1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to L-GLUTAMATE in the presence of NAD. Defects in the enzyme are the cause of hyperprolinemia II.Pyrroline Carboxylate Reductases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of 1-pyrroline carboxylate to proline in the presence of NAD(P)H. Includes both the 2-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.1) and the 5-oxidoreductase (EC 1.5.1.2). The former also reduces 1-piperidine-2-carboxylate to pipecolate and the latter also reduces 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate to hydroxyproline.Proline Oxidase: The first enzyme of the proline degradative pathway. It catalyzes the oxidation of proline to pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid in the presence of oxygen and water. The action is not reversible. The specific activity of proline oxidase increases with age. EC 1.5.3.-.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.2-Aminoadipic Acid: A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).L-Lysine 6-Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-LYSINE onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde and L-GLUTAMATE.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Spin Trapping: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Formate Dehydrogenases: Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC 1.2.1.2.Solanum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins: Amino acids and chains of amino acids connected by peptide linkages.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Ethyldimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide: Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Gracilaria: A genus of RED ALGAE in the family Gracilariaceae. It is a highly commercial SEAWEED and a source of AGAR.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Glycine Decarboxylase Complex H-Protein: A LIPOIC ACID-containing protein that plays the pivotal role in the transfer of methylamine groups and reducing equivalents between the three enzymatic components of the glycine decarboxylase complex.Glycine Dehydrogenase (Decarboxylating): A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE dependent enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of GLYCINE with the transfer of an aminomethyl group to the LIPOIC ACID moiety of the GLYCINE DECARBOXYLASE COMPLEX H-PROTEIN. Defects in P-protein are the cause of non-ketotic hyperglycinemia. It is one of four subunits of the glycine decarboxylase complex.Aminomethyltransferase: A one-carbon group transferase that transfers lipoamide-linked methylamine groups to tetrahydrofolate (TETRAHYDROFOLATES) to form methylenetetrahydrofolate and AMMONIA. It is one of four components of the glycine decarboxylase complex.Glycine Decarboxylase Complex: A enzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidative DECARBOXYLATION and DEAMINATION of GLYCINE into CARBON DIOXIDE; AMMONIA; NADH; and N5N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. It is composed of four different component protein components referred to as H, P, L, and T.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Hydroxymethyl and Formyl Transferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hydroxymethyl or formyl groups. EC 2.1.2.

Molecular enzymology of mammalian Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase. Alternative splice donor utilization generates isoforms with different sensitivity to ornithine inhibition. (1/62)

Delta1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS; EC not assigned), a mitochondrial inner membrane, ATP- and NADPH-dependent, bifunctional enzyme, catalyzes the reduction of glutamate to Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, a critical step in the de novo biosynthesis of proline and ornithine. We utilized published plant P5CS sequence to search the expressed sequence tag data base and cloned two full-length human P5CS cDNAs differing in length by 6 base pairs (bp) in the open reading frame. The short cDNA has a 2379-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 793 residues; the long cDNA, generated by "exon sliding," a form of alternative splicing, contains an additional 6-bp insert following bp +711 of the short form resulting in inclusion of two additional amino acids in the region predicted to be the gamma-glutamyl kinase active site of P5CS. The long form predominates in all tissues examined except gut. We also isolated the corresponding long and short murine P5CS transcripts. To confirm the identity of the putative P5CS cDNAs, we expressed both human forms in gamma-glutamyl kinase- and gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase-deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and showed that they conferred the proline prototrophy. Additionally, we found expression of the murine putative P5CS cDNAs conferred proline prototrophy to P5CS-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). We utilized stable CHO-K1 cell transformants to compare the biochemical characteristics of the long and short murine P5CS isoforms. We found that both confer P5CS activity and that the short isoform is inhibited by L-ornithine with a Ki of approximately 0.25 mM. Surprisingly, the long isoform is insensitive to ornithine inhibition. Thus, the two amino acid insert in the long isoform abolishes feedback inhibition of P5CS activity by L-ornithine.  (+info)

The sfr6 mutation in Arabidopsis suppresses low-temperature induction of genes dependent on the CRT/DRE sequence motif. (2/62)

The sfr mutations, which result in sensitivity to freezing after cold acclimation, define genes that are required for freezing tolerance. We tested plants homozygous for mutations sfr2 to sfr7 for cold-induced gene expression and found that sfr 6 plants were deficient in cold-inducible expression of the genes KIN1, COR15a, and LTI78, which all contain the C repeat/dehydration-responsive element (CRT/DRE) motif in their promoters. Similarly, sfr 6 plants failed to induce KIN1 normally in response to either osmotic stress or the application of abscisic acid. In contrast, cold-inducible expression of genes CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, and ATP5CS1, which lack the CRT/DRE motif, was not affected. The freezing-sensitive phenotype that defines sfr 6 also was found to be tightly linked to the gene expression phenotype. To determine whether the failure of cold induction of CRT/DRE-containing genes in sfr 6 was due to altered low-temperature calcium signaling, cold-induced cytosolic-free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) elevations were investigated in the sfr 6 mutant, but these were found to be indistinguishable from those of the wild type. We discuss the possibilities that CRT/DRE binding proteins (such as CBF1) require activation to play a role in transcription and that the SFR6 protein is a vital component of their activation.  (+info)

Proline accumulation in developing grapevine fruit occurs independently of changes in the levels of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase mRNA or protein. (3/62)

Mature fruit of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) contains unusually high levels of free proline (Pro; up to 24 micromol or 2.8 mg/g fresh weight). Pro accumulation does not occur uniformly throughout berry development but only during the last 4 to 6 weeks of ripening when both berry growth and net protein accumulation have ceased. In contrast, the steady-state levels of both the mRNA encoding V. vinifera Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (VVP5CS), a key regulatory enzyme in Pro biosynthesis, and its protein product remain relatively uniform throughout fruit development. In addition, the steady-state protein levels of Pro dehydrogenase, the first enzyme in Pro degradation, increased throughout early fruit development but thereafter remained relatively constant. The developmental accumulation of free Pro late in grape berry ripening is thus clearly distinct from the osmotic stress-induced accumulation of Pro in plants. It is not associated with either sustained increases in steady-state levels of P5CS mRNA or protein or a decrease in steady-state levels of Pro dehydrogenase protein, suggesting that other physiological factors are important for its regulation.  (+info)

Metabolite repression and inducer exclusion in the proline utilization gene cluster of Aspergillus nidulans. (4/62)

The clustered prnB, prnC, and prnD genes are repressed by the simultaneous presence of glucose and ammonium. A derepressed mutation inactivating a CreA-binding site acts in cis only on the permease gene (prnB) while derepression of prnD and prnC is largely the result of reversal of inducer exclusion.  (+info)

Removal of feedback inhibition of delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase results in increased proline accumulation and protection of plants from osmotic stress. (5/62)

The Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS; EC not assigned) is the rate-limiting enzyme in proline (Pro) biosynthesis in plants and is subject to feedback inhibition by Pro. It has been suggested that the feedback regulation of P5CS is lost in plants under stress conditions. We compared Pro levels in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing a wild-type form of Vigna aconitifolia P5CS and a mutated form of the enzyme (P5CSF129A) whose feedback inhibition by Pro was removed by site-directed mutagenesis. Transgenic plants expressing P5CSF129A accumulated about 2-fold more Pro than the plants expressing V. aconitifolia wild-type P5CS. This difference was further increased in plants treated with 200 mM NaCl. These results demonstrated that the feedback regulation of P5CS plays a role in controlling the level of Pro in plants under both normal and stress conditions. The elevated Pro also reduced free radical levels in response to osmotic stress, as measured by malondialdehyde production, and significantly improved the ability of the transgenic seedlings to grow in medium containing up to 200 mM NaCl. These findings shed new light on the regulation of Pro biosynthesis in plants and the role of Pro in reducing oxidative stress induced by osmotic stress, in addition to its accepted role as an osmolyte.  (+info)

Genetic manipulation of the metabolism of polyamines in poplar cells. The regulation of putrescine catabolism. (6/62)

We investigated the catabolism of putrescine (Put) in a non-transgenic (NT) and a transgenic cell line of poplar (Populus nigra x maximowiczii) expressing a mouse (Mus musculus) ornithine (Orn) decarboxylase (odc) cDNA. The transgenic cells produce 3- to 4-fold higher amounts of Put than the NT cells. The rate of loss of Put from the cells and the initial half-life of cellular Put were determined by feeding the cells with [U-(14)C]Orn and [1,4-(14)C]Put as precursors and following the loss of [(14)C]Put in the cells at various times after transfer to label-free medium. The amount of Put converted into spermidine as well as the loss of Put per gram fresh weight were significantly higher in the transgenic cells than the NT cells. The initial half-life of exogenously supplied [(14)C]Put was not significantly different in the two cell lines. The activity of diamine oxidase, the major enzyme involved in Put catabolism, was comparable in the two cell lines even though the Put content of the transgenic cells was severalfold higher than the NT cells. It is concluded that in poplar cells: (a) exogenously supplied Orn enters the cells and is rapidly converted into Put, (b) the rate of Put catabolism is proportional to the rate of its biosynthesis, and (c) the increased Put degradation occurs without significant changes in the activity of diamine oxidase.  (+info)

A plant gene up-regulated at rust infection sites. (7/62)

Expression of the fis1 gene from flax (Linum usitatissimum) is induced by a compatible rust (Melampsora lini) infection. Infection of transgenic plants containing a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene under the control of the fis1 promoter showed that induction is highly localized to those leaf mesophyll cells within and immediately surrounding rust infection sites. The level of induction reflects the extent of fungal growth. In a strong resistance reaction, such as the hypersensitive fleck mediated by the L6 resistance gene, there is very little fungal growth and a microscopic level of GUS expression. Partially resistant flax leaves show levels of GUS expression that were intermediate to the level observed in the fully susceptible infection. Sequence and deletion analysis using both transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens expression and stable transformation assays have shown that the rust-inducible fis1 promoter is contained within a 580-bp fragment. Homologs of fis1 were identified in expressed sequence tag databases of a range of plant species including dicots, monocots, and a gymnosperm. Homologous genes isolated from maize (Zea mays; mis1), barley (Hordeum vulgare; bis1), wheat (Triticum aestivum; wis1), and Arabidopsis encode proteins that are highly similar (76%-82%) to the FIS1 protein. The Arabidopsis homologue has been reported to encode a delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase that is involved in the catabolism of proline to glutamate. RNA-blot analysis showed that mis1 in maize and the bis1 homolog in barley are both up-regulated by a compatible infection with the corresponding species-specific rust. The rust-induced genes homologous to fis1 are present in many plants. The promoters of these genes have potential roles for the engineering of synthetic rust resistance genes by targeting transgene expression to the sites of rust infection.  (+info)

Molecular mechanisms of proline-mediated tolerance to toxic heavy metals in transgenic microalgae. (8/62)

Pro has been shown to play an important role in ameliorating environmental stress in plants and microorganisms, including heavy metal stress. Here, we describe the effects of the expression of a mothbean delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) gene in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that transgenic algae expressing the mothbean P5CS gene have 80% higher free-Pro levels than wild-type cells, grow more rapidly in toxic Cd concentrations (100 microM), and bind fourfold more Cd than wild-type cells. In addition, Cd-K edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure studies indicated that Cd does not bind to free Pro in transgenic algae with increased Pro levels but is coordinated tetrahedrally by sulfur of phytochelatin. In contrast to P5CS-expressing cells, Cd is coordinated tetrahedrally by two oxygen and two sulfur atoms in wild-type cells. Measurements of reduced/oxidized GSH ratios and analyses of levels of malondialdehyde, a product of the free radical damage of lipids, indicate that free Pro levels are correlated with the GSH redox state and malondialdehyde levels in heavy metal-treated algae. These results suggest that the free Pro likely acts as an antioxidant in Cd-stressed cells. The resulting increased GSH levels facilitate increased phytochelatin synthesis and sequestration of Cd, because GSH-heavy metal adducts are the substrates for phytochelatin synthase.  (+info)

Vigna aconitifolia is a drought-resistant legume, commonly grown in arid and semi-arid regions of India. It is commonly called mat bean, moth bean, matki, Turkish gram or dew bean. The pods, sprouts and protein rich seeds of this crop are commonly consumed in India. Moth bean can be grown on many soil types, and can also act as a pasture legume. Moth bean is an herbaceous creeping annual which grows to approximately 40 cm high. Yellow flowers on its hairy and densely packed branches develop into yellow-brown pods, 2 to 3 inches in length The seeds of these pods contain approximately 22-24% protein. Due to its drought resistant qualities, its ability to combat soil erosion and its high protein content, moth bean has been identified as possibly a more significant food source in the future. It has been suggested that its suitability as a grain legume in semi-arid Africa should be further investigated. Belonging to the family Fabaceae (sub-family Papilionaceae), the moth bean is an herbaceous ...
Inactivation of Surface Microorganisms of Moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) by Micronization and Changes in its Physico Chemical and Rheological Properties
Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde is the metabolic precursor for proline biosynthesis. The conversion from L-Glutamate, an ATP- and NADPH-dependent reaction, is catalyzed by the enzyme Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) (OMIM 138250 ). L-Glutamic-gamma-semialdehyde can also be converted to or be formed from the amino acids L-ornithine (EC 2.6.1.13) and L-proline (EC 1.5.99.8 and EC 1.5.1.2). It is also one of the few metabolites that can be a precursor to other metabolites of both the urea cycle and the citric acid cycle (BioCyc ...
The 45-days-old seedlings of drought resistant (N-22, CR143-2-2) and susceptible rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes (Panidhan, Pusa-169) were subjected to osmotic stress in PEG-6000 solution of -10 and -16 bar and the relative water content (RWC), proline content, and pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and its P5CS expression were studied. A gradual decrease in RWC was observed in tolerant genotypes, whereas the decrease was drastic in susceptible ones. Proline content and P5CS activity increased both in susceptible and tolerant genotypes; the increase was higher in tolerant genotypes. Higher proline levels in tolerant genotypes were due to increased P5CS activity. The EcoRI, BamHI and XbaI restricted DNA of N-22 and Panidhan genotypes were hybridized with Arabidopsis P5CS sequence and a single band (approx 2.4 kb) was observed, however, P5CS expression was more in N-22, as compared to Panidhan ...
Read "Characterization of the gene for Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and correlation between the expression of the gene and salt tolerance in Oryza sativa L., Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Yellow mosaic virus (YMV) causes a greater loss of electrolytes from infected leaf tissues ofVigna aconitifolia (mothbean). Four highly susceptible entries of mothbean were examined for the pattern of electrolyte loss after virus has invaded the tissues. It was observed that YMV triggered a heavy loss of ions at initial stages of disease development, but the loss receded at advanced stages of infection. Maximal damage to electrolytes occurred at the second stage, showing about 50% infection. The findings are interesting as the present observations on viral disease differ from other plant diseases.
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid is an enamine or an imino acid that forms on spontaneous dehydration of L-glutamate γ-semialdehyde in aqueous solutions. The stereoisomer (S)-1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate is an intermediate in glutamate metabolism, in arginine degradation and in proline biosynthesis and degradation and it can be converted to or be formed from the three amino acids L-glutamate, L-ornithine and L-proline. In particular, it is synthesized with the oxidation of proline by pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (EC 1.5.1.2, PYCR1) or by proline dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.99.8, PRODH) and it is hydrolyzed to L-glutamate by delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.1.12, ALDH4A1). It is also one of the few metabolites that can be a precursor to other metabolites of both the urea cycle and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle ...
Other articles where Bambara groundnut is discussed: Fabales: Ecological and economic importance: …family is Vigna subterranea (Bambara groundnut), a leguminous plant that develops underground fruits in the arid lands of Africa. Important too are the seeds of Bauhinia esculenta; they are gathered for the high-protein tubers and seeds. Vigna aconitifolia (moth bean) and V. umbellata (rice bean) are much used in…
This nighttime treatment formulation combines 0.5% pure retinol paired with antioxidants and a host of beneficial ingredients to hydrate and soothe, while minimizing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Retinol (Vitamin A) - is converted to retinoic acid in the skin. Vitamin A helps to promote a clear complexion and an even skin tone.Vigna Aconitifolia Seed Extract - is a botanical that promotes a clear complexion and an even skin tone.Sodium Hyaluronate - has the ability to hold 1,000 times its weight in water plays an important role in skin hydration.Glycerophosphoinositol Lysine - is a skin calming agent.Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) - is an enzyme that supports antioxidant defense.
Suppliers List, E-mail/RFQ Form, Molecular Structure, Weight, Formula, IUPAC, Synonyms for (1-OXYL-2,2,5,5-TETRAMETHYL-3-PYRROLINE-3-METHYL) METHANETHIOSULFONATE (CAS No. 81213-52-7)
Biochemistry, Metabolism:, Hereditary Factors:, Origin:, Pathology:, Strains: AKR, AU, C57BL/6, DBA/2 (212), L (P), LP, P, SIMPSON, PL (PLA, PLB), RF (W), SJL, SM, ST/B (STB), SWR, 129, RIII/S. ...
methyl 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-7-carboxylate,hydrochloride chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of methyl 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-7-carboxylate,hydrochloride 597562-79-3, What are the physical properties of methyl 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-7-carboxylate,hydrochloride ect.
methyl 4-amino-5-bromopyridine-3-carboxylate; CAS Number: 1446182-20-2; Linear Formula: C7H7BRN2O2; find AChemBlock-ADVH94547B44 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
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Base de maquillaje compacta, pret à porter, ligerísima sobre la piel, uniforma el color del cutis sin recargarlo.. Su textura impalpable la hace perfecta para pieles de normales a grasas, el acabado es mate gracias a la mica y el silicio presentes en la fórmula.. La fórmula está enriquecida además por vigna aconitifolia, garcinia mangostana, aceite de macadamia, aceite de aguacate, manteca de karitè, aceite de karanja y aceite de albaricoque.. La cobertura es media/ligera, pero modulable. Por eso, es posible estratificar el producto para obtener una mayor cobertura.. ...
Δ,sup,1,/sup,-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase (P5CR) catalyses the final step of proline synthesis in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, protein levels are correlated neither to the corresponding mRNA copy numbers, nor to intracellular proline concentrations. The occurrence of post-translational regulatory mechanisms has therefore been hypothesized, but never assessed.,br /,,br /,The purification of A. thaliana P5CR was achieved through either a six-step protocol from cultured cells, or heterologous expression of AtP5CR in Escherichia coli. The protein was characterized with respect to structural, kinetic, and biochemical properties.,br /,,br /,P5CR was able to use either NADPH or NADH as the electron donor, with contrasting affinities and maximum reaction rates. The presence of equimolar concentrations of NADP+ completely suppressed the NADH-dependent activity, whereas the NADPH-dependent reaction was mildly affected. Proline inhibited only the NADH-dependent reaction. At physiological ...
The protein encoded by this gene is similar to proline dehydrogenase (oxidase) 1, a mitochondrial enzyme which catalyzes the first step in proline catabolism. The function of this protein has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
In many plants, free proline accumulates in response to the imposition of a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Controversy has surrounded the extent to which this shift in nitrogen metabolism
Amino Acids and DerivativesProline and 4-hydroxyprolineProline, 4-hydroxyproline uptake and utilization Proline dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.99.8) (Proline oxidase) ...
Methyl 6-Bromoindole-4-carboxylate 107650-22-6 NMR spectrum, Methyl 6-Bromoindole-4-carboxylate H-NMR spectral analysis, Methyl 6-Bromoindole-4-carboxylate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
ethyl 6-oxo-1,3,4,6-tetrahydro-2H-quinolizine-7-carboxylate - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
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Instructions for use: Blend a small amount onto your skin from the nose outwards For a more flawless finish, pat on top of areas where extra coverage is needed using a brush 40ml/1.4 fl.oz. Ingredients: Cyclopentasiloxane, Water (Aqua), Hydrogenated Didodecene, Titanium Dioxide (Nano), Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate, Mica, Glycerin, Sorbitan Isostearate, Peg/Ppg 18/18 Dimethicone, Sodium Chloride, Cyclohexasiloxane , Aluminum/Magnesium Hydroxide Stearate, Dimethicone/Vinyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer, Squalane, Cetearyl Ethylhexanoate, Dimethicone, Bis-C24-28 Hydroxyalkyl Olivoyl Glutamate , Disodium Cocoyl Glutamate, Methylparaben, Potassium Sorbate, Propylparaben, Isopropyl Titanium Triisostearate, Fragrance (Parfum), Glycine Soja (Soybean) Sterols, Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate, Laureth-4, Pentaerythrityl Tetra-Di-T-Butyl Hydroxyhydrocinnamate, Sodium Citrate, Vigna Aconitifolia Seed Extract, Bht, Chlorphenesin, [May Contain: Titanium Dioxide (CI77891), Mica, Iron Oxides (CI77491 ,CI 77492, CI77499),
Instructions for use: Blend a small amount onto your skin from the nose outwards For a more flawless finish, pat on top of areas where extra coverage is needed using a brush 40ml/1.4 fl.oz. Ingredients: Cyclopentasiloxane, Water (Aqua), Hydrogenated Didodecene, Titanium Dioxide (Nano), Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate, Mica, Glycerin, Sorbitan Isostearate, Peg/Ppg 18/18 Dimethicone, Sodium Chloride, Cyclohexasiloxane , Aluminum/Magnesium Hydroxide Stearate, Dimethicone/Vinyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer, Squalane, Cetearyl Ethylhexanoate, Dimethicone, Bis-C24-28 Hydroxyalkyl Olivoyl Glutamate , Disodium Cocoyl Glutamate, Methylparaben, Potassium Sorbate, Propylparaben, Isopropyl Titanium Triisostearate, Fragrance (Parfum), Glycine Soja (Soybean) Sterols, Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate, Laureth-4, Pentaerythrityl Tetra-Di-T-Butyl Hydroxyhydrocinnamate, Sodium Citrate, Vigna Aconitifolia Seed Extract, Bht, Chlorphenesin, [May Contain: Titanium Dioxide (CI77891), Mica, Iron Oxides (CI77491 ,CI 77492, CI77499),
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Read "Effect of Mutations in Genes PH085 and PH04 on Proline Utilization in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Amino Acids and DerivativesProline and 4-hydroxyprolineA Hypothetical Protein Related to Proline Metabolism Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (EC 1.5.1.2) ...
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Fe2+-dependent enzyme. The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the cyclic pentapeptide antibiotic viomycin. It differs from EC 1.14.11.34, 2-oxoglutarate/L-arginine monooxygenase/decarboxylase (succinate-forming), because it does not form guanidine and (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate from 3-hydroxy-L-arginine ...
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methyl 4,5-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazole-2-carboxylate - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
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Proline Benefits - Info on benefits of proline, facts, proline side effects, dosage, health benefits, keeps muscles and joints flexible, main component of collagen, adverse effects and more.
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... Systematic (IUPAC) name Ethyl 4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methyl-piperidine-4-carboxylate Identifiers CAS number 468-56-4 ATC code
Promag P는 다양한 산업에서 가장 까다로운 요구 사항을 가진 분야에서 선호되는 센서입니다. 기초적인 어플리케이션 및 직접 통합을 위해 Promag 10 트랜스미터와 결합 된 Promag 10P는 부식성 액체 및 고온이 있는 화학 및 프로세스 응용 산업 전용입니다.
Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli can utilize proline as a sole carbon or nitrogen source. Proline utilization requires the expression of the two genes in the put operon: the putP gene, which encodes proline permease, and the putA gene, which encodes a bifunctional membrane-associated dehydrogenase that degrades proline to glutamate. The PutA protein also autogenously regulates transcription of the put operon. Induction of the put operon requires proline, oxygen (or another terminal electron acceptor), and available membrane binding sites. A simple model explains the regulation: under inducing conditions the PutA protein binds to the membrane where it is enzymatically active, but when the intracellular concentration of proline is low or when few functional membrane binding sites are available, the PutA protein accumulates in the cytoplasm where it represses transcription of the put operon. This change in cellular localization seems to be at least partly induced by changes in the redox ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proline accumulation and methylation to proline betaine in citrus. T2 - Implications for genetic engineering of stress resistance. AU - Nolte, Kurt D. AU - Hanson, Andrew D.. AU - Gage, Douglas A.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Proline and various betaines can function as osmoprotectants and cryoprotectants when accumulated in the cytoplasm of cells. Genetic engineering can raise levels of these compounds and thereby improve stress resistance; Citrus species are potential candidates for this. Before attempting such engineering, it is necessary to characterize the natural osmoprotectants of Citrus and related genera. We therefore surveyed 55 cultivated and wild species of the Aurantioideae, analyzing proline and betaines in leaves of mature trees. Some citrus relatives accumulated proline alone; others accumulated proline and proline betaine, as did all Citrus species studied. The levels of these two compounds ranged from about 20 to 100 μmol · g-1 dry mass, and were significantly ...
Staphylococcus aureus has the ability to adhere and cause infections in a wide variety of niches within a human host. The overall hypothesis of this project is...
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Founded in 2011, Suzhou Xinkai Bio-Medical Technology Co., Ltd. is located in Suzhou New District of Suzhou city in Jiangsu province. Xinkai focus is on the development of...
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Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Sodium atom in PDB 2amf: Crystal Structure of 1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase From Human Pathogen Streptococcus Pyogenes
Mediates degradation of arginine for nitrogen recycling. Plays a role in non-host disease resistance by regulating pyrroline-5-carboxylate metabolism-induced hypersensitive response.
The ALDH18A1 gene is associated with autosomal dominant and recessive forms of cutis laxa (ADCL3 and ARCL3A, respectively) (MedGen UID: 851795, 82794) and spastic paraplegia (SPG9A and SPG9B, respectively) (MedGen UID: 322007, 851785). The ALDH18A1 gene is also associated with autosomal recessive pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) deficiency (PMID: 11092761).
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This enzyme helps to break down the pyrroline-5-carboxylate produced in the previous reaction, converting it to the amino acid ... A deficiency of either proline oxidase or pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase results in a buildup of proline in the body. A ... This enzyme begins the process of degrading proline by starting the reaction that converts it to pyrroline-5-carboxylate. ... Pyridoxal phosphate de-activation by pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid. Increased risk of vitamin B6 deficiency and seizures in ...
Dengue fever Dennis-Cohen syndrome Dennis-Fairhurst-Moore syndrome Dent disease Dental aberrations steroid dehydrogenase ... hypertension Dextrocardia with situs inversus Dextrocardia Dextrocardia-bronchiectasis-sinusitis D-glycerate dehydrogenase ... duplication Digitorenocerebral syndrome Digoxin toxicity Dihydropteridine reductase deficiency Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase ... nephrogenic type 1 Diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic type 2 Diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic type 3 Diabetes insipidus, ...
B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... S)-1-pirolidin-5-karboksilat + NAD(P)+ + 2H2O ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. L-glutamat + NAD(P)H + H+. Ovaj enzim ... 1-pirolin-5-karboksilat dehidrogenaza (EC 1.5.1.12, Delta1-pirolidin-5-karboksilat dehidrogenaza, 1-pirolidinska dehidrogenaza ... Δ1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 3218-3223.. ...
III Delta1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 3218-3223. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... Enzymatic synthesis of gamma-hydroxyglutamate from Delta1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 3504-3512. ... L-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-NAD+ oxidoreductase, and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in ... In enzymology, a 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.88) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-1- ...
1998). "Mutations in the Delta1-pyrroline 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase gene cause type II hyperprolinemia". Hum. Mol. Genet. 7 ( ... This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family of proteins. This enzyme is a mitochondrial matrix NAD-dependent ... dehydrogenase that catalyzes the second step of the proline degradation pathway, converting pyrroline-5-carboxylate to ... "Entrez Gene: ALDH4A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 4 family, member A1". Human ALDH4A1 genome location and ALDH4A1 gene details page ...
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 18 Family, Member A1; ALDH18A1 -138250 Van Maldergem, Lionel; Loeys, Bart (2011-10-13). FBLN5-Related ... Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase 1; PYCR1 -179035 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) ... ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology ... Fibulin 5; FBLN5 -604580 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) ...
In enzymology, a proline dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.5.2, formerly EC 1.5.99.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L- ... Other names in common use include L-proline dehydrogenase, and L-proline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in ... Scarpulla RC, Soffer RL (1978). "Membrane-bound proline dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli Solubilization, purification, and ... 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + ubiquinol Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-proline and ubiquinone, whereas its two ...
3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase. *Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase. *Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase ... Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. *1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase/ALDH4A1. *PYCR1. arginine→. *Ornithine ... To date, two structures of human kynureninase have determined by X-ray diffraction with resolutions of 2.0 and 1.7 Å.[1][8] ... doi:10.1007/s00018-003-3161-1. PMID 14704851.. *. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2002). "Generation and initial ...
glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) or just glycine dehydrogenase. L-protein (GCSL or DLD) EC 1.8.1.4 known by many names, ... but most commonly dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase H-protein (GCSH) is modified with lipoic acid and interacts with all other ... doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(01)01892-1. PMID 11286922.. *^ Fujiwara K, Okamura K, Motokawa Y (Oct 1979). "Hydrogen carrier protein ... Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. *1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase/ALDH4A1. *PYCR1. arginine→. *Ornithine ...
3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase. *Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase. *Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase ... 47 (5): 677-81. doi:10.1002/mus.23633. PMID 23400941.. *^ O'Dwyer AM, Sheppard NP (May 1993). "The role of creatine kinase in ... 29 (1): 36-42. doi:10.1097/HJH.0b013e32834068e0. PMID 21063205.. *^ Brewster LM, Coronel CM, Sluiter W, Clark JF, van Montfrans ... 31 (3): 171-5. doi:10.1080/07435800500371706. PMID 16392619.. *^ Johannsen S, Berberich C, Metterlein T, Roth C, Reiners K, ...
PheA uses a simple dehydrogenase to convert prephenate to phenylpyruvate, while TyrA uses a NAD-dependent dehydrogenase to make ... Relevant enzymes include aspartokinase, aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, homoserine dehydrogenase, homoserine O- ... β-aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, homoserine dehydrogenase, homoserine kinase, threonine synthase. ... Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase is regulated by the concentration of serine in the cell. At high concentrations this enzyme will ...
Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. *3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase ... 281 (5): 272-273. doi:10.1056/NEJM196907312810518. PMID 5791298.. *^ Knowles, William S. (1983). "Asymmetric hydrogenation". ... Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. *1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase/ALDH4A1. *PYCR1. arginine→. *Ornithine ... 81 (3-4): 1-21. doi:10.1080/00218460590944602.. *^ "Study Reveals Details Of Mussels' Tenacious Bonds". Science Daily. Aug 16, ...
... carboxylate reductase and converted into the amino acid glutamate by the enzyme 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase.. ... 1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid is an imino acid. Its conjugate base and anion is 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. The stereoisomer (S ... 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate is a biosynthetic metabolite that is synthesized from proline by the enzyme pyrroline-5- ...
20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Ja 1.1.1.153 sepiapterin reductase Ja 1.1.1.170 sterol-4alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase ... pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase Ja 1.5.1.3 dihydrofolate reductase Ja 1.5.1.5 methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+) ... oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring) Ja 1.2.4.4 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (2-methylpropanoyl- ... L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase Ja 1.1.1.15 D-iditol + NAD+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. D-sorbose + NADH + H+ D-iditol 2- ...
... which is reduced to proline by pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (using NADH or NADPH), or turned into ornithine by ornithine ... 309-. ISBN 978-1-4398-4833-3. Verbruggen N, Hermans C (2008). "Proline accumulation in plants: a review". Amino Acids. 35 (4): ... Glutamate-5-semialdehyde is first formed by glutamate 5-kinase (ATP-dependent) and glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase ( ... ISBN 1-57259-153-6. . Ion Channel Factsbook: Extracellular Ligand-Gated Channels. Academic Press. 16 November 1995. pp. 126-. ...
For example, Birch reduction of pyrrole esters and amides produced pyrrolines, with the regioselectivity depending on the ... Structural analogs of pyrrole include: Pyrroline, a partially saturated analog with one double bond Pyrrolidine, the saturated ... which is reduced to proline by pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (using NADH or NADPH), or turned into ornithine by ornithine ... Pyrroles can undergo reductions to pyrrolidines and to pyrrolines. ...
... which is reduced to proline by pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (using NADH or NADPH), or turned into ornithine by ornithine ... Glutamate-5-semialdehyde is first formed by glutamate 5-kinase (ATP-dependent) and glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase ( ... which requires NADH or NADPH). This can then either spontaneously cyclize to form 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid, ...
Hu CA, Khalil S, Zhaorigetu S, Liu Z, Tyler M, Wan G, Valle D (Nov 2008). "Human Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase: ... Baumgartner MR, Rabier D, Nassogne MC, Dufier JL, Padovani JP, Kamoun P, Valle D, Saudubray JM (Jan 2005). "Delta1-pyrroline-5- ... carboxylate synthase deficiency: neurodegeneration, cataracts and connective tissue manifestations combined with ... The encoded protein catalyzes the reduction of glutamate to delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, a critical step in the de novo ...
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PYCR1 gene. This gene encodes ... "Entrez Gene: PYCR1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1". Herzfeld A, Legg MA, Greengard O (1978). "Human colon tumors: enzymic ... Basch JJ, Wickham ED, Farrell HM (1997). "Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase in lactating bovine mammary glands". J. Dairy Sci. ... 1984). "The effect of pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid on nucleotide metabolism in erythrocytes from normal and glucose-6-phosphate ...
... pyrroline carboxylate reductases MeSH D08.811.682.662.750 --- saccharopine dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.662.825 --- ... acyl-coa dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.100 --- acyl-coa dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.150 --- acyl-coa ... l-iditol 2-dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.700.649 --- mannitol dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.900 --- uridine ... l-lactate dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.551.500 --- l-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) MeSH D08.811.682.047.605 --- ...
... glycine dehydrogenase (cyanide-forming) EC 1.5.1.1: pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase EC 1.5.1.2: pyrroline-5-carboxylate ... EC 1.1.1.1: alcohol dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.2: alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) EC 1.1.1.3: homoserine dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.4: (R ... D1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase EC 1.5.1.22: strombine dehydrogenase EC 1.5.1.23: tauropine dehydrogenase EC 1.5.1.24: ... carboxylate reductase EC 1.2.99.7: aldehyde dehydrogenase (FAD-independent) EC 1.3.1.1: dihydrouracil dehydrogenase (NAD+) EC ...
"Crystal structures of Delta1-piperideine-2-carboxylate/Delta1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase belonging to a new family of ... including glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In healthy mammalian tissues, estimates of the ... Lesk AM (1995). "NAD-binding domains of dehydrogenases". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 5 (6): 775-83. doi:10.1016/0959-440X(95) ... Jameson DM, Thomas V, Zhou DM (1989). "Time-resolved fluorescence studies on NADH bound to mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase ...
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate is further reduced by the enzyme pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) to yield a proline amino acid ... Aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase catalyzes the reduction reaction by dephosphorylation of aspartyl-β-phosphate to yield ... kinase catalyzes the initial step in the diaminopimelic acid pathway by transferring a phosphoryl from ATP onto the carboxylate ... The next reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), which catalyzes the reduction of the ϒ- ...
"Crystal structures of Delta1-piperideine-2-carboxylate/Delta1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase belonging to a new family of ... Lesk AM (1995). "NAD-binding domains of dehydrogenases". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 5 (6): 775-83. doi:10.1016/0959-440X(95) ... 21 (FVII · FIX · FX · FXI · FXII · FD · PROC · Trombin) · .22 · .23 · .24 (.1 ALA · .7 MMP-1 · .17 MMP-3/MMP-6 · .19 BMP-1 · . ... Helikase · Girase · Konvertase (C3/C5) · Permease (ATPase · EEAT · FATP · GLUT · MCT · OATP · SGLT · UCP-1) · Aldolase · ...
Crystal structures of Delta1-piperideine-2-carboxylate/Delta1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase belonging to a new family of ... Lesk AM «NAD-binding domains of dehydrogenases». Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol., 5, 6, 1995, pàg. 775-83. DOI: 10.1016/0959-440X(95) ... Jameson DM, Thomas V, Zhou DM «Time-resolved fluorescence studies on NADH bound to mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase». Biochim ... Biellmann JF, Lapinte C, Haid E, Weimann G «Structure of lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor generated from coenzyme». Biochemistry ...
... namely acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and thiolase. The cycle produces a new ... Acetyl-CoA can be carboxylated in the cytosol by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, giving rise to malonyl-CoA, a substrate required for ... The oxidative conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA is referred to as the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. It is catalyzed by ... Acetyl-CoA serves as an allosteric regulator of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). It regulates through the ratio of acetyl- ...
The role of proline dehydrogenase and D1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase in the regulation of proline homeostasis in ... In addition to protein proteolysis, we recently found that the specific activity of proline dehydrogenase, an oxidation enzyme ... semialdehyde by GSA dehydrogenase (GSAd; EC 1.4.1.3). Finally GSA spontaneously forms D1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), and P5C ... Abbreviations: g-GK, g-glutamyl kinase; GSAd, glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase; d-OAT, ornithine d-aminotransferase; P5CR ...
glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) or just glycine dehydrogenase. L-protein (GCSL or DLD) EC 1.8.1.4 known by many names, ... but most commonly dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase H-protein (GCSH) is modified with lipoic acid and interacts with all other ... doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(01)01892-1. PMID 11286922.. *^ Fujiwara K, Okamura K, Motokawa Y (Oct 1979). "Hydrogen carrier protein ... Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. *1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase/ALDH4A1. *PYCR1. arginine→. *Ornithine ...
III Delta1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 3218-3223. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... Enzymatic synthesis of gamma-hydroxyglutamate from Delta1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 3504-3512. ... L-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-NAD+ oxidoreductase, and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in ... In enzymology, a 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.88) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-1- ...
... dehydrogenase (aka P5CDH and ALDH4A1) is an aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of γ-glutamate semialdehyde to ... dehydrogenase (aka P5CDH and ALDH4A1) is an aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of γ-glutamate semialdehyde to ... The trends in Ki likely reflect a trade-off between the penalty for desolvating the carboxylates of the free inhibitor and the ... pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (ALDH4A1): Semialdehyde chain length.. Pemberton, T.A., Tanner, J.J.. (2013) Arch Biochem ...
Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acid + NAD + Water → 4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion. details ... Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acid + NADP + Water → 4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion. details ... Hempel J, Eckey R, Berie D, Romovacek H, Agarwal DP, Goedde HW: Human liver glutamic gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase: ... Agarwal DP, Eckey R, Hempel J, Goedde HW: Human liver high Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH4): properties and structural ...
1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase From Thermus With Bound Citrate ... Sodium binding site 1 out of 2 in 2iy6. Click to enlarge. Click to enlarge. Mono- and Stereo- picture of 5.0 Angstrom ... The binding sites of Sodium atom in the structure of 1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase From Thermus With Bound Citrate ( ... Sodium in the structure of 1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase From Thermus With Bound Citrate (pdb 2iy6). ...
... of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Delta-1- ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - PO Box 8126, Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126 - Toll-free: 1-888-205-2311 ...
Compare Anti-aldehyde dehydrogenase 5 family member A1 Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View ... Anti-aldehyde dehydrogenase 5 family member A1 Antibody Products. Anti-Aldehyde dehydrogenase 5 family member A1 antibodies are ... The protein may also be known as SSADH, SSDH, succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial, and NAD(+)-dependent ... Your search returned 192 aldehyde dehydrogenase 5 family member A1 Antibodies across 28 suppliers. ...
Aldehyde dehydrogenase , Mitochondria , Nad or nadp as acceptor , Nucleotide binding , Oxidoreductase , Rossmann fold ... pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH; also known as ALDH4A1), the aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation ... Categories: 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase , Human , Singh, R K , Tanner, J J , Acting on aldehyde or oxo group of ... The 2. 5-A-resolution crystal structure of HsP5CDH was determined using experimental phasing. Structures of the mutant enzymes ...
An enhancer element located downstream of the major glutamate dehydrogenase gene of Bacillus subtilis. Boris R. Belitsky and ... The rocG gene of Bacillus subtilis, encoding a catabolic glutamate dehydrogenase, is transcribed by SigL (σ54)-containing RNA ... We conclude that high glutamate dehydrogenase activity was detected in strains with integrated rocG plasmids when the DAS was ... No glutamate dehydrogenase activity was detected in a sigL mutant (Table 2). ...
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase References *↑ Srivastava D, Singh RK, Moxley MA, Henzl MT, Becker DF, Tanner JJ. The ... Aldehyde dehydrogenase , Mitochondria , Nad or nadp as acceptor , Nucleotide binding , Oxidoreductase , Rossmann fold ... the aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of glutamate semialdehyde to glutamate. Here, we report the first ... pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH; also known as ALDH4A1), ...
Proline dehydrogenase and Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. A, B. 1005. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Mutation(s) ... the oxidation of L-proline to L-glutamate by the sequential activities of proline dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase ... the oxidation of L-proline to L-glutamate by the sequential activities of proline dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase ... 1,2-ETHANEDIOL. C2 H6 O2. LYCAIKOWRPUZTN-UHFFFAOYSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ...
Bifunctional proline dehydrogenase/L-glutamate gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar ... IPR005933 Delta1-pyrroline-5-COlate_DH-3. IPR029041 FAD-linked_oxidoreductase-like. IPR041349 PRODH. IPR024090 PRODH_PutA_dom_I ... Bifunctional proline dehydrogenase/L-glutamate gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar ... Bifunctional proline dehydrogenase/L-glutamate gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar ...
Keywords: aldehyde dehydrogenase, Rossmann fold, nucleotide binding, acting on aldehyde or oxo group of donors, NAD or NADP as ... Compound: Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. Species: Mus musculus [TaxId:10090]. Gene: Aldh4a1. ... Compound: Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. Species: Mus musculus [TaxId:10090]. Gene: Aldh4a1. ... Description: Crystal structure of mouse 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase complexed with the product glutamate. Class: ...
Compound: Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. Species: Mus musculus [TaxId:10090]. Gene: ADLH4a1, ... Compound: Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. Species: Mus musculus [TaxId:10090]. Gene: ADLH4a1, ... Description: Structure of mouse 1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase (ALDH4A1) complexed with succinate. Class: ...
5 causes are "rare" diseases *16 causes are "very rare" diseases *251 causes have no prevalence information. See the analysis ... Diet and exercise can prevent development of diabetes in pre-diabetics_1 *Maintaining a healthy brain may reduce dementia risk ... IDDM (1 cause) *Glucosuria (18 causes) *Hyperglycemia (94 causes) *Gestational diabetes (4 causes) *Acute hemorrhagic ... MODY syndrome, type 1 ... hyperglycemia*MODY syndrome, type 2 ... glucosuria*MODY syndrome, type III ... hyperglycemia*MODY ...
Genes related to succinate dehydrogenase were up-regulated under moderate and severe drought stress, whereas the genes encoding ... Genes encoding L-lactate dehydrogenase were decreased after drought stress relative to the control, which prevented the ... Moreover, some of the identified genes encoded proline degrading enzymes, such as proline dehydrogenase (PDH). The down- ... 1970;46:233-5.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar. *. Lawlor DW, Cornic G. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and ...
3. Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase. General function:. Involved in oxidoreductase activity. Specific function:. ... 1. Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in oxidoreductase activity. ... Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positive. splash10-000i-9200000000-b09702360bf061bd64db. View in MoNA ... The conversion from L-Glutamate, an ATP- and NADPH-dependent reaction, is catalyzed by the enzyme Delta-1-pyrroline-5- ...
1998). "Mutations in the Delta1-pyrroline 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase gene cause type II hyperprolinemia". Hum. Mol. Genet. 7 ( ... This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family of proteins. This enzyme is a mitochondrial matrix NAD-dependent ... dehydrogenase that catalyzes the second step of the proline degradation pathway, converting pyrroline-5-carboxylate to ... "Entrez Gene: ALDH4A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 4 family, member A1". Human ALDH4A1 genome location and ALDH4A1 gene details page ...
TBHG_02416 NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase Gdh TBHG_01170 pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase RocA TBHG_01833 glutamine ... TBHG_00234 succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [NADP] dependent GabD1 TBHG_01688 succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase GabD2 ... succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase / glutarate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.16 1.2.1.79 1.2.1.20] K00135 gabD; ... succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase / glutarate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.16 1.2.1.79 1.2.1.20] K00265 gltB; ...
B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... S)-1-pirolidin-5-karboksilat + NAD(P)+ + 2H2O ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. L-glutamat + NAD(P)H + H+. Ovaj enzim ... 1-pirolin-5-karboksilat dehidrogenaza (EC 1.5.1.12, Delta1-pirolidin-5-karboksilat dehidrogenaza, 1-pirolidinska dehidrogenaza ... Δ1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 3218-3223.. ...
Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1/Redox Factor-1 Could Serve as a Potential Serological Biomarker for the Diagnosis and ... Mannose receptor C type 2 mediates 1,25(OH)2D3/vitamin D receptor-regulated collagen metabolism through collagen type 5, alpha ... 5.. Electrochemically Controlled RAFT Polymerization for Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Biosensing of Protein Kinase Activity ... The role of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDh) in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during ...
A Bifunctional Enzyme (Δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthetase) Catalyzes the First Two Steps in Proline Biosynthesis in Plants ... A Soybean Gene Encoding Δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase Was Isolated by Functional Complementation in Escherichia coli and ... The Role of Delta-1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase in Proline Degradation ...
The Role of Δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase in Proline Degradation Karen Deuschle, Dietmar Funck, Giuseppe Forlani, ... Phosphorylation of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthase by MPK6, a Stress-Responsive Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase ... Translational Regulation via 5′ mRNA Leader Sequences Revealed by Mutational Analysis of the Arabidopsis Translation Initiation ... Expression and Functional Roles of the Two Distinct NDH-1 Complexes and the Carbon Acquisition Complex NdhD3/NdhF3/CupA/Sll1735 ...
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 4 member A1, L-glutamate gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase Open Datasheet ... Lyophilized product should be stored at -20°C for up to 1 year. ... Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 4 member A1, L-glutamate gamma- ...
  • This is due in large part to the formation 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate , which is one of the few C 1 donors in biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADP, also known as NADP+ or TPN, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as (5'->5')-dinucleotides. (ymdb.ca)
  • In humans, BCATs are homo-dimers composed of two domains, a small subunit (residues 1-170) and a large subunit (residues 182-365). (ipfs.io)
  • Enhancer elements and enhancer-binding proteins are widespread components of transcriptional regulation systems in eukaryotes ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • To initiate transcription, σ 54 -containing RNA polymerases must interact with additional proteins, members of the NtrC/NifA family, that bind to UAS usually located 100-200 bp upstream of the regulated genes ( 2 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • It has been shown that UAS can be moved 1-2 kilobases (kb) further upstream from the regulated genes without losing their ability to interact with UAS-binding proteins and to activate expression of the regulated genes ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Proline utilization A (PutA) proteins are bifunctional peripheral membrane flavoenzymes that catalyze the oxidation of L-proline to L-glutamate by the sequential activities of proline dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase domains. (rcsb.org)
  • Forty-five different proteins were further analysed, corresponding to (1) spots stained with more than four of 13 (30 %) sera tested with the CCLP1 or the CCSW1 cell line and with the normal liver, and (2) to spots immunoreactive with at least two of the five sera probed with their tumour and non-tumour counter-part of cholangiocarcinoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the saposin-like proteins 1, 2, and 3 of fasciola gigantica. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • [5] Outside proteins, amino acids perform critical roles in processes such as neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis . (gutenberg.org)
  • This is due in large part to the formation 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate , which is one of the few C 1 donors in biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, they are the upstream activating sequences (UAS) required for expression of genes transcribed by RNA polymerases containing σ 54 (RpoN)-like subunits ( 2 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes: human polymorphisms, and recommended nomenclature based on divergent evolution and chromosomal mapping. (medlineplus.gov)
  • First, we identified the genes that were differentially expressed in GBMs (3 datasets) compared to non-GBM brain tissues (5 datasets), or were associated with survival differences. (beds.ac.uk)
  • All three GABA related genes -- glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) and 2 (GAD2) and 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT) -- were lower in mesenchymal tumors, which in contrast showed higher IDO1 (indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1) and TDO2 (tryptophan 2, 3-diaxygenase). (beds.ac.uk)
  • RocG activity (glutamate + NAD → 2-ketoglutarate + NH 3 + NADH) can be viewed as the final step in the use of arginine, ornithine, and proline as carbon or nitrogen sources (Fig. 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • RESULTS: Au -MPO is a potent TGR inhibitor that achieves 75% inhibition at a 1:1 TGR:Au ratio and efficiently kills E. granulosus in vitro. (bireme.br)
  • It functions as a mitochondrial tumor suppressor primarily through inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor 1 signaling ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This inhibits phosphorylation of EGFR and HER2, with downstream effects on cell survival and proliferation 5 . (openaccesspub.org)
  • In normal prostate homeostasis, a controlled interaction between non-epithelial components such as stroma and epithelial cells contributes to normal epithelial proliferation, differentiation and migration [ 5 , 6 ] . (jcmtjournal.com)
  • Microdeletions of chromosome 22q11 are associated with variable phenotypic expression that often includes learning disabilities, palatal abnormalities, congenital heart defects, and mildly dysmorphic facial features ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • [1] Forty percent of the amino acids are arranged in an alpha helical and twelve percent are arranged in beta sheets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mannose receptor C type 2 mediates 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 /vitamin D receptor-regulated collagen metabolism through collagen type 5, alpha 2 chain and matrix metalloproteinase 13 in murine MC3T3-E1 cells. (nih.gov)
  • The 1,7-diazaheptamethinium system was found to be essential for the high radical scavenging capacity of betalains and concerted PCET is the most thermodynamically favorable pathway for their one-electron oxidation. (bvsalud.org)