Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Birth Order: The sequence in which children are born into the family.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.IndiaUnited StatesGestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.MoldovaTanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.NepalFamily Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Fetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.Wasting Syndrome: A condition of involuntary weight loss of greater then 10% of baseline body weight. It is characterized by atrophy of muscles and depletion of lean body mass. Wasting is a sign of MALNUTRITION as a result of inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, or hypermetabolism.Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.BangladeshKenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Multiple Birth Offspring: The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.Somalia: Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Medical Record Linkage: The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.Single Embryo Transfer: The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Single Parent: A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Vital Statistics: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Child, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.EnglandBirth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.BrazilSex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Abortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Communicable DiseasesSeasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Great BritainImmunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Mortality, Premature: Deaths that occur before LIFE EXPECTANCY is reached within a given population.WalesPrenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Infant, Premature, DiseasesDenmark
  • Design: School based survey conducted during 1994 in 10 towns, five with exceptionally high adult cardiovascular mortality (standardised mortality ratio 131-143) and five with exceptionally low adult cardiovascular mortality (64-75). (bmj.com)
  • In view of this, it is critical to encourage ministries of health, particularly in countries with high rates of maternal mortality to take concrete steps towards improving timely availability and access to safe blood transfusion as part of a comprehensive approach to reduce maternal mortality. (who.int)
  • indirect causes -medical conditions which are exacerbated by pregnancy such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, malaria, HIV etc., also contribute significantly and now account for over 28% of maternal deaths worldwide and to further reduce maternal mortality increased efforts to identify, prevent and treat these conditions is required. (figo.org)
  • The MDGs triggered unprecedented efforts to reduce maternal mortality," said Dr Flavia Bustreo, WHO Assistant Director-General, Family, Women's and Children's Health. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the context of resource constraints, combined with effectiveness assessment measures, such analyses can inform the trade-offs that policymakers have to make in allocating resources to EmONC compared with other alternative interventions aiming to reduce maternal mortality. (cdc.gov)
  • Results We found that the initial political goal of the policy was not to reduce maternal mortality but to eliminate the detention in hospitals of mothers and newborns who cannot pay the user fees by exempting a comprehensive package of maternal health services. (bmj.com)
  • According to the statistical data of the year 2001, suicide mortality in this age group was 5.85 per 100 000 of population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Se analizan datos de una encuesta recientemente aplicada en 2001 a 565 mujeres en condición de posparto, en ocho hospitales de la Secretaría de Salud, en el Occidente de la República Mexicana, que permite una evaluación detallada de los factores que contribuyen al riesgo de bajo peso. (scielo.org.mx)
  • As a result, low birth weight has become an increasingly important factor in determining infant mortality risk (for an alternative perspective see Wilcox 2001). (scielo.org.mx)
  • The regional initiative on saving the lives of mothers and children continued to target the main challenges in countries with a high burden of maternal and child deaths, jointly with UNFPA and UNICEF, and in close collaboration with Member States and key stakeholders. (who.int)
  • At a meeting held jointly with UNFPA and UNICEF, national programme managers identified priority maternal, neonatal and child health and mental health interventions with high impact, focused on the health systems challenges to be addressed and determined strategic directions in preparation for the SDGs. (who.int)
  • The analyses contained in Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2015 - Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division are being published simultaneously in the medical journal The Lancet. (healthcanal.com)
  • Appendix 2 : WHO and UNICEF present country-level data on immunization status.Index Section 1: Immunization Policy in India 1. (scribd.com)
  • A Global Consultation on Child and Adolescent Health and Development convened by WHO and UNICEF in collaboration with UNFPA and the World Bank, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in March 2002. (who.int)
  • WHO and UNICEF with the participation of UNFPA and The World Bank have developed an approach to estimating maternal mortality that seeks to generate estimates for countries with no data and to correct available data for underreporting and misclassification. (who.int)
  • Source of maternal mortality estimates: WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and The World Bank. (who.int)
  • The MICS is an international household survey that was developed by UNICEF in 1990 to assist countries with data for monitoring human development in general and the situation of children and women in particular. (co.zw)
  • In stark contrast, the war criminal US Alliance occupation of neighbouring Afghanistan continues to be associated with an under-1 infant mortality and maternal mortality incidence that is 7 times higher and 4-12 times higher, respectively, than that in Tibet - evidence of gross violation of the Geneva Convention and the UN Genocide Convention by the US Alliance. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Further details on counts, rates, as well as standardised mortality and incidence ratios by DHB region can be found in Appendix 1. (zanran.com)
  • The annual incidence of new TB cases for 2010 is 119 per 100 000, half of them smear-positive. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • Another strength is that the risk estimate was based on the cancer incidence rather than cancer mortality. (bmj.com)
  • These initiatives are providing a much-needed lifeline to thousands of households and communities across Zimbabwe and helping to reduce the incidence of diarrhoeal diseases, especially among children. (co.zw)
  • Development Goals (MDGs) target on child mortality reduction. (who.int)
  • Measures being taken by countries in relation to gender equality and women's empowerment, the girl child and universal primary education, environmental policies and political and economic liberalization all serve the cause of achieving the MDGs. (who.int)
  • Between 1990 and 2015, focused attention under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) resulted in improvement in maternal and newborn child health. (figo.org)
  • Maternal deaths around the world dropped from about 532 000 in 1990 to an estimated 303 000 this year, according to the report, the last in a series that has looked at progress under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). (healthcanal.com)
  • While this represents a substantial improvement from the MMR in 1990 (870 per 100 000 live births), it is still a far reach from its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) target of 193 per 100 000 live births by 2015. (cdc.gov)
  • Concerning the MDGs, still 73 [range: 59-(Both sexes) out of every 1000 children born do not live to see their fifth birthday. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • Appendix 1: DHB Regional Rates Table A1.1: Age- standardised mortality ratios for selected causes by DHB, 1996-98 Condition SMR 99% CI. (zanran.com)
  • Supporting countries in establishing and strengthening preconception care, as part of the continuum of care, is another priority that will further improve maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes in the Region. (who.int)
  • 1-3 These improvements in health outcomes were also proven to be resulted from developments in the health care system in Vietnam. (lww.com)
  • Our analyses suggest that access to water and sanitation independently contribute to child and maternal mortality outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Household environmental exposures during gestation and birth outcomes: A cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China. (edu.au)
  • " Our findings demonstrate that home renovation and environmental tobacco smoke ( smoking ) during gestation may be risk factors for adverse birth outcomes. (edu.au)
  • Associations of these factors with adverse birth outcomes appear to be stronger in boys and among mothers older than 34years during gestation. (edu.au)
  • We included experimental or observational studies that assessed the effects of interventions on maternal and child health, but only studies that report quantitative inequality outcomes were finally included for analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consequences of child maltreatment include impaired lifelong physical and mental health, and the social and occupational outcomes can ultimately slow a country's economic and social development. (who.int)
  • While we of course want specialized medical care and adequate interventions available to ensure appropriate care and positive outcomes for high risk and complex pregnancies and births, there is a danger - and an economic loss - in applying practices that are required for complex pregnancies and birth when it is not medically necessary. (spotidoc.com)
  • The high levels of maternal, newborn and child mortality at regional level are mainly due to weak health systems. (who.int)
  • These include: the Maputo Plan of Action1, which provides for delivery of quality and affordable health services to promote maternal, newborn and child health. (who.int)
  • Elimination of mother-to-child transmission of these infections cannot be achieved through vertically applied programming and require using and augmenting to the shared Maternal, Newborn and Child Health platform to coordinate, integrate and enable cost efficiencies for these elimination efforts. (who.int)
  • It was developed to provide a coordinated approach to achieve and sustain elimination of these largely preventable infections using the shared Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) platform for planning, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation. (who.int)
  • Coverage of maternal, newborn and child health interventions is suboptimal, and poverty, food insecurity and conflict are pervasive across the Region. (who.int)
  • The provision of safe water for medical purposes to treat such illness can improve newborn and child health in addition to maternal health [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 12 These illnesses, in conjunction with severe poverty and often inadequate access to health care, lead to high mortality rates among homeless people. (cmaj.ca)
  • The massive outbreak of cholera in 2008 that affected over 100 000 people and killed 4 000 and the measles outbreak of 2009 and early 2010 which affected over 10,544 with over 520 deaths, were testimony to the status of the social service system and a wake up call for everyone. (co.zw)
  • From conception to old age, diverse population health needs were addressed, while focusing on maternal and child health as a strategic priority. (who.int)
  • Political will and commitment to maternal and child health need are not always translated into concrete action and financing mechanisms to ensure universal coverage with maternal and child health services are inadequate. (who.int)
  • WHO maintained its support to reproductive, maternal, neonatal, child and adolescent health, with specific focus on addressing the main causes of maternal, neonatal, child deaths and targeting quality of care. (who.int)
  • Launching the maternal and child health acceleration plans strengthened national ownership and leadership towards achieving the MDG targets, and prepared the way for the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). (who.int)
  • The following month, the Regional Committee (resolution EM/RC62/1) urged all Member States to develop or update national reproductive, maternal, neonatal, child health strategic plans in accordance with the global strategy. (who.int)
  • The insufficient facilities and workforce needed for public services has en-couraged the growth of private health facilities. (who.int)
  • While noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging as new priorities, problems of maternal and child health, nutrition and communicable diseases continue to persist. (who.int)
  • The new goals, which apply to all countries and run to 2030, include one health goal, SDG 3-to "ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages"-with 13 associated targets. (bmj.com)
  • 1. At a glance: the global strategy for women's, children's and adolescents' health. (who.int)
  • The key changes introduced by the Global Strategy are the adoption of a health system-oriented, integrated, multisectoral approach to maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health programming. (who.int)
  • Patton GC, et al , "Global patterns of mortality in young people: a systematic analysis of population health data, The Lancet 374: 881-892, 2009. (who.int)
  • Despite the many commitments, resolutions and decisions made by Member States to improve the health of women and children, only 12 countries achieved MDG Target 4,4 while two countries achieved MDG Target 5A and none achieved MDG Target 5B on universal access to reproductive health. (who.int)
  • This study presents an overview of public sector interventions and progress made on the women's and child health front in Brazil between 1990 and 2015. (scielo.br)
  • We also outline the main women's and child health policies and intersectoral poverty reduction programs. (scielo.br)
  • Healthcare in the country has evolved with the adoption of the Unified Health System (SUS), a programme which has instigated changes in health policy, notably the expansion of primary care 1 . (scielo.br)
  • As you can see, where you live has a significant impact on your health and well-being as a pregnant woman. (verywellfamily.com)
  • Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions: The differences in height, ponderal index, and blood pressure between towns with high and low cardiovascular mortality, if persistent, may have important future public health implications. (bmj.com)
  • Health and Health Disparities Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Infant Mortality Infant mortality is the most extreme adverse pregnancy outcome. (zanran.com)
  • Nations global strategy on women's, children's and adolescents' health: 2016-2030, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, jointly with concerned partners, is adopting an integrated multisectoral approach to maternal and child health through universal health coverage and better quality of care through family practice. (who.int)
  • Ladies and Gentlemen, To conclude, I would like to stress the importance of joint work among all national partners, international organizations, civil society organizations and other key players, in order to achieve maternal and child health related Goals by 2030. (who.int)
  • Ensuring access to high-quality health services during pregnancy and child birth is helping to save lives. (healthcanal.com)
  • 1Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada (Correspondence to Z.A. Bhutta: [email protected]). (who.int)
  • 2Center of Excellence in Women and Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. (who.int)
  • Vietnam has already achieved several health-related Millennium Development Goals such as the reduction of infant and maternal mortality. (lww.com)
  • The number of hospital beds in public health facilities in Vietnam went up from 148 076 in 1990 to 227 364 in 2013. (lww.com)
  • Improving the access and availability of caesarean sections on the continent is therefore pivotal to reducing the number of maternal deaths and to achieve the sustainable development goal on maternal health of reducing maternal deaths to less than 70 per 100 000 live births by 2030. (wits.ac.za)
  • While reducing unnecessary caesarean sections may be a priority in high-income countries, access to it will save more lives, particularly in countries where deliveries in a health care facility are considered a luxury. (wits.ac.za)
  • Many African countries are trying to increase the number of women delivering in a health care facility by a skilled birth attendant. (wits.ac.za)
  • Child mortality is a high-priority public health problem worldwide. (scielosp.org)
  • As early as 1967 the World Health Assembly identified unsafe abortion as a serious public health problem threatening women in many countries (1). (womenonwaves.org)
  • The inability of any one system of child protection, law enforcement, health, or criminal justice to recognize, track, and assess the circumstances of child maltreatment deaths has led to the development of interagency multidisciplinary child fatality review teams across the United States. (aappublications.org)
  • This definition is consistent with that developed by the 1989 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Conference of Standard Definitions for Childhood Injury Research 5 and that used by other studies of maltreatment. (aappublications.org)
  • Learning and the Way Forward" in this domain.Foreword Vaccines are a strong health tool and have been cost-effective and successful in saving children's lives. (scribd.com)
  • Water and sanitation access are known to be related to newborn, child, and maternal health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The World health report : 2005 : make every mother and child count. (who.int)
  • 1.World health - trends 2.Maternal welfare 3.Child welfare. (who.int)
  • 5.Child health services - organization and administration 6.World Health Organization I.Title II.Title: Make every mother and child count. (who.int)
  • This report was produced under the overal direction of Joy Phumaphi (Assistant Director-General, Family and Child Health), Tim Evans (Assistant Director-General, Evidence and Information for Policy) and Wim Van Lerberghe (Editor-in-Chief). (who.int)
  • Health systems must be strengthened, in order to improve lives and achieve the promises of the Millennium Development Goals, in particular, Goal5 to improve maternal health. (coe.int)
  • 1. At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, 179 countries agreed that population and development are inextricably linked and that empowering women and meeting individuals' and couples' needs on education and health, including reproductive health, were necessary for both individual advancement and international development. (coe.int)
  • Member states need to prepare and/or review and update national as well as international population and development policies and strategies to ensure universal access to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services with particular attention to ensuring access to affordable, acceptable and appropriate family planning methods, skilled birth attendants and obstetric emergency care to prevent unwanted pregnancies, abortions, STIs and maternal ill health and death. (coe.int)
  • In Tanzania, maternal complications have, in part, been attributed to the fact that only 64% of all pregnant women deliver with the help of a skilled health worker be it a doctor, clinical officer, nurse, midwife, or maternal and child health aide. (cdc.gov)
  • Information compiled by the National Planning Commission shows that the country has improved the health sectors by constructing more health facilities, establishing health training institutions, and reducing maternal and infant mortality rates, among other achievements. (southerntimesafrica.com)
  • In the absence of more referral hospitals, the country has at least 1 150 outreach and various social welfare service points and the Ministry of Health and Social Services functions are decentralised to all the 14 regions. (southerntimesafrica.com)
  • Although it is still considered still high, the health workforce in Namibia is three health workers per 1 000 population, which is above the WHO benchmark of 2. (southerntimesafrica.com)
  • 5 health workers per 1 000 population. (southerntimesafrica.com)
  • It illustrates how poor quality of care at health facilities contributes to delays that lead to severe birth injuries, highlighting the need to ensure women's rights to accessible, acceptable and adequate quality services during labour and delivery. (springer.com)
  • Among homeless people, single men, single women and women accompanied by children tend to have different health problems. (cmaj.ca)
  • In this study, we focus on homeless single women, who tend to have more health problems than homeless women accompanied by children. (cmaj.ca)
  • A unique characteristic of our generation is that collectively we have the financial and the ever-improving technical capacity to reduce infectious, child, and maternal mortality rates to low levels universally by 2035, to achieve a "grand convergence" in health. (childsurvival.net)
  • This is the sixth in a series of reviews of statistics about the health of children, collated from routine data. (bmj.com)
  • 2007). Paediatr Child Health, 12(5), 401-418. (prezi.com)
  • The Fifty-sixth World Health Assembly adopted a global strategy for child and adolescent health and development (Annex). (who.int)
  • Child health has been one of the success stories of development: from the mid-1950s to the mid-1990s, the global childhood mortality dropped from 210 per 1000 live births to 78. (who.int)
  • A number of recent global meetings have increased awareness of the unmet health needs of children. (who.int)
  • It highlighted the importance of child and adolescent health for ensuring the prosperity of families, societies and nations. (who.int)
  • Health Assembly adopted an organization-wide strategy on child and adolescent health and development (Annex). (who.int)
  • [1] In the past, the health financing system in Sudan has undergone several changes, from a tax-based system in the late 1950s to the introduction of user fees along with social solidarity schemes such as the Takaful system. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • The social health insurance scheme was implemeted in 1995, alongside which the private sector grew exponentially leading to increased out-of-pocket from households In 2006, free emergency care for the first 24 hours was announced free of charge, and the free finance policy for children under 5 and pregnant women was adopted in 2008. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • Bleeding after childbirth (postpartum haemorrhage) therefore is the single most important health issue facing obstetricians and other skilled birth attendants in countries with limited resources. (ghdonline.org)
  • We all have to realize that maternal mortality is not just an issue for public health experts. (ghdonline.org)
  • Chiamaka Uchegbulam, MD, is program director at the Girl Child Education and women Health Development Foundation (GEWHDF), a nonprofit that promotes girl education and women health in rural areas. (ghdonline.org)
  • Oklahoma State Profile Education Levels Child Health & Guidance State u.s. (ok.gov)
  • More so, health care programmes and policies should be strengthened to enhance accessibility as well as improve the utilization of maternal care services, especially for the disadvantaged, uneducated and those who live in hard-to- reach rural areas in Benin. (deepdyve.com)
  • Three country representative samples of schoolchildren, aged 11, 13 and 15, were surveyed in 1994 (n = 5428), 1998 (n = 4513), and 2002 (n = 5645) anonymously in conformity with the methodology of the World Health Organization Cross - National study on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The World Health Organization's (WHO) 2006 World Health Report ranked the Dominican Republic 79th with respect to health and 97th in terms of health distribution, out of the other 194 countries in the world 1 . (rrh.org.au)
  • Mothers have many opportunities to invest in their own or their child's health and well-being during pregnancy and immediately after birth. (biomedsearch.com)
  • What interventions are effective on reducing inequalities in maternal and child health in low- and middle-income settings? (biomedcentral.com)
  • This systematic review aims to collect evidence about the differential effects of interventions on different sociodemographic groups in order to identify interventions that were effective in reducing maternal or child health inequalities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 22 articles about the effectiveness of interventions on equity in maternal and child health were finally included. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stronger or moderate evidence showed that all kinds of the included interventions may be more effective in improving maternal or child health for those from disadvantaged groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies about the effectiveness of interventions on equity in maternal or child health are limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most low- and middle-income countries have made significant advances in reducing maternal and child mortality rates, even though these countries are still faced with serious inequalities in maternal and child health between different segments of the populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. Health Status - Palestine 2. (who.int)
  • This report examines this problem, and reinforces studies by experts and women's rights groups in South Sudan that indicate that child marriage has a significant negative impact on women and girl's realization of key human rights, including their rights to health and education, physical integrity and the right to marry only when they are able and willing to give their free consent. (hrw.org)
  • and the 2008 Child Act provisions that protect children under 18 from early and forced marriages and guarantee them the right to non-discrimination, health, education, life, survival and development, an opinion, and protection from torture, degrading treatment, and abuse. (hrw.org)
  • Mortality statistics are key inputs for evidence based health policy at national level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An adequate description of the evolution of mortality registration in China and its current situation is important to evaluate the usability of the statistics derived from it for international epidemiology and health policy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Ministry of Health introduced the Disease Surveillance Point System in 1980, to generate cause specific mortality statistics from a nationally representative sample of sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Data on the causes, levels and patterns of mortality are critical to support the development of evidence-based health policy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, mortality registration systems have been established in China that provide useful data on the health status of all Chinese, and how it is changing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Definitions of health and social spending are presented in Appendix 1 (available at www.cmaj.ca/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1503/cmaj.170132/-/DC1 ). (cmaj.ca)
  • Through this trial, the investigators will test three principal hypotheses: (1) Participants in the Earn account, as compared to a control group, are hypothesized to demonstrate improved scores on mental health scales assessing depression and anxiety. (stanford.edu)
  • Transition funds were set up in health, education, and child protection which brought partners together to plan and coordinate national scale interventions at sectoral level under the leadership of the ministries of Health and Child Care, Primary and Secondary Education, and Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare. (co.zw)
  • The Coalition Provisional Authority and the Iraqi Ministry of Health have identified the halving of infant mortality as a major objective.9 In the absence of any surveys, however, they have relied on Ministry of Health records. (westpointgradsagainstthewar.org)
  • In the present setting of insecurity and limited availability of health information, we undertook a nationwide survey to estimate mortality during the 14·6 months before the invasion (Jan 1, 2002, to March 18, 2003) and to compare it with the period from March 19, 2003, to the date of the interview, between Sept 8 and 20, 2004. (westpointgradsagainstthewar.org)
  • Objective -Youth violence is a public health problem world wide. (bmj.com)
  • Youth violence, defined as any person 18 years old or younger injuring or killing another person in this age group, continues to be a significant public health problem world wide. (bmj.com)
  • BIRTH IN EUROPE IN THE 21ST CENTURY 2050 THE EUROPEAN MAGAZINE FOR SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH No.81 - 2015 CONTENTS The European Magazine for Sexual and Reproductive Health Entre Nous is published by: Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-course Sexual and Reproductive Health (incl. (spotidoc.com)
  • The Ekwendeni Primary Health Care area covers approximately 35;000 people in 400 square miles. (who.int)
  • Improving maternal and child health care are two of the Millennium Development Goals of the World Health Organization. (diva-portal.org)
  • The aim of the study was to describe how families participate in nurse-based antenatal and child health care, and the effect of this in relation to referrals to specialist care, institutional deliveries and mortality. (diva-portal.org)
  • Six countries, including those with a high burden of maternal mortality, have inadequate blood supplies, with donation rates (who.int)
  • 1000 live births respectively by 2030.6 Achieving these targets would entail as much as a seven- fold reduction of the current rates in the Region. (who.int)
  • AGE SPECIFIC MORTALITY RATES IN INDIA (suggested by dictionary)? (zanran.com)
  • The rates of congenital syphilis, caesarean sections and preterm births remain excessive. (scielo.br)
  • Meanwhile, mortality rates for children under 5 decreased to 10.2 per thousand [live births] last year" . (globalresearch.ca)
  • Other developed countries have similar and even lower maternal mortality rates when compared to the United States. (verywellfamily.com)
  • High rates of maternal mortality still exist in places, particularly in impoverished communities with over 85% living in Africa and Southern Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective: To examine whether cardiovascular risk factors differ in children from towns in England and Wales with widely differing adult cardiovascular death rates. (bmj.com)
  • The geographic variation in mortality from cardiovascular disease across Great Britain, with the lowest rates in the south east and the highest in south Wales, northern England, and Scotland, is well described 1 but poorly understood. (bmj.com)
  • By contrast seniors over 65 had suicide rates approximately 12 times as large as children . (zanran.com)
  • Under-5, neonatal and maternal mortality rates decreased 46%, 35%, and 50% respectively from 1990 to 2013. (who.int)
  • 1 Absolute poverty rates have been reduced from 47% in 1990 to 10% in 2015. (lww.com)
  • Literacy rates among people 15 years and older rose from 83% in 1990 to more than 95% in 2015. (lww.com)
  • Skilled birth attendance rates rose from 69.6% in 2002 to 93.8% in 2015. (lww.com)
  • Research shows that low-income countries with the lowest caesarean section rates also have the highest maternal mortality rates. (wits.ac.za)
  • Annual stroke mortality rates, 1 year after first-ever stroke (per 100, 000), direct age-standardised to the WHO world population, in Auckland, New Zealand, 1981-2003. (zanran.com)
  • Age standardised mortality rates (SMR) per 100, 000 for children (0‐14 year olds), from all causes, by ethnicity, in New Zealand, 2004‐2007. (zanran.com)
  • The age standardised mortality rates for children from all causes, by ethnicity, for New Zealand , are presented below (Figure 89). (zanran.com)
  • Since most infections in children are asymptomatic, there is little evidence of acute disease related to HBV, but the rates of chronic liver disease and liver cancer in adults are high [ 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • however, the high rates of chronic infection are maintained mostly by infections occurring in infants and children [ 8 ]. (medsci.org)
  • We estimated rates of "absolute income mobility"-the fraction of children who earn more than their parents-by combining data from U.S. Census and Current Population Survey cross sections with panel data from de-identified tax records. (cdc.gov)
  • We found that rates of absolute mobility have fallen from approximately 90% for children born in 1940 to 50% for children born in the 1980s. (cdc.gov)
  • Increasing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rates alone cannot restore absolute mobility to the rates experienced by children born in the 1940s. (cdc.gov)
  • The United Republic of Tanzania currently has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world with an estimated maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 398 per 100 000 live births in 2015. (cdc.gov)
  • Patterns of mortality among homeless men have been investigated, but less attention has been given to mortality rates among homeless women. (cmaj.ca)
  • We report mortality rates and causes of death in a cohort of women who used homeless shelters in Toronto. (cmaj.ca)
  • In addition, we analyzed data from published studies of mortality rates among homeless women in 6 other cities (Montreal, Copenhagen, Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Brighton, UK). (cmaj.ca)
  • In Toronto, mortality rates were 515 per 100 000 person-years among homeless women 18-44 years of age and 438 per 100 000 person-years among those 45-64 years of age. (cmaj.ca)
  • In 6 of the 7 cities, the mortality rates among younger homeless women and younger homeless men were not significantly different. (cmaj.ca)
  • In contrast, in 4 of the 6 cities, the mortality rates were significantly lower among older homeless women than among older homeless men. (cmaj.ca)
  • Mortality rates among younger homeless women often approach or equal those of younger homeless men. (cmaj.ca)
  • 14 In a study of homeless people in Boston, mortality rates among men were 5.9, 3.0 and 1.6 times higher than those in the general population for people 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years of age respectively. (cmaj.ca)
  • 16 Among men using homeless shelters in Toronto, mortality rates were 8.3, 3.7 and 2.3 times higher than rates among men in the general population aged 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years respectively. (cmaj.ca)
  • 18 , 19 Such differences may have an effect on mortality rates. (cmaj.ca)
  • In the general population, mortality rates among younger women are one-third to one-half those among younger men. (cmaj.ca)
  • Our first objective was to determine mortality rates among women who use homeless shelters in Toronto. (cmaj.ca)
  • 2 Figure 1 shows the age specific fertility rates for the last 20 years. (bmj.com)
  • 7 This figure is rising, with rates of up to 25% of women with no children predicted. (bmj.com)
  • Both total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most Group 1 causes significantly decreased by 2015, and although total burden climbed for the majority of NCDs, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined. (nih.gov)
  • Nonetheless, age-standardised DALY rates due to several high-burden NCDs (including osteoarthritis, drug use disorders, depression, diabetes, congenital birth defects, and skin, oral, and sense organ diseases) either increased or remained unchanged, leading to increases in their relative ranking in many geographies. (nih.gov)
  • Nonmarital births and birth rates have declined 7% and 14%, respectively, since peaking in the late 2000s. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Different kinds of interventions aimed at reducing maternal and child mortality rates have been implemented in these low- and middle-income countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Europe, much of the public discussion surrounding pregnancy and childbirth focuses on the issues related to low birth rates and declining fertility. (spotidoc.com)
  • While it is true that the average number of children a woman in Europe will have is less than 2 and below replacement rates, trends in birth rates and the factors that contribute to both high and low fertility vary across the Region. (spotidoc.com)
  • Evidence shows that in the majority of European countries declining -fertility rates are not due to a lack of desire for children. (spotidoc.com)
  • Understanding the factors that contribute to the gap between wanted family size and how many children people actually choose to have is a critical first step in enabling policy makers and governments to address the issue and develop the needed settings and family friendly policies, such as parental leave and financial subsidies, which are proven to be directly linked to fertility rates and the number of babies women choose to have. (spotidoc.com)
  • However, birth is much more than rates and trends. (spotidoc.com)
  • Throughout Europe we are witnessing an increasing medicalization of birth - for example, lack of choice on where and how to deliver, increasing rates of cesarean section - which tend to make childbirth an overly technical procedure rather than an emotional, joyous experience. (spotidoc.com)
  • To identify and describe 1) progress achieved thus far in meeting the commitments of the Fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4) in Mexico, mainly the contribution of the Universal Immunization Program (UIP) over the last 20 years, and 2) new opportunities for further reducing mortality among children under 5 years old. (scielosp.org)
  • In the year 2000, the United Nations proposed the Fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4) to reduce mortality by two-thirds in children under 5 years old by 2015 (1). (scielosp.org)
  • While substantial progress has been achieved in almost all countries, Cameroon and many countries in sub-Saharan Africa will likely fail to reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of reducing maternal death by 75 per cent from 1990 to 2015. (worldpulse.com)
  • These interventions have proven to save lives and accelerate progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goal 5," said Dr. Osotimehin. (worldpulse.com)
  • We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. (nih.gov)
  • 10. When the Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched in 1987, the target was to reduce by 50% the 1990 maternal mortality ratios by the year 2000. (who.int)
  • Every year, an estimated 180 000 babies in the Western Pacific Region are infected by hepatitis B, 13 000 by syphilis and 1400 by HIV through mother-to-child transmission. (who.int)
  • Of the more than 580 000 maternal deaths which occur each year, 99% occur in the developing world. (who.int)
  • Reaching that goal will require more than tripling the pace of progress - from the 2.3% annual improvement in MMR that was recorded between 1990 and 2015 to 7.5% per year beginning next year. (healthcanal.com)
  • This amounts to 200 000 maternal deaths a year - or two thirds of all maternal deaths per year worldwide. (wits.ac.za)
  • According to reporting on advances toward fulfillment of MDG 4, under-5 mortality was reduced by 35% by the year 2011. (scielosp.org)
  • In the first year analyzed, 7,955 births and 7,640 (96.0%) tests were recorded, of which 5,586 (73.1%) were undertaken with newborns between three and five days old. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the next year analyzed, 8,316 births and 8,012 (96.3%) screenings were recorded, of which 7,025 (87.6%) were undertaken with newborns in the same age group. (bvsalud.org)
  • More than 100 million infants are immunized each year. (scribd.com)
  • In addition, there are 860 000 preventable child deaths per year due to malnutrition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An estimated 137 million women in 2007 had an unmet need for family planning and more than 500 000 women die every year from pregnancy-related causes, 99% of them in developing countries. (coe.int)
  • The study took a comprehensive programmatic approach considering all sources of financial and in-kind support over a 1-year period (1 July 2012 to 30 June 2013). (cdc.gov)
  • Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with an estimated 471 000 new cases every year ( 1 ). (scielosp.org)
  • Moreover, the number of suicidal attempts changed from 1.0% in 1994 to 1.8% in the year 1998 and to 1,7% in the year 2002. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Individuals were assigned an annual 137 Cs exposure based on their place of residence (1986-1990), from which 5-year cumulative 137 Cs exposures were calculated, accounting for the physical decay of 137 Cs and changing residencies. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Estimated effective doses to some parts of the population in the years after the accident were 1-2 mSv per year. (bmj.com)
  • 2 A food regulation programme introduced in 1986 limited the 137 Cs activity in food sold to the public to 300 Bq/kg to assure that the dose from food intake was below 1 mSv per year. (bmj.com)
  • We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for each geography, age group, sex, and year. (nih.gov)
  • 4- 7 Among 12-17 year old youth, 71/1000 had been victims of violent crimes in 1993. (bmj.com)
  • The existing data of the previously carried out surveys in Lithuania hardly show all the extent of the phenomenon, especially while talking about children and adolescents: a lack of data do not allow estimating a degree of spread, intensity and dynamics of suicidality among young people. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 70 deaths per 100 000 live births by 2030 is ambitious, yet achievable and to reach this target a significantly increased effort to promote and ensure universal, equitable access to reproductive, maternal and newborn services for all women and adolescents will be required. (bmj.com)
  • Many factors account for this slow response to maternal mortality including unmet needs of family planning, limited skilled birth attendants, abortions and socio-economic inequity. (worldpulse.com)