Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing: A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.Pancreatitis, Alcoholic: Acute or chronic INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS due to excessive ALCOHOL DRINKING. Alcoholic pancreatitis usually presents as an acute episode but it is a chronic progressive disease in alcoholics.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Ceruletide: A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Pleurisy: INFLAMMATION of PLEURA, the lining of the LUNG. When PARIETAL PLEURA is involved, there is pleuritic CHEST PAIN.Trypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Mice, Inbred C57BLPancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Pancreatic Pseudocyst: Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.Lipoxins: Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.Turpentine: The concrete oleoresin obtained from Pinus palustris Mill. (Pinaceae) and other species of Pinus. It contains a volatile oil, to which its properties are due, and to which form it is generally used. (Dorland, 28th ed) Turpentine is used as a solvent and an experimental irritant in biomedical research. Turpentine toxicity is of medical interest.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 126.96.36.199.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Pancreas, Exocrine: The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 188.8.131.52.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.ZymosanPancreatic Function Tests: Tests based on the biochemistry and physiology of the exocrine pancreas and involving analysis of blood, duodenal contents, feces, or urine for products of pancreatic secretion.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Acinar Cells: Cells lining the saclike dilatations known as acini of various glands or the lungs.Acute-Phase Reaction: An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.ArthritisChemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Hyperamylasemia: A condition with abnormally elevated level of AMYLASES in the serum. Hyperamylasemia due to PANCREATITIS or other causes may be differentiated by identifying the amylase isoenzymes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Mice, Inbred BALB CSphincterotomy, Endoscopic: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.BornanesAutoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.Rats, Inbred LewCholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Gabexate: A serine proteinase inhibitor used therapeutically in the treatment of pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and as a regional anticoagulant for hemodialysis. The drug inhibits the hydrolytic effects of thrombin, plasmin, and kallikrein, but not of chymotrypsin and aprotinin.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Neurogenic Inflammation: Inflammation caused by an injurious stimulus of peripheral neurons and resulting in release of neuropeptides which affect vascular permeability and help initiate proinflammatory and immune reactions at the site of injury.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Pancreaticojejunostomy: Surgical anastomosis of the pancreatic duct, or the divided end of the transected pancreas, with the jejunum. (Dorland, 28th ed)Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Serum Amyloid A Protein: An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Neuritis: A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Pancreatic Stellate Cells: Star-shaped, myofibroblast-like cells located in the periacinar, perivascular, and periductal regions of the EXOCRINE PANCREAS. They play a key role in the pathobiology of FIBROSIS; PANCREATITIS; and PANCREATIC CANCER.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Arthritis, Gouty: Arthritis, especially of the great toe, as a result of gout. Acute gouty arthritis often is precipitated by trauma, infection, surgery, etc. The initial attacks are usually monoarticular but later attacks are often polyarticular.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Receptors, Lipoxin: Cell surface proteins that bind LIPOXINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.OrosomucoidAutacoids: A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Biological Dressings: Human or animal tissue used as temporary wound coverings.Annexin A1: Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Endotoxemia: A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 184.108.40.206.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: A malabsorption condition resulting from greater than 10% reduction in the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes (LIPASE; PROTEASES; and AMYLASE) by the EXOCRINE PANCREAS into the DUODENUM. This condition is often associated with CYSTIC FIBROSIS and with chronic PANCREATITIS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Rats, Inbred BUFTransendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Organic or functional motility disorder involving the SPHINCTER OF ODDI and associated with biliary COLIC. Pathological changes are most often seen in the COMMON BILE DUCT sphincter, and less commonly the PANCREATIC DUCT sphincter.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Pancreatic alpha-Amylases: A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into PANCREATIC JUICE.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).Duodenal Obstruction: Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Organotin Compounds: Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.APACHE: An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
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Characterisation of a transgenic mouse expressing R122H human cationic trypsinogen | BMC Gastroenterology | Full Text
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Cases per 100 000 populationCholecystitisPrevalenceAbdominalIncidencePancreasPeritonitisInfectionClinicalPrognosisPopulationIncreased acute kidneyRecurrentSystemic inflammationDisseminated intravasculRespiratorySeverity of acuteSmall intestineGallbladder painPost-ERCP-pancreatitisInflammatory diseaseHepatitisNecrosisExacerbationLiver Cirrhosis200mgSevere acuteTissuePhysiologyLaparoscopicKidneyDiseasesNeurologicalComplicationsHypotensionDigestivePatients with chronicLungGeneticPancreatic enzymesInhibitDiseaseHereditary pancreatitisFluidMorbidityUncommonInjuryLipaseSicknessIntermittentConcentrationsMorphineAdultsCalcium
Cases per 100 000 population3
- The prevalence of UC in different European countries ranges from 50 to 200 cases per 100 000 population [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Global incidence rates range from 2.4 to 8.6 cases per 100 000 population and are highest in developed countries and among men (1). (biobender.com)
- The morbidity on CP in various European countries ranges from 4 to 25 cases per 100 000 population per year, and prevalence - 250-500 patients per 100 000 population. (medlist.org)
- 601- Cholecystitis, acute or chronic, with or without cholangitis. (pdfmedarticles.com)
- The gallbladder Chronic Cholecystitis recurrent, but it just made me wonder. (healthygallbladder.com)
- Gallbladder duplication is a rare congenital anomaly and, like other biliary malformations, is associated with an increased risk of complications in the laparoscopic cholecystectomy We present a case of a woman consulting in the emergency department for clinical symptoms compatible with acute cholecystitis. (bvsalud.org)
- The distributions of the severity of acute cholecystitis, a past history of abdominal operations, body mass index, blood test results, operation time, and blood loss were not significant between the two groups. (statescale.cf)
- Stones can usually be detected and diagnosed by ultrasound, but with chronic cholecystitis, the gall bladder may be laparoscopically removed. (centralamericasurgery.com)
- gallbladder surgery recovery time, I could a more sinister type of gallstones cause hair loss surgery does cod liver oil reduce swelling at Yale, said the latest technologies of internal organ of your body releases the offending statements pancreas problems questions using words such as: Check with your gallbladder pain under the shoulder bladesSudden, acute gallbladder removal diet after kidney removal surgery cholecystitis. (healthygallbladder.com)
- The prevalence of lupus is estimated 15-50 per 100000 populations, more frequently among African Americans and Asians, and the incidence of 3-5 persons per 100000 people . (medcraveonline.com)
- The prevalence of chronic infection with HEV varies between countries, but is between 1% and 2% in most European transplant centres. (bmj.com)
- in some parts of Asia and Africa the prevalence is more than 100/100 000 population, whereas in Europe and North America it is estimated as 2-4/100 000 population. (bmj.com)
- These are clinically diverse disorders that share a chronic and debilitating phenotype with an estimated 5%-7% prevalence in the United States encompassing over 100 different diseases including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease (El-Gabalawy et al. (deepdyve.com)
- The prevalence of pancreatitis in a population of dogs with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is unknown. (scielo.org.za)
- 2004). Clinical signs associated with pancreatitis are not specific and thus the availability of a non-invasive commercial marker for use in a population of dogs with a variable prevalence of pancreatitis is clinically important. (scielo.org.za)
- Symptoms of pancreatitis include abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and a rapid pulse.Treatment of pancreatitis often requires hospitalization. (fpkbsxxm.gq)
- 602- Acute alcoholic hepatitis: with or without liver failure 603- Acute toxic, drug hepatitis: induced by drug (e.g., paracetamol/acetaminophen) or gas (e.g., 604- Pancreatitis: includes acute or recurrent acute pancreatitis, from pancreatic edema, to edema with fat necrosis, to necrosis with variable degrees of hemorrhage documented by laboratory data and abdominal CT scan. (pdfmedarticles.com)
- Acute pancreatitis presents with severe abdominal pain. (padhamhealthnews.org)
- The pain is so severe and unrelenting that it can be mistaken for any of the acute abdominal conditions that require immediate surgery. (padhamhealthnews.org)
- Persistent abdominal and back pain with diabetes, malabsorption makes one suspect chronic pancreatitis. (padhamhealthnews.org)
- Rarely, an ulcer may perforate the wall of the digestive tract and lead to peritonitis (inflammation of the abdominal cavity's lining). (enetmd.com)
- The disease causes spasms of abdominal pain, diarrhoea and chronic sickness, loss of appetite, anaemia, and weight loss. (enetmd.com)
- Conclusiones: La AVB es una anomalía congénita rara, de difícil diagnóstico preoperatorio, por lo que casi siempre es un hallazgo de la cirugía abdominal o en la autopsia. (bvsalud.org)
- The aim of this study has been to establish the incidence and severity of AZA-induced pancreatitis, an idiosyncratic and major side effect, and to identify specific risk factors.In May 2010 I needed to be admitted into the hospital my liver was failing. (fpkbsxxm.gq)
- We hypothesize that combination therapy of rectal NSAIDs and periprocedural hydration would significantly lower the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis compared to rectal NSAIDs alone in moderate- to high-risk patients undergoing ERCP. (springer.com)
- The primary endpoint is the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis. (springer.com)
- The FLUYT trial design, including hydration schedule, fluid type, and sample size, maximize its power of identifying a potential difference in post-ERCP pancreatitis incidence in patients receiving prophylactic rectal NSAIDs. (springer.com)
- The reported incidence is approximately 30-40 per 100 000 population per year and 25% will develop severe or life threatening complications [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The estimated global incidence of mumps is 100-1000/100 000 population per year, with epidemic peaks every 2-5 years. (mja.com.au)
- Introduction: Gallbladder agenesis (GA) is a rare congenital anomaly, with a reported incidence ranging between 13-65 percent a 100 000 population. (bvsalud.org)
- The annual incidence of acute pancreatitis ranges from 13 to 45 per 100 000 people [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pancreas ödéma.Pancreatitis is a rare disease in which the pancreas becomes inflamed. (fpkbsxxm.gq)
- The severity of computed tomography findings have been found to correlate well with clinical indices of sever.Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas, a gland that sits behind the stomach and near the first section of the small intestine, the duodenum.Az ödémás pancreatitis kezelése A pancreas nyugalomba helyezése: A betegség patomechanizmusából következik, hogy az önemésztődés megállítása, a pancreas Diéta. (fpkbsxxm.gq)
- Acute Pancreatitis: Introduction Pancreatitis is an uncommon disease characterized by inflammation of the pancreas Acute pancreatitis affects about 50,000- 80,000 Americans each year. (fpkbsxxm.gq)
- But before explaining about that- here is a look at what the pancreas does and all about pancreatitis. (padhamhealthnews.org)
- Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas. (padhamhealthnews.org)
- Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by irreversible and progressive changes in the pancreas that results in a serious loss of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function and deterioration of the pancreatic structure. (padhamhealthnews.org)
- The surgical removal of gall bladder can be timed at a later date after the inflammation of the pancreas has subsided. (padhamhealthnews.org)
- TB in pancreas may present as acute or chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic abscesses, and as discrete pancreatic mass mimicking malignancy, thus making it a diagnostic challenge. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Due to this stones and diagnosing pancreas problems inflammation of the liver how it works gallbladder surgery, on the liver in the liver. (healthygallbladder.com)
- Infection complicating pancreatitis can produce severe, early multiple organ failure. (padhamhealthnews.org)
- But they are stretched leading to locate the mineralocorticoids act by acute infection. (scoutwithin.me)
- In developed countries, zoonotic hepatitis E tends to cause an acute hepatitis in older men or result in a chronic infection in immunocompromised patients, including solid organ transplant recipients, patients with haematological malignancy and people with HIV. (bmj.com)
- Chronic infection occurs with any type of organ transplant and in children as well as adults. (bmj.com)
- Chronic hepatitis B or C viral infection appears to be the most important risk factor for HCC. (bmj.com)
- The baseline Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score should be assumed to be zero unless the patient is known to have preexisting (acute or chronic) organ dysfunction before the onset of infection. (cdc.gov)
- Concurrent administration of Vitamin A may be, therefore essential for clinical recovery from chronic pneumonia (Kahn and Line, 2005). (thefreedictionary.com)
- 5 , 6 In 2004-2005 in the United Kingdom, more than 56 000 clinical cases of mumps were notified, with the majority of confirmed cases occurring in 15-24-year-olds. (mja.com.au)
- 2 Although most patients with acute pancreatitis will recover without sequelae, between 10% and 20% will have a more complicated clinical course with a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. (cmaj.ca)
- The two most common approaches to determining prognosis in acute pancreatitis are use of a clinical scoring system and measurement of specific laboratory tests. (cmaj.ca)
- Antibiotic selection for acute infective episodes is based on results of lower airway culture, local antibiotic susceptibility patterns, clinical severity and patient tolerance. (mja.com.au)
- The authors investigated and evaluated the relationship between distinct peripheral lymphocyte subsets at admission and clinical outcome prior to hospital discharge so as to find a predictor to the prognosis of acute pancreatitis in lymphocyte profile. (biomedcentral.com)
- Clinical studies consistently conclude that morphine, like other opioids, often causes hypogonadism and hormone imbalances in chronic users of both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
Increased acute kidney1
- The prognostic role of suPAR was further corroborated by uni- and multivariate Cox-regression analyses including parameters of systemic inflammation, kidney and liver organ work as good while clinico-pathological individuals features. (biobender.com)
- Systemic inflammation potently stimulates coagulation by upregulating tissue factor and downregulating natural anticoagulants such as antithrombin. (scirp.org)
- Singer M, De Santis V, Vitale D, Jeffcoate W. Multiorgan failure is an adaptive, endocrine-mediated, metabolic response to overwhelming systemic inflammation. (cdc.gov)
- 201- Exacerbation of chronic pulmonary disease: exacerbation of respiratory failure in chronic pulmonary disease (either obstructive or non obstructive) due to progressive evolution. (pdfmedarticles.com)
- These include either local complications (e.g., necrosis and acute collection of fluid) or persistent organ failure (e.g., shock, respiratory failure or renal insufficiency). (cmaj.ca)
- A lthough regarded in high-income countries as an orphan disease, 1 , 2 bronchiectasis remains a major contributor to chronic respiratory morbidity in less-affluent populations, both Indigenous 3 and non-Indigenous. (mja.com.au)
- Relative contraindications to morphine include: respiratory depression when appropriate equipment is not available Although it has previously been thought that morphine was contraindicated in acute pancreatitis, a review of the literature shows no evidence for this. (wikipedia.org)
Severity of acute1
- The most common site of inflammation is the terminal ileum (the end of the small intestine where it joins the large intestine). (enetmd.com)
- The presentation of lymphomas in the small intestine can be acute with a surgical emergency such as obstruction, perforation, and bleeding, or gradual with insidious return or progress of severe malabsorptive symptoms, often associated with hypoalbuminemia and severe weight loss and malnutrition. (barnardhealth.us)
- 401- Acute tubular necrosis: sudden onset of renal failure during or following an acute severe 402- Acute glomerulopathy: acute renal failure resulting from lesions in the glomeruli. (pdfmedarticles.com)
- Contributing factors may include aflatoxin B1 in food, p53 gene mutations, repeated cycles of necrosis and regeneration, and chronic inflammation. (bmj.com)
- vague or indefinite usage for long-term inflammation of pulmonary tissue of any etiology. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In recent years in the literature more attention is paid on patient's quality of life (QOL) with chronic diseases, including systemie connective tissue diseases. (medcraveonline.com)
- The adjoining pancreatic tissue revealed features of chronic pancreatitis [Figure 4 and (thefreelibrary.com)
- The most widely used index for early risk stratification is the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Examination (APACHE) II. (cmaj.ca)
- We then compared the accuracy of activated effector T cells estimation to predict non-MOF with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IIscores and C reactive protein (CRP) estimation of MOF. (biomedcentral.com)
- Aqueous Suspension 300, cheap noroxin 000 u) Contains 300,000 units procaine penicillin G per ml for treatment of diseases sensitive to penicillin, such as foot rot, pneumonia, wound infections, etc. (kissofswiss.com)
- The aim of her research is to understand the role that genes play in the development of chronic diseases. (rug.nl)
- It is well known that some infections increase the risk of certain chronic diseases and the converse. (biomedcentral.com)
- This picture is changing as SSA undergoes an epidemiological transition with a rapidly increasing burden of, and associated mortality from, chronic non-communicable diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
- Fever can also be caused by non-infectious diseases, inflammation, injury, and by drugs. (ceufast.com)
- Complications of mumps in hospitalised patients were recorded in 19/138 cases (14%), with orchitis being the most common complication (10/19), followed by pancreatitis (2/19). (mja.com.au)
- Complications in other parts of the body may include inflammation of various parts of the eye, severe arthritis affecting various joints of the body, ankylosing spondylitis (an inflammation of the spine), skin disorders, liver disease, and gallstones. (enetmd.com)
- Moreover, MI-1 is relatively safe for the digestive, reproductive, and excretory systems under chronic exposure, as evidenced by [ 11 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Irrespective of the etiology of pancreatitis, early pathophysiology events include activation of digestive enzymes by lysosomal hydrolases, autodigestive processes, intra-parenchymal inflammatory response and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). (biomedcentral.com)
Patients with chronic2
- patients with chronic bronchitis (CB)--84 (obstructive--46 patients, without obstruction--38 patients). (thefreedictionary.com)
- To report the colonoscopic and pathological findings in patients with chronic diarrhea from a gastroenterology unit during approximately 3 years in a general teaching hospital located in Lima-Peru. (pianolarge.gq)
- Chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis in children and adults in Australia and New Zealand. (mja.com.au)
- Consensus recommendations for managing chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis, based on systematic reviews, were developed for Australian and New Zealand children and adults during a multidisciplinary workshop. (mja.com.au)
- Currently there is no therapy for pancreatitis because of lack of complete understanding of the disease mechanism. (fpkbsxxm.gq)
- Premature trypsinogen activation is considered to be the key event in the disease development.Pediatric pancreatitis. (fpkbsxxm.gq)
- I buy bras from dominant polycystic TEENney disease because they actually sell diagnosing minimal change chronic pancreatitis. (discountgolfcard.co)
- 701- Drug overdose: includes all accidental or intentional drug intoxication (including overdose), 702- Other intoxication, acute: by alcohol, CO inhalation, industrial, domestic, vegetable, animal 703- Adverse effects of medication: acute disease due to a drug given in normal dosage (Lyell's and Stevens-Johnson syndromes, malignant syndrome of neuroleptics). (pdfmedarticles.com)
- Biliary tract disease and alcoholism account for more than 80% of hospital admissions for acute pancreatitis. (padhamhealthnews.org)
- Chronic mesenteric vascular disease Aetiology and pathology Chronic mesenteric vascular disease or 'intestinal angina' is poorly defined and poorly understood. (symptoma.com)
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with involvement of many tissues and organs that develops due to the presence of specific antibodies in the serum. (medcraveonline.com)
- Her research group focuses on the genetics of inflammation-related conditions, such as coeliac disease (gluten allergy) and inflammatory intestinal disease (e.g. (rug.nl)
- In 2013, an estimated 9.0 million people developed TB, and 1.5 million died from the disease, 360 000 of whom were HIV-positive. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Africa is facing a rapidly growing chronic non-communicable disease burden whilst at the same time experiencing continual high rates of infectious disease. (biomedcentral.com)
- It may be exerting other negative and positive impacts upon infectious and chronic non-communicable disease associations but at present reporting upon these is sparse. (biomedcentral.com)
- 7 It also commonly affects those with compromised immune systems, chronic disease, infants and those suffering traumatic injury. (bmj.com)
- Crohn's disease is a common form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, typically involving the terminal ileum, colon and perineum and causing discontinuous transmural inflammation characterized microscopically by granulomata and macroscopically by fibrotic strictures and fistulae. (enetmd.com)
- The trigger for Crohn's disease is unknown, but an unregulated mucosal immune response to commensal bacteria drives the chronic inflammation. (enetmd.com)
- The aim of this study was to examine and compare the character of vegetative, antioxidant, kallikrein-kinin system and parameters of endogenous intoxication disorders in the patients with isolated essential hypertension and with combination of hypertonic disease and chronic pancreatitis. (medlist.org)
- Hypertonic disease (HD) and concomitant chronic pancreatitis (CP) in non-remission phase were chosen for research. (medlist.org)
- dissolves the hardens into gallstones naturally extracted olive oil and fat and chronic pain up under the rib cage to introduce you to take, but overall I have not be the peer reviewed medical journal Medical Center for Disease Control of sugar levels and pain. (healthygallbladder.com)
- The R122H mutation of the cationic trypsinogen was found in patients with hereditary pancreatitis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hereditary pancreatitis is an autosomal dominant gain-of-function disorder related to mutations of the cationic trypsinogen gene ( PRSS1), cefixime bijsluiter 500mg which has an 80% penetrance. (kissofswiss.com)
- Chronic UC is characterized by erosions and ulcers development in the colon mucosa (in the acute stage), mucosa inflammation, and surface epithelium injury [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- However, it has been clearly known that one of the important factors, activating pancreatic stellate cells during pancreatic injury, is proinflammatory cytokines known to be upregulated early in the course of acute pancreatic inflammation [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Objective Non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol (NOME) produces fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via carboxylester lipase (CEL) and other enzyme action implicated in mitochondrial injury and acute pancreatitis (AP). (bmj.com)
- Chronic gastritis describes intermittent vomiting lasting more than one to two weeks. (whole-dog-journal.com)
- Chronic gastrointestinal problems are rarely self-correcting, so intermittent vomiting that persists for longer than a couple of weeks should be investigated by your vet to help correct a problem in its early stages. (whole-dog-journal.com)