1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to L-GLUTAMATE in the presence of NAD. Defects in the enzyme are the cause of hyperprolinemia II.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.Glutamate-5-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An NADP+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde to L-glutamyl 5-phosphate. It plays a role in the urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups.Pyrroline Carboxylate Reductases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of 1-pyrroline carboxylate to proline in the presence of NAD(P)H. Includes both the 2-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.1) and the 5-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.2). The former also reduces 1-piperidine-2-carboxylate to pipecolate and the latter also reduces 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate to hydroxyproline.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Phosphotransferases (Carboxyl Group Acceptor): A class of enzymes that transfers phosphate groups and has a carboxyl group as an acceptor. EC 2.7.2.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Formate Dehydrogenases: Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC 1.2.1.2.Solanum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Solanum nigrum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE that contains steroidal glycosides.Halobacteriales: An order of extremely halophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They occur ubiquitously in nature where the salt concentration is high, and are chemoorganotrophic, using amino acids or carbohydrates as a carbon source.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Haloferax volcanii: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.Haloferax: A genus of extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoheterotropic and strictly aerobic. They are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes (especially the Dead Sea) and marine salterns.Halobacteriaceae: A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.Haloferax mediterranei: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Mediterranean Sea. It produces bacteriocins active against a range of other halobacteria.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
(1/62) Molecular enzymology of mammalian Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase. Alternative splice donor utilization generates isoforms with different sensitivity to ornithine inhibition.

Delta1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS; EC not assigned), a mitochondrial inner membrane, ATP- and NADPH-dependent, bifunctional enzyme, catalyzes the reduction of glutamate to Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, a critical step in the de novo biosynthesis of proline and ornithine. We utilized published plant P5CS sequence to search the expressed sequence tag data base and cloned two full-length human P5CS cDNAs differing in length by 6 base pairs (bp) in the open reading frame. The short cDNA has a 2379-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 793 residues; the long cDNA, generated by "exon sliding," a form of alternative splicing, contains an additional 6-bp insert following bp +711 of the short form resulting in inclusion of two additional amino acids in the region predicted to be the gamma-glutamyl kinase active site of P5CS. The long form predominates in all tissues examined except gut. We also isolated the corresponding long and short murine P5CS transcripts. To confirm the identity of the putative P5CS cDNAs, we expressed both human forms in gamma-glutamyl kinase- and gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase-deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and showed that they conferred the proline prototrophy. Additionally, we found expression of the murine putative P5CS cDNAs conferred proline prototrophy to P5CS-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). We utilized stable CHO-K1 cell transformants to compare the biochemical characteristics of the long and short murine P5CS isoforms. We found that both confer P5CS activity and that the short isoform is inhibited by L-ornithine with a Ki of approximately 0.25 mM. Surprisingly, the long isoform is insensitive to ornithine inhibition. Thus, the two amino acid insert in the long isoform abolishes feedback inhibition of P5CS activity by L-ornithine.  (+info)

(2/62) The sfr6 mutation in Arabidopsis suppresses low-temperature induction of genes dependent on the CRT/DRE sequence motif.

The sfr mutations, which result in sensitivity to freezing after cold acclimation, define genes that are required for freezing tolerance. We tested plants homozygous for mutations sfr2 to sfr7 for cold-induced gene expression and found that sfr 6 plants were deficient in cold-inducible expression of the genes KIN1, COR15a, and LTI78, which all contain the C repeat/dehydration-responsive element (CRT/DRE) motif in their promoters. Similarly, sfr 6 plants failed to induce KIN1 normally in response to either osmotic stress or the application of abscisic acid. In contrast, cold-inducible expression of genes CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, and ATP5CS1, which lack the CRT/DRE motif, was not affected. The freezing-sensitive phenotype that defines sfr 6 also was found to be tightly linked to the gene expression phenotype. To determine whether the failure of cold induction of CRT/DRE-containing genes in sfr 6 was due to altered low-temperature calcium signaling, cold-induced cytosolic-free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) elevations were investigated in the sfr 6 mutant, but these were found to be indistinguishable from those of the wild type. We discuss the possibilities that CRT/DRE binding proteins (such as CBF1) require activation to play a role in transcription and that the SFR6 protein is a vital component of their activation.  (+info)

(3/62) Proline accumulation in developing grapevine fruit occurs independently of changes in the levels of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase mRNA or protein.

Mature fruit of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) contains unusually high levels of free proline (Pro; up to 24 micromol or 2.8 mg/g fresh weight). Pro accumulation does not occur uniformly throughout berry development but only during the last 4 to 6 weeks of ripening when both berry growth and net protein accumulation have ceased. In contrast, the steady-state levels of both the mRNA encoding V. vinifera Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (VVP5CS), a key regulatory enzyme in Pro biosynthesis, and its protein product remain relatively uniform throughout fruit development. In addition, the steady-state protein levels of Pro dehydrogenase, the first enzyme in Pro degradation, increased throughout early fruit development but thereafter remained relatively constant. The developmental accumulation of free Pro late in grape berry ripening is thus clearly distinct from the osmotic stress-induced accumulation of Pro in plants. It is not associated with either sustained increases in steady-state levels of P5CS mRNA or protein or a decrease in steady-state levels of Pro dehydrogenase protein, suggesting that other physiological factors are important for its regulation.  (+info)

(4/62) Metabolite repression and inducer exclusion in the proline utilization gene cluster of Aspergillus nidulans.

The clustered prnB, prnC, and prnD genes are repressed by the simultaneous presence of glucose and ammonium. A derepressed mutation inactivating a CreA-binding site acts in cis only on the permease gene (prnB) while derepression of prnD and prnC is largely the result of reversal of inducer exclusion.  (+info)

(5/62) Removal of feedback inhibition of delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase results in increased proline accumulation and protection of plants from osmotic stress.

The Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS; EC not assigned) is the rate-limiting enzyme in proline (Pro) biosynthesis in plants and is subject to feedback inhibition by Pro. It has been suggested that the feedback regulation of P5CS is lost in plants under stress conditions. We compared Pro levels in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing a wild-type form of Vigna aconitifolia P5CS and a mutated form of the enzyme (P5CSF129A) whose feedback inhibition by Pro was removed by site-directed mutagenesis. Transgenic plants expressing P5CSF129A accumulated about 2-fold more Pro than the plants expressing V. aconitifolia wild-type P5CS. This difference was further increased in plants treated with 200 mM NaCl. These results demonstrated that the feedback regulation of P5CS plays a role in controlling the level of Pro in plants under both normal and stress conditions. The elevated Pro also reduced free radical levels in response to osmotic stress, as measured by malondialdehyde production, and significantly improved the ability of the transgenic seedlings to grow in medium containing up to 200 mM NaCl. These findings shed new light on the regulation of Pro biosynthesis in plants and the role of Pro in reducing oxidative stress induced by osmotic stress, in addition to its accepted role as an osmolyte.  (+info)

(6/62) Genetic manipulation of the metabolism of polyamines in poplar cells. The regulation of putrescine catabolism.

We investigated the catabolism of putrescine (Put) in a non-transgenic (NT) and a transgenic cell line of poplar (Populus nigra x maximowiczii) expressing a mouse (Mus musculus) ornithine (Orn) decarboxylase (odc) cDNA. The transgenic cells produce 3- to 4-fold higher amounts of Put than the NT cells. The rate of loss of Put from the cells and the initial half-life of cellular Put were determined by feeding the cells with [U-(14)C]Orn and [1,4-(14)C]Put as precursors and following the loss of [(14)C]Put in the cells at various times after transfer to label-free medium. The amount of Put converted into spermidine as well as the loss of Put per gram fresh weight were significantly higher in the transgenic cells than the NT cells. The initial half-life of exogenously supplied [(14)C]Put was not significantly different in the two cell lines. The activity of diamine oxidase, the major enzyme involved in Put catabolism, was comparable in the two cell lines even though the Put content of the transgenic cells was severalfold higher than the NT cells. It is concluded that in poplar cells: (a) exogenously supplied Orn enters the cells and is rapidly converted into Put, (b) the rate of Put catabolism is proportional to the rate of its biosynthesis, and (c) the increased Put degradation occurs without significant changes in the activity of diamine oxidase.  (+info)

(7/62) A plant gene up-regulated at rust infection sites.

Expression of the fis1 gene from flax (Linum usitatissimum) is induced by a compatible rust (Melampsora lini) infection. Infection of transgenic plants containing a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene under the control of the fis1 promoter showed that induction is highly localized to those leaf mesophyll cells within and immediately surrounding rust infection sites. The level of induction reflects the extent of fungal growth. In a strong resistance reaction, such as the hypersensitive fleck mediated by the L6 resistance gene, there is very little fungal growth and a microscopic level of GUS expression. Partially resistant flax leaves show levels of GUS expression that were intermediate to the level observed in the fully susceptible infection. Sequence and deletion analysis using both transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens expression and stable transformation assays have shown that the rust-inducible fis1 promoter is contained within a 580-bp fragment. Homologs of fis1 were identified in expressed sequence tag databases of a range of plant species including dicots, monocots, and a gymnosperm. Homologous genes isolated from maize (Zea mays; mis1), barley (Hordeum vulgare; bis1), wheat (Triticum aestivum; wis1), and Arabidopsis encode proteins that are highly similar (76%-82%) to the FIS1 protein. The Arabidopsis homologue has been reported to encode a delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase that is involved in the catabolism of proline to glutamate. RNA-blot analysis showed that mis1 in maize and the bis1 homolog in barley are both up-regulated by a compatible infection with the corresponding species-specific rust. The rust-induced genes homologous to fis1 are present in many plants. The promoters of these genes have potential roles for the engineering of synthetic rust resistance genes by targeting transgene expression to the sites of rust infection.  (+info)

(8/62) Molecular mechanisms of proline-mediated tolerance to toxic heavy metals in transgenic microalgae.

Pro has been shown to play an important role in ameliorating environmental stress in plants and microorganisms, including heavy metal stress. Here, we describe the effects of the expression of a mothbean delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) gene in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that transgenic algae expressing the mothbean P5CS gene have 80% higher free-Pro levels than wild-type cells, grow more rapidly in toxic Cd concentrations (100 microM), and bind fourfold more Cd than wild-type cells. In addition, Cd-K edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure studies indicated that Cd does not bind to free Pro in transgenic algae with increased Pro levels but is coordinated tetrahedrally by sulfur of phytochelatin. In contrast to P5CS-expressing cells, Cd is coordinated tetrahedrally by two oxygen and two sulfur atoms in wild-type cells. Measurements of reduced/oxidized GSH ratios and analyses of levels of malondialdehyde, a product of the free radical damage of lipids, indicate that free Pro levels are correlated with the GSH redox state and malondialdehyde levels in heavy metal-treated algae. These results suggest that the free Pro likely acts as an antioxidant in Cd-stressed cells. The resulting increased GSH levels facilitate increased phytochelatin synthesis and sequestration of Cd, because GSH-heavy metal adducts are the substrates for phytochelatin synthase.  (+info)

*  Proline
... which is reduced to proline by pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (using NADH or NADPH), or turned into ornithine by ornithine ... 309-. ISBN 978-1-4398-4833-3. Verbruggen N, Hermans C (2008). "Proline accumulation in plants: a review". Amino Acids. 35 (4): ... Glutamate-5-semialdehyde is first formed by glutamate 5-kinase (ATP-dependent) and glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase ( ... ISBN 1-57259-153-6. . Ion Channel Factsbook: Extracellular Ligand-Gated Channels. Academic Press. 16 November 1995. pp. 126-. ...
*  1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase
III Delta1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 3218-3223. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... Enzymatic synthesis of gamma-hydroxyglutamate from Delta1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 3504-3512. ... L-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-NAD+ oxidoreductase, and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in ... In enzymology, a 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.88) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-1- ...
*  Aldehyde dehydrogenase 4 family, member A1
1998). "Mutations in the Delta1-pyrroline 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase gene cause type II hyperprolinemia". Hum. Mol. Genet. 7 ( ... This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family of proteins. This enzyme is a mitochondrial matrix NAD-dependent ... dehydrogenase that catalyzes the second step of the proline degradation pathway, converting pyrroline-5-carboxylate to ... "Entrez Gene: ALDH4A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 4 family, member A1". Human ALDH4A1 genome location and ALDH4A1 gene details page ...
*  Hyperprolinemia
This enzyme helps to break down the pyrroline-5-carboxylate produced in the previous reaction, converting it to the amino acid ... A deficiency of either proline oxidase or pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase results in a buildup of proline in the body. A ... This enzyme begins the process of degrading proline by starting the reaction that converts it to pyrroline-5-carboxylate. ... Pyridoxal phosphate de-activation by pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid. Increased risk of vitamin B6 deficiency and seizures in ...
*  List of diseases (D)
Dengue fever Dennis-Cohen syndrome Dennis-Fairhurst-Moore syndrome Dent disease Dental aberrations steroid dehydrogenase ... hypertension Dextrocardia with situs inversus Dextrocardia Dextrocardia-bronchiectasis-sinusitis D-glycerate dehydrogenase ... duplication Digitorenocerebral syndrome Digoxin toxicity Dihydropteridine reductase deficiency Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase ... nephrogenic type 1 Diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic type 2 Diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic type 3 Diabetes insipidus, ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... pyrroline carboxylate reductases MeSH D08.811.682.662.750 --- saccharopine dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.662.825 --- ... acyl-coa dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.100 --- acyl-coa dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.150 --- acyl-coa ... l-iditol 2-dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.700.649 --- mannitol dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.900 --- uridine ... l-lactate dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.551.500 --- l-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) MeSH D08.811.682.047.605 --- ...
*  Cutis laxa
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 18 Family, Member A1; ALDH18A1 -138250 Van Maldergem, Lionel; Loeys, Bart (2011-10-13). FBLN5-Related ... Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase 1; PYCR1 -179035 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) ... ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology ... Fibulin 5; FBLN5 -604580 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) ...
*  Proline dehydrogenase
In enzymology, a proline dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.5.2, formerly EC 1.5.99.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L- ... Other names in common use include L-proline dehydrogenase, and L-proline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in ... Scarpulla RC, Soffer RL (1978). "Membrane-bound proline dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli Solubilization, purification, and ... 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + ubiquinol Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-proline and ubiquinone, whereas its two ...
*  1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid
... carboxylate reductase and converted into the amino acid glutamate by the enzyme 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase.. ... 1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid is an imino acid. Its conjugate base and anion is 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. The stereoisomer (S ... 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate is a biosynthetic metabolite that is synthesized from proline by the enzyme pyrroline-5- ...
*  Pyrrole
For example, Birch reduction of pyrrole esters and amides produced pyrrolines, with the regioselectivity depending on the ... Structural analogs of pyrrole include: Pyrroline, a partially saturated analog with one double bond Pyrrolidine, the saturated ... which is reduced to proline by pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (using NADH or NADPH), or turned into ornithine by ornithine ... Pyrroles can undergo reductions to pyrrolidines and to pyrrolines. ...
*  Arginine and proline metabolism
... which is reduced to proline by pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (using NADH or NADPH), or turned into ornithine by ornithine ... Glutamate-5-semialdehyde is first formed by glutamate 5-kinase (ATP-dependent) and glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase ( ... which requires NADH or NADPH). This can then either spontaneously cyclize to form 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid, ...
*  Aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family, member A1
Hu CA, Khalil S, Zhaorigetu S, Liu Z, Tyler M, Wan G, Valle D (Nov 2008). "Human Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase: ... Baumgartner MR, Rabier D, Nassogne MC, Dufier JL, Padovani JP, Kamoun P, Valle D, Saudubray JM (Jan 2005). "Delta1-pyrroline-5- ... carboxylate synthase deficiency: neurodegeneration, cataracts and connective tissue manifestations combined with ... The encoded protein catalyzes the reduction of glutamate to delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, a critical step in the de novo ...
*  PYCR1
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PYCR1 gene. This gene encodes ... "Entrez Gene: PYCR1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1". Herzfeld A, Legg MA, Greengard O (1978). "Human colon tumors: enzymic ... Basch JJ, Wickham ED, Farrell HM (1997). "Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase in lactating bovine mammary glands". J. Dairy Sci. ... 1984). "The effect of pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid on nucleotide metabolism in erythrocytes from normal and glucose-6-phosphate ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 1)
... glycine dehydrogenase (cyanide-forming) EC 1.5.1.1: pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase EC 1.5.1.2: pyrroline-5-carboxylate ... EC 1.1.1.1: alcohol dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.2: alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) EC 1.1.1.3: homoserine dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.4: (R ... D1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase EC 1.5.1.22: strombine dehydrogenase EC 1.5.1.23: tauropine dehydrogenase EC 1.5.1.24: ... carboxylate reductase EC 1.2.99.7: aldehyde dehydrogenase (FAD-independent) EC 1.3.1.1: dihydrouracil dehydrogenase (NAD+) EC ...
*  Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
"Crystal structures of Delta1-piperideine-2-carboxylate/Delta1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase belonging to a new family of ... including glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In healthy mammalian tissues, estimates of the ... Lesk AM (1995). "NAD-binding domains of dehydrogenases". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 5 (6): 775-83. doi:10.1016/0959-440X(95) ... Jameson DM, Thomas V, Zhou DM (1989). "Time-resolved fluorescence studies on NADH bound to mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase ...
*  Biosynthesis
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate is further reduced by the enzyme pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) to yield a proline amino acid ... Aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase catalyzes the reduction reaction by dephosphorylation of aspartyl-β-phosphate to yield ... kinase catalyzes the initial step in the diaminopimelic acid pathway by transferring a phosphoryl from ATP onto the carboxylate ... The next reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), which catalyzes the reduction of the ϒ- ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 3)
... pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring))-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.44: (acetyl-CoA carboxylase)-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.45: 3- ... 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (2-methylpropanoyl-transferring))-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.53: (myosin-light-chain) ... Now included with EC 3.5.2.6 β-lactamase EC 3.5.2.9: 5-oxoprolinase (ATP-hydrolysing) EC 3.5.2.10: creatininase EC 3.5.2.11: L- ... EC 3.2.1.91: cellulose 1,4-b-cellobiosidase EC 3.2.1.92: peptidoglycan b-N-acetylmuramidase EC 3.2.1.93: a,a-phosphotrehalase ...
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for L-Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde (HMDB0002104)  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for L-Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde (HMDB0002104)
3. Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase. General function:. Involved in oxidoreductase activity. Specific function:. ... 1. Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in oxidoreductase activity. ... Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positive. splash10-000i-9200000000-b09702360bf061bd64db. View in MoNA ... The conversion from L-Glutamate, an ATP- and NADPH-dependent reaction, is catalyzed by the enzyme Delta-1-pyrroline-5- ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB02104
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase - Wikipedia  1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase - Wikipedia
III Delta1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 3218-3223. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... Enzymatic synthesis of gamma-hydroxyglutamate from Delta1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 3504-3512. ... L-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-NAD+ oxidoreductase, and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in ... In enzymology, a 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.88) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-1- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate_dehydrogenase
Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial (HMDBP00156)  Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial (HMDBP00156)
Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acid + NAD + Water → 4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion. details ... Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acid + NADP + Water → 4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion. details ... Hempel J, Eckey R, Berie D, Romovacek H, Agarwal DP, Goedde HW: Human liver glutamic gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase: ... Agarwal DP, Eckey R, Hempel J, Goedde HW: Human liver high Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH4): properties and structural ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/proteins/HMDBP00156
Sodium in the structure of 1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase From Thermus With Bound Citrate (pdb 2iy6)  Sodium in the structure of 1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase From Thermus With Bound Citrate (pdb 2iy6)
1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase From Thermus With Bound Citrate ... Sodium binding site 1 out of 2 in 2iy6. Click to enlarge. Click to enlarge. Mono- and Stereo- picture of 5.0 Angstrom ... The binding sites of Sodium atom in the structure of 1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase From Thermus With Bound Citrate ( ... Sodium in the structure of 1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase From Thermus With Bound Citrate (pdb 2iy6). ...
more infohttp://sodium.atomistry.com/pdb2iy6.html
putA - Bifunctional protein PutA - Salmonella typhimurium (strain LT2 / SGSC1412 / ATCC 700720) - putA gene & protein  putA - Bifunctional protein PutA - Salmonella typhimurium (strain LT2 / SGSC1412 / ATCC 700720) - putA gene & protein
Bifunctional proline dehydrogenase/L-glutamate gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar ... IPR005933 Delta1-pyrroline-5-COlate_DH-3. IPR029041 FAD-linked_oxidoreductase-like. IPR041349 PRODH. IPR024090 PRODH_PutA_dom_I ... Bifunctional proline dehydrogenase/L-glutamate gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar ... Bifunctional proline dehydrogenase/L-glutamate gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P10503
SCOPe 2.07: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended  SCOPe 2.07: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended
Compound: Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. Species: Mus musculus [TaxId:10090]. Gene: ADLH4a1, ... Compound: Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. Species: Mus musculus [TaxId:10090]. Gene: ADLH4a1, ... Description: Structure of mouse 1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase (ALDH4A1) complexed with succinate. Class: ...
more infohttps://scop.berkeley.edu/pdb/code=4lh2
Pancreas symptoms - RightDiagnosis.com  Pancreas symptoms - RightDiagnosis.com
5 causes are "rare" diseases *16 causes are "very rare" diseases *251 causes have no prevalence information. See the analysis ... Diet and exercise can prevent development of diabetes in pre-diabetics_1 *Maintaining a healthy brain may reduce dementia risk ... IDDM (1 cause) *Glucosuria (18 causes) *Hyperglycemia (94 causes) *Gestational diabetes (4 causes) *Acute hemorrhagic ... MODY syndrome, type 1 ... hyperglycemia*MODY syndrome, type 2 ... glucosuria*MODY syndrome, type III ... hyperglycemia*MODY ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/sym/pancreas_symptoms.htm
Integrating transcriptomics and metabolomics to characterise the response of Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongolicus (Bge....  Integrating transcriptomics and metabolomics to characterise the response of Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongolicus (Bge....
Genes related to succinate dehydrogenase were up-regulated under moderate and severe drought stress, whereas the genes encoding ... Genes encoding L-lactate dehydrogenase were decreased after drought stress relative to the control, which prevented the ... Moreover, some of the identified genes encoded proline degrading enzymes, such as proline dehydrogenase (PDH). The down- ... 1970;46:233-5.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar. *. Lawlor DW, Cornic G. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-016-2554-0
KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Mycobacterium tuberculosis Haarlem  KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Mycobacterium tuberculosis Haarlem
TBHG_02416 NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase Gdh TBHG_01170 pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase RocA TBHG_01833 glutamine ... TBHG_00234 succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [NADP] dependent GabD1 TBHG_01688 succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase GabD2 ... succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase / glutarate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.16 1.2.1.79 1.2.1.20] K00135 gabD; ... succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase / glutarate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.16 1.2.1.79 1.2.1.20] K00265 gltB; ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?mtul00001+TBHG_00332
Tobacco transformants expressing the Medicago truncatula ornithine aminotransferase cDNA, Russian Journal of Genetics | 10.1134...  Tobacco transformants expressing the Medicago truncatula ornithine aminotransferase cDNA, Russian Journal of Genetics | 10.1134...
A Bifunctional Enzyme (Δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthetase) Catalyzes the First Two Steps in Proline Biosynthesis in Plants ... A Soybean Gene Encoding Δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase Was Isolated by Functional Complementation in Escherichia coli and ... The Role of Delta-1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase in Proline Degradation ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/tobacco-transformants-expressing-the-medicago-truncatula-ornithine-Ds3BgC0AHe
Mitochondrial protein localization and overexpression i | Open-i  Mitochondrial protein localization and overexpression i | Open-i
CNT, control; DCM, dilated cardiomyopathy; ODPA, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit α, somatic form; ETFD, electron ... CNT, control; DCM, dilated cardiomyopathy; ODPA, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit α, somatic form; ETFD, electron ... getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232587&req=5. .flowplayer { width: px; height: px; } pone-0112971-g003: Mitochondrial protein ... transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase; DLDH, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase; AL4A1, delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4232587_pone.0112971.g003&req=4
An enhancer element located downstream of the major glutamate dehydrogenase gene of Bacillus subtilis | PNAS  An enhancer element located downstream of the major glutamate dehydrogenase gene of Bacillus subtilis | PNAS
An enhancer element located downstream of the major glutamate dehydrogenase gene of Bacillus subtilis. Boris R. Belitsky and ... The rocG gene of Bacillus subtilis, encoding a catabolic glutamate dehydrogenase, is transcribed by SigL (σ54)-containing RNA ... We conclude that high glutamate dehydrogenase activity was detected in strains with integrated rocG plasmids when the DAS was ... No glutamate dehydrogenase activity was detected in a sigL mutant (Table 2). ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/96/18/10290
Reactome | ALDH4A1 oxidises L-GluSS to Glu  Reactome | ALDH4A1 oxidises L-GluSS to Glu
... aldehyde dehydrogenase and its identification as glutamic gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Forte-McRobbie, CM, Pietruszko, R ... Mutations in the Delta1-pyrroline 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase gene cause type II hyperprolinemia. Geraghty, MT, Vaughn, D, ... Mitochondrial delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (ALDH4A1) catalyzes the reaction of L-glutamate gamma-semialdehyde ...
more infohttp://www.reactome.org/content/detail/R-HSA-70679
Kong J[au] - PubMed - NCBI  Kong J[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1/Redox Factor-1 Could Serve as a Potential Serological Biomarker for the Diagnosis and ... Mannose receptor C type 2 mediates 1,25(OH)2D3/vitamin D receptor-regulated collagen metabolism through collagen type 5, alpha ... 5.. Electrochemically Controlled RAFT Polymerization for Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Biosensing of Protein Kinase Activity ... The role of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDh) in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Kong+J%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 4 family, member A1 - Wikipedia  Aldehyde dehydrogenase 4 family, member A1 - Wikipedia
1998). "Mutations in the Delta1-pyrroline 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase gene cause type II hyperprolinemia". Hum. Mol. Genet. 7 ( ... This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family of proteins. This enzyme is a mitochondrial matrix NAD-dependent ... dehydrogenase that catalyzes the second step of the proline degradation pathway, converting pyrroline-5-carboxylate to ... "Entrez Gene: ALDH4A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 4 family, member A1". Human ALDH4A1 genome location and ALDH4A1 gene details page ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldehyde_dehydrogenase_4_family,_member_A1
delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate - Semantic Scholar  delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate - Semantic Scholar
... dependent dehydrogenase… (More) ... Correlation between the induction of a gene for delta 1- ... pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and the accumulation of proline in Arabidopsis thaliana under osmotic stress. ... delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. Known as: 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, delta(1)pyrroline-5-carboxylate, pyrroline-5-carboxylate ... delta 1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) catalyzes the first two steps in proline biosynthesis in plants. The Vigna… ( ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate/336050
Table of Contents | Molecular and Cellular Biology  Table of Contents | Molecular and Cellular Biology
5'-flanking sequence required for regulated expression of a muscle-specific Drosophila melanogaster actin gene. P K Geyer, E A ... Sites of P element insertion and structures of P element deletions in the 5' region of Drosophila melanogaster RpII215. L L ... Malignant transformation of murine fibroblasts by a human c-Ha-ras-1 oncogene does not require a functional epidermal growth ... Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae inositol-1-phosphate synthase (INO1) gene is regulated by factors that affect ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/6/10
Repression of formate dehydrogenase in Solanum tuberosum increases steady-state levels of formate and accelerates the...  Repression of formate dehydrogenase in Solanum tuberosum increases steady-state levels of formate and accelerates the...
"Repression of formate dehydrogenase in Solanum tuberosum increases steady-state levels of formate and accelerates the ... Arabidopsis formaldehyde dehydrogenase. Molecular properties of plant class III alcohol dehydrogenase provide further insights ... Phosphorylation of formate dehydrogenase in potato tuber mitochondria. Bykova, N.V.; Stensballe, A.; Egsgaard, H.; Jensen, O.N ... Repression of formate dehydrogenase in Solanum tuberosum increases steady-state levels of formate... Ambard-Bretteville, ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/repression-of-formate-dehydrogenase-in-solanum-tuberosum-increases-KVegjCWegI
NAVER Academic > Search...  NAVER Academic > Search...
start page previous page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 next page end page ... Existence of novel branched side chains containing beta-1,2 and ... The eta isoform of protein kinase C mediates transcriptional activation of the human transglutaminase 1 gene.. 1996 E Ueda et ... Cloning, characterization, and expression of cDNAs encoding human delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase.. 1996 C A Hu ... 1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Base Sequence, Cloning, Molecular, DNA Primers, DNA, ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Journal+of+Biological+Chemistry+271%EA%B6%8C+16%ED%98%B8&page=9
Metabolism of halophilic archaea | SpringerLink  Metabolism of halophilic archaea | SpringerLink
2006a). The M. jannaschii lactaldehyde dehydrogenase is similar to several probable aldehyde dehydrogenases encoded in ... In H. salinarum, glycerol can also be converted to DHA by glycerol dehydrogenase (Rawal et al. 1988). For this reaction, a ... In Thermoplasma acidophilum, it has recently been shown that the E1 component of the encoded 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complex ... Hayden BM, Bonete MJ, Brown PE, Moir AJG, Engel PC (2002) Glutamate dehydrogenase of Halobacterium salinarum: evidence that the ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00792-008-0138-x
  • Hyperprolinemia, also known as proline oxidase deficiency , is related to schizoaffective disorder and hyperprolinemia, type ii , and has symptoms including seizures An important gene associated with Hyperprolinemia is PRODH (Proline Dehydrogenase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Arginine and proline metabolism and Histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, proline and tryptophan catabolism . (malacards.org)
  • Here, we combined transcriptomics (Illumina Hiseq 2000) and metabolomics ( 1 H-NMR) to investigate how the roots of two-year-old A. mongolicus responded to 14 days of progressive drought stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enhancer elements and enhancer-binding proteins are widespread components of transcriptional regulation systems in eukaryotes ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • To initiate transcription, σ 54 -containing RNA polymerases must interact with additional proteins, members of the NtrC/NifA family, that bind to UAS usually located 100-200 bp upstream of the regulated genes ( 2 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • It has been shown that UAS can be moved 1-2 kilobases (kb) further upstream from the regulated genes without losing their ability to interact with UAS-binding proteins and to activate expression of the regulated genes ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Forty-five different proteins were further analysed, corresponding to (1) spots stained with more than four of 13 (30 %) sera tested with the CCLP1 or the CCSW1 cell line and with the normal liver, and (2) to spots immunoreactive with at least two of the five sera probed with their tumour and non-tumour counter-part of cholangiocarcinoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RocR controls two operons, rocABC and rocDEF , involved in arginine degradation to glutamate (Fig. 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mannose receptor C type 2 mediates 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 /vitamin D receptor-regulated collagen metabolism through collagen type 5, alpha 2 chain and matrix metalloproteinase 13 in murine MC3T3-E1 cells. (nih.gov)
  • strain N-1), Aphanocapsa sp. (string-db.org)
  • When P. aurescens strain TC1 was grown in minimal media containing increasing concentrations of NaCl, there was a progressive decrease in the specific activity of l -proline dehydrogenase and a concomitant increase in the intracellular concentration of l -proline. (springer.com)
  • 5'-flanking sequence required for regulated expression of a muscle-specific Drosophila melanogaster actin gene. (asm.org)
  • A UAS placed downstream of the promoter or even on a separate, catenated, plasmid DNA retains its functional activity in an in vitro assay ( 8 , 9 ), but no functional bacterial enhancer-like element has yet been found to have a natural location far downstream of the promoter it regulates, despite the fact that this is a common feature of eukaryotic enhancers ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Malignant transformation of murine fibroblasts by a human c-Ha-ras-1 oncogene does not require a functional epidermal growth factor receptor. (asm.org)
  • In most cases, they are the upstream activating sequences (UAS) required for expression of genes transcribed by RNA polymerases containing σ 54 (RpoN)-like subunits ( 2 - 5 ). (pnas.org)