged 35-64 years lost 6.7 million years of productive life during the year ...
... accounting for 1.4 percent of all cancers and 2.8 percent of all cancer deaths. Median age of diagnosis was 58 years old, ... Nevertheless, statistics suggest that certain forms of primary brain tumors are more common among certain populations. ... "Cancer Stat Facts: Brain and Other Nervous System Cancer". National Cancer Institute. 31 March 2019.. ... The average survival rate for all primary brain cancers in children is 74%. Brain cancers are the most common cancer in ...
Norway has a birth register, death register, cancer register, and population register, which enables to authorities to have an ... The total population in Norway as of 2012, was 4,994,000. The life expectancy at birth was 80 years for males and 84 years for ... The probability of dying between 15 and 60 years for males is 73 and 44 for females per 1000 in population. The total ... Tuberculosis caused many deaths in the late 1800s while leprosy rates declined. Mortality of tuberculosis was high around 1900 ...
Statistisk sentralbyrå (2017). "Table: 06913: Population 1 January and population changes during the calendar year (M)" (in ... More than 90 persons, Norwegian and Sami, were given death sentences. After 1850, the town saw a marked expansion. The ... interfere with television and radio reception and have been blamed by some residents for a rash of miscarriages and cancer ... The municipality's population density is 3.6 inhabitants per square kilometre (9.3/sq mi) and its population has decreased by 8 ...
Because treatment and diagnosis of cancer and diabetes decreased in the 1990s, complications and deaths resulting from those ... In 2010 was the life expectancy 58 years, down from 65 years 30 years prior. By 2011 tuberculosis had reached levels 6 times ... Health services was free and available for the majority of the population. The country had a good sanitary infrastructure and ... For females it was 71.85 years ranked as country number 127 higher than that for males which was 67,44 years but ranked as ...
It is one of the reasons for acid rains and cancers in the local population, near the cosmodrome. Valery Yakovlev, a head of ... Russia wanted to sign a 99-year lease for Baikonur, but agreed to a $115 million annual lease of the site for 20 years with an ... Russian scientist Afanasiy Ilich Tobonov researched mass animal deaths in the 1990s and concluded that the mass deaths of birds ... The rent price-which remained fixed at US$115,000,000 per year - is the source of a long-running dispute between the two ...
Carcinogens induce cancer, or increase the likelihood of cancer occurring.. *Reproductively toxic substances cause adverse ... Matsumura Y, Ananthaswamy HN (March 2004). "Toxic effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin". Toxicology and Applied ... A single exposure to a toxic substance which may result in severe biological harm or death; acute exposures are usually ... a population-level measure of toxicity is often used which relates the probabilities of an outcome for a given individual in a ...
... a decrease of 1 in 2000 deaths from breast cancer over 10 years or a relative decrease of 15% from breast cancer). ... "Population attributable risks for modifiable lifestyle factors and breast cancer in New Zealand women". IMJ. 43 (11): 1198-1204 ... In 2008, breast cancer caused 458,503 deaths worldwide (13.7% of cancer deaths in women and 6.0% of all cancer deaths for men ... Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis. References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)". NCI ...
Gunn, L; Ding, C; Liu, M; Ma, Y; Qi, C; Cai, Y; Hu, X; Aggarwal, D; Zhang, HG; Yan, J (Sep 15, 2012). "Opposing roles for ... On the other hand, many cells of the immune system contribute to cancer immunology, suppressing cancer. Molecular intersection ... Recent studies demonstrated that caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis, a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death, drives CD4 ... though this concern rarely applies to the general population. Given that localized acute inflammation is a necessary component ...
Often, there are prayers to fit specific occasions, such as the blessing of a meal, the birth or death of a loved one, other ... However, two hundred years later, the perception of spirituality, in many instances, appears to be gaining in strength (2009). ... He therefore compared longevity in the British Royal family with that of the general population, and found no difference. While ... "Pell adamant prayer cures cancer". The Age. Melbourne. 2009-12-21. Anonymous (July 20, 2005), "Skeptico - Prayer still useless ...
Gutman Y, Berenbaum M (1998). Anatomy of the Auschwitz death camp (1st ed.). Bloomington: Publ. in association with the United ... Anguiano L, Mayer DK, Piven ML, Rosenstein D (Jul-Aug 2012). "A literature review of suicide in cancer patients". Cancer ... There is little data on the effects of screening the general population on the ultimate rate of suicide. Screening ... Deaths. 793,000 / 1.5% of deaths (2016). The most commonly used method of suicide varies between countries, and is partly ...
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) ... Chaney, Sandra (15 July 2013). Nature Of The Miracle Years: Conservation in West Germany, 1945-1975. Berghahn Books. ISBN ... Federal grants were increased, especially for the Cancer Research Centre in Heidelberg, while a Federal Institute for Sport ... Population and vital statistics. Total population of West Germany from 1950 to 1990, as collected by the Statistisches ...
Tyagi, T; Ahmad, S; Gupta, N; Sahu, A; Ahmad, Y; Nair, V; Chatterjee, T; Bajaj, N; Sengupta, S; Ganju, L; Singh, S. B; Ashraf, ... The normal range has been confirmed to be the same in the elderly and Spanish populations. Structurally the platelet can be ... Sometimes a person such as a cancer patient who requires routine transfusions of platelets will receive repeated donations from ... 2007). "Programmed anuclear cell death delimits platelet life span". Cell. 128 (6): 1173-86. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.037. ...
Population density - (population/km2) 1,070/km2 People below poverty line - 60% Population doubling rate - 25-30 years GDP ( ... In Bangladesh the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 8 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women 1 in 110. ... Cancer and Communicable diseases: Tuberculosis, HIV, Tetanus, Malaria, Measles, Rubella, leprosy and so on. The health problems ... Doctor to population ratio - 1:2,000 Nurse to population ratio - 1:5,000 Population - 157.9 million Rural population - 77% ...
The deaths of many centenarians had not been reported, casting doubt on the country's reputation for having a large population ... "Population 31 Dec by Area, Urban-rural classification, Sex, Age and Year-Tilastokeskuksen PX-Web tietokannat". Tilastokeskuksen ... Bernstein H, Payne CM, Bernstein C, Garewal H, Dvorak K (2008). Cancer and aging as consequences of un-repaired DNA damage. In ... "Population by age, sex and urban/rural residence: latest available year, 2003-2012" Retrieved 20 May 2016. "Popolazione ...
In India, 250,000 snakebites are recorded in a single year, with as many as 50,000 recorded initial deaths. The WHO estimates ... The cytotoxic effect of snake venom is being researched as a potential treatment for cancers. Amphibians and reptiles portal ... and a small unusual population of garter snakes in the U.S. state of Oregon retains enough toxins in their livers from the ... An older snake may shed its skin only once or twice a year. But a younger snake, still growing, may shed up to four times a ...
Population ageing has three possible causes: migration, longer life expectancy (decreased death rate) and decreased birth rate ... at 508 years, the Greenland shark at 400 years, various deep-sea tube worms at over 300 years, fish like the sturgeon and the ... "Physical activity and risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke events: ... These numbers are close to the ratio of the maximum longevities of the two species (120 years vs. 20 years, a 6/1 ratio). The ...
... out of black male prison population of 95,000] and save $230-$320 million per year in direct costs." The majority of the ... "Black Patients Miss Out On Promising Cancer Drugs - ProPublica". ProPublica. Caroline Chen,Riley Wong. 2018-09-19. Retrieved ... A 2014 study on the application of the death penalty in Connecticut over the period 1973-2007 found "that minority defendants ... "Centro de Estudios de Políticas y Prácticas en Educación CEPPE de la U. Católica y Ediciones UC (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-05 ...
Ghosh, Pallab (1 March 2018). "'Oldest tattoo' found on 5,000-year-old Egyptian mummies". BBC. Retrieved 8 March 2018.. ... "Women choose body art over reconstruction after cancer battle: Undergoing a mastectomy is a harrowing experience, but tattoos ... Many studies have been done of the tattooed population and society's view of tattoos. In June 2006, the Journal of the American ... or each tear represents the death of a friend. At the same time, members of the U.S. military have an equally well-established ...
Kravchenko J, Akushevich I, Manton, KG (2009). Cancer mortality and morbidity patterns in the U. S. population: an ... "How much of the decrease in cancer death rates in the United States is attributable to reductions in tobacco smoking?". Tob ... www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerglossary/index. pristupljeno September 11, 2013. *↑ "What is cancer?". cancer.gov. National Cancer ... "Heredity and Cancer". American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/geneticsandcancer/heredity-and-cancer ...
On 25 November 1974, he died of complications from cancer. Thant's death occurred only two years after a transition of Ne Win's ... down the People's Peace Committee in November 1963 and the way that the protests spread from students to the general population ... According to Thant Myint-U, U Thant's grandson who was eight years old at the time, a large number of members of the public ... Selth, Andrew (1989). Death of a Hero: The U Thant Disturbances in Burma, December 1974. Griffith University, Brisbane: Centre ...
Maternal mortality or maternal death is defined by WHO as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination ... cervical cancer, or ovarian cancer. Women and men may have different symptoms of an illness and may also respond to medical ... most Western countries currently experience a sub replacement fertility rate which may lead to population ageing and population ... 15-year-old girls tend to show much higher expectations for their careers than boys of the same age. While women account for ...
Yip J, Shen Y, Berndt MC, Andrews RK (February 2005). "Primary platelet adhesion receptors". IUBMB Life. 57 (2): 103-8. doi: ... The normal range has been confirmed to be the same in the elderly and Spanish populations. ... Berridge, Michael J. (1 October 2014). "Module 11: Cell Stress, Inflammatory Responses and Cell Death". Cell Signalling Biology ... Sometimes a person such as a cancer patient who requires routine transfusions of platelets will receive repeated donations from ...
Reksten was at the time badly marked by his cancer. The following year he died of his disease, was declared bankrupt post ... At his death in 1980, all was lost; he left behind a debt of about £100,000,000. Hilmar Reksten grew up in a small flat at ... Among the general population of Bergen, he was well-liked. In 2014 Bergens Tidende said that "When the Dagsrevyen reporter ... In August 1939 his wife Bjørg Elisabeth Johannessen died, only 36 years old, and after only 14 years of marriage. At that time ...
According to a meta-analysis in the Cochrane Collaboration, two large trials in Russia and Shanghai found no beneficial effects of screening by breast self-examination "but do suggest increased harm in terms of increased numbers of benign lesions identified and an increased number of biopsies performed". They concluded, "At present, screening by breast self-examination or physical examination cannot be recommended.". Although breast self-examination increases the number of biopsies performed on women, and thus revenue for the breast cancer industry, it does not reduce mortality from breast cancer. In a large clinical trial involving more than 260,000 female Chinese factory workers, half were carefully taught by nurses at their factories to perform monthly breast self-exam, and the other half were not. The women taught self-exam detected more benign (normal or harmless lumps) or early-stage breast disease, but equal ...
Breast cancer is cancer in the breast. In the world, breast cancer is the fifth-most common cause of cancer death. The first four are lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colon cancer. In 2005, breast cancer caused 502,000 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths) in the world. Among all women in the world, breast cancer is the most common cancer. In the United States, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of ...
This is a timeline of pancreatic cancer, describing especially major discoveries and advances in treatment of the disease. Timeline of colorectal cancer Timeline of kidney cancer Timeline of lung cancer Timeline of brain cancer Timeline of liver cancer Timeline of bladder cancer "Pancreatic Cancer". Kolodecik, T; Shugrue, C; Ashat, M; Thrower, EC (2013). "Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: underlying mechanisms and potential targets". Front Physiol. 4: 415. doi:10.3389/fphys.2013.00415. PMC 3893685 . PMID 24474939. "Pancreatic cancer statistics". Retrieved 18 September 2016. "Pancreatic cancer: yesterday, today and tomorrow". Retrieved 13 ...
According to the latest numbers released by the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, surpassed only by heart disease. The CDC reports over half a million deaths from cancer in 2014, and the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) reports 454.8 new cases of cancer per 100,000 people per year, with an estimate of 1,685,210 new cases of cancer diagnosed in 2016. Between 2008 and 2012, the number of cancer deaths was 171.2 per 100,000 men and women per year. Globally, the leading cause of cancer death in high income economies in 2015 was trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers (49.5 ...
... is research into cancer to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure. Cancer research ranges from epidemiology, molecular bioscience to the performance of clinical trials to evaluate and compare applications of the various cancer treatments. These applications include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy and combined treatment modalities such as chemo-radiotherapy. Starting in the mid-1990s, the emphasis in clinical cancer research shifted towards therapies derived from biotechnology research, such as cancer immunotherapy and gene therapy. Cancer research has been ongoing for centuries. Early research focused on the causes of cancer. Percivall Pott identified the first environmental trigger ...
Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cancer among men in terms of both incidence and mortality, and among women has the third highest incidence, and is second after breast cancer in mortality. In 2012, there were 1.82 million new cases globally, and 1.56 million deaths due to lung cancer, representing 19.4% of all deaths from cancer. The highest rates are in North America, Europe and East Asia, with over a third of new cases in 2012 in China. Rates in Africa and South Asia are much lower.. The population segment most likely to develop lung cancer is people aged over 50 who have a history of smoking. In contrast to the mortality rate in men, which began declining more than 20 years ago, women's lung ...
... is an interdisciplinary branch of biology that is concerned with understanding the role of the immune system in the progression and development of cancer; the most well known application is cancer immunotherapy, which utilises the immune system as a treatment for cancer. Cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting are based on protection against development of tumors in animal systems and (ii) identification of targets for immune recognition of human cancer. Cancer immunology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology concerned with the role of the immune system in the progression and development of cancer; the most well known application is cancer immunotherapy, where the immune system is used to treat ...
... is defined as active measures to decrease the risk of cancer. The vast majority of cancer cases are due to environmental risk factors, and many, but not all, of these environmental factors are controllable lifestyle choices. Greater than 75% of cancer deaths could be prevented by avoiding risk factors including: tobacco, overweight / obesity, an insufficient diet, physical inactivity, alcohol, sexually transmitted infections, and air pollution. Not all environmental causes are controllable, such as naturally occurring background radiation, and other cases of cancer are caused through hereditary genetic disorders and thus it is not possible to prevent all cases of cancer. Anyone can get cancer, the age is one of the biggest factors that can make a person more likely to get ...
A cancer survivor is a person with cancer of any type who is still living. Whether a person becomes a survivor at the time of diagnosis or after completing treatment, whether people who are actively dying are considered survivors, and whether healthy friends and family members of the cancer patient are also considered survivors, varies from group to group. Some people who have been diagnosed with cancer reject the term survivor or disagree with some definitions of it. How many people are cancer survivors depends on the definition used. Currently nearly 65% of adults diagnosed with cancer in the developed world are expected to live at least five years after the cancer is discovered. In the U.S. for example, about 11 million Americans alive today-one in 30 ...
Although many diseases (such as heart failure) may have a worse prognosis than most cases of cancer, cancer is the subject of widespread fear and taboos. The euphemism of "a long illness" to describe cancers leading to death is still commonly used in obituaries, rather than naming the disease explicitly, reflecting an apparent stigma. In Nigeria, one local name for cancer translates into English as "the disease that cannot be cured". This deep belief that cancer is necessarily a difficult and usually deadly disease is reflected in the systems chosen by society to compile cancer statistics: the most common form of cancer-non-melanoma skin cancers, accounting for about one-third of cancer cases ...
Although many diseases (such as heart failure) may have a worse prognosis than most cases of cancer, cancer is the subject of widespread fear and taboos. The euphemism of "a long illness" to describe cancers leading to death is still commonly used in obituaries, rather than naming the disease explicitly, reflecting an apparent stigma. In Nigeria, one local name for cancer translates into English as "the disease that cannot be cured". This deep belief that cancer is necessarily a difficult and usually deadly disease is reflected in the systems chosen by society to compile cancer statistics: the most common form of cancer-non-melanoma skin cancers, accounting for about one-third of cancer cases ...
Cancer is the leading cause of death in dogs. It is estimated that 1 in 3 domestic dogs will develop cancer, which is the same incidence of cancer among men. Dogs can develop a variety of cancers and most are very similar to those found in humans. Dogs can develop carcinomas of epithelial cells and organs, sarcomas of connective tissues and bones, and lymphomas or leukemias of the circulatory system. Selective breeding of dogs has led certain pure-bred breeds to be at high-risk for specific kinds of cancer. Veterinary oncology is the medical study of cancer in animals, and can be diagnosed and treated by specialized veterinarians called veterinary oncologists. Cancer is a complex, multifactorial disease. Carcinogenesis is linked with DNA mutations, chromosomal ...
این پرونده حاوی اطلاعات اضافهایاست که احتمالاً دوربین دیجیتال یا پویشگری که در ایجاد یا دیجیتالیکردن آن به کار رفته آن را افزودهاست. اگر پرونده از وضعیت ابتداییاش تغییر داده شده باشد آنگاه ممکن است شرح و تفصیلات موجود اطلاعات تصویر را تماماً بازتاب ندهد. ...
Death attributed to CRC was the most common cause of death in both age groups (Box 1). Overall 5-year survival was ... For colorectal cancer in persons under 50 years of age, each extra year was associated with an estimated 2.6% reduction in ... Colorectal cancer in US adults younger than 50 years of age, 1998-2001. Cancer 2006; 107: 1153-1161. ... 5-year cancer-specific survival rates and risks of death compared with older patients. ...
Diseases , Cancer , Cancer death rate (per 100,000 population): The number of people that will die from cancer out of 100,000 ... Deaths , Deaths of infants: An infant death is the death from any cause of a live-born child under one year of age. ... Diseases > Cancer > Cancer death rate (per 100,000 population) 133 2004. 86th out of 189 ... Life expectancy , Years of potential life lost from premature death , Females: Female YPLL. Years lost to premature death. No ...
... and clinical studies related to breast cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, ... paediatric oncology, neurooncology as well as genitourinary cancer. The journal provides a multidisciplinary forum for ... the most common cause of mortality from gynecologic cancer and will be responsible for 14 600 cancer related deaths this year. ... The lifetime risk of ovarian cancer in the general population is 1.7 percent. Most women who are diagnosed with epithelial ...
Results There were 1997 incident cancers and 8956 deaths during 267145 person-years of follow-up, and 11.9% of decedents had a ... we calculated population-attributable fractions (PAFs), estimating the proportion of deaths due to cancer. Calculations were ... A large proportion of cancer-attributable deaths were associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, and liver cancer. ... of deaths) and 7.1% for non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs: lung cancer, 2.3%; liver cancer, 0.9%). PAFs for NADCs were higher in ...
Individuals of 65-75 years contributed to 28% of DALYs. Among females, lung cancer ranked highest by death rates, whereas the ... Although metrics based on deaths alone capture most effects of cancer on population health levels, important additional ... DALYs are the sum of years of life lost due to mortality and years lost due to disability. Annual DALYs due to cancer were ... This study aims to estimate the burden of cancer in England and Wales using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and to ...
Australian population, 2001) cancer death rates per 100,000 (95% confidence limits) in South Australia by calendar year* Cancer ... Age-standardised cancer mortality rates per 100,000 population, kidney cancer, by sex, EU, 2002, Age-standardised cancer death ... rates per 100,000 population, 1970-2000;, Trends in annual age-standardised ( ... statistics on Age-standardised cancer death rates per 100000 population: ...
FREQUENCY OF DEATH BY SELECTED LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH AND AGE MONTANA RESIDENTS, 2005-2009, Leading causes of death and their ... MT Vital Statistics), Age Adjusted Death Rates for Major Causes of Death--States and Island Areas: 2007... ... statistics on LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH BY AGE MONTANA RESIDENTS: ... Year CAUSE OF DEATH Years Years ALL CAUSES HIV INFECTION CANCER ... and Growing Population, The Many Faces of Aging, U.S. Administration on Aging (1998 .... Causes of Death. Chronic Diseases and ...
13-year outcomes following treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer in a population based cohort. J Urol 2007;177:932 ... Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer in men and the third leading cause of cancer-related death among ... Available: www.cancer.ca/~/media/cancer.ca/CW/cancer%20information/cancer%20101/Canadian%20cancer%20statistics/Canadian-Cancer- ... Risk factors for prostate cancer. Toronto: Canadian Cancer Society. Available: www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/ ...
ViDA study general population(58%) 66 years. CVD 3.3 years (range: 2.5-4.2 years). Vit D3 versus placebo Vit D3: Initial bolus ... For total cancer mortality, five trials were included [1591 deaths; 3-10 years of follow-up; 54-135 nmol/l of attained levels ... RECORD general population (15%) 77 years. Fracture 2-5.2 years with 3 years post-intervention follow-up. Vit D3 (w, w/o Ca) ... NA postmenopausal women (0%) 65 years. Total cancer excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers 4 years. Vit D3+Ca versus placebo Vit D3 ...
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the world with 1.7 million new cases and 521 900 deaths per year, making it the ... The Cancer Registry Centre of Nemazi Hospital in Shiraz, a population-based cancer registry founded in 1971, is responsible for ... Around 25% of all cancer cases and 15% of all cancer deaths are associated with female breast cancer (1). It is the most ... Cancer of the breast: 5-year survival in a tertiary hospital in Uganda. Br J Cancer. 2008;99(1):63-7. PMID:18577991 ...
... and breast and prostate cancers. Stroke was the leading NCD cause of death; accounting for 17.5% of total NCD deaths. Compared ... ASDRs were calculated using mid-year population estimates and the World Health Organization world standard.RESULTS:Of 594 071 ... OBJECTIVES:National trends in age-standardised death rates (ASDRs) for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa (SA) ... Garbage codes were redistributed proportionally to specified codes by age; sex and population group. ...
Frequency of cancer-related deaths in human and dog. Approximately 50% of all human cancer deaths in the USA each year are a ... The remarkable similarity in cancers shared by human and dog. The cancers shown are found in both human and canine populations ... Approximately 50% of all human cancer-related deaths in the USA in 2014 were the result of just four types of cancer, all of ... www.cancer.org)). (c) The estimated annual frequencies of death-related malignant cancers in pet dogs in the USA are shown ( ...
HCC is the most common form of liver cancer. Moreover, a quarter of these cases occur among the least privileged fifth of ... according to a new study that is to be presented at the 201th NCRI Cancer Conference on November 2, 2019. Both the number of ... Liver cancer is rapidly moving up the cancer killer ranks in England, ... When they looked at the bottom fifth of the population with respect to their socioeconomic status, they found that a full 25% ...
There will be 497 fewer lung cancer deaths, and these persons will on average gain 10.6 life-years per death averted. They will ... to 80-year-old age group would be eligible for lung cancer screening. Applying these percentages to the current U.S. population ... to 25 years since quitting (A-55-80-30-25) or 20 or fewer pack-years (A-55-80-20-25 or A-55-80-10-25). More lung cancer deaths ... reduction in lung cancer mortality, 497 lung cancer deaths averted, and 5250 life-years gained per the 100 000-member cohort. ...
Cancer Res. 2004;64:696-703. [PubMed]. 45. Kanzawa T, Kondo Y, Ito H, Kondo S, Germano I. Induction of autophagic cell death in ... Itoh T, Ito Y, Ohguchi K, Ohyama M, Iinuma M, Otsuki Y, Nozawa Y, Akao Y. Eupalinin A isolated from Eupatorium chinense L. ... Autophagic cell death induced by 5-FU in Bax or PUMA deficient human colon cancer cell. Cancer Lett. 2010;288:68-74. [PubMed] ... Autophagic cell death (type II programmed cell death) is an important cell death process besides apoptosis. Beclin 1, a ...
The societal burden of SCD is high relative to other major causes of death. Accordingly, improved national surveillance with ... leading causes of death among men and women from 2009 US death certificate reporting; (2) individual cancer mortality rates ... and national population data for 2009 from the US Census Bureau; and (4) SCD rates from the Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death ... The burden of premature death for men (2.04 million years of potential life lost; 95% uncertainty interval, 1.86-2.23 million) ...
United Kingdom estimate is that 1000 women must be screened once every 5 years for 35 years to avoid one cervical cancer death. ... The absolute risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis is low. In Australia, the incidence among the screening target population is ... 4. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC handbooks of cancer prevention. Vol. 10: cervix cancer screening. Lyon: ... Women aged under 25 years are least likely to benefit from screening, due to the very low incidence of cervical cancer in this ...
7.8 versus 5.2 deaths/million population/year) and asbestosis (1.0 versus 0.8 deaths/million population/year) than the ... asbestos-related lung cancer and asbestosis. In 2005 occupational exposure to asbestos was estimated to cause 43 000 ... Worldwide, the use of asbestos has declined by 55% from its historical peak of 4.7 million metric tonnes per year in 1980, but ... In Europe mercury pollution exacts a toll of €5.1 billion/year.. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals realize their effects, either ...
... thereby rendering it easy to ascertain person-years by multiplying the populations by 5. ... Individual death entries for the period 1989-98 were used to ascertain the number of pleural cancer deaths corresponding to ICD ... Although pleural cancer is extremely infrequent in Spain, during the last 10 years for which mortality data are available, the ... Results: There was a higher risk of death due to pleural cancer in well defined towns and areas, many of which correspond to ...
It is the leading cause of preventable cancer death worldwide. Clearly, there have been advances in the diagnosis, staging, and ... Also, for the responding population, there is an improvement in quality of life.47,48 Despite these apparent advantages for ... National Cancer Institute. Cancer rates and risks: Cancer Statistics Branch Division of Cancer Prevention and Control. Bethesda ... American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2006. ...
J M Dixon With 1 million new cases in the world each year… ... ABC of Breast Diseases Breast cancer-epidemiology, risk factors ... years) Percentage of all deaths in women attributable to breast cancer Gambia India, Madras China, Shanghai Japan, Osaka ... risk The following categories identify women who have three or more times the population risk of developing breast cancer A ... Cancer J Clin 1995;45:263-78. x Black DM. The genetics of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 1994;30a:1957-61. x Brinton LA, Devesa SS ...
For men and women combined, cancer is the main cause of premature death: In 2006 a total of 186 916 potential years of life ... using data of resident population (in five year groups) from the Federal Statistical Office. The European population was used ... The concept of years of life lost to premature death involves both frequency of death and age at which death occurs. This ... Cancer caused most premature deaths in women. Cancer was also the category showing the least decline: -17% over the whole ...
Evidence-based information on testicular cancer from hundreds of trustworthy sources for health and social care. Make better, ... Cancer. incidence and mortality among young adults aged 20-39 years worldwide in 2012: a population-based study 27 October 2017 ... 975,396 new cancer cases and 358,392 cancer-associated deaths occurred among young adults worldwide in 2012, which equated to ... Cancer. Plan established cancer. networks as the vehicle for the delivery of cancer. care.... ...
... of all deaths from cancer. Death from lung cancer is often related to the initial stage of diagnosis. The average 5-year ... Population:. This recommendation applies to asymptomatic adults aged 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and ... Lung cancer is the third most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States (1). The most ... Lung cancer-related mortality is one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide. Detecting lung cancer at an earlier ...
The table is taken from Cancer Research UKs leaflet Cancer Statistics - Key Facts.1, Five year survival (%) of patients ... Lung cancer statistics in the UK (Cancer Research UK, 2008), Recent statistics for lung cancer survival. ... diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1996-1999, Figure 3.3 :Five year survival (%) of patients diagnosed with... ... statistics on 5 year survival rates lung cancer uk by stage: ... survival and death. Both cancer-related deaths .... were ...
2000Mortality rates per 1002016LungCardiovascularDALYsMalignant neoplasmsCrudeLive birthsCONCLUSIONSProportion1999GloballyMalesHabitantesBreast cancer0.26DiseasesPeople100,00012.4ProstateWomenAbstractOutcomesLife expectancyCentreInhabitantsCervical cancer2017Liver cancersUnintentionalRateHeavy smokers1997Hypothetical populationIncreases1991AdultsDecreaseExposure1000Children youngerIncidence of colorectal cancerSignificantlyDetectionRiskCasosYounger
- Number of births by caesarean section per 1000 live births (year 2000). (nationmaster.com)
- Cancer death incidence (per 100 000 population ) for year 2000. (nationmaster.com)
- [ 26 ] Subsequently, a number of large RCTs have been published, generally utilizing a higher dose of vitamin D (2000 IU/day or 100 000/month). (medscape.com)
- MÉTODOS: A partir de datos del Sistema Nacional de Estadísticas Vitales de los Estados Unidos y de los censos de 1999 y de 2000, calculamos las tasas de mortalidad relacionadas con la diabetes, ajustadas por edad y para cada grupo de edad específico, en mexicanoestadounidenses, puertorriqueños y cubanoestadounidenses de más de 35 años de edad. (scielosp.org)
- METHODS: Using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the 1990 and 2000 censuses, we calculated age-adjusted and age-specific diabetes-related death rates for Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans over 35 years of age. (scielosp.org)
- In 2000, 7% of the Chinese population were aged 65 years or older, and more than 400 million Chinese adults are now aged 20-39 years. (wikipedia.org)
- The ageing of the population alone is predicted to produce a 200% increase in deaths from cardiovascular disease in China between the years 2000 and 2040. (wikipedia.org)
- b Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. (jamanetwork.com)
- 180 cases per 100 000 population per line, internal migration or expatriation tion reported here were: to establish year (2008), for a total annual case- will result in a large proportion, if not a yearly denominator of permanent load approximating 8000 new cases the majority, living most of their lives residents of the Baakline area for 2000- (unpublished data, Ministry of Health, outside the city. (who.int)
- All age male and female age-standardized lung cancer mortality rates per 100, 000 population for Sefton wards over the period 1998-2003. (zanran.com)
- Age-standardized IHD mortality rates per 100 000 people per year were much higher in Ukraine (324) and Kazakhstan (97) than in United States (60), Brazil (54), and the United Kingdom (46), with much less difference in other causes of death. (nih.gov)
- Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 people from ischemic heart disease (red line), stroke (light blue line), cirrhosis and other liver diseases (green line), chronic lower respiratory tract diseases (yellow line), lung cancer (blue line), transport accidents (orange line), and infectious diseases (purple line). (nih.gov)
- [ 25 ] The most recent meta-analysis including RCTs published up to 2016 did not find evidence to suggest that vitamin D supplementation reduce cancer incidence or mortality. (medscape.com)
- By 2016, incidence and death rates had become 8.8 and almost 6, per 100 000 population, respectively. (news-medical.net)
- Although more than half of all opioid related deaths still involved prescription drugs (either dispensed or diverted) in 2016, the increased rate of deaths involving fentanyl between 2015 and 2016 is concerning and suggests the need for a multifactorial approach to this problem that considers both the prescribed and illicit opioid environments. (bmj.com)
- Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. (diva-portal.org)
- The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. (diva-portal.org)
- In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862-11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018-19 228). (diva-portal.org)
- The age-standardized prevalence (period 2005 to 2016) and mortality (period 2005 to 2015) were calculated by region and year of study. (medwave.cl)
- In the 2005-2016 period, 19 513 cases of thyroid cancer were recorded. (medwave.cl)
- The prevalence increased from 4.7 to 15.2 cases per 100 000 inhabitants in the period 2005-2016, with the coastal region showing the greatest increase. (medwave.cl)
- Se calcularon las tasas estandarizadas de la prevalencia (periodo 2005 a 2016) y mortalidad (periodo 2005 a 2015) por regiones y a o de estudio. (medwave.cl)
- La prevalencia increment de 4,7 a 15,2 casos por 100 000 habitantes en el periodo 2005-2016 y la regi n de la costa fue la que present mayor ascenso. (medwave.cl)
- Of the total, 47% corresponded to lung, prostate and colorectal cancers in males and 56% to breast, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancers in females. (nih.gov)
- Among females, lung cancer ranked highest by death rates, whereas the highest DALYs were from breast cancer. (nih.gov)
- Highest DALYs were due to lung, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers in England and Wales. (nih.gov)
- WHO estimates that 107 000 annual deaths globally are caused by mesothelioma, asbestos-related lung cancer and asbestosis. (who.int)
- For certain, lung cancer is a condition of considerable importance in the world today. (bmj.com)
- As asserted by Tudor Edwards 60 years ago, lung cancer lends itself to a multidisciplinary approach with respiratory physicians, thoracic surgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists working jointly to study the disease while providing comprehensive cancer care. (bmj.com)
- Throughout the remainder of this article we will endeavour to provide an update in lung cancer while paying particular attention to how far we have come from then until now. (bmj.com)
- Incredibly, in 1946 there was little suspicion of the strong association between cigarette smoking and the development of lung cancer. (bmj.com)
- That all changed when the British researchers Doll and Hill provided the landmark article on the risk of lung cancer and cigarette smoking in 1950. (bmj.com)
- There has also been a proportional decrease in lung cancer rates which lagged approximately 20 years behind. (bmj.com)
- 4 The lowest rates of lung cancer can be found in South America and Africa. (bmj.com)
- 5- 7 For example, in 1994 the rate of lung cancer in Africa was about 5 per 100 000 people. (bmj.com)
- This compares with the rates found in the United States in the 1930s which was before the beginning of the epidemic in lung cancer. (bmj.com)
- There are several disturbing trends in the epidemiology of lung cancer. (bmj.com)
- Compared with lung cancer, the incidence of breast cancer is higher at younger ages. (slideshare.net)
- Lung cancer in women is the only cause of premature mortality with rising trends. (smw.ch)
- Past efforts in prevention, early detection and treatment, but also a healthier lifestyle and other factors, have very probably contributed to the considerable reduction in the rate of potential years of life lost, but the rising rate of premature mortality caused by lung cancer in women is of concern. (smw.ch)
- Update of the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for lung cancer. (annals.org)
- The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the efficacy of low-dose computed tomography, chest radiography, and sputum cytologic evaluation for lung cancer screening in asymptomatic persons who are at average or high risk for lung cancer (current or former smokers) and the benefits and harms of these screening tests and of surgical resection of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. (annals.org)
- The USPSTF recommends annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography in adults aged 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. (annals.org)
- Screening should be discontinued once a person has not smoked for 15 years or develops a health problem that substantially limits life expectancy or the ability or willingness to have curative lung surgery. (annals.org)
- Recent statistics for lung cancer survival. (zanran.com)
- College of Physicians (RCP) reports that mortality rates from lung cancer have improved in the last 40 years .4 However the outlook for patients in the UK remains poor with a 1- year survival rate of 27% for women and 30% for men. (zanran.com)
- The size of the problem: incidence, mortality and survival rates Colorectal (large bowel) cancer is the second most common cancer after lung cancer , in terms of both incidence and mortality, in England and Wales. (zanran.com)
- Although the incidence of lung cancer in the UK is falling, the incidence of other cancers is rising. (bmj.com)
- The top contributors to the ethnic gap in cancer incidence were lung, breast, stomach, endometrial and liver cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
- Objective While the US Preventive Services Task Force has issued recommendations for lung cancer screening, its effectiveness at reducing lung cancer burden may vary at local levels due to regional variations in smoking behaviour. (bmj.com)
- Our objective was to use an existing model to determine the impacts of lung cancer screening alone or in addition to increased smoking cessation in a US region with a relatively high smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence. (bmj.com)
- Interventions Hypothetical lung cancer control from 2014 to 2050 through (1) screening with CT, (2) intensified smoking cessation or (3) a combination strategy. (bmj.com)
- Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were lung cancer mortality rates. (bmj.com)
- Secondary outcomes included number of people eligible for screening and number of radiation-induced lung cancers. (bmj.com)
- Results Combining lung cancer screening with increased smoking cessation would yield an estimated 8.1% reduction in cumulative lung cancer mortality by 2050. (bmj.com)
- Lung cancer screening achieved a greater mortality reduction in earlier years, but was later surpassed by smoking cessation. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Combining smoking cessation programmes with lung cancer screening would provide the most benefit to a population, especially considering the growing proportion of patients ineligible for screening based on current recommendations. (bmj.com)
- To our knowledge, this is the first study to model the impact of combining lung cancer screening and smoking cessation programmes in the USA. (bmj.com)
- Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the USA, resulting in approximately 150 000 deaths per year. (bmj.com)
- 1 The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a randomised trial in the USA involving more than 53 000 current and former heavy smokers aged 55-74, found 20% fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with three annual low-dose CT versus three annual chest radiography examinations. (bmj.com)
- The increase was most evident for BM patients with lung cancer (both sexes) and breast cancer (women). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The purpose of this study was to examine rural-urban differences in healthcare utilization and location of death for residents of Saskatchewan, Canada, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer in the last 12 months of life. (rrh.org.au)
- A retrospective cohort study was undertaken of 1098 patients who died in 2004 with a cause of death recorded as COPD or lung cancer in administrative health data from Saskatchewan Health. (rrh.org.au)
- In 2015, Hungary reported the highest standardised death rate for lung cancer and for colorectal cancer among the EU Member States. (europa.eu)
- Screening for Lung Cancer: Too Much for Too Little? (ama-assn.org)
- Mahadevia PJ, Fleisher LA, Frick KD, Eng J, Goodman SN, Powe NR. Lung cancer screening with helical computed tomography in older adult smokers: a decision and cost-effectiveness analysis. (ama-assn.org)
- Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths for both men and women in the United States. (ama-assn.org)
- An estimated 172 570 cases of lung cancer will be diagnosed in 2005 , and three-fourths of those patients will have metastases beyond the lung at the time of their diagnosis. (ama-assn.org)
- The average 5-year survival rate is 15 percent if metastatic disease is present whereas patients who are diagnosed with stage I lung cancer have a 5-year survival rate of more than 60 percent . (ama-assn.org)
- But multiple large scale screening studies using chest radiographs and sputum have shown no reduction in lung cancer mortality [3, (ama-assn.org)
- So, screening necessarily subjects many people who don't have lung cancer to invasive follow-up tests, significant costs, and increased anxiety. (ama-assn.org)
- At present, 2 large randomized controlled studies are in the process of evaluating the efficacy of CT scanning for lung cancer. (ama-assn.org)
- The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLCST) was started in 2002 by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). (ama-assn.org)
- Mahadevia and colleagues presented a computer-simulated model that assessed the cost-effectiveness of CT scanning for lung cancer screening in smokers, as well as the mortality rates and potential harm under a variety of assumptions . (ama-assn.org)
- Each unscreened participant faced the probability of staying alive without clinically apparent lung cancer, developing lung cancer and dying from it, or developing lung cancer but dying from other causes. (ama-assn.org)
- Screened participants were given the same overall risks of developing lung cancer, with additional pathways developed for those diagnosed with indeterminate nodules. (ama-assn.org)
- Those ultimately diagnosed with lung cancer were treated with various management strategies (ie, chemotherapy, radiation, surgery). (ama-assn.org)
- Trends in all-cancer, gens have been identified in tobacco smoke and 28 in smoke- lung cancer, and tobacco-related cancer death rates were also less tobacco products ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- In 2010 the leading causes of death among men aged 15 to 64 were alcohol related deaths, ischaemic heart disease, accident, suicides, lung cancer and cerbrovascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
- Among women the leading causes were breast cancer, alcohol related deaths, accidents, suicides, ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Apart from cancer identification, an unsupervised learning-based system can be instrumental in preventing heart attacks - through early detection of blood vessels narrowing and hardening - and respiratory diseases like emphysema, pulmonary nodules, or embolisms - with prior computer vision-powered lung vessel segmentation. (oxagile.com)
- These diseases are typically potentially fatal or seriously debilitating, and include mesothelioma, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pneumoconiosis (including asbestosis). (ersjournals.com)
- This happened at a Round Table which was organized immediately after the conclusion of International Conference on "Emerging Trends in Preventing Occupational Respiratory Diseases and Cancers in Workplace" at Maulana Azad Medical College that expressed grave concern about asbestos related diseases like lung cancer in the national capital. (asbestosfreeindia.org)
- No matter what mis-information comes of Canada or the Indian asbestos industry about Chrysotile, there is no question that science has shown that Chrysotile causes asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. (asbestosfreeindia.org)
- Death rates decreased for 11 of the 16 most common cancer types in men and for 13 of the 18 most common cancer types in women, including lung, colorectal, female breast, and prostate, whereas death rates increased for liver (men and women), pancreas (men), brain (men), and uterine cancers. (danipires.com)
- This favorable trend must be continued, because lung cancer death rates are calculated to have more than doubled in men between 1991 and 1995, and are increasing at 2-5% per year in urban and rural working men aged 15-54 years. (wikipedia.org)
- Secondary, or metastatic , brain tumors are about four times more common than primary brain tumors, with about half of metastases coming from lung cancer . (wikipedia.org)
- In 5 illustrative countries which provided detailed data, we analyzed trends of mortality from IHD and 3 noncommunicable diseases (lung cancer, stroke, and chronic lower respiratory tract diseases) and examined the simultaneous trends in important cardiovascular risk factors. (nih.gov)
- Cardiovascular disease Cancer Respiratory diseases Unintentional injury The causes of death varied substantially by age group. (zanran.com)
- In 2014, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded that data were insufficient to evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for cancer or cardiovascular disease prevention. (medscape.com)
- Hospital as a location of death was more likely for those with a UCOD of cardiovascular disease (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.24-2.71), but was less likely for those aged 80-85 years (OR=0.46, 95% CI=.31-.69), those aged more than 85 years (OR=0.28, 95% CI=.19-.42) and those who had never married (OR=0.48, 95% CI=.29-.78). (rrh.org.au)
- Mental health and substance use disorders together were the leading cause of disease burden in 2015, surpassing cancer and cardiovascular disease, among others. (kff.org)
- Major causes of deaths in Finland are cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors, dementia and alzheimers disease, respiratory diseases, alcohol related diseases and accidental poisoning by alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
- They are re-contacted every 5 and 10 years for a follow-up survey and are monitored regularly for major diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, and death from all causes. (scientificamerican.com)
- Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. (diva-portal.org)
- Inadequate housing accounts for over 100 000 deaths per year in the WHO European Region and causes or contributes to many preventable diseases and injuries, including respiratory, nervous system and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. (who.int)
- Cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are the leading causes of both death and of the burden of disease, and exposure to risk factors is high: more than 300 million men smoke cigarettes and 160 million adults are hypertensive, most of whom are not being treated. (wikipedia.org)
- Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the important causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality globally, giving rise to more than 7 million deaths annually. (edu.ua)
- This study aims to estimate the burden of cancer in England and Wales using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and to determine if the ranking of relative importance changes with metric used. (nih.gov)
- DALYs are the sum of years of life lost due to mortality and years lost due to disability. (nih.gov)
- Annual DALYs due to cancer were calculated using cancer registration, mortality, disability weights and World Health Organization methodology. (nih.gov)
- There were 8 605 362 DALYs due to cancer (3242 DALYs/100 000 population/year). (nih.gov)
- Individuals of 65-75 years contributed to 28% of DALYs. (nih.gov)
- Globally, 54% of the burden of disease attributable to environmental exposures, expressed in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), is borne by children under the age of 15 years. (who.int)
- Occupational exposures, exposure to lead and acute poisonings resulting from unsound management are estimated to account globally for 1 303 100 million deaths (2.3% of total) and 43 109 000 DALYs (1.6% of total). (who.int)
- We report on the incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to stomach cancer in 195 countries and territories from 21 regions between 1990 and 2017. (auckland.ac.nz)
- Methods Estimates from GBD 2017 were used to analyse the incidence, mortality, and DALYs due to stomach cancer at the global, regional, and national levels. (auckland.ac.nz)
- Findings In 2017, more than 1·22 million (95% UI 1·19-1·25) incident cases of stomach cancer occurred worldwide, and nearly 865 000 people (848 000-885 000) died of stomach cancer, contributing to 19·1 million (18·7-19·6) DALYs. (auckland.ac.nz)
- Despite the increase in absolute numbers, the worldwide age-standardised rates of stomach cancer (incidence, deaths, and DALYs) have declined since 1990. (auckland.ac.nz)
- In the whole WHO European Region, using solid fuels as a household energy source results in the loss of 577 annual disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100 000 children younger than five years, and housing-related exposure to lead causes an annual loss of 79 DALYs per 100 000 population. (who.int)
- Data for 45 countries indicate that mould in homes results in the loss of 40 DALYs per 100 000 children each year. (who.int)
- Further, exposure to noise from road traffic in Germany alone causes a loss of 31 DALYs per 100 000 population annually. (who.int)
- Lack of smoke detectors causes an annual loss of 22 DALYs per 100 000 population in the whole European Region. (who.int)
- Chronic, non-communicable diseases account for an estimated 80% of total deaths and 70% of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in China. (wikipedia.org)
- Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. (nationmaster.com)
- Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the population growth rate in the absence of migration. (nationmaster.com)
- A local report reveals a constant increase in new cases of breast cancer, with a crude incidence rate of 55.7 per 100 000 women in 2014.3 The mortality rate of breast cancer has been stable over the past decade. (deepdyve.com)
- Mortality rates for urban and rural populations: crude and age-specific, as well as age-standardised (ASR) were calculated and expressed per 100 000 women at risk. (pjph.eu)
- Average annual ASR in urban areas amounted 15.6/100 000 (crude 29.2/100 000), in rural - 12.4/100 000 (crude 20.9/100 000). (pjph.eu)
- We explored patterns in relationships with age, sex, and income and calculated age-standardized mortality rates for each country in addition to crude death rates. (nih.gov)
- Changes in ( A ) crude death rates and ( B ) age-standardized mortality rates between 2005 and 2015. (nih.gov)
- Estimated crude cancer incidence rate was 164 cases/100 000 persons/year, significantly higher in men (194) than women (130), and much lower overall than the national figure (218). (who.int)
- CONCLUSIONS: Meeting the less intense control goals is associated with 37% reduction in mortality and could lead to 39,400 fewer deaths per year. (cdc.gov)
- Conclusions Prescribed, diverted, and illicit opioids all play an important role in opioid related deaths. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Compared with early detection of melanoma, systematic sunscreen use at a population level will prevent substantial numbers of new skin tumours, melanoma deaths and save healthcare costs. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Most European countries should consider switching from primary cytology to HPV screening for cervical cancer. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions IHD remains the single largest cause of death in countries of all income groups. (nih.gov)
- than half that proportion of the deaths of whites (8.7%) were attributed to these causes . (zanran.com)
- It provides more information for developing breast cancer-related education programs and screening policies for Chinese women in Macao and other countries where Chinese account for a significant proportion of the population. (deepdyve.com)
- Cancer makes up a large and increasing proportion of excess mortality for indigenous, marginalised and socioeconomically deprived populations, and much of this inequality is preventable. (biomedcentral.com)
- Proportion of patients, aged five years and over, with respiratory symptoms in primary health care facilities with medical officers. (who.int)
- This may be due to the high proportion of those aged 65 and older in Vernon (22% vs 14.6% in the province as a whole), which offers a peek into BC's future over the next 25 to 30 years as the number of people in this age group is projected to increase to 24% by 2036. (bcmj.org)
- 4 ] Thus, though the age-standardized incidence of colorectal cancer is stable, the overall incidence in BC will continue to increase as a result of an increased proportion of older British Columbians. (bcmj.org)
- Cumulative proportion of 65-year-old men in Sweden invited to AAA screening and illustration of stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial design. (ahajournals.org)
- The proportion not attributed to the coded cancer ranged from 13% for cervical cancer to 81% for laryngeal cancer. (zanran.com)
- The proportion of population with access to improved sanitation facilities augmented from 37.4% in 1990 to 78% in 2015. (lww.com)
- The proportion of children younger than 1 year who were fully immunized (8 vaccines) reached 97.2% in 2015. (lww.com)
- METHODS: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 participants with self-report of diagnosed diabetes (N=3335), measured HbA1c, BP and non-HDL cholesterol were linked to the National Death Index through December 31, 2011. (cdc.gov)
- Over the period the standardised rate has ranged between a minimum of 2.1 deaths per 100 000 population in 1999 and a maximum of 2.7 in 2001. (apo.org.au)
- The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. (diva-portal.org)
- Globally, more than 33 000 deaths were attributed to asbestos in 2010, with asbestos-related respiratory diseases remaining one of the commonest causes of occupational morbidity and mortality [ 4 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- It is said that about 25% of all cancer deaths globally - across planet Earth - are of Chinese persons in Mainland China and that one-fifth (20%) of all deaths inside China are from one or more cancers. (wikipedia.org)
- Primary brain tumors occur in around 250,000 people a year globally, making up less than 2% of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
- The absolute size and percentage of the cancer contribution to excess mortality increased from 1981-86 to 2006-11 in Māori males (SRD 72.5 to 102.0 per 100,000) and females (SRD 72.2 to 109.4), and Pacific females (SRD −9.8 to 42.2) each compared to European/Other. (biomedcentral.com)
- 0.01) and liver cancers (Māori males p = 0.04), and for cervical cancer it decreased (Māori females p = 0.03). (biomedcentral.com)
- Moreover, one in 270 women and one in 600 males who go through CT coronary angiography at the age of 40 is supposed to develop cancer. (oxagile.com)
- There were 8 females and 9 males, and the median age (excluding the 14-yearold) was 58 years. (scielo.org.za)
- Seventeen patients (12 males, 5 females, mean age 63 years, BMI 27.7) with histologically confirmed Barrett's oesophagus were treated with esopmeprazole 40 mg bd for 12 weeks. (scielo.org.za)
- In 2012, prostate cancer was the 5th cause of death from cancer in males (6.6%) ( 2 ). (numonthly.com)
- RESULTADOS: La tasa de mortalidad relacionada con la diabetes en mexicanoestadounidenses (251 muertes por cada 100 000 habitantes) y en puertorriqueños (204 muertes por cada 100 000) fue dos veces mayor que dicha tasa en cubanoestadounidenses (101 muertes por cada 100 000). (scielosp.org)
- La tasa estandarizada de mortalidad por 100 000 habitantes aument de 0,67 en 2005 a 0,72 en 2015, siendo la regi n de la sierra la de mayor incremento. (medwave.cl)
- ABSTRACT Breast cancer is a public health challenge in the Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
- Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of prognostic factors on breast cancer survival using Additive Empirical Bayesian model with large data set. (who.int)
- Breast cancer data set included 1574 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 2002 to 2012 that registered from Cancer Registry in Fars Province, Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
- The Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) related to nodal status, tumour size and nuclear grade was the main indicator of breast cancer mortality. (who.int)
- Risk factors for breast cancer Age The incidence of breast cancer increases with age, doubling about every 10 years until the menopause, when the rate of increase slows dramatically. (slideshare.net)
- Geographical variation Age adjusted incidence and mortality for breast cancer varies by up to a factor of five between countries. (slideshare.net)
- 2. Age at menarche and menopause Women who start menstruating early in life or who have a late menopause have an increased risk of developing breast cancer. (slideshare.net)
- Women who have a natural menopause after the age of 55 are twice as likely to develop breast cancer as women who experience the menopause before the age of 45. (slideshare.net)
- At one extreme, women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy before the age of 35 have only 40% of the risk of breast cancer of women who have a natural menopause. (slideshare.net)
- Age at first pregnancy Nulliparity and late age at first birth both increase the lifetime incidence of breast cancer. (slideshare.net)
- The risk of breast cancer in women who have their first child after the age of 30 is about twice that of women who have their first child before the age of 20. (slideshare.net)
- An early age at birth of a second child further reduces the risk of breast cancer. (slideshare.net)
- Family history Up to 10% of breast cancer in Western countries is due to genetic predisposition. (slideshare.net)
- Breast cancer susceptibility is generally inherited as an autosomal dominant with limited penetrance. (slideshare.net)
- In women breast cancer contributed most to the decline of premature mortality but remains the first cause of early death. (smw.ch)
- High-quality evidence from 24 RCTs (n=4418) concludes in women with metastatic breast cancer who do not have triple-negative disease, there is little or no survival benefit and excess toxicity from. (evidence.nhs.uk)
- Breast cancer screening behavior, attitude, barriers among middle-aged Chinese women in Macao, China Gan, Yan Xiang;Lao, Cheng-Kin;Chan, Alexandre 2018-05-08 00:00:00 Abstract Background Breast cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among females in Macao, but little is known about local practice of breast cancer screening. (deepdyve.com)
- The study aims to evaluate breast cancer screening behaviors and to identify the predictors of insufficient knowledge and attitudes towards breast cancer and its screening among female residents. (deepdyve.com)
- Quota sampling of women completed the modified Chinese Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs questionnaire (CBCSB) to assess their breast cancer-related perceptions, screening attitudes and behaviors. (deepdyve.com)
- Women did not know anyone with breast cancer (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.50−3.55) were more likely to have insufficient knowledge about breast cancer. (deepdyve.com)
- Low education (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.25−3.04) and not knowing anyone with breast cancer (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.31−3.13) were identified as predictors for perceived barriers to mammography. (deepdyve.com)
- Conclusion Recommendations for breast cancer screening are poorly followed by the residents in Macao, and a culturally tailored educational program is urgently needed to raise the public's awareness of the disease and the screening practices. (deepdyve.com)
- attitude, breast cancer, health check-ups, screening behaviors Introduction As the most prevalent cancer among women, breast cancer poses a significant health threat worldwide. (deepdyve.com)
- Some common barriers to breast cancer screening encountered by Chinese women include cultural perceptions or fear of cancer9-13, discomfort9, embarrassment10,11,14 and cost.12,13,15 The research exploring Chinese women's screening attitudes and beliefs has largely been conducted in the Western countries and the relevant data about those living in Asia remains relatively limited. (deepdyve.com)
- In addition, little is known about the practices of breast cancer screening in the female population in Macao. (deepdyve.com)
- This study was designed to evaluate breast cancer screening behaviors, and to identify the predictors of negative attitudes and limited knowledge towards the disease and its screening among middle-aged Chinese women in Macao. (deepdyve.com)
- Studies on the link between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer will be used to illustrate the difference in analysis of the different study types. (aerzteblatt.de)
- Studies on breast cancer and HRT normally also examine influence factors such as menopausal status, family history, marital status and education. (aerzteblatt.de)
- These variables should be included in the analysis, as they may be risk factors for breast cancer and are potential confounders ( 12 ). (aerzteblatt.de)
- Effect modification means that the influence of one factor (for example, HRT) on a disease (for example, breast cancer) is modified by the presence of another factor (for example, smoking). (aerzteblatt.de)
- The risk of radiation-induced breast cancer is higher for women with large breasts or breast implants because extra screening views often increase their radiation exposure. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- The standardised death rate for breast cancer fell by 10.1 % for women, which was in excess of the overall change for all cancers. (europa.eu)
- The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and breast cancer screening practices amongst women aged 30-65 years residing in a rural South African community. (scielo.org.za)
- Findings revealed that the level of knowledge about breast cancer of women in Makwarani Community was relatively low. (scielo.org.za)
- The attitude toward breast cancer was negative whereas the majority of women had never performed breast cancer diagnostic methods. (scielo.org.za)
- Health education on breast cancer screening practices is lacking and the knowledge deficit can contribute negatively to early detection of breast cancer and compound late detection. (scielo.org.za)
- Breast cancer is a global health problem and the most common cancer amongst women, comprising 23% of the female cancers (Parkins & Fernández 2006:S71). (scielo.org.za)
- Despite the development of advanced technology in the detection of breast cancer, the mortality rate remains high. (scielo.org.za)
- Data from South Africa's National Cancer Registry (NCR) show breast cancer as the leading cancer amongst women. (scielo.org.za)
- It is important that health personnel are aware of the risk factors for breast cancer, in order to guide their patients for necessary screening. (scielo.org.za)
- Lack of basic knowledge and an effective information delivery system for breast cancer further threatens the life and well-being of women. (scielo.org.za)
- Breast cancer is silently killing women - mainly those who have no knowledge and continue to be ignorant about breast cancer and breast diagnostic screening methods for early detection (Shepherd & Mclnerney 2006:71). (scielo.org.za)
- 2012:1) also reported lack of information regarding breast cancer to the rural and urban populace of Nigeria, saying that it is responsible for the negative perception of the curability of a cancer detected early and the efficacy of screening tests. (scielo.org.za)
- In addition, silence and lack of understanding of the concept of risk factors associated with breast cancer discourage people from seeking early intervention or even admitting that the symptoms that they are experiencing are related to breast cancer. (scielo.org.za)
- Rate: Number of deaths among females due to breast cancer per 100,000 female population. (nj.gov)
- https://healthdata.nj.gov/dataset/Breast-Cancer-Death-Rate-per-100-000-females-New-J/e2am-m89s Opens in new window. (nj.gov)
- Variation in female breast cancer incidence and mortality between urban and rural areas is one of the inequalities in the health of the Polish population. (pjph.eu)
- The aim of the study was to analyse the differences in breast cancer mortality among urban and rural female population in Poland in years 2002-2011. (pjph.eu)
- The study material was based on the data from the Central Statistical Office of Poland on the number of breast cancer deaths registered in Poland for the period 2002-2011. (pjph.eu)
- Breast cancer mortality in Poland was markedly higher in urban female population. (pjph.eu)
- The association between strenuous PA and ALS risk observed does not compromise the overall benefit of strenuous PA for total mortality, coronary heart disease, and breast cancer reported in other WHI investigations, but it may provide an important clue to the etiology of ALS, if replicated by other studies. (whi.org)
- Breast cancer is the most prevalent coefficient of 0.2), nuclear grade ( 1-3 ) of Iran are rare, particularly studies con- cancer in the world with 1.7 million and nodal status ( 1-3 ). (who.int)
- Breast cancer survivors are advised to steer clear of grilled, barbecued and smoked meat as findings have established a link between these cooking methods and a decrease in survival time, post-cancer. (foodnavigator.com)
- Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill looked at 1,508 women who had breast cancer. (foodnavigator.com)
- After an average duration of 17.6 years of follow-up, 597 deaths, of which 237 were breast cancer related, were identified. (foodnavigator.com)
- These include high prediagnosis smoked beef/lamb/pork intake and increased all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. (foodnavigator.com)
- According to the WHO, breast cancer is the most common form in women, making up 28% of the total in Europe. (foodnavigator.com)
- With the exception of Norway and Sweden, from 1950 to the late 1980s, breast-cancer mortality rose throughout Europe. (foodnavigator.com)
- Deaths from breast cancer in Europe peaked in the 1990s, at 14.74 deaths per 100 000 population in 1994, falling to 13.01 per 100 000 in 2009. (foodnavigator.com)
- Grilled, Barbecued, and Smoked Meat Intake and Survival Following Breast Cancer. (foodnavigator.com)
- We estimated the burden of premature death from SCD and compared it with other diseases. (nih.gov)
- Incidence, counts, and years of potential life lost for SCD and other major diseases were compared. (nih.gov)
- The occurrence of diseases or deaths in these two groups is observed prospectively. (aerzteblatt.de)
- the most common causes of death from diseases of the circulatory system are ischaemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. (europa.eu)
- Ischaemic heart diseases accounted for 127 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants across the EU-28 in 2015. (europa.eu)
- It had the lowest rate of death from communicable diseases in Europe (9 per 100,000) in 2015. (wikipedia.org)
- The most significant public health problems are currently circulatory diseases, cancer, muscoloskeletal diseases and mental health problems. (wikipedia.org)
- Long-latency respiratory diseases (LLRDs) are characterised by clinical presentation many years after first exposure to a causal agent. (ersjournals.com)
- For several but not all cancer types, survival statistically significantly improved over time for both early and late-stage diseases. (danipires.com)
- The ageing of the population is the major force driving the epidemic of chronic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition to the ageing of the population, China is experiencing dramatic transformations in many social and economic conditions that will continue to increase the incidence of major chronic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
- Dividing the causes of deaths according to the International Classification of Diseases, we identified an increased hazard ratio in all informative chapters, with a significantly increased ratio in cancer, pulmonary, neurological and unspecified diseases, and trauma. (biomedcentral.com)
- One British study [ 14 ] identified a significantly increased mortality in total and in diseases of the respiratory system in a 47,XYY population compared to the background population. (biomedcentral.com)
- Health in Norway, with its early history of poverty and infectious diseases along with famines and epidemics, was for most of the population not good at least into the 1800s. (wikipedia.org)
- The implications 6% of all CRC occurs in people under 50 years of age, who are not eligible for the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program. (mja.com.au)
- In 2012, more than 1.3 million people had colorectal cancer (CRC) worldwide, and there were 694 000 associated deaths. (mja.com.au)
- For example, from 2095 to 2100, India's population is expected to rise by 16,181 people due to births. (nationmaster.com)
- The number of people that will die from cancer out of 100,000 people the same age. (nationmaster.com)
- Older people and women were relatively more likely to have an active opioid prescription at time of death. (bmj.com)
- Among people with active opioid prescriptions at time of death, 37.8% (375/993) also had evidence of a non-prescribed opioid on postmortem toxicology. (bmj.com)
- Furthermore, nearly 3% of people aged 12 years or older reported addiction to or misuse of an illicit drug in 2015, including more than 7% of people aged 18 to 25 years. (kff.org)
- The number of people with diabetes are estimated to double in 10 years. (wikipedia.org)
- This study started in the 1990s and is following people who were between 40 to 69 years old at the time. (scientificamerican.com)
- The researchers have also found that the hazard ratio for colorectal cancer for Japanese people who drink alcohol is higher than that of their western counterparts. (scientificamerican.com)
- In general, Inoue's work has revealed that the incidence of cancer in Japan overall is much lower than in European countries and that obesity there is still rare since Japanese people generally have a lower body-mass index, or BMI (mass in kg/height in cm2). (scientificamerican.com)
- The Appalachian residents have lower educational attainment than the rest of the state 6 , and relatively more people over the age of 25 years do not have a high school diploma compared with the state average. (rrh.org.au)
- Genetic testing of 1.5 million 45-49 year olds would identify 91% of the people aged under 50 at sufficient risk to warrant screening, potentially saving 16 colorectal cancer deaths each year. (cdc.gov)
- The number of people eligible to screen under the genetics-based program, but not eligible under the age-based program c ( N =192 286), according to age (years) in the hypothetical population. (cdc.gov)
- c People aged less than 50 years whose combined risk surpassed a 0.33% 5-year risk of colorectal cancer (equivalent to the average population risk at age 50 years). (cdc.gov)
- The age-adjusted national incidence of SCD was 60 per 100 000 population (95% confidence interval, 54-66 per 100,000). (nih.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed that an alarming 50 per 100,000 persons in the USA suffer from death of iatrogenic origin - caused by avoidable error or negligence on the healer's part - constituting the third leading cause of death in the country. (oxagile.com)
- Definition: Number of deaths per 100,000 with malignant neoplasm (cancer) of the female breast as the underlying cause (ICD-10 codes: C33-C34). (nj.gov)
- Number of performed surgical procedures, usually measured per year and per 100,000 persons. (reportlinker.com)
- In 2013 the age-standardized rate of death from unintentional poisonings per 100 000 population was 12.4 in the US compared with 2.5 on average in comparable countries. (kff.org)
- and breast and prostate cancers. (who.int)
- advanced, non-metastatic prostate cancer , as an alternative to surgical castration. (evidence.nhs.uk)
- SPC has been updated with new indication of treatment (with prednisone or prednisolone) of newly diagnosed high risk metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer in adult men in combination with. (evidence.nhs.uk)
- OBJECTIVE: To assess recent trends in prostate cancer incidence, survival and mortality in Spain using updated data. (bvsalud.org)
- SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Prostate cancer mortality data have been obtained from the National Institute of Statistics (INE). (bvsalud.org)
- PSA is the most routine marker to detect prostate cancer, but due to its low specificity that can lead to a number of unnecessary biopsies, there is great need for an alternate method. (numonthly.com)
- PCA3 is overexpressed in prostate cancer, not in benign conditions such as prostatitis (unlike PSA). (numonthly.com)
- Because of its efficacy (being more sensitive and specific in comparison with PSA), this biomarker could be a very useful and promising method for the early detection of prostate cancer, especially in combination with other tests such as TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. (numonthly.com)
- In a research in 5 provinces of Iran (Ardabil, Guilan, Golestan, Mazandaran, and Kerman) ASR of prostate cancer was 5.1 per 100 000 person-years ( 3 ). (numonthly.com)
- Now, ASR of prostate cancer is around 24.9 and 12.6, respectively in West Asia and Iran ( 4 ). (numonthly.com)
- Traditional approaches to screen prostate cancer (PCa) are periodic monitoring of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE). (numonthly.com)
- PSA is a glycoprotein produced by prostate epithelial cells and for detection of prostate cancer is nonspecific ( 6 ). (numonthly.com)
- The most routines are percent free PSA, prostate health index (PHI), 4Kscore, and prostate cancer antigen 3 gene (PCA3) ( 7 ). (numonthly.com)
- At a sensitivity of 80%, the specificity of PSA to diagnose the prostate cancer in a cohort study, ranged between 20% and 37% (corresponding to serum PSA values of 1.7 and 3.0 ng/mL, respectively). (numonthly.com)
- Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer in men and the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men in Canada. (urotoday.com)
- In Canada, the age-standardized rate of death from prostate cancer rose from 1969 to 1991, followed by a decline of 37.5% from 1992 to 2009, at an average rate of 2.6% per year. (urotoday.com)
- Subsequent to the introduction and adoption of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, the incidence of prostate cancer increased rapidly from 1990 to a peak in 1993 and a second, less-pronounced peak in 2001. (urotoday.com)
- Instead, the reduction in prostate cancer mortality over time has been relatively steady and began too soon after the test's introduction to be attributed mainly to PSA screening. (urotoday.com)
- This guideline provides recommendations on screening for prostate cancer using the PSA test with or without digital rectal examination in men in the general population. (urotoday.com)
- It accounts for about 3 percent of all cancers among women and is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death in women [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Most women who are diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are between the ages of 40 and 65. (hindawi.com)
- 4 , 5 In Australia, women aged 18-70 years are encouraged to screen every 2 years, an intensive program by international standards. (mja.com.au)
- In Australia, the incidence among the screening target population is nine per 100 000 women per year, down from 17.4 per 100 000 per year in 1991, when the organised program began. (mja.com.au)
- 7 The most recently reported Australian mortality rate is two per 100 000 women per year. (mja.com.au)
- A United Kingdom estimate is that 1000 women must be screened once every 5 years for 35 years to avoid one cervical cancer death. (mja.com.au)
- 8 Of Australian women in the target population with a cervix, 57% were screened in 2010-2011, with 83% participation over 5 years. (mja.com.au)
- 7 Cervical cancer disproportionately affects women of lower socioeconomic status, yet this group is less likely to participate in screening. (mja.com.au)
- In the United Kingdom, where the age standardised incidence and mortality is the highest in the world, the incidence among women aged 50 approaches two per 1000 women per year, and the disease is the single commonest cause of death among women aged 40-50, accounting for about a fifth of all deaths in this age group. (slideshare.net)
- There are more than 14 000 deaths each year, and the incidence is increasing particularly among women aged 50-64, probably because of breast screening in this age group. (slideshare.net)
- a survey conducted in 2014 showed that only 43.9% of women in Hong Kong had received a mammogram and most of these women did not comply to recommended guidelines.8 In Taiwan, the participation rate was only 43% over a 5-year period9, even with the avail of universal healthcare and free access to mammographic screening. (deepdyve.com)
- This comprehensive modeling study showed that the procedures would be safer for all women with biennial, instead of annual, screening mammograms and beginning at age 50 years instead of 40 years. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Participants Men and women with a mean age 50 years modelled for 30 years. (bmj.com)
- Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in men and the third most common cancer in women in Canada. (bcmj.org)
- Population Unvaccinated women born between 1939 and 1992. (bmj.com)
- 6 In such women cervical cancer screening remains the primary preventive strategy, and screening in unvaccinated women will continue for several decades. (bmj.com)
- Because the current vaccines against HPV do not fully cover all the viral types that cause cancer, screening will be important for vaccinated women. (bmj.com)
- A somewhat provocative and novel finding from the REVEAL-HBV study is the association of chronic HBV infection in active replication with an increased pancreatic cancer risk especially in women less than 50 years old. (natap.org)
- Japan has the longest life expectancy at birth in the world (86.6 years for women and 79.6 years for men in 2013) and researchers would like to understand why. (scientificamerican.com)
- Japanese women over 50 also drink much less alcohol than their male folk, and hardly ever smoke, which means that they are half as likely to develop stomach or liver cancers compared to men. (scientificamerican.com)
- Drinking less alcohol also reduces the risk of developing colorectal and breast cancers for women. (scientificamerican.com)
- We conducted a population-based study among 3656 women. (ebscohost.com)
- This relationship has yet to be evaluated among women in population-based cohort studies. (whi.org)
- The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) enrolled 161 809 postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 79 years (mean [SD] age, 63.6 [7.years), between 1993 and 1998 into either a clinical trial or an observational study at 40 clinical research centers across the United States. (whi.org)
- of cancer deaths among Caribbean women during the period 1991-95. (zanran.com)
- Percentage of women 40 years of age and over who had a mammogram within the past 2 years. (reportlinker.com)
- Percentage of women aged 21-65 years who have not had a hysterectomy and who had a Pap test within the past 3 years. (reportlinker.com)
- In the present study, advanced making it the leading cause of cancer fied into 3 categories identifying good, statistical analysis was used for a large mortality among women. (who.int)
- Higher scores to estimate the survival probability at of cancer among Iranian women, ac- have been associated with lower long- 2, 3, 5 and 10 years, and determine the counting for 24.6% of all cancers. (who.int)
- After five years, these women were asked the same questions. (foodnavigator.com)
- 1 However, population-based data on incidence trends and outcomes for patients under 50 years of age in Australia are limited. (mja.com.au)
- However, the relative importance of these more proximal causes of cancer change over time, potentially requiring changes in the emphasis of policies aimed at addressing inequities in cancer outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Primary and secondary outcomes Costs, counts of melanoma, melanoma deaths, keratinocyte cancers, life years and quality-adjusted life years. (bmj.com)
- Modelling relied on population outcomes from two randomised controlled trials that serve to minimise bias in key model inputs but indirect comparison analyses were undertaken. (bmj.com)
- Fertility-sparing treatment of endometrial cancer: options, outcomes and pitfalls. (ebscohost.com)
- However, some communications are not clear about the risk of cervical cancer and the protective capacity and reliability of the Pap test. (mja.com.au)
- Improved communications could include providing patients with information on the absolute risk of cervical cancer, and the morbidity and mortality benefits and harms of screening. (mja.com.au)
- It has a long history, it appears to be very effective, and Australia has among the lowest incidence of cervical cancer in the world. (mja.com.au)
- Objectives To investigate, using a Dutch model, whether and under what variables framed for other European countries screening for human papillomavirus (HPV) is preferred over cytology screening for cervical cancer, and to calculate the preferred number of examinations over a woman's lifetime. (bmj.com)
- In countries that have a history of cervical cancer screening (or consider setting up screening), it is being debated whether or not to replace cytology by HPV screening. (bmj.com)
- Calibration results of age-specific incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. (zanran.com)
- to develop cervical cancer . (zanran.com)
- To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP) of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). (scielo.org.mx)
- We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3) and cervical cancer. (scielo.org.mx)
- For most countries around the world, including Mexico, cervical cytology, or the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, serves as the principal diagnostic tool for the detection of cervical cancer. (scielo.org.mx)
- NOTES: A total of 2,813,503 resident deaths were registered in the United States in 2017. (oxagile.com)
- The 10 leading causes accounted for 74.0% of all deaths in the United States in 2017. (oxagile.com)
- Methods: Demographic, laboratory and renal histopathology data was collected from electronic health records in all patients aged 65 years and over who had a renal biopsy from 2008-2017. (anzsnasm.com)
- The number is not an accurate telling of the country's cancer rate, but rather how fatal cancer is in each country. (nationmaster.com)
- Rate per 100, 000 Population CANADA NUNAVUT 1 Figure 10. (zanran.com)
- Age standardised rate per 100, 000 Bl he et N Increasing Deprivation Sources: ONS Registered Death Extracts for relevant years. (zanran.com)
- 500/100 000 population rate) and over 4.2 million dogs (approx. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The death rate is predicted to peak at around 2450 deaths per year in 10 years' time. (bmj.com)
- Age-standardised rate differences (SRDs) for Māori (indigenous) and Pacific peoples, each compared to European/Other, were decomposed by cancer type. (biomedcentral.com)
- During 2004-2013, incidence of tobacco-related cancer decreased 1.3% per year and mortality decreased 1.6% per year, with decreases observed across most groups, but not at the same rate. (cdc.gov)
- Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common cancer worldwide and has a very high mortality rate. (bmj.com)
- Moreover, even after curatively intended resection of PDAC the prognosis of most patients remains poor with a 5-year survival rate between 18 and 50% (6C8). (biobender.com)
- The rate of deaths due to mesothelioma has remained relatively stable over the 10 years for which data are available. (apo.org.au)
- In 2007, the age-standardised rate of death due to mesothelioma was 2.4 deaths per 100 000 population. (apo.org.au)
- The overall age-standardised rate has remained relatively stable over the 10 years for which data are available. (apo.org.au)
- We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. (diva-portal.org)
- The Southwest Virginia population is poorer than the rest of the nation and the poverty rate is higher than state (Virginia) average. (rrh.org.au)
- As of 2015, the rate of doctors and pharmacists per 10 000 populations was 8 and 2.5, respectively. (lww.com)
- The infant mortality rate increased again between the 1970 and 1980 due to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). (wikipedia.org)
- The permanent Baakline population is older than that of Lebanon itself, yet the cancer incidence rate is markedly lower than the national figure. (who.int)
- To analyze the cost-effectiveness of screening, Mahadevia and colleagues created a hypothetical study population of 100 000 heavy smokers, all 60 years old. (ama-assn.org)
- The incidence in men was about 2.7 per 100 000 population in 1997, with almost 2 deaths/100 000. (news-medical.net)
- Resultados: Las tasas estandarizadas en ambos sexos muestran en el análisis joinpoint 3 periodos: un periodo inicial de descenso significativo (1980-1997), un periodo de estabilización en las tasas (1997-2003) y un periodo de marcado descenso significativo (2003-2014). (bvsalud.org)
- Data on the number of deaths due to mesothelioma are available for the years 1997 to 2007. (apo.org.au)
- The municipal populations, broken down by age group (18 groups) and sex, were drawn from the 1991 census and 1996 voters roll. (bmj.com)
- New Zealand census data from 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006, were all probabilistically linked to three to five subsequent years of mortality (68 million person-years) and cancer registrations (87 million person years) and weighted for linkage bias. (biomedcentral.com)
- Objective To compare the long-term economic impact of melanoma prevention by sun protection, with the corresponding impact of early detection of melanoma to decrease melanoma deaths. (bmj.com)
- The decrease in smoking is the only encouraging risk factor trend, and is consistent with the plateau of tobacco consumption over this same period in the face of a rising adult population, as has occurred in other countries where tobacco taxes have been raised sharply. (wikipedia.org)
- [ 14 ] Moreover, the geographical association between solar UV-B exposure and cancer was stronger for mortality than for incidence for many cancers in the United States and China. (medscape.com)
- In 2005 occupational exposure to asbestos was estimated to cause 43 000 mesothelioma deaths and 7000 deaths due to asbestosis worldwide. (who.int)
- Pleural cancer is a recognised indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality. (bmj.com)
- Exposure Active opioid prescriptions, defined as those with a duration overlapping the date of death, and recent opioid prescriptions, defined as those dispensed in the 30 and 180 days preceding death. (bmj.com)
- In cross-sectional studies, the exposure and disease status are examined for a sample from a defined population at the same time point. (aerzteblatt.de)
- and exposure to radon causes 2-3 deaths per 100 000 population for selected countries. (who.int)
- This paper authored by Dr Shamim Ahmed Shamim et al provides credible information about an asbestos related disease of a 40-year-old-female without any history of occupational asbestos exposure presented with histologically proven malignant pleural mesothelioma. (toxicswatch.org)
- With at least 50% of children experiencing sunburns before age 11 and again 3 years later, targeting children in pediatric offices and community settings regarding unprotected UV exposure may be a practical approach. (aappublications.org)
- 16 Because of the imperative for protecting youth during these years, understanding more about their sun exposure and protection habits is critical to effective delivery of this important public health message. (aappublications.org)
- How many infants, out of 1000, who will die before attaining one year of age. (nationmaster.com)
- This would translate to one new case per 1000 population per year. (bmj.com)
- The Appalachian Region stretches from southern New York to northeastern Mississippi, a distance of more than 1609 km (1000 miles), covering 329 916 km 2 (205 000 miles 2 ) across 420 counties 5 . (rrh.org.au)
- In an updated meta-analysis of RCTs, vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced total cancer mortality but did not reduce total cancer incidence. (medscape.com)
- As cancer is a molecular disease with a genetic etiology that differs significantly from individual to individual, its treatment has catalyzed the emergence of precision medicine. (labroots.com)
- By identifying suspicious tissue areas before a tumor even appears and spreads as well as determining a person's genetic disposition to cancer such an unsupervised mechanism significantly contributes to prioritizing at-risk patients and accelerating treatment planning. (oxagile.com)
- ASR in urban area significantly decreased by 1.0% per year [95% CI: 1.6 to -0., in rural areas mortality decreased only by 0.3% per year. (pjph.eu)
- We found a significantly decreased lifespan from 77.9 years (controls) to 67.5 years ( 47,XYY persons). (biomedcentral.com)
- Together with the development in socioeconomic conditions, health status of the Vietnamese population has also significantly improved over time. (lww.com)
- The lifetime risk of ovarian cancer in the general population is 1.7 percent. (hindawi.com)
- In 1980, vitamin D was hypothesized to lower risk of cancer incidence and mortality. (medscape.com)
- Studies based on circulating levels of 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] (approximate range: ≤13-≥150 nmol/l) have generally not confirmed associations with the risk of most cancers, [ 3-11 ] except for colorectal cancer. (medscape.com)
- Comparative oncology is a quickly expanding field that examines both cancer risk and tumour development across species. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- There was a higher risk of death due to pleural cancer in well defined towns and areas, many of which correspond to municipalities where asbestos using industries once existed for many years, the prime example being the municipal pattern registered for Barcelona Province. (bmj.com)
- 1 2 3 Furthermore, combined use of opioids with other depressants of the central nervous system, most commonly benzodiazepines, has been highlighted as an important risk factor for death due to overdose. (bmj.com)
- Although the evidence of such a trend is limited ( Schouten et al , 2002 ), a future increase may be expected because of an increasingly large pool of prevalent cancer patients at risk of developing metastatic disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Rural residents have an increased risk of dying from some forms of respiratory disease, although little is known about the healthcare utilization or location of death for persons with advanced respiratory illness in rural settings. (rrh.org.au)
- The purpose of this Communicable disease risk assessment and interventions: Middle East crisis - Lebanon technical note is to provide health professionals in United Nations (UN) agencies, nongovernmental organizations, donor agencies and local authorities working with conflict-affected populations with up-to- date technical guidance on the major communicable disease threats faced by the emergency-affected populations. (who.int)
- The lifetime risk of colorectal cancer is 5%, with an incidence of 15 to 20 per 100000 in persons 60 to 65 years old. (bcmj.org)
- We found that risk factors for dysplasia were similar to those previously identified as risk factors for OSCC in this population. (bmj.com)
- The Risk Evaluation of Viral Load Elevation and Associated Liver Disease/Cancer-Hepatitis B Virus (REVEAL-HBV) study carried out in Taiwan was used to investigate the natural history of chronic hepatitis B. (natap.org)
- Although no causal inference can be made, these results not only support an association between chronic HBV infection with active replication and increased pancreatic cancer risk, but represent the most provocative finding from the REVEAL-HBV study to date. (natap.org)
- Inoue and her research team are monitoring more than 100 000 Japanese residents over their lifetimes to identify the interlay between certain risk factors and pathologies in later life. (scientificamerican.com)
- It currently is formatted as a single schedule for children ages 0 through 18 years, with footnotes that highlight vaccine recommendations for individuals in specific circumstances, including those with high-risk conditions. (aappublications.org)
- We also simulated the distribution of genetic risk for colorectal cancer based on the expected number of inherited risk alleles of 45 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported as associated with colorectal cancer. (cdc.gov)