Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.BaltimoreVolcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Some modern scholars, such as Fielding H. Garrison, are of the opinion that the origin of the science of geology can be traced to Persia after the Muslim conquests had come to an end.[55] Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni (973-1048 CE) was one of the earliest Persian geologists, whose works included the earliest writings on the geology of India, hypothesizing that the Indian subcontinent was once a sea.[56] Drawing from Greek and Indian scientific literature that were not destroyed by the Muslim conquests, the Persian scholar Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 981-1037) proposed detailed explanations for the formation of mountains, the origin of earthquakes, and other topics central to modern geology, which provided an essential foundation for the later development of the science.[57][58] In China, the polymath Shen Kuo (1031-1095) formulated a hypothesis for the process of land formation: based on his observation of fossil animal shells in a geological stratum in a mountain ...
Helen Margaret Duncan (May 3, 1910 - August 14, 1971) was a geologist and paleontologist with the United States Geological Survey from 1945 to 1971, where she worked in the Paleontology and Stratigraphy Branch. Duncan was considered one of the strongest women in the Cincinnati geology department; her contributions to the Lipalian Research Foundation and the Pick and Hammer shows were additional work of her time. Duncan paved the path for many geology scholars to follow with her discoveries on fossil records and her studies in paleontology and stratigraphy. Born in 1910 in Medford, Oregon, Duncan grew up near Virginia City, Montana.Her interest in geology piqued through Professor Charles F. Deiss. In 1934, she received her Bachelor's degree in Geology from the University of Montana and completed her master's degree in geology from the same institution in 1937. Her master's thesis, Trepostomata Bryozoa from the Traverse Group ...
Coordinates: 60°N 100°E / 60°N 100°E / 60; 100 The geology of Russia, the world's largest country, which extends over much of northern Eurasia, consists of several stable cratons and sedimentary platforms bounded by orogenic (mountain) belts. The European part of Russia is on the East European craton, at the heart of which is a complex of igneous and metamorphic rocks dating back to the Precambrian. The craton is bounded on the east by the long tract of compressed and highly deformed rock that constitutes the Ural orogen. The area between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisei River is the young West Siberian Plain. East of the Yenisei River is the ancient Central Siberian Plateau, extending to the Lena River. The orogens within Russia belong to the Baltic Shield, the Timanides, the Urals, the Altai Mountains, the Ural-Mongolian epipaleozoic orogen and the northwestern part of the Pacific orogeny. The country's highest mountains, the Caucasus, are confined to younger orogens. ...
... (born 22 January 1944 in Rotterdam) is a Dutch historian of science, who began his academic career as a marine geologist. He studied biology and geology at the university of Groningen and geology and the history of science at Princeton and Oxford. Early in his studies, Rupke was a Christian and proponent of Flood geology, but later came to reject this position. When in 1977 he was elected to a Wolfson College, Oxford research position in the history of science, Rupke made this subject his full-time occupation. A series of similar international research posts followed, until in 1993 he took up a professorship at Göttingen University to teach the history of science and medicine. In 2009, Rupke was awarded a Lower Saxony research chair. In 2012, he took up an endowed professorship at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia, USA. Rupke is known for his studies of late-modern biology, geology and science & religion. With an ...
Joints can also be classified according to their origin. On the basis of their origin, joints have been divided into a number of different types that include tectonic, hydraulic, exfoliation, unloading (release), and cooling joints depending on the specific author and publication. Also, the origin of many joint sets often can be unclear and quite ambiguous. Often, different authors have proposed multiple and contradictory hypotheses for specific joint sets and types. Finally, it should be kept in mind that different joints in the same outcrop may have formed at different times and for different reasons. Tectonic joints are joints that formed when the relative displacement of the joint walls is normal to its plane as the result of brittle deformation of bedrock in response to regional or local tectonic deformation of bedrock. Such joints form when directed tectonic stress causes the tensile strength of bedrock to be exceeded as the result of the stretching of rock layers under conditions of ...
Detritus ( /dɪˈtraɪtəs/; adjective detrital /dɪˈtraɪtəl/) is particles of rock derived from pre-existing rock through processes of weathering and erosion.[1] A fragment of detritus is called a clast.[2] Detrital particles can consist of lithic fragments (particles of recognisable rock), or of monomineralic fragments (mineral grains). Particles may be transported to riverbeds, lakes, or oceans, forming sedimentary successions. Diagenetic processes can transform these sediments into rock through cementation and lithification, forming sedimentary rocks such as sandstone. These rocks can then in turn again be weathered and eroded to form a second generation of sediment.. ...
Chennai is located at 13°02′N 80°10′E / 13.04°N 80.17°E / 13.04; 80.17 on the southeast coast of India and in the northeast corner of Tamil Nadu. It is located on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains. The city has an average elevation of 6 metres (20 ft), its highest point being 60 m (200 ft). The geology of Chennai comprises mostly clay, shale and sandstone. The city is classified into three regions based on geology, sandy areas, clayey areas and hard-rock areas. Sandy areas are found along the river banks and the coasts. Clayey regions cover most of the city. Hard rock areas are Guindy, Velachery, Adambakkam and a part of Saidapet. In sandy areas such as Tiruvanmiyur, Adyar, Kottivakkam, Santhome, George Town, Tondiarpet and the rest of coastal Chennai, rainwater run-off percolates very quickly. In clayey and hard rock areas, ...
The Ordovician Bighorn Dolomite forms ragged hard massive light-gray to white cliffs 100 to 200 feet (61 m) high. Dolomite is calcium-magnesium carbonate, but the original sediment probably was calcium carbonate mud that was altered by magnesium-rich sea water shortly after deposition. Corals and other marine animals were abundant in the clear warm seas at this time. Dolomite in the Devonian Darby Formation differs greatly from the Bighorn Dolomite; in the Darby is dark-brown to almost black, has an oily smell, and contains layers of black, pink, and yellow mudstone and thin sandstone. The sea bottom during deposition of these rocks was foul and frequently the water was turbid. Abundant fossil fragments indicate fishes were common for the first time. Exposures of the Darby Formation are recognizable by their distinctive dull-yellow thin-layered slopes between the prominent gray massive cliffs of formations below and above. The Mississippian Madison Limestone is 1,000 feet (300 m) thick and is ...
In the study of mechanical properties of materials, "isotropic" means having identical values of a property in all directions. This definition is also used in geology and mineralogy. Glass and metals are examples of isotropic materials.[3] Common anisotropic materials include wood, because its material properties are different parallel and perpendicular to the grain, and layered rocks such as slate. Isotropic materials are useful since they are easier to shape, and their behavior is easier to predict. Anisotropic materials can be tailored to the forces an object is expected to experience. For example, the fibers in carbon fiber materials and rebars in reinforced concrete are oriented to withstand tension. ...
... is an amateur paleontology website maintained by Mikko Haaramo, a student at the University of Helsinki's Department of Geology, Division of Geology and Palaeontology. The project is aimed at collecting phylogenetic trees of all organisms. Each page presents a cladogram that is hyperlinked to its parent and daughter cladograms, plus a section for references. Taxa of uncertain relationship are indicated by a question mark. No indication is given for what part of the cladogram is based on which specific references. The site was originally simply named "Life as We Know It", and with the Dinosauricon it was the first web-site to use an ascii text-based format for showing cladograms. Although the Archive has been hosted by the Finnish Museum of the Natural History and now the University of Helsinki's servers, the museum has no formal affiliation with it. Haaramo points out that the site is a private project, is not peer-reviewed, and should not be used as a scientific ...
An intrusive dike is an igneous body with a very high aspect ratio, which means that its thickness is usually much smaller than the other two dimensions. Thickness can vary from sub-centimeter scale to many meters, and the lateral dimensions can extend over many kilometres. A dike is an intrusion into an opening cross-cutting fissure, shouldering aside other pre-existing layers or bodies of rock; this implies that a dike is always younger than the rocks that contain it. Dikes are usually high-angle to near-vertical in orientation, but subsequent tectonic deformation may rotate the sequence of strata through which the dike propagates so that the dike becomes horizontal. Near-horizontal, or conformable intrusions, along bedding planes between strata are called intrusive sills. The term "sheet" is the general term for both dikes and sills.. Sometimes dikes appear in swarms, consisting of several to hundreds of dikes emplaced more or less contemporaneously during a single intrusive event. The ...
The last universal common ancestor (LUCA) is the most recent organism from which all organisms now living on Earth descend.[31] Thus it is the most recent common ancestor of all current life on Earth. The LUCA is estimated to have lived some 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago (sometime in the Paleoarchean era).[32][33] The earliest evidence for life on Earth is graphite found to be biogenic in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland[34] and microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia.[35][36] Although more than 99 percent of all species that ever lived on the planet are estimated to be extinct,[6][7] there are currently 10-14 million species of life on Earth.[3]. Information about the early development of life includes input from many different fields, including geology and planetary science. These sciences provide information about the history of the Earth and the changes produced by life. ...
The last universal common ancestor (LUCA) is the most recent organism from which all organisms now living on Earth descend.[31] Thus it is the most recent common ancestor of all current life on Earth. The LUCA is estimated to have lived some 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago (sometime in the Paleoarchean era).[32][33] The earliest evidence for life on Earth is graphite found to be biogenic in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland[34] and microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia.[35][36] Although more than 99 percent of all species that ever lived on the planet are estimated to be extinct,[6][7] there are currently 10-14 million species of life on Earth.[3] Information about the early development of life includes input from many different fields, including geology and planetary science. These sciences provide information about the history of the Earth and the changes produced by life. ...

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