Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Receptors, Death Domain: A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.United Statesbcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Homicide: The killing of one person by another.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Mice, Inbred C57BLSuicide: The act of killing oneself.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.bcl-Associated Death Protein: A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor: An inhibitory T-lymphocyte receptor that has specificity for CD274 ANTIGEN and PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 LIGAND 2 PROTEIN. Signaling by the receptor limits T cell proliferation and INTERFERON GAMMA synthesis. The receptor also may play an essential role in the regulatory pathway that induces PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Vital Statistics: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.EnglandPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Terminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.Bereavement: Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mortality, Premature: Deaths that occur before LIFE EXPECTANCY is reached within a given population.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.WalesCoronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.TNF Receptor-Associated Death Domain Protein: A 34 kDa signal transducing adaptor protein that associates with TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE 1. It facilitates the recruitment of signaling proteins such as TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2 and FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN to the receptor complex.Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Caspase 2: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Forensic Pathology: The application of pathology to questions of law.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Caspase 7: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Great BritainCell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1: A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Genes, bcl-2: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Life Tables: Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.JapanCalcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesDNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.SwedenChi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Grief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The deaths of these two only children, at a time of high post-war death duty, meant that in 1957 a substantial number of ... Following the death of Gladys Yule in 1957, not only was the bloodstock dispersed, but the landed property was put up for sale ... By the time of her death at the age of 57, she was considered the best horsewoman in Britain, according to Richard Davenport- ... She was also given £100 000 and all the pets. ...
As elsewhere, the precise number of deaths by starvation in Ukraine may never be precisely known. That said, the most recent ... Battles between protesters and police resulted in about 80 deaths in February 2014. Following the violence, the Parliament ... The death toll numbered up to 100 000, mostly children and women. Late October 1944 the last territory of current Ukraine (near ... 100 per 1,000 cubic meters in an exclusive arrangement. By the time of the presidential election of 2010, Yushchenko and ...
The under five mortality rate in Trinidad and Tobago is 21 deaths per 1000 live births and the infant mortality is 19 deaths ... The leading cause of death is prematurity. There are only three Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) in the country; all three ... this is due to the poor reputation the public hospitals get because of the media's scandalizing portrayals of maternal deaths. ... its adjusted maternal mortality rate is 84 deaths per 100 000 women; the rate is adjusted for underreporting and ...
In 2010, malaria led to the death of 23 persons in every 100 000 population; while in total over 1.6 million cases were ... An estimated 65 percent of deaths occurring before the age of five, happen during infancy (before children reach one year of ... In 2007 a study was conducted in Sudan which revealed underreporting of malaria episodes and deaths to the formal health system ... Close to 50 percent of female deaths occurs during pregnancy, delivery or two months after delivery. In this high risk setting ...
The death of Léon Gambetta the same year deprived the French companies of their support within the French government and the ... There were no voyages for the three years following Laird's death, but the establishment of the West African Company was soon ... subsequently remained in Britain but directed and funded expeditions to the country until his death in 1861. He opposed the ... He then managed to corral £1 000 000 in investments in a new concern-the National African Company-which bought up the UAC and ...
He received the Anointing of the Sick prior to his death and received a papal blessing from Pope Pius IX. The beatification ... was an Austrian-Italian Roman Catholic and the Bishop of Trent from 1834 until his death. He was born to Austrians but was ... Pope John Paul II beatified him in Trento on 30 April 1995 before 100 000 people. The cause started in 1886 under Pope Leo XIII ... Pope John Paul II approved this on 21 December 1992 and beatified Tschiderer in Trento before a crowd of 100 000 people. " ...
... including 105 human deaths and the culling of one million pigs. In Singapore, 11 cases, including one death, occurred in ... The deaths of 21 schoolchildren due to Nipah virus infection were recorded on 4 February 2011. IEDCR has confirmed the ... Their recent emergence as zoonotic pathogens capable of causing illness and death in domestic animals and humans is a cause of ... This was preceded by an outbreak in Thakurgaon during January and February affecting seven people with three deaths. All three ...
Deaths per. 1 million inhabitants Deaths per. 10 billion vehicle-km Deaths per. 100 000 registered vehicles Registered vehicles ... Annual traffic deaths sign over I-95 in Georgia, US, indicating more than three deaths per day ... of Germany's traffic deaths. The autobahn fatality rate of 1.9 deaths per billion-travel-kilometres compared favorably with the ... Robert Davis (1993). Death on the Streets: Cars and the mythology of road safety. Leading Edge Press. ISBN 978-0-948135-46-0. . ...
Deaths. 793,000 / 1.5% of deaths (2016). The most commonly used method of suicide varies between countries, and is partly ... Karch DL, Logan J, Patel N (August 2011). "Surveillance for violent deaths-National Violent Death Reporting System, 16 states, ... an increase from 712,000 deaths in 1990.[inconsistent] This makes suicide the 10th leading cause of death worldwide. ... It is the second most common cause of death in adolescents and in young males is second only to accidental death. In ...
The Joubert couple had no children, and after her death she intended to donate her money to a hospital. But Mr. Greyvenstein, ... The total cost of the hospital was £100 000 of which £80 000 came from the Joubert couple. The hospital was opened by Prime ...
Until his death none could claim the award amount. Some fraudsters who sought publicity by taking on his challenge had to ... After the death of Dr. Kovoor, Basava Premanand continued his challenge by offering Rs.100,000 (One Hundred Thousand Indian ... This offer will remain open till my death or till I find the first winner. Godmen, saints, yogis, and siddhas who claim that ... Upon Premanand's death, the challenge is continued by the Indian Rationalist Association. A similar challenge from James Randi ...
After the death of Johann von Medem, Eleja was inherited by his oldest son Paul. After his death in 1854, Eleja was inherited ... After the death of Johann Ulrich von Behr (1716-1753), the manor was purchased in by the Count Johann Friedrich von Medem who ... After the death of Johann in 1785, Eleja was inherited by his youngest son Christoph Johann von Medem. After many years of ... After the death of Johann Friedrich von Tiesenhausen in 1716, the manor was inherited by his sister Amalie von Behr. ...
Malnutrition and disease spread rapidly leading to the deaths of many civilians in these camps. Segregation persisted during ... Half a million Cuban civilians were rounded up and incarcerated in fortified villages in which about 100 000 died. In South ...
Trelease's student who completed Trelease's work after his death, there are grave doubts about the type locality of ... In 1875, acting on behalf of the Swedish Museum of Natural History, he acquired Sonder's South African collection of some 100 ... 000 specimens. Andersson was commemorated in the Piperaceae genus Anderssoniopiper Trel.. According to Yuncker, ...
... was reported at 2000 out of a total of 103.760 death. These death comprise 1453 men and 547 women. This puts the suicide rate ... "Health - Causes of Death in Germany" (PDF) (in German). 2013. "NZ suicide rates rise for first time in four years". New Zealand ... "World Suicide Death Rate Rankings (WHO)" (PDF). 2011-12-16. "INFORMATION ABOUT THE MORTALITY OF THE POPULATION FOR THE CAUSES ... "Death Due To Suicide". Eurostat. European Commission. 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-10. "Grave preocupación por tasa en alza de 16,5 ...
1941: Death of Henri Selmer. Maurice Selmer becomes president of the Selmer company. Release of Saxophone N° 30,000. 1946: By ... 1953: Death of Alexandre Selmer. Jacques Selmer, youngest son of Maurice Selmer, incorporates the company. The third generation ... 1966: Production of Series 10, alongside series 9 and 9* clarinets 1968: Death of Henri Lefèvre. Georges Selmer is named ... Saxophone n° 100 000 is produced (June 28, 1962). Annual production of the Mark VI is over 7000 instruments. 1963: Exclusive ...
... death) rates in the farms. Since the early 2000s, there has been renewed interest in the aquaculture of longfins due to the ... 10 000 ha (100 km2), predicted decline 10-70%". Scientists and conservation groups have growing concern for the survival of the ...
There aren't disorders, wars, environmental problems, criminality, inequality, old age and death in the Realm of Light. There ... The area of Realm of Light is 100 000 square kilometers, it is in other words approximately the size of Iceland. So that Realm ...
After her death, Wall's family and friends started the Kim Wall Memorial Fund, aiming to fund female reporters to cover stories ... During the days leading up to her death, Wall was in Copenhagen, Denmark, writing a report for Wired about a rivalry between ... including the unsolved death of Kazuko Toyonaga, a 22-year-old Japanese woman whose dismembered remains were found in waters ... and legs after they were found in October found no signs of blunt trauma to the head and did not determine the cause of death. ...
"Causes of Death 2009". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2011-12-13. "Leading causes of death among men aged 15 to 64 in 2010". ... In 2010 the leading causes of death among men aged 15 to 64 were alcohol related deaths, ischaemic heart disease, accident, ... "Leading causes of death among women aged 15 to 64 in 2010". Official Statistics of Finland. Retrieved 2014-09-06. "The OECD: ... Major causes of deaths in Finland are cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors, dementia and alzheimers disease, respiratory ...
"In proportion black death rate is 135% higher than non-blacks. While the homicide rate for blacks is 36.5 per 100 000 ... than 60,000 people are murdered every year in the country and there is a strong bias of color and social status in these deaths ... the ratio is 15.5 per 100 000 inhabitants." Former Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2011) was quoted in 2002 ...
Deaths. 229,000 (2015). The cause of most brain tumors is unknown. Uncommon risk factors include inherited ... Deaths as a result of brain cancer were 5.3 per 100 000 for males, and 3.6 per 100 000 for females, making brain cancer the ... Over 2018, it was projected that there would be 23,880 new cases of brain tumors and 16,830 deaths in 2018 as a result, ... "Childhood Brain Cancer Now Leads to More Deaths than Leukemia". Fortune. Retrieved 14 February 2019.. ...
2016). A study on the cause of death of the Australopithecus afarensis specimen Lucy is published by Kappelman et al. (2016). A ... 2016). Fossils of Homo floresiensis and the deposits containing them are dated to between about 100 000 and 60 000 years ago by ...
As a testament to the rise of position in society (from shame to fame), his death in 1822 was marked with the biggest funeral ... The "OLD HANDS," by the frequent visitation of death, are becoming thinned in their ranks; this should lead to reflection, for ... The article from the Sydney Gazette: Deaths: - On Thursday evening last, at Kissing Point, after an illness of about 3 months, ... until his death in 1826. James Squire's daughter, Mary Ann. married Thomas Charles Farnell of Kissing Point on 30 March 1824. ...
The results were immediate: by 1950 the death rate from malaria in the country had been reduced to 9 per 100,000 inhabitants ( ... Moron, an area that had the highest rates of mortality from malaria, had spent three years with no deaths by malaria. ... In 1955, 10 years after the program started the rate was lowered to 1 per 100 000 population and the eradicated area had ... from a Latin American country high of 164 per 100,000) and was eradicated in an area of 132 000 km2. ...
Personal life and death. Between 1975 and 1978 Snow was married to Phil Kearns (who later came out as gay). She had a ... Her death, at a hospital in Edison, was caused by complications of a stroke she suffered in January 2010, her manager, Sue ... The album spawned a Top Five 1975 single on the Billboard Hot 100 with "Poetry Man" and was itself a Top Five album in ... 23 on the Hot 100.) The same year, 1975, also brought the first of several appearances as a musical guest on Saturday Night ...
Deaths due to tuberculosis among HIV-negative people (per 100 000 population) (Tuberculosis). This indicator is available in ... Deaths due to tuberculosis among HIV-negative people (per 100 000 population) (Tuberculosis) ...
Inadequate housing accounts for over 100 000 deaths per year in the WHO European Region and causes or contributes to many ... People die of cold at home: low indoor temperatures cause 12.8 deaths per 100 000 population per year; and exposure to radon ... Exposure to second-hand smoke causes 7.3 deaths; and the use of solid fuels as a household energy source without proper ... The lack of home safety measures such as smoke detectors is associated with 0.9 deaths per 100 000 population annually, ...
Age-standardized deaths attributable to the environment (per 100 000 population) (Public health and environment). This ... Age-standardized deaths attributable to the environment (per 100 000 population) (Public health and environment) ... Data table: Deaths attributable to the environment Data by country (view.main.35600) ...
... cancer death rates per 100,000 (95% confidence limits) in South Australia by calendar year* Cancer site: Stomach (Males)... ... Age-standardised cancer death rates per 100,000 population, 1970-2000;, Trends in annual age-standardised (Australian ... statistics on Age-standardised cancer death rates per 100000 population: Age-standardised cancer mortality rates per 100,000 ... inﬂuenced by the last quinquennia of age, since over 90% of all lung cancer deaths .... at death 42 years). Other measures of ...
Mortality rate by main cause of death (age-standardized) per 100 000 population ... Mortality rate by main cause of death (age-standardized) per 100 000 population,syncSession:null,external_static_asset_ ... Mortality rate by main cause of death (age-standardized) per 100 000 population,statefulURL:true,showLytebox:null, ... 100,language:en,version:2020.3,externalVersion:2020.3.0,is_saas:false,contact_support_uri:,clear_session_on_ ...
"Визуализации: Sudden and unattended death, cause unknown, per 100 000 population, by sex (age-standardized death rate), ... Deaths(#), Sudden and unattended death, cause unknown MDB * Deaths(#), Symptoms, signs, abnormal findings, ill-defined causes ... CDR is the crude death rate calculated as a simple ratio: number of registered deaths/ mid-year population (per 100000). ... age-standardized death rate), male (Линейный график) * SDR, Sudden and unattended death, cause unknown, per 100 000 (Блочная ...
Maternal deaths, abortion, per 100 000 live births, Categories: Mortality-based indicators ... Maternal deaths, abortion, per 100 000 live births Visualisations Maternal deaths, abortion, per 100 000 live births. ... Maternal deaths, abortion, per 100 000 live births (Line chart) * Maternal deaths, abortion, per 100 000 live births (Bar chart ... Early neonatal deaths per 1000 live births HFA-DB ChildAdolescentHealth * Estimated infant mortality per 1000 live births ( ...
Ten businesses to start in Kenya with below KES 100, 000 By Wambui Mbuthia , Mon 03 Sep 2018 02:41pm. ...
... Our calculations on deaths involving alcohol draw on IHME, NHTSA (2017), FBI, and BJS. ...
... Our calculations of child deaths from diarrhea from contaminated ...
Among the 31 OECD countries with available data, road deaths have fallen by over 20%, on average since 2010. While 79% of men ... Across OECD countries, the homicide rate has fallen by one-third since 2010, to just over 2 per 100 000 people. 71% of people ... copy the linklink copied!Road deaths Road deaths are lowest in Norway, Switzerland and the United Kingdom at fewer than 3 per ... In developing countries, the institutional capacity to monitor road deaths and crash data in general is still lacking. Deaths ...
Standardized death rates from external cause injury and poison, all ages, per 100 000, EU-12, Trends in mortality from external ... Standardized death rates from external cause injury and poison, all ages, per 100 000, EU-15, ... statistics on Standardised mortality rate from external causes per 100000: ... Standardized death rates in Lithuania, in the reference countries and in the EU, age group 1-14 years ec.europa.eu/health/ph_ ...
Number of Deaths or Cases per Year? Approximately 100, 000 deaths. 80, 000 of these cases, including over 4,000 deaths, ...
Statistics on causes of death in the EU assess the risk associated with specific diseases (especially diseases of the ... Causes of death in 2015 by country. The standardised death rate for ischaemic heart disease in the EU-28 was 127 deaths per 100 ... Lowest standardised death rates from suicide in Cyprus and Greece External causes of death include, among others, deaths ... By relating all deaths in the population to an underlying cause of death, the risks associated with death from a range of ...
... per 100-000 people) - Gabon, Trends in estimated tuberculosis mortality rates, 1990-2010 7, Tuberculosis Death rate / 100,000 ... Tuberculosis death rate is the number of deaths from tuberculosis per 100-000 population. Incidence- prevalence and mortality ... Includes cases where TB was specified on death certificate in 2005 .... The frequency of death attributed to TB has remained ... 3 deaths per 100, 000 U.S. residents. The Arizona rate was very close at 0.4 per 100, 000 residents. (There is no Healthy ...
Roundtrip transport to Death Road from La Paz - US$ 85.00 ... Book tickets for Full Day Mountain Bike Tour to Death Road from ... Full Day Mountain Bike Tour to Death Road from La Paz provided by Vertigo Biking Bolivia. *South America ... Experience adventure with this full-day mountain bike tour of Death Road, favored by thrill-seekers for its steep drops and ... Get quick answers from Full Day Mountain Bike Tour to Death Road from La Paz staff and past visitors. ...
The percentage of deaths was also higher in the first month after release in NSW, although only 15% of deaths in the first year ... Estimating number of deaths nationally. To estimate the number of deaths nationally, within each stratum, we applied the ... Although drug overdose is a leading cause of death for recently released prisoners, more than 50% of deaths in this study were ... Deaths in custody in Australia: National Deaths in Custody Program 2007. Monitoring report no. 3. Canberra: Australian ...
17 The death certificate database includes all deaths in Ontario. Causes of death were determined from death certificates, ... Mean age at death was 39 years. Among women 18-44 years of age, the most common causes of death were HIV/AIDS and drug overdose ... 31, 1997, or, in the case of decedents, date of death.14,17 Mortality rates were calculated by dividing the number of deaths by ... Deaths in the study population were ascertained by comparing the database of shelter users with Ontario death certificate ...
Crude death rate per 1000 population. 2014. 10. Estimated infant mortality per 1000 live births (world health report). 2015. 3 ... SDR, external causes of injury and poisoning, all ages, per 100 000. 2014. 43. ... SDR, diseases of circulatory system, all ages, per 100 000. 2014. 284. ...
... unit record death data for local and interstate deaths from 1967 onwards were obtained from the national deaths dataset. ... as summary historical statistics by year of death registration,15 and for 1985-2012 from the national deaths dataset (ABS, 1985 ... based on matching of death registrations with census data for 2006 and 2011.16 Indigenous status for death registrations before ... Box 3 - Deaths by age group in theoretical cohorts of 100 000 Northern Territory Aboriginal Australians and for all Australian ...
Deaths , Deaths of infants: An infant death is the death from any cause of a live-born child under one year of age. ... Deaths , Percent deaths registered: Civil registration coverage of deaths (%). * Diseases , Cancer , Cancer death rate (per ... Deaths > Percent deaths registered 90-100 2005. Diseases > Cancer > Cancer death rate (per 100,000 population) 133 2004. 86th ... Deaths > Deaths of infants 24,548 2010. 3rd out of 79 ... Death rates > Infants 6.8 2009. 139th out of 183 Death rates > ...
Death rates by race/ethnicity were age adjusted to the 2000 U. S. standard population. A total of 426 pH1N1 deaths were ... 2) and death (OR=7. 6, 95% CI: 2. 1-27. 9) as a result of pH1N1 in this study. Among critically ill patients in general, ... While four deaths occurred among pregnant women in the first wave (all in their third trimester), none were reported during the ... In a study by Morgan et al.Footnote 139 of hospitalizations and deaths during the first wave of pH1N1 in the United States, ...
In this analysis the outcome used to assess effectiveness of the programmes was death with tuberculosis because death is a ... fewer total deaths from tuberculosis than DOTS, owing to a decrease in the number of deaths due to multidrug resistant ... Cumulative number of deaths (due to prevalent cases of tuberculosis at the start of the analysis and to incident cases during ... Death rates for both untreated and treated tuberculosis were for HIV negative patients and were not adjusted for patients age ...
Deaths from smoking related diseases in the Czech Republic. *every year about 100 000 people in the Czech Republic die; about ... Statistics prognosis: if the number of smokers grows at the current rate, there will be 10 millions death caused by smoking ... the most of smoking related deaths are caused by heart and artery diseases (especially heart attacks, strokes and peripheral ... smoking mother and childs passive smoking increases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome 2,5-3,5 times ...
IncidenceInhabitantsPrevalence20162000Mortality estimates1995ProbabilityRatesMalignantYear1997InfantUnintentional injuries1990MalesHospitalAttributableDiseasesAdultsApproximatelyDataEstimatesRateComplications1985AfricaResultsAnnuallyConclusionsPreventableCasesPeopleYearsLiveTuberculosis deathsInfantsExcessPatientsCause of dePhysiciansCountriesHospitalization and deathSuddenDenmarkInjuriesGenerallyMaternal deathsWomenTotalCauses of deLackChildren
- Cancer death incidence (per 100 000 population ) for year 2000. (nationmaster.com)
- The yearly incidence is estimated to be &100 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. (ahajournals.org)
- 8 As major investments have been made, and continue, to prevent childhood deaths by reducing incidence of infectious conditions, ensuring better nutrition and promoting safe motherhood, 4 avoidable death due to injury has received substantially less attention in countries such as India, where death registration systems are usually limited or non-existent. (bmj.com)
- The incidence in men was about 2.7 per 100 000 population in 1997, with almost 2 deaths/100 000. (news-medical.net)
- By 2016, incidence and death rates had become 8.8 and almost 6, per 100 000 population, respectively. (news-medical.net)
- Ischaemic heart diseases accounted for 127 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants across the EU-28 in 2015. (europa.eu)
- The EU Member States with the highest standardised death rates from ischaemic heart disease were Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia and Hungary - all close to or above 400 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants in 2015. (europa.eu)
- Cancer was a major cause of death, averaging 261 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants across the EU-28 in 2015. (europa.eu)
- For the EU as a whole, there was an average standardised rate of approximately 14 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants from kidney diseases. (europa.eu)
- This was below the rate (about 15 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants) a year earlier. (europa.eu)
- Among individual EU Member states, 21 of 27 EU Member States recorded more than 10 deaths from kidney diseases per 100 000 inhabitants 2016. (europa.eu)
- Croatia recorded the highest death rate - 23 deaths caused by kidney diseases per 100 000 inhabitants. (europa.eu)
- This was followed by Bulgaria (21 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants), Germany, Cyprus and Romania (20 each) as well as Greece and Belgium (19 each). (europa.eu)
- By contrast, the lowest death rates from kidney diseases were registered in Finland with 4 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants, followed by Hungary (5), Poland and Estonia (8 each), Sweden and Slovenia (9 each). (europa.eu)
- Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering approximately 90 000 inhabitants. (bmj.com)
- There is therefore widespread policy, professional and public interest in the prevalence of alcohol-related deaths in the UK. (ons.gov.uk)
- The gap between the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population and the rest of the Australian population for particular causes of death provides an indication of the prevention, prevalence and management of particular diseases for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, relative to the rest of the population. (health.gov.au)
- 2-4 One approach to increasing the prevalence of smoke alarms in high-risk houses, is through community-based smoke alarm installation programmes, 5-8 but there are few studies that have evaluated the impact of such programmes on the rate of fire deaths and injuries. (bmj.com)
- Results 675 women had a diagnosis of SLE in the study period (prevalence 127 per 100 000 childbearing women). (bmj.com)
- A review of prevalence studies, mainly from the 1990s, reported rates for Caucasian populations ranging from 50 to 130/100 000 women. (bmj.com)
- The probability of death during the first 5 years of life (per 100 000 live births) was estimated from the 2005 United Nations' population and death estimates for India, to which the proportions of deaths from the mortality study were applied. (bmj.com)
- A probability sample of 100 000 noninstitutionalized adults living in Manitoba in 1982 to 1983. (annals.org)
- For occupants, Joksch (1993) found the probability of death for drivers in multi-vehicle collisions increased as the fourth power of impact speed (often referred to by the mathematical term δv ("delta V"), meaning change in velocity). (wikipedia.org)
- All age male and female age-standardized lung cancer mortality rates per 100, 000 population for Sefton wards over the period 1998-2003. (zanran.com)
- Mortality rates have been calculated by the WHO Regional Office for Europe using the data on deaths by cause/age/sex and mid-year population by age/sex, annually reported to WHO by European Member States. (who.int)
- It should be noted that Mortality rates for some countries may be biased due to the under-registration of death cases, particularly in the central Asian republics, the Caucasus countries and some countries in the Balkans region (seenotes on data availability and quality under menu item Help). (who.int)
- In 2015, the lowest standardised death rates from suicide among the EU Member States were in Cyprus and Greece. (europa.eu)
- In the EU, standardised death rates were higher for men than for women for nearly all of the main causes of death in 2015. (europa.eu)
- these figures can be further analysed by age, sex, country where the death occurred/residency of the deceased, and region ( NUTS level 2), using standardised death rates . (europa.eu)
- Between 2005 and 2015, there was an 11.5 % reduction in EU-28 standardised death rates relating to cancer for men and a 6.1 % reduction for women - see Figures 1 and 2. (europa.eu)
- Larger declines were recorded in relation to deaths from ischaemic heart disease, where death rates fell by 30.3 % for men and 34.3 % for women, while even greater reductions were recorded for deaths from transport accidents where rates fell by 43.3 % for men and 44.3 % for women. (europa.eu)
- in Estonia, Latvia and Denmark, as well as in Serbia, death rates were very close to this level. (europa.eu)
- Tuberculosis Mortality Rates Tennessee, 2001-2005 100, 000 Population Number of Cases Rate per Year Total TB Cases TB Deaths Death Rate Note: 2005 data are preliminary. (zanran.com)
- Homeless people are at high risk for illness and have higher death rates than the general population. (cmaj.ca)
- We report mortality rates and causes of death in a cohort of women who used homeless shelters in Toronto. (cmaj.ca)
- In Toronto, mortality rates were 515 per 100 000 person-years among homeless women 18-44 years of age and 438 per 100 000 person-years among those 45-64 years of age. (cmaj.ca)
- 15 A study of people using homeless shelters in New York found age-adjusted death rates 2 to 3 times higher than those in the city's general population. (cmaj.ca)
- Death rates relating to this period have therefore been revised and may differ from previously published figures. (ons.gov.uk)
- In the previous release, ' Alcohol-related deaths in the United Kingdom, 2011 ' UK rates were based on a combination of the 2011 Census population estimates for England and Wales and rolled forward mid-year population estimates (from the 2001 Census) for Scotland and Northern Ireland. (ons.gov.uk)
- Current trends (2001-08) in the five jurisdictions with adequate data (NSW, Qld, WA, SA, and the NT) show a decline in death rates due to circulatory disease for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians and no further closing of the gap. (health.gov.au)
- The greatest reductions in mortality rates and excess deaths for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples will come from a combination of preventive strategies and medical services. (health.gov.au)
- The 15-29 year age group had the highest death rates for suicide while deaths due to transport accidents were highest in the 15-39 year age group. (health.gov.au)
- Methods Death rates for AIDS-related diseases were calculated by age and sex for 1985-2009. (bmj.com)
- Changes in the age-sex-specific death rates over time were used to identify conditions likely to be misclassified AIDS deaths and to quantify the corresponding number of misclassified deaths. (bmj.com)
- The highest unintentional mortality rates were in those aged 70years or older (410/100 000). (biomedcentral.com)
- To determine, in a defined population, the percentage of persons who were discharged from a hospital or died of influenza-associated respiratory conditions who had a health care contact during the preceding vaccination season and to determine the relation between risk status for influenza-associated hospitalization and death and influenza vaccination rates. (annals.org)
- The disparity between influenza vaccination rates and risks for influenza-associated hospital discharge and death supports a strategy of hospital-based influenza vaccination. (annals.org)
- high-risk tracts included those tracts that had been previously identified as having high rates of house fire-related deaths and injuries, and that had lowest median income. (bmj.com)
- Additional wins were associated with a 22% relative reduction in death rates (CI, 5% to 35%), whereas additional films and additional nominations were not associated with a significant reduction in death rates. (annals.org)
- Social status is a consistent, powerful, and widespread determinant of death rates. (annals.org)
- Table 1 shows that diseases of the circulatory system and cancer (malignant neoplasms) were, by far, the leading causes of death in the EU. (europa.eu)
- the median duration of follow-up time from birth was 66 years, and 772 deaths occurred (primarily from ischemic heart disease and malignant disease). (annals.org)
- Inadequate housing accounts for over 100 000 deaths per year in the WHO European Region and causes or contributes to many preventable diseases and injuries, including respiratory, nervous system and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. (who.int)
- The lack of home safety measures such as smoke detectors is associated with 0.9 deaths per 100 000 population annually, equivalent to more than 7000 entirely preventable deaths each year across the Region. (who.int)
- Data for 45 countries indicate that mould in homes results in the loss of 40 DALYs per 100 000 children each year. (who.int)
- CDR is the crude death rate calculated as a simple ratio: number of registered deaths/ mid-year population (per 100000). (who.int)
- Number of Deaths or Cases per Year? (smore.com)
- To estimate the number of deaths among people released from prison in Australia in the 2007-08 financial year, within 4 weeks and 1 year of release. (mja.com.au)
- Estimated number of deaths among adults released from Australian prisons in 2007-08, within 4 weeks and 1 year of release, classified by age, sex, Indigenous status and cause of death. (mja.com.au)
- Data from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing suggest an ex-prisoner population of more than 385 000, representing 1.8% of Australia's population, 2 but the number released from custody each year is unknown. (mja.com.au)
- An infant death is the death from any cause of a live-born child under one year of age. (nationmaster.com)
- Phillip's AGI for the year was $100. (scribd.com)
- Resistance to antibiotic medicines will account for 10 million extra deaths a year by 2050 if action isn't taken, according to a UK report. (pmlive.com)
- The first paper from the five-year Review on Antimicrobial Resistance, led by Jim O'Neill, estimates a huge rise on the current figure of 700,000 deaths per year as infections grow immunity to treatments. (pmlive.com)
- Figures are based on deaths registered in each calendar year rather than those occurring in each year. (ons.gov.uk)
- Since the majority of alcohol-related deaths registered in 2012 also occurred in the same year, registration delays are likely to have no impact on the findings in this bulletin. (ons.gov.uk)
- The harmful use of alcohol results in 2.5 million deaths each year worldwide ( WHO, 2014b ) with over 8,000 deaths occurring in the UK in each of the last ten years. (ons.gov.uk)
- It is estimated that each year unintentional injuries cause 279 000 deaths in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. (bmj.com)
- A report published by the WHO in 2004 estimated that some 1.2 million people were killed and 50 million injured in traffic collisions on the roads around the world each year and was the leading cause of death among children 10-19 years of age. (wikipedia.org)
- The fully implemented program annually invites 60 000 65-year-old men. (ahajournals.org)
- After the discovery of Wall's torso, police probed possible links to other murder cases in Denmark and elsewhere in Scandinavia, including the unsolved death of Kazuko Toyonaga, a 22-year-old Japanese woman whose dismembered remains were found in waters near Copenhagen after she disappeared on holiday in 1986. (wikipedia.org)
- The number of infant deaths after Fukushima rose 1.80 percent, compared with a previous 8.37 percent decrease. (sott.net)
- Projecting these figures for the entire United States yields 13,983 total deaths and 822 infant deaths in excess of the expected. (sott.net)
- We recently reported on an unusual rise in infant deaths in the northwestern United States for the 10-week period following the arrival of the airborne radioactive plume from the meltdowns at the Fukushima plants in northern Japan. (sott.net)
- Results Unintentional injuries were the sixth leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age. (bmj.com)
- In 2005, unintentional injuries led to 82 000 deaths (99% CI 71 000 to 88 000) among children under 5 years of age, a mortality rate per 100 000 live births (MR) of 302 (99% CI 262 to 323). (bmj.com)
- Unintentional injuries are an important cause of death in India. (biomedcentral.com)
- Indirect estimates by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Burden of Diseases Study (GBD) suggest that unintentional injuries account for 3.9 million deaths worldwide [ 1 ], of which about 90% occur in low- and middle-income countries. (biomedcentral.com)
- In 2004, WHO estimated about 0.8 million deaths in India were due to unintentional injuries [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Circulatory diseases accounted for 27% of excess deaths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males and 27% for females. (health.gov.au)
- Deaths related to external causes accounted for a further 21% of excess deaths of Indigenous males and 8% for females. (health.gov.au)
- Other chronic diseases including endocrine, metabolic and nutritional disorders (which includes diabetes), cancer and respiratory diseases also accounted for a significant component of excess deaths for Indigenous males and females. (health.gov.au)
- Background- Out-of-hospital sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a frequent cause of death. (ahajournals.org)
- It includes deaths in hospital following inpatient care. (reportlinker.com)
- Analysis of medical claims for influenza vaccination and hospital discharges and deaths for influenza-associated respiratory conditions during the 1982-83 influenza vaccination season and influenza outbreak period. (annals.org)
- the most common causes of death from diseases of the circulatory system are ischaemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. (europa.eu)
- Statistics' prognosis: if the number of smokers grows at the current rate, there will be 10 millions death caused by smoking related diseases in 2020. (ceskatelevize.cz)
- A vast majority of deaths from kidney diseases (93%) as well as deaths from kidney cancer (77%) concerned people aged 65 or above. (europa.eu)
- Circulatory diseases were also the most common cause of death for other Australians followed by cancer. (health.gov.au)
- Four groups of chronic conditions account for almost two-thirds of excess deaths among Indigenous Australians: circulatory disease, diabetes and other endocrine/metabolic/nutritional disorders, cancer, and respiratory diseases. (health.gov.au)
- Among the 31 OECD countries with available data, road deaths have fallen by over 20%, on average since 2010. (oecd-ilibrary.org)
- Retrospective trend analysis of death and LE data for the NT Aboriginal and Australian populations, 1967-2012. (mja.com.au)
- This study racy of data at the civil registry and 250 000 000 are affected by disasters aimed to compare MMRs from differ- the almost nationwide coverage of vac- annually [2, (who.int)
- 11-13 Other potential sources of injury mortality data are the Registrar General of India (RGI), namely the Survey of Causes of Death (SCD, 1982-1999), for rural areas 14 and the ongoing Medical Certification of Cause of Death (MCCD) for urban areas, 15 which are not nationally representative and thus cannot be used for estimating injury mortality in India. (bmj.com)
- This enabled the Swedish Road Administration to identify the KSI risk curves using actual crash reconstruction data which led to the human tolerances for serious injury and death referenced above. (wikipedia.org)
- AAA-specific mortality data were retrieved from the Swedish Cause of Death Registry. (ahajournals.org)
- Globally, substantial work has been performed to identify possible measures for injury prevention in children, 7 but these programmes remain greatly underutilised in low- and middle-income countries, potentially because of the lack of direct estimates of the burden of injury deaths and absence of mechanisms for injury prevention and control. (bmj.com)
- 1 , 2 Spectrum provides estimates on several indicators related to HIV/AIDS, among them the number of AIDS deaths, the number of people living with HIV/AIDS, treatment coverage and the number of new HIV infections. (bmj.com)
- However, no reliable nationally representative estimates of unintentional injury deaths are available. (biomedcentral.com)
- These direct estimates of unintentional injury deaths in India (0.6 million) are lower than WHO indirect estimates (0.8 million), but double the estimates which rely on police reports (0.3 million). (biomedcentral.com)
- Rate per 100, 000 Population CANADA NUNAVUT 1 Figure 10. (zanran.com)
- Age standardised rate per 100, 000 Bl he et N Increasing Deprivation Sources: ONS Registered Death Extracts for relevant years. (zanran.com)
- SDR is the age-standardized death rate calculated using the direct method and standard European population structure. (who.int)
- Across OECD countries, the homicide rate has fallen by one-third since 2010, to just over 2 per 100 000 people. (oecd-ilibrary.org)
- In 2015, Hungary reported the highest standardised death rate for lung cancer and for colorectal cancer among the EU Member States. (europa.eu)
- The standardised death rate for breast cancer fell by 10.1 % for women, which was in excess of the overall change for all cancers. (europa.eu)
- Tuberculosis death rate is the number of deaths from tuberculosis per 100-000 population. (zanran.com)
- Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the population growth rate in the absence of migration. (nationmaster.com)
- 5 years of age accounted for 3277 of these KS hospitalizations (77%) and had a KS hospitalization rate of 17.1 per 100 000 children. (aappublications.org)
- For women, the rate of new cases had gone up from less than 1 to 2.2 per 100 000, and the death rate from 0.5 to 1.4 per 100 000, over the same period. (news-medical.net)
- These are very rare, with serious complications occurring in only 1 of 10 000 cases of general anesthesia. (news-medical.net)
- three to eight women in every 100 000 undergoing laparoscopy die as a result of complications (very rare). (netdoctor.co.uk)
- 3 , 4 Fetal or neonatal complications in women with SLE compared with those without SLE have been widely reported and include spontaneous abortion, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, stillbirth and neonatal death, as well as congenital heart block in women with autoantibodies to anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La. 2 More recent studies have suggested improved fetal and neonatal outcomes compared with earlier studies. (bmj.com)
- 18 490 deaths due to these five causes were recoded to HIV/AIDS from 1985 to 2009. (bmj.com)
- Altogether, 72 120 deaths were recoded to AIDS between 1985 and 2009 and added to the reported 194 445 AIDS related deaths in the country, representing 27% misclassification of AIDS deaths in Brazil. (bmj.com)
- Brazzaville/Cairo - The COVID-19 pandemic today reached a milestone in Africa, with more than 100 000 confirmed cases. (who.int)
- For now COVID-19 has made a soft landfall in Africa, and the continent has been spared the high numbers of deaths which have devastated other regions of the world," said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa. (who.int)
- In the whole WHO European Region, using solid fuels as a household energy source results in the loss of 577 annual disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100 000 children younger than five years, and housing-related exposure to lead causes an annual loss of 79 DALYs per 100 000 population. (who.int)
- Results Out of the 28 potential causes of death investigated, five increased in the same distinct age pattern as AIDS: pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma, other immunodeficiencies, other septicaemia and toxoplasmosis. (bmj.com)
- The objective of this paper is to estimate total unintentional injury mortality in India and its variation by gender, rural/urban residence and region using results from a nationally representative survey of the causes of deaths. (biomedcentral.com)
- Further, exposure to noise from road traffic in Germany alone causes a loss of 31 DALYs per 100 000 population annually. (who.int)
- About 26 000 instances of rhabdomyolysis are reported annually in the United States. (cmaj.ca)
- With a total population of 9.5 million, the Swedish national AAA-screening program was predicted to annually prevent 90 premature deaths from AAA and to gain 577 quality-adjusted life-years. (ahajournals.org)
- In Sweden, with a total population of 9.5 million (2011-2012), 400 to 500 deaths in men ≥65 years of age are annually attributed to ruptured AAA. (ahajournals.org)
- The chronic, complex and often preventable health, social and economic marginalisation of prisoners in Australia has been well documented, 4 - 9 as has the increased risk of death among those released from prison. (mja.com.au)
- Excessive consumption of alcohol is a major preventable cause of premature mortality with alcohol-related deaths accounting for 1.4% of all deaths in England and Wales in 2012. (ons.gov.uk)
- According to WHO, in 2002, there were more than 500 000 new cases of cervical cancer worldwide, over 90% of which were recorded in developing countries. (who.int)
- By comparison, when cases reached 100 000 in the World Health Organization (WHO) European region, deaths stood at more than 4900. (who.int)
- Over the 20 years of the study period, there were over 62 000 cases of primary liver cancer, of which almost half (48%, or almost 30 000) were HCC in type. (news-medical.net)
- Ending the global TB epidemic is feasible with dramatc decline in TB deaths and cases and eliminaton of economic and social burden of TB. (authorstream.com)
- The only official source for live births were affected by disasters and 600 000 and left many people living in temporary in the Islamic Republic of Iran is the civil lost their lives in the 1990s alone . (who.int)
- On average 60 000 people die and time after the quake [14, (who.int)
- Prime Minister Modi has gone one step ahead and pledged at "Global Stop TB Summit" to eradicate TB in India by 2025 TB is the top infectous killer worldwide TB is also the leading cause of deaths among people with HIV a major cause of antmicrobial resistance related death. (authorstream.com)
- The cumulative number of tuberculosis deaths per 100 000 population over 10 years. (bmj.com)
- Around two-thirds of these deaths occurred between 15 and 39 years of age. (health.gov.au)
- 4 Children younger than 5 years of age constitute 11% of India's population, 5 but over 20% of all deaths. (bmj.com)
- Background A retrospective analysis of deaths registered in the Brazilian Mortality System was conducted to quantify the under-reporting of HIV/AIDS deaths and those misclassified to AIDS-related conditions in the 15-49 years old population in Brazil. (bmj.com)
- In Europe nearly 95% of deaths occurred in those older than 60 years. (who.int)
- This study sought to determine the impact of the World Health Organization's directly observed treatment strategy (DOTS) compared with that of DOTS-plus on tuberculosis deaths, mainly in the developing world. (bmj.com)
- Under optimal implementation, fewer tuberculosis deaths would occur under DOTS-plus than under DOTS. (bmj.com)
- infection deaths and 4% of all tuberculosis deaths . (zanran.com)
- Intervention Infants were randomised to 50 000 IU vitamin A or placebo and followed until age 12 months. (bmj.com)
- Of the 167 women whose first-birth infants survived, second pregnancy outcomes included: 18 (11%) admission for spontaneous abortion, 1 perinatal death (0.6%) and 148 (89%) infants discharged home. (bmj.com)
- The findings suggest that American patients benefit from more active treatment, with US hospitals over a third (38%) more likely to offer surgical treatment, resulting in 13% fewer deaths from rAAA compared with English hospitals. (eurekalert.org)
- This occurs in less than 4 out of 100 patients, but more commonly following a total laparoscopic hysterectomy as compared to a laparoscopic-assisted procedure. (news-medical.net)
- These include the risk of neuropathy, allergy and death, the latter occurring in 1 in 100 000 patients. (news-medical.net)
- Efforts need to be made to reduce misclassification of causes of death in the future and identify ways in which the confidentiality of information regarding cause of death can be maintained. (bmj.com)
- 5,6, epidemiology of cause of death and area of public health concern, The list of amenable causes of death was adapted from the original list and priority required to address the mortality burden, are well known. (who.int)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed that an alarming 50 per 100,000 persons in the USA suffer from death of iatrogenic origin - caused by avoidable error or negligence on the healer's part - constituting the third leading cause of death in the country. (oxagile.com)
- Another autopsy performed on Wall's head and legs after they were found in October found no signs of blunt trauma to the head and did not determine the cause of death. (wikipedia.org)
- and exposure to radon causes 2-3 deaths per 100 000 population for selected countries. (who.int)
- This bulletin presents the latest figures for alcohol-related deaths in the UK, its four constituent countries and regions of England. (ons.gov.uk)
- Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the most frequent causes of death in industrialized countries. (ahajournals.org)
- For these countries the model produces an estimated number of deaths from AIDS which is higher when compared to the reported figures. (bmj.com)
- The report also noted that the problem was most severe in developing countries and that simple prevention measures could halve the number of deaths. (wikipedia.org)
- Background Few studies have examined the impact of community-based smoke alarm (SA) distribution programmes on the occurrence of house fire-related deaths and injuries (HF-D/I). (bmj.com)
- House fires continue to be a major cause of deaths and injuries in the USA, accounting for more than 2600 deaths and 13 000 injuries in 2010. (bmj.com)
- We evaluated the impact of this programme on house fire-related deaths and injuries using a cohort approach which, to our knowledge, has not been done previously, to evaluate a smoke alarm installation programme. (bmj.com)
- Outcomes of these infections are variable, ranging from generally benign in aseptic meningitis to severe with neurological sequelae and even death in encephalitis. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Interventions are generally much easier to identify in the modern road safety paradigm, whose focus is on the human tolerances for serious injury and death. (wikipedia.org)
- Efforts to reduce deaths of homeless women should focus on those under age 45. (cmaj.ca)
- Of 177 women who had a first nulliparous birth and subsequent pregnancy, 10 (5.6%) had a perinatal death in the first pregnancy, and of these women, 9 (90%) had a baby discharged home alive in the second pregnancy. (bmj.com)
- The resulting total number of AIDS deaths was further adjusted for incompleteness of the mortality reporting system. (bmj.com)
- U.S. health officials report weekly deaths by age in 122 cities, about 25 to 35 percent of the national total. (sott.net)
- NOTES: A total of 2,813,503 resident deaths were registered in the United States in 2017. (oxagile.com)
- This article gives an overview of recent statistics on causes of death in the European Union (EU) . (europa.eu)
- The latest estimated information for the EU-28 relating to causes of death is available for the 2015 reference period . (europa.eu)
- many conditions that cause serious health problems may not be fatal (such as depression, arthritis and intellectual disability) and so do not appear as common causes of death. (health.gov.au)
- Deaths due to ill-defined causes were redistributed across all other natural causes of death. (bmj.com)
- Amenable mortality comprises causes of death that should not occur with timely and effective healthcare. (who.int)
- A local list of amenable causes of death was developed with input from public health and diseasespecific medical experts. (who.int)
- The local list of amenable conditions contained 45 causes of death. (who.int)
- Causes of death are ranked according to number of deaths. (oxagile.com)