Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2: Member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Plasminogen Inactivators: Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. The inhibitors belong to the serpin family of proteins and inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.Plasminogen Activators: A heterogeneous group of proteolytic enzymes that convert PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. They are concentrated in the lysosomes of most cells and in the vascular endothelium, particularly in the vessels of the microcirculation.Plasminogen: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator: An extracellular receptor specific for UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. It is attached to the cell membrane via a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and plays a role in the co-localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with PLASMINOGEN.3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Fibrinolysin: A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Serpin E2: A protease nexin and serpin subtype that is specific for several SERINE PROTEASES including UROKINASE; THROMBIN; TRYPSIN; and PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATORS.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.alpha-2-Antiplasmin: A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.Serine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1: A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protease Nexins: Extracellular protease inhibitors that are secreted from FIBROBLASTS. They form a covalent complex with SERINE PROTEASES and can mediate their cellular internalization and degradation.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Thrombomodulin: A cell surface glycoprotein of endothelial cells that binds thrombin and serves as a cofactor in the activation of protein C and its regulation of blood coagulation.Mice, Inbred C57BLProtein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Antifibrinolytic Agents: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.G(M2) Activator Protein: An essential cofactor for the degradation of G(M2)GANGLIOSIDE by lysosomal BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES. Genetic mutations resulting in loss of G(M2) activator protein are one of the causes of TAY-SACHS DISEASE, AB VARIANT.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Kringles: Triple-looped protein domains linked by disulfide bonds. These common structural domains, so-named for their resemblance to Danish pastries known as kringlers, play a role in binding membranes, proteins, and phospholipids as well as in regulating proteolysis. Kringles are also present in coagulation-related and fibrinolytic proteins and other plasma proteinases.Trypsin Inhibitor, Kunitz Soybean: A high-molecular-weight protein (approximately 22,500) containing 198 amino acid residues. It is a strong inhibitor of trypsin and human plasmin.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Aminocaproic Acid: An antifibrinolytic agent that acts by inhibiting plasminogen activators which have fibrinolytic properties.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Factor VII: Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Hemostatic Disorders: Pathological processes involving the integrity of blood circulation. Hemostasis depends on the integrity of BLOOD VESSELS, blood fluidity, and BLOOD COAGULATION. Majority of the hemostatic disorders are caused by disruption of the normal interaction between the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM, the plasma proteins (including BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS), and PLATELETS.Mink: Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Protein C Inhibitor: A member of the serpin family of proteins that is found in plasma and urine. It is dependent on heparin and is able to inhibit activated PROTEIN C; THROMBIN; KALLIKREIN; and other SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.Tissue Polypeptide Antigen: Serological tumor marker composed of a molecular complex of cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. It is used in the diagnosis and staging of bronchogenic carcinoma.Isoflurophate: A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory: Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Annexin A2: A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Thrombophilia: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.E-Box Elements: DNA locations with the consensus sequence CANNTG. ENHANCER ELEMENTS may contain multiple copies of this element. E-boxes play a regulatory role in the control of transcription. They bind with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. Binding specificity is determined by the specific bHLH heterodimer or homodimer combination and by the specific nucleotides at the 3rd and 4th position of the E-box sequence.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Sphingolipid Activator Proteins: A family of glycoprotein cofactors that are required for the efficient catabolization of SPHINGOLIPIDS by specific acid hydrolases such as GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE; GALACTOCEREBROSIDASE; BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE; and CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Aminocaproates: Amino derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the amino caproic acid structure.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1: A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases: A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Carboxypeptidase B: A ZINC-dependent carboxypeptidase primary found in the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. The enzyme catalyzes the preferential cleavage of a C-terminal peptidyl-L-lysine or arginine. It was formerly classified as EC 184.108.40.206 and EC 220.127.116.11.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
... has been shown to interact with Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Orosomucoid GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000229314 ... This gene encodes a key acute phase plasma protein. Because of its increase due to acute inflammation, this protein is ... 1986). "Mapping through somatic cell hybrids and cDNA probes of protein C to chromosome 2, factor X to chromosome 13, and alpha ... The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined; however, it may be involved in aspects of immunosuppression ...
... also binds to PAIR-BP1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor RNA-binding protein-1). However, its expression outside of the ... plasminogen activator inhibitor RNA-binding protein-1). However, PAIR-BP1 is not a progesterone binding protein, and the ... PGRMC1 alters several known survival signaling proteins, including the Akt protein kinase and the cell death-associated protein ... is a protein which co-purifies with progesterone binding proteins in the liver and ovary. In humans, the PGRMC1 protein is ...
Grinberg AV, Kerppola T (Mar 2003). "Both Max and TFE3 cooperate with Smad proteins to bind the plasminogen activator inhibitor ... "Synergistic cooperation of TFE3 and smad proteins in TGF-beta-induced transcription of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ... "Specificity in transforming growth factor beta-induced transcription of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene: ... "Specificity in transforming growth factor beta-induced transcription of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene: ...
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA-binding protein (serbp1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERBP1 gene. ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... Bucková D; Izakovicová Hollá L; Vácha J (2002). "Polymorphism 4G/5G in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene is ... 2002). "The influence of 4G/5G polymorphism in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene promoter on the incidence, growth and ...
"Familial association of high levels of histidine-rich glycoprotein and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 with venous ... This protein is known to interact with: Thrombospondin Haem Zn2+ Heparin Plasminogen IgG GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... It can inhibit rosette formation and interacts with heparin, thrombospondin, and plasminogen. Two of the protein's effects, the ... "Isolation and characterization of a human plasma protein with affinity for the lysine binding sites in plasminogen. Role in the ...
... and inactivates α2-antiplasmin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. It could potentially contribute to either coagulation ... Aureolysin can cleave a bacterial surface proteins, including clumping factor B, and secreted proteins, i.a. phenol-soluble ... which in turn is the activator of staphopain B, a cysteine protease. Aureolysin cleaves different proteins among inflammatory ... Aureolysin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Aureolysin at Universal Protein Resource ( ...
... plasma P-selectin concentration was reported to be highly correlated to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and tissue ... Bajorath J, Stenkamp R, Aruffo A (1994). "Knowledge-based model building of proteins: concepts and examples". Protein Sci. 2 ( ... an EGF-like domain and a complement-binding protein-like domains (same as complement regulatory proteins: CRP) having short ... plasminogen activator activity. P-selectin is found in endothelial cells and platelets where it is stored in Weibel-Palade ...
The protein is a member of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 family, a subset of the serpin superfamily whose members act ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily made up of proteins which ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
... small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of ... Involucrin is a protein component of human skin and in humans is encoded by the IVL gene. In binding the protein loricrin, ... "Roxithromycin suppresses involucrin expression by modulation of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB activities of ... Lee CH, Marekov LN, Kim S, Brahim JS, Park MH, Steinert PM (July 2000). "Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of ...
... protein to different conformational states of the clade E serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and proteinase nexin-1". ... Dougherty KM, Pearson JM, Yang AY, Westrick RJ, Baker MS, Ginsburg D (January 1999). "The plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 ... Fay WP, Parker AC, Condrey LR, Shapiro AD (July 1997). "Human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) deficiency: ... Lindahl TL, Sigurdardottir O, Wiman B (September 1989). "Stability of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1)". Thrombosis ...
Hypercoagulability in pregnancy
Fibrinolysis is impaired by an increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 or PAI) and plasminogen activator inhibitor ... Protein S, an anticoagulant, decreases. However, the other major anticoagulants, protein C and antithrombin III, remain ... proteins C and S deficiencies, and antithrombin III deficiency. Hypercoagulability in pregnancy, particularly due to ... A dose of 1 mg protamine / 100 IU LMWH reverses 90% of its anti-IIa and 60% of anti-Xa activity, but the clinical effect of the ...
The protein was initially crystallized in complex with one of its physiological binding partners: the Plasminogen activator ... The somatomedin B domain of vitronectin binds to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and stabilizes it. Thus vitronectin ... About one-third of the protein's molecular mass is composed of carbohydrates. On occasion, the protein is cleaved after ... serine protease inhibitors). It is a secreted protein and exists in either a single chain form or a clipped, two chain form ...
... small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of ... "Differential expression of protease inhibitor and small proline-rich protein genes between normal human oral tissue and ... Lee CH, Marekov LN, Kim S, Brahim JS, Park MH, Steinert PM (July 2000). "Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of ... "Entrez Gene: SPRR1A small proline-rich protein 1A". Greco MA, Lorand L, Lane WS, Baden HP, Parameswaran KN, Kvedar JC (February ...
Nam TJ, Busby W, Clemmons DR (1997). "Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 binds to plasminogen activator inhibitor-I ... Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGFBP5 gene. An IGFBP5 gene was ... Schneider MR, Wolf E, Hoeflich A, Lahm H (2002). "IGF-binding protein-5: flexible player in the IGF system and effector on its ... Kiefer MC, Ioh RS, Bauer DM, Zapf J (1991). "Molecular cloning of a new human insulin-like growth factor binding protein". ...
... regulates the circadian oscillation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... The encoded protein contains a basic helix-loop-helix domain protein dimerization domain as well as a domain found in proteins ... which disrupt the protein hydroxylation/degradation mechanism, and leads to protein stabilization and pseudohypoxic signaling. ... "Entrez Gene: EPAS1 endothelial PAS domain protein 1". Yi X, Liang Y, Huerta-Sanchez E, Jin X, Cuo ZX, Pool JE, Xu X, Jiang H, ...
AP-1 transcription factor
Masuda A, Yoshikai Y, Kume H, Matsuguchi T (November 2004). "The interaction between GATA proteins and activator protein-1 ... Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli, ... May 2004). "HMG-I/Y is a c-Jun/activator protein-1 target gene and is necessary for c-Jun-induced anchorage-independent growth ... Activator protein Transcription factor Hess, J; Angel, P; Schorpp-Kistner, M (1 December 2004). "AP-1 subunits: quarrel and ...
... of vitronectin has been demonstrated to interact with both the urokinase receptor and the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ( ... The structure of the SMB domain presents a new protein fold, with the only ordered secondary structure being a single-turn ... Cys-rich somatomedin B-like domains are found in a number of proteins, including plasma-cell membrane glycoprotein (which has ... Jenne D (1991). "Homology of placental protein 11 and pea seed albumin 2 with vitronectin". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 176 ...
... protein S, protein C, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Although this is true ... "G protein-coupled receptor 30-dependent protein kinase A pathway is critical in nongenomic effects of estrogen in attenuating ... Inhibitors of such enzymes can have the opposite effect and can increase estrogen levels and bioavailability. Estrogens act as ... Estrogens affect liver protein synthesis and thereby influence the cardiovascular system. They have been found to affect the ...
Adipose derived hormones include: Adiponectin Resistin Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) TNFα IL-6 Leptin Estradiol (E2 ... Mice lacking this protein eat until they are four times their normal size. Leptin, however, plays a different role in diet- ... UCP1 is a protein predominantly found in BAT. It acts to dissipate the proton gradient generated by oxidative phosphorylation, ... discovered the protein leptin that the genetically obese mouse lacked. Leptin is produced in the white adipose tissue and ...
"Inhibition of Retinoblastoma Protein Degradation by Interaction with the Serpin Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2 via a Novel ... The retinoblastoma protein (protein name abbreviated pRb; gene name abbreviated RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that ... MyoD NCOA6 PA2G4 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma PIK3R3 Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 Polymerase (DNA ... RB/E2F-family proteins repress transcription. Rb is a multifunctional protein with many binding and phosphorylation sites. ...
... plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) visfatin omentin ... 1048-1054 Christiansen T., Richelsen B., and Bruun J.M. (2005) "Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is produced in isolated ... Members include: Leptin Adiponectin Apelin chemerin interleukin-6 (IL-6) monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) ... and inducible protein 10 (IP-10 or CXCL10) have been shown to be associated with excessive body weight. Conde J, Scotece M, ...
... plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (which protects the body from inadequate coagulation by blocking protease-triggered ... Natural protease inhibitors include the family of lipocalin proteins, which play a role in cell regulation and differentiation ... Other natural protease inhibitors are used as defense mechanisms. Common examples are the trypsin inhibitors found in the seeds ... The natural protease inhibitors are not to be confused with the protease inhibitors used in antiretroviral therapy. Some ...
... regulates the circadian oscillation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... The protein product of the gene interacts with both CLOCK and NPAS2 to bind to E-box sequences in regulated promoters and ... ARNTL2 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ARNTL2 genome location and ... Rutila JE, Suri V, Le M, So WV, Rosbash M, Hall JC (May 1998). "CYCLE is a second bHLH-PAS clock protein essential for ...
Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein
2005). "Glycation does not alter LDL-induced secretion of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ... Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTPA gene. Familial isolated vitamin E ... Wolf AT, Medcalf RL, Jern C (2005). "The t-PA -7351C>T enhancer polymorphism decreases Sp1 and Sp3 protein binding affinity and ... Min KC, Kovall RA, Hendrickson WA (2004). "Crystal structure of human alpha-tocopherol transfer protein bound to its ligand: ...
... is a drug which acts as an inhibitor of the serpin protein plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), thereby increasing ... Tiplaxtinin, a novel, orally efficacious inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1: design, synthesis, and preclinical ... orally efficacious inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1: Design, synthesis, and preclinical characterization". ... Therapeutic potential of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 inhibitors. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Oct;4(5):315-24. Brown, N ...
Descheemaeker K (1993). "On the regulation of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression". Verh. K. Acad. Geneeskd. ... The encoded protein contains a RING finger DNA binding motif. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found ... of a helicase-like transcription factor involved in the expression of the human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene". DNA ... Sp1 or Sp3 and the helicase-like transcription factor mediate basal expression from the human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ...
"Complexes of tissue-type plasminogen activator and its serpin inhibitor plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1 are internalized ... Protein C inhibitor, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, RAP, Ricin A, SHC1, and Sphingolipid activator protein, SYNJ2BP. Tat, Thrombin, ... These repeats bind extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors, proteases, protease inhibitor complexes, and other proteins ... "Glioma-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) regulates the recruitment of LRP1 positive mast cells". Oncotarget. 6 ...
Acquired protein C deficiency is caused by either depletion of available protein C in plasma or decreased protein C synthesis ( ... The depletion of anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory proteins, in particular, protein C and its co-factor, protein S, may also ... Report of the Working Party on Homozygous Protein C Deficiency of the Subcommittee on Protein C and Protein S, International ... protein C and protein S, with increased synthesis of prothrombotic proteins Factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and fibrinogen ...
"Epithelial glycoprotein-330 mediates endocytosis of plasminogen activator-plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 complexes". J ... Low density lipoprotein-related protein 2 also known as LRP2 or megalin is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LRP2 ... LRP2 has been shown to interact with: DAB2, DLG4, GIPC1, ITGB1BP1, LDL-receptor-related protein associated protein, LDLRAP1, ... Lundgren S, Hjälm G, Hellman P, Ek B, Juhlin C, Rastad J, Klareskog L, Akerström G, Rask L (1994). "A protein involved in ...
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 - I3WWD7 (I3WWD7 ONCMY)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): I3WWD7 - Oncorhynchus mykiss 1 * Q3ZBB9 - Bos taurus no matching PDB entries ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
Elevated Levels of Acute-Phase Proteins and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes |...
High plasminogen activator inhibitor and tissue plasminogen activator levels in plasma precede a first myocardial infarction in ... Elevated Levels of Acute-Phase Proteins and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes. The ... We studied the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in 1,047 ... In the present study, we investigated the relation of C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor ...
Interleukin-6 and Mevastatin Regulate Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Through CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein-δ |...
Devaraj S, Xu DY, Jialal I. C-reactive protein increases plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression and activity in human ... Bourcier T, Libby P. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors reduce plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression by human vascular smooth ... Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and vasculopathy. A reconcilable paradox. Circulation. 1999; 99: 2496-2498. ... Interleukin-6 and Mevastatin Regulate Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Through CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein-δ. Jie Dong, ...
Induction of insulin resistance by the adipokines resistin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and retinol binding...
SH2 containing protein tyrosine phosphatases, the protein inhibitors of activated STAT and SOCS proteins.35 SOCS proteins ... 2002) Elevated levels of acute-phase proteins and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 predict the development of type 2 diabetes ... Resistin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and retinol binding protein 4 induce insulin resistance in megakaryocytes. ... Results Resistin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and retinol binding protein 4 left platelets unchanged but induced ...
Cellular localization of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor messenger RNA and protein in murine renal tissue. - Semantic...
Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) may be markedly increased in the plasma of patients with endotoxemia and/or ... The PAI-1 mRNA hybridization signal could further be observed in peritubular endothelial cells in the medulla and in ... In the control kidneys, low levels of PAI-1 mRNA were detected in the renal papilla and in the muscular walls of renal arteries ... Northern blot analysis confirmed that the level of renal PAI-1 mRNA was greatly increased in the endotoxemic mice relative to ...
Attenuation of the Synthesis of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 by Niacin | Circulation
... total protein was assayed in conditioned medium (Bio-Rad Protein Assay). ... Evidence for increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor and tissue plasminogen activator in plasma of patients with ... Induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor by products released from platelets. Circulation. 1990;82:1485-1493. ... Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a primary inhibitor of tissue-type (TPA) and urokinase plasminogen activators ...
Structure Cluster - 1LJ5: 1.8A Resolution Structure of Latent Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1(PAI-1) 3D Similarity...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Pre-calculated protein structure alignments at the RCSB PDB website. Bioinformatics 26: 2983-2985 ... Description: PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR-1 protein , Length: 379 No structure alignment results are available for 1LJ5.A ... 1.8A Resolution Structure of Latent Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1(PAI-1). ...
N-Acetyl-Seryl-Aspartyl-Lysyl-Proline Inhibits TGF-β-Mediated Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Expression via Inhibition of...
Effect of MEK Inhibitor on Ac-SDKP-Mediated Inhibition of Smad2 Phosphorylation. Smad proteins consist of conserved amino- and ... Ac-SDKP inhibited TGF-β1-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and alpha2 (I) collagen mRNA. Ac-SDKP suppressed not ... Umeda T, Eguchi Y, Okino K, Kodama M, Hattori T: Cellular localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, its inhibitors ... N-Acetyl-Seryl-Aspartyl-Lysyl-Proline Inhibits TGF-β-Mediated Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Expression via Inhibition of ...
Altered expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor in high-risk soft tissue sarcomas
The aim of this study was to detect alterations in the urokinase-type plasminogen system, involved in tumor growth and invasion ... There was accordance between uPA mRNA and protein expression, while immunodetection of PAI-1 product was weak and scattered. ... Altered expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor in high-risk soft tissue ... to evaluate the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator ...
Overexpression of SERBP1 (Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA binding protein) in human breast cancer is correlated with...
Its potential involvement in the plasminogen activator protease cascade warrants further investigation. ... SERBP1, a protein that is supposed to regulate the stability of PAI-1 mRNA, may play a role in gynaecological cancers as well, ... The RNA-binding protein SERBP1 is abundantly expressed in human breast cancer and may represent a novel breast tumour marker ... SERBP1 is not differentially expressed in breast carcinoma compared to normal breast tissue, both at the RNA and protein level ...
Expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, urokinase receptor and laminin gamma-2 chain is an early coordinated event in...
We have studied the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and urokinase receptor (uPAR) together with the ... 0/LAMC2 protein, human; 0/Laminin; 0/PLAUR protein, human; 0/Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; 0/Receptors, Cell Surface; 0/ ... Expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, urokinase receptor and laminin gamma-2 chain is an early coordinated event in ... Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator. Serine Proteinase Inhibitors / analysis. Tumor Markers, Biological / analysis*, ...
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 - wikidoc
... also known as endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor or serpin E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINE1 ... The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: I04.020. *Plasminogen+Activator+Inhibitor+1 at the US National ... protein (SERPINE1). The other PAI, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) is secreted by the placenta and only present in ... a natural product inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1". Scientific Reports. 6: 36462. doi:10.1038/srep36462. PMC ...
Aldosterone and Not Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Is a Critical Mediator of Early Angiotensin II/NG-Nitro-l-Arginine Methyl...
Urinary protein concentration was determined with a Coomassie Plus protein assay (Pierce). Analysis of sodium and creatinine ... High plasminogen activator inhibitor and tissue plasminogen activator levels in plasma precede a first acute myocardial ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor prevents plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in a rat model with ... Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression is regulated by the angiotensin type 1 receptor in vivo. Kidney Int. 2000; 58: 251 ...
Plasminogen activator, tissue type regulates germinal vesicle breakdown and cumulus expansion of bovine cumulus-oocyte complex...
... and its inhibitor serpin family E member 1 (SERPINE1) cooperatively regulate PLAT activity in various reproductive pro... ... Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2. Member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type ... Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 Gene Expression will be evaluated clinically and ... Tissue Plasminogen Activator & Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 In Gingival Tissues Of Chronic Periodontitis ...
Complete plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 deficiency: MedlinePlus Genetics
Complete plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 deficiency (complete PAI-1 deficiency) is a disorder that causes abnormal bleeding. ... This gene provides instructions for making a protein called plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). PAI-1 is involved in ... the action of other proteins called plasminogen activators. These proteins promote the dissolution of clots (fibrinolysis). By ... Human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) deficiency: characterization of a large kindred with a null mutation in the PAI ...
Very-low-density lipoprotein response element in the promoter region of the human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene...
These findings may provide a molecular explanation to the link between VLDL and PAI-1 activity elevation in plasma and to the ... Herein we show by transfection assays that VLDLs induce transcription of the human PAI-1 promoter in endothelial cells. A VLDL ... Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may attenuate fibrinolysis by increasing the plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ... PAI-1). Furthermore, a common 4/5 guanosine (4G/5G) polymorphism in the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene has been indicated to ...
Inhibition of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Edelsbrunner H, Facello M, Fu P, Liang J Measuring Proteins and Voids in Proteins. Proceedings of the 28th Hawaii International ... Tiplaxtinin, a novel, orally efficacious inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1: design, synthesis, and preclinical ... Inhibition of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1. Its Mechanism and Effectiveness on Coagulation and Fibrosis. Yuko Izuhara, ... Absent of host plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 prevents cancer invasion and vascularization. Nature Med. 1998; 4: 923-928. ...
In peripartum cardiomyopathy Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 is a potential new biomarker with controversial roles. - PubMed...
C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β did not differ between PPCM patients and PP-Ctrl. MiR-146a) was 3.6-fold ... In peripartum cardiomyopathy Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 is a potential new biomarker with controversial roles.. Ricke- ... We analyze whether the plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is involved in PPCM pathophysiology. ... Nonhoff J1, Haidari S1, Bomer N2, Scherr M3, Stapel B1, Stelling E1, Kiyan Y4, Falk C5, Haghikia A1,6, Binah O7, Arany Z8, Thum ...
Hepatocyte growth factor signaling regulates transactivation of genes belonging to the plasminogen activation system via...
Here we report that a molecular mechanism possibly contributing to these functions of HGF may be hypoxia inducible factor-1 ( ... Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / genetics* * Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / metabolism * Plasminogen Activators / ... JNK1 wild-type expression vector increased HIF-1alpha protein expression probably in a phosphorylated state and, thus, ... Hepatocyte growth factor signaling regulates transactivation of genes belonging to the plasminogen activation system via ...
JCI - A mutant, noninhibitory plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 decreases matrix accumulation in experimental...
... although TGF-β1 protein was significantly reduced. These observations strongly support our hypothesis that PAI-1R reduces ... In fibrotic renal disease, elevated TGF-β and angiotensin II lead to increased plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). ... A mutant, noninhibitory plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 decreases matrix accumulation in experimental glomerulonephritis ... A mutant, noninhibitory plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 decreases matrix accumulation in experimental glomerulonephritis ...
ORM1 - Wikipedia
ORM1 has been shown to interact with Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Orosomucoid GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000229314 ... This gene encodes a key acute phase plasma protein. Because of its increase due to acute inflammation, this protein is ... 1986). "Mapping through somatic cell hybrids and cDNA probes of protein C to chromosome 2, factor X to chromosome 13, and alpha ... The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined; however, it may be involved in aspects of immunosuppression ...
Plasminogen-1 activator inhibitor gene 4G/5G promotor polymorphism and blood level of its protein product in hemorrhagic fever...
Plasminogen-1 activator inhibitor gene 4G/5G promotor polymorphism and blood level of its protein product in hemorrhagic fever ... The dynamics of plasma level of plasminogen-1 activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and frequency distribution of PAI-1 gene polymorphic ... Baygildina AA1, Islamgulov DV, Minniakhmetov IR.. Author information. 1. Department of Biological Chemistry and Organic ... A significant elevation of PAI-1 level was recorded during fever in adult patients of mature age groups I and II with medium ...
Perilla oil and exercise decrease expressions of tumor necrosis factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and highly sensitive...
Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in obesity and insulin resistance | PNAS
Protection from High Fat Diet-induced Increase in Ceramide in Mice Lacking Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 ... plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is elevated in human obesity and type II diabetes (9, 10). Tumor necrosis factor α ( ... plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor α; IR, insulin-resistant; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant ... Values were normalized to total cell protein determined by using the BCA protein assay (Pierce). ...
Cellular and molecular mechanisms of renal fibrosis. - PubMed - NCBI
... non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 2; PAI1, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; PDGF, platelet-derived ... plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; TBM, tubular basement membrane; TGF-β1, transforming ... Integrins and ILK and their associated proteins constitute the core components of this machinery. TGF-β1 regulates the ... PDGF and FGF2 activate their respective receptor tyrosine kinases and influence this complex via cytoplasmic protein NCK2. CTGF ...
Figure 2 - Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease - Volume 20, Number 10-October 2014 ...
... normal T-cell expressed and secreted marker and lower levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, soluble intracellular ... plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Mean levels are depicted in each patient group as a function of time after symptom onset. ... A) Interleukin 10; B) interferon γ-inducible protein 10; C) regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted; D) ...
Insulin Resistance and Cancer Risk: An Overview of the Pathogenetic Mechanisms
... and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, ... plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), can play a role in malignant transformation ... facilitating DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions [47-49]. By potentiating the recruitment and binding of Sp1 and C/EBP ... plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; IGFBPs IGF-I binding proteins; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor. ...
Table 3 - Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease - Volume 20, Number 10-October 2014 -...
... normal T-cell expressed and secreted marker and lower levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, soluble intracellular ... plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; RANTES, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted; SAA, serum amyloid ... IP-10, interferon γ-inducible protein 10; MCSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor; PAI-1, ...
Pediatric Thromboembolism Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Inpatient Care, Duration of Therapy
... plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; PL = phospholipid; TM = thrombomodulin; t-PA = tissue type plasminogen activator; u-PA = ... Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and protein C mutation frequency in Turkish venous thrombosis patients. Clin Appl Thromb ... times the usual concentration of urokinase given to adults and 5 times the usual concentration of tissue plasminogen activator ... a = active; APC = activated protein C; F = factor; FDP= fibrin degradation products; HMW = high molecular weight; PAI-1 = ...
Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (Pgrmc1): A Heme-1 Domain Protein That Promotes Tumorigenesis and Is Inhibited by a...
plasminogen activator inhibitor. PAIR-BP1. plasminogen activator inhibitor RNA binding protein. Hpr. human membrane ... Pgrmc1 is also associated with progesterone signaling and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI1) RNA binding protein, but ... One of the best-characterized binding partners for Pgrmc1 is the RNA binding protein PAIR-BP1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor ... sterol regulatory element binding protein cleavage activating protein), and P450 proteins, but Pgrmc1 did not affect ...
ReceptorUrokinaseSerine proteaseTissue-typeFibrinolysisSerpine1OverexpressionSerumPhysiologicalConcentrationsCytokinesEndothelial plasminogenInhibitionProteaseVitronectinRegulatesTumor necrosBlood clotsThrombosisDeficiencyInducesConclusionsGenesNexinVascular cell adhesionMain inhibitorLeptinTypeFibrinAcute-phase pRecombinant tissueMetabolismCoagulation cascadeAntigenMMPs0.05ConcentrationHumansInteractionsUPARInsulinHemostasisResidues in proteinsLevels
- Tissue urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in breast cancer. (elsevier.com)
- Thus, we examined the tissue levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in breast cancer patients. (elsevier.com)
- PAI-1 is a serine protease inhibitor ( serpin ) that functions as the principal inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase (uPA), the activators of plasminogen and hence fibrinolysis (the physiological breakdown of blood clots ). (wikidoc.org)
- It is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) protein (SERPINE1). (wikidoc.org)
- PAI-1 is a member of serine protease inhibitor superfamily, also known as Serpin E1. (thermofisher.com)
- miR-199a-3p overexpression inhibited the expression of the extracellular serine protease inhibitor E2 (SerpinE2). (antibodies-online.com)
- Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (placental PAI, SerpinB2, PAI-2), a serine protease inhibitor of the serpin superfamily, is a coagulation factor that inactivates tPA and urokinase . (wikipedia.org)
- Serine protease inhibitor with activity toward thrombin, trypsin, and urokinase. (genecards.org)
- Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a primary inhibitor of tissue-type (TPA) and urokinase plasminogen activators. (ahajournals.org)
- Plasminogen activator, tissue type (PLAT) and its inhibitor serpin family E member 1 (SERPINE1) cooperatively regulate PLAT activity in various reproductive processes. (bioportfolio.com)
- Tissue-type plasminogen activator regulates p35-mediated Cdk5 activation in the postsynaptic terminal. (bioportfolio.com)
- Neuronal depolarization induces the synaptic release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). (bioportfolio.com)
- PAI-1 regulates the plasminogen activation system through inhibition of its target serine proteases, tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (tPA and uPA). (ahajournals.org)
- tPA, tissue-type plasminogen activator. (nih.gov)
- Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the main inhibitor of plasminogen activators, such as tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), and a major regulator of the fibrinolytic system. (hindawi.com)
- Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the principal inhibitor of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA), which convert plasminogen to plasmin. (thermofisher.com)
- PAI-1 is the main inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and, as such, plays an important role in the regulation of fibrinolysis. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- The LRP1 agonists, α 2 -macroglobulin and tissue-type plasminogen activator, attenuated expression of inflammatory mediators, even in the presence of LPS. (pnas.org)
- This is of particular interest because decreased insulin sensitivity has been linked to incident type 2 diabetes ( 8 ), as well as increased levels of inflammatory proteins ( 9 , 10 ) and markers of hemostasis ( 11 , 12 ) and fibrinolysis ( 11 , 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Objective- We sought to determine the etiologic mechanism of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and statin as regulators of synthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the physiological fibrinolysis inhibitor and an acute-phase reactant. (ahajournals.org)
- 1 Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the physiological inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is an acute-phase protein that impairs fibrinolysis. (ahajournals.org)
- Conclusions These results suggest that niacin, by decreasing PAI-1 expression, may potentiate fibrinolysis, thereby decreasing the stimulation of atherogenesis by clot-associated mitogens associated with microthrombi. (ahajournals.org)
- Thus, PAI can be said to inhibit the serine proteases tPA and uPA/urokinase, and hence is an inhibitor of fibrinolysis , the physiological process that degrades blood clots. (wikidoc.org)
- These proteins promote the dissolution of clots (fibrinolysis). (medlineplus.gov)
- Very-low-density lipoprotein response element in the promoter region of the human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene implicated in the impaired fibrinolysis of hypertriglyceridemia. (semanticscholar.org)
- Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may attenuate fibrinolysis by increasing the plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). (semanticscholar.org)
- Objective- Serine protease inhibitors (serpin) play a central role in various pathological processes including coagulation, fibrinolysis, malignancy, and inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
- In vitro they specifically inhibit the PAI-1 activity and enhance fibrinolysis activity. (ahajournals.org)
- Serine protease inhibitors (serpin) play a central role in the regulation of a variety of pathological processes including coagulation, fibrinolysis, malignancy, and inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
- This inhibitor acts as 'bait' for tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase, and protein C. Its rapid interaction with TPA may function as a major control point in the regulation of fibrinolysis. (abcam.com)
- The bleeding defect is due to increased fibrinolysis of fibrin blood clots due to deficiency of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, which inhibits tissue and urinary activators of plasminogen. (abcam.com)
- inactivate Va +VIIIa PAIs (Plasminogen Activator Inhibitors) limit fibrinolysis: inhibit t-PA binding to fibrin. (prezi.com)
- Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) also known as endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor or serpin E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINE1 gene . (wikidoc.org)
- The PAI-1 gene is SERPINE1 , located on chromosome 7 (7q21.3-q22). (wikidoc.org)
- Complete PAI-1 deficiency is caused by mutations in the SERPINE1 gene. (medlineplus.gov)
- The SERPINE1 gene mutations that cause complete PAI-1 deficiency result in the production of a PAI-1 protein that is nonfunctional or that is unstable and quickly broken down. (medlineplus.gov)
- Defects in SERPINE1 are the cause of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (PAI-1D) [MIM: (abcam.com)
- Clearly, the controversial role of PAI-1 protein requires further biological analyses, but evident involvement of uPA/PAI-1 gene overexpression in STS malignancy may highlight a molecular defect useful in discriminating STS high-risk patients. (nih.gov)
- Treatment did not alter overexpression of TGF-β1 and PAI-1 mRNAs, although TGF-β1 protein was significantly reduced. (jci.org)
- Elevated serum levels of acute-phase proteins, indicating chronic subclinical inflammation, have been associated with cardiovascular disease as well as the insulin resistance syndrome. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Several experimental and prospective epidemiological studies have shown an association of elevated serum levels of acute-phase proteins, indicating chronic subclinical inflammation, with cardiovascular disease (reviewed in Lagrand et al. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The medium was replaced with fresh serum-free medium containing 1 ng/mL IL-6 or 10 μmol/L mevastatin (Sigma). (ahajournals.org)
- Confluent monolayers were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with Ham's nutrient mixture F12 with HEPES (DME/F12) (WUMSTCSS) in the absence of serum for 4 to 24 hours, an interval sufficient for the decline of PAI-1 synthesis to basal levels. (ahajournals.org)
- However, serum levels of MMP-3 expression in BDI were decreased 9.0 ± 1 vs. healthy controls 20.3 ± 6 ng/mL ( p (scirp.org)
- Interestingly, expression of the fibrinolytic protein MMP-8 was increased in serum and liver biopsies in BDI. (scirp.org)
- The Human Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) ELISA research-use-only kit is to be used for the quantitative determination of human PAI-1 in samples (e.g., serum, EDTA and heparin plasma, cell culture supernatants, etc.) using 96-well plates and a microplate reader. (thermofisher.com)
- The presence of serum proteins and intracellular proteins from damaged cells, released during culture, may dramatically influence the dynamic range of the sample and thereby identification of secreted proteins. (mcponline.org)
- For the secretome experiment, explants were cultured in media containing l -[ 13 C 6 , 15 N 2 ]lysine to validate the origin of the identified proteins (adipose tissue- or serum-derived). (mcponline.org)
- Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), the primary physiological inhibitor of endogenous plasminogen activators, has been implicated as a potentiating factor in atherogenesis as well as in coronary thrombosis. (ahajournals.org)
- Aging is not a disease, but a series of physiological events that are usually inevitable [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
- We studied the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in 1,047 nondiabetic subjects in relation to incident diabetes within 5 years in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Increased plasma concentrations of PAI-1 have been associated with premature coronary artery disease, 1 2 3 4 acute myocardial infarction, 5 6 7 and restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. (ahajournals.org)
- Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (semanticscholar.org)
- Thus, relying solely on plasma concentrations of PAI-1 without assessing its function may be misleading in interpreting the role of PAI-1 in many complex diseases. (hindawi.com)
- DEP also significantly increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and TNF a concentrations, systolic blood pressure (SBP) as well as the pial arteriolar thrombosis. (psu.edu)
- 2000). "Concordant decreases of thyroxine and thyroxine binding protein concentrations during sepsis. (downstate.edu)
- 4-9 Increases of acute-phase proteins including PAI-1 are attributable largely to changes in hepatic productions by proinflammatory cytokines. (ahajournals.org)
- 11 However, no classic inflammatory responsive element was found in the PAI-1 promoter, and it is unclear via which mechanism PAI-1 expression is increased by cytokines. (ahajournals.org)
- The adherent platelets recruit and activate monocytes, which start releasing chemokines, cytokines and enzymes that degrade the endothelial matrix and trigger expression of tissue factor, the main activator of the coagulation cascade. (haematologica.org)
- Its ligands include integrins, complement factors, growth factors, cytokines, and anticoagulants ( 1 ), and pathogens bind Vn to acquire protection from complement-mediated lysis ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
- LRP1 deletion in macrophages in vitro, under the control of tamoxifen-activated Cre-ER T fusion protein, robustly increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (pnas.org)
- Constitutive shedding of IL-8 in this form was increased in the presence of a neutralizing Ab to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), indicating a role for endothelial plasminogen activator in the shedding of IL-8. (aston.ac.uk)
- Our results indicate that IL-8 is immobilized on the endothelial cell surface through binding to syndecan-1 ectodomains, and that plasmin, generated by endothelial plasminogen activator, induces the shedding of this form of IL-8. (aston.ac.uk)
- 13 Statins can modify fibrinolytic potential of endothelial cells via inhibition of geranylgeranylated Rho protein 14 and act on PAI-1 transcription 12 and inhibit inflammatory transcription factors. (ahajournals.org)
- PAI-1's main function entails the inhibition of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), an enzyme responsible for the cleavage of plasminogen to form plasmin . (wikidoc.org)
- 1 Their inhibition may prove therapeutic. (ahajournals.org)
- 8-12 Inhibition of PAI-1 by a neutralizing antibody 13 provides similar promising results in animal experiments. (ahajournals.org)
- Increased shedding of IL-8/heparan sulfate/syndecan-1 complexes was accompanied by inhibition of neutrophil transendothelial migration, and aprotinin, a potent plasmin inhibitor, reversed this inhibition. (aston.ac.uk)
- TGF-β stimulates the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagens, laminin, and fibronectin, while it suppresses the expression of ECM-degrading proteases and increases the synthesis of ECM protease inhibitors, including plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) ( 22 ). (asnjournals.org)
- In addition, protease nexin acts as an inhibitor of tPA and urokinase. (wikidoc.org)
- Retavase contains 355 of the 527 amino acids of native human tPA (amino acids 1-3 and 176-527), and retains the activity-related kringle-2 and serine protease domains of human tPA. (drugbank.ca)
- The protease domain then cleaves the Arg/Val bond in plasminogen to form plasmin. (drugbank.ca)
- After the formation of an initial docking complex, the proteases cleave the reactive center loop of PAI-1 to form a stable, covalent complex, resulting in the inactivation of the targeted serine protease. (thermofisher.com)
- We constructed a novel series of recombinant anticoagulant fusion proteins by linking annexin V (ANV), a PS-binding protein, to the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI) domain of tick anticoagulant protein, an aprotinin mutant ( 6L15 ), amyloid β-protein precursor, or tissue factor pathway inhibitor. (bloodjournal.org)
- We hypothesized that therapy with a mutant human PAI-1 (PAI-1R) that binds to matrix vitronectin but does not inhibit plasminogen activators, would enhance plasmin generation, increase matrix turnover, and decrease matrix accumulation in experimental glomerulonephritis. (jci.org)
- It was demonstrated that binding of vitronectin to PAI-1 could stabilize the active form by preventing the conformation change. (thermofisher.com)
- The PAI-1-binding protein vitronectin reversed the changes associated with the lack of glycosylation at one of the sites. (dtu.dk)
- Circulating PAI-1 is bound to vitronectin, which protects the inhibitor from inactivation and may assist in targeting the inhibitor to sites of vascular injury. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- APA-1 was able to transactivate and bind to the MMP1 promoter, suggesting that APA-1 is a transcription factor that regulates expression of matrix-remodeling genes during fibroblast senescence. (asm.org)
- The 44-residue somatomedin B (SMB) domain regulates plasminogen activation ( 10 ), and the contiguous ArgGlyAsp (RGD) motif (residues 64 to 66) mediates binding to integrin receptors ( 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Besides its function as an energy storage depot in the form of triglycerides, adipose tissue secretes a variety of peptide and protein hormones (adipokines) involved in the regulation of energy metabolism such as leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, retinol-binding protein-4, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) 1 and interleukin 6 ( 1 - 3 ). (mcponline.org)
- Absence of functional PAI-1 protein allows plasminogen activators to dissolve blood clots prematurely, resulting in the abnormal bleeding associated with this disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
- In addition to reducing vascular blockages, inhibiting PAI-1 also produces a blood thinning effect that prevents the blood clots that trigger most heart attacks and strokes. (eurekalert.org)
- Enhanced thrombosis in atherosclerosis-prone mice is associated with increased arterial expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. (semanticscholar.org)
- 8 Transgenic mice that express active human PAI-1 in endothelial cells develop coronary artery perivascular fibrosis, coronary artery thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. (ahajournals.org)
- 1 Studies in humans and animals have demonstrated that PAI-1 expression is enhanced in various disorders such as thrombosis, fibrotic diseases, atherosclerosis, radiation damage, and cancer progression. (ahajournals.org)
- These compounds inhibit PAI-1 activity in vitro and coagulation in vivo in two rodent models of vascular thrombosis. (ahajournals.org)
- PAI-1 plays a pivotal role in acute thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and myocardial infarction (MI). (hindawi.com)
- The biological effects of PAI-1 extend far beyond thrombosis including its critical role in fibrotic disorders, atherosclerosis, renal and pulmonary fibrosis, type-2 diabetes, and cancer. (hindawi.com)
- Latency transition is believed to represent a regulatory mechanism, reducing the risk of thrombosis from a prolonged antifibrinolytic action of PAI-1. (hindawi.com)
- The study, "Pharmacological Targeting of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Decreases Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration and Neointima Formation," recently was published in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology , a journal of the American Heart Association that focuses on blood vessel diseases. (eurekalert.org)
- Elevated levels of PAI-1 result in deficient plasminogen activation and are associated with a predisposition to thrombosis, including veno-occlusive disease (VOD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Familial thrombosis has been associated with inherited elevation of plasma PAI-1 activity. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- The risk for venous thrombosis associated with protein S deficiency has been uncertain because all previous risk estimates used phenotypic evaluation alone, which can be ambiguous. (annals.org)
- Comprehensive history of thrombosis, history of exposure to acquired risk factors for thrombosis, levels of total and free protein S antigen, and genotype for the mutation causing the Gly295→Val substitution. (annals.org)
- Complete plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 deficiency (complete PAI-1 deficiency) is a disorder that causes abnormal bleeding. (medlineplus.gov)
- Individuals with complete PAI-1 deficiency may experience prolonged nosebleeds, excessive bleeding after medical or dental procedures, easy bruising, and significant bleeding into the joints or soft tissues after even a minor injury. (medlineplus.gov)
- In addition to bleeding problems, some people with complete PAI-1 deficiency develop scar tissue in the heart (cardiac fibrosis), which can lead to heart failure. (medlineplus.gov)
- Complete PAI-1 deficiency is inherited equally by both sexes, but tends to be diagnosed earlier and more frequently in females because of its effects on menstruation, pregnancy, and childbirth. (medlineplus.gov)
- The obstetric, gynaecological and fertility implications of homozygous PAI-1 deficiency: single-centre experience. (medlineplus.gov)
- Conclusions- IL-6 increases hepatic PAI-1 expression mediated by the −232- to −210-bp region of the promoter containing a C/EBPδ binding site. (ahajournals.org)
- Conclusions- The present study demonstrates beneficial in vitro and in vivo effects of novel PAI-1 inhibitors. (ahajournals.org)
- Conclusions- Our data indicate that AcSDKP passes the blood-brain barrier, and that treatment of acute stroke with AcSDKP either alone at 1 hour or in combination with tPA at 4 hours of the onset of stroke is effective to reduce ischemic cell damage in a rat model of embolic stroke. (ahajournals.org)
- 10 CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) binding motifs are identified in the promoter regions of most acute-phase protein genes. (ahajournals.org)
- In agreement with data on STS cell lines, significant up-regulation for uPA and PAI-1 genes compared to reference values was seen. (nih.gov)
- Here we report that a molecular mechanism possibly contributing to these functions of HGF may be hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-dependent expression of genes of the plasminogen activation system. (nih.gov)
- Thus, MCP-1 resembles other previously described genes (e.g. (pnas.org)
- Smad2 and Smad3 (Smad2/3) proteins are key signaling molecules for TGF-β and some related family members regulating the transcription of several hundred genes. (jimmunol.org)
- Appearance and disappearance of Syk family protein-tyrosine kinase genes during metazoan evolution. (antievolution.org)
- 1. the RAG genes and RSSs were originally a transposon, and the RAG proteins had transposase activity. (antievolution.org)
- 1. there seems to be ample evidence suggesting that the RAG genes were once transposases, do you dispute this? (antievolution.org)
Vascular cell adhesion1
- PAI-1 predicts type 2 diabetes independent of insulin resistance and other known risk factors for diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- 1 ]). It has been hypothesized that atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes arise from a "common soil" ( 2 , 3 ), and chronic inflammation may be such a candidate ( 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In the present study, we investigated the relation of C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) to incident type 2 diabetes during a 5-year period in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cellular localization of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor messenger RNA and protein in murine renal tissue. (semanticscholar.org)
- Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) may be markedly increased in the plasma of patients with endotoxemia and/or renal disease. (semanticscholar.org)
- A plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 mutant retards diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice by protecting podocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
- 9 PAI-1-deficient mice develop less-extensive vascular fibrosis than do wild-type mice when administered an inhibitor of NO synthase. (ahajournals.org)
- Flevaris P, Vaughan D. The Role of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 in Fibrosis. (medlineplus.gov)
- In fibrotic renal disease, elevated TGF-β and angiotensin II lead to increased plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). (jci.org)
- These results suggest that elevated MCP-1 may induce adipocyte dedifferentiation and contribute to pathologies associated with hyperinsulinemia and obesity, including type II diabetes. (pnas.org)
- In this regard, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is elevated in human obesity and type II diabetes ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
- To assess thiamine status by analysis of plasma, erythrocytes and urine in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and links to markers of vascular dysfunction. (springer.com)
- Diabetic patients (26 type 1 and 48 type 2) with and without microalbuminuria and 20 normal healthy control volunteers were recruited. (springer.com)
- Renal clearance of thiamine was increased 24-fold in type 1 diabetic patients and 16-fold in type 2 diabetic patients. (springer.com)
- Thiamine transporter protein contents of erythrocyte membranes of type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients were increased. (springer.com)
- Low plasma thiamine concentration is prevalent in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, associated with increased thiamine clearance. (springer.com)
- Annexin V+ Microvesicles in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study. (uio.no)
- BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) possesses complementary functions in regulating BV (blood volume) and vascular smooth muscle tone and is vital to the maintenance of cardiovascular homoeostasis [ 1 ]. (clinsci.org)
- A method based on fluorescence quenching was investigated and applied to create an asymmetric energy migration between fluorophores which were covalently and specifically attached to plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2). (diva-portal.org)
- Recently the EFT was also applied to determine intra molecular distances in the protein plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) which was labelled with a sulfhydryl specific derivative of BODIPY. (diva-portal.org)
- The fluorescence is effectively quenched by I- when NBDY is free in water or attached to Cys in different mutants of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2). (diva-portal.org)
- However, the early effects of triglyceride and cholesterol abnormalities on renal injury in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are not fully understood and require reliable animal models for exploration of the underlying mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) antigen is a single-chain glycoprotein (MW 50,000) produced by endothelial cells and hepatocytes and is also present in alpha granules of platelets. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- 1. Early recognition of the type of infection: bacterial vs viral, and type of bacterial infection. (ncl.ac.uk)
- In inflammatory conditions in which fibrin is deposited in tissues, PAI-1 appears to play a significant role in the progression to fibrosis (pathological formation of connective tissue ). (wikidoc.org)
- 6 PAI-1 has been linked with fibrin deposition evolving into organ fibrosis and atherosclerosis, or with striking alterations of cell adhesion and migration mediating cancer progression. (ahajournals.org)
- Platelet alpha granules contain large amounts of PAI-1, which is released during vascular injury and assists in fibrin clot stability. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Moreover, the combination treatment considerably reduced the density of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) positive cerebral blood vessels in the ischemic brain, all of which were associated with reduced microvascular fibrin extravasation and platelet accumulation compared with tPA monotherapy. (ahajournals.org)
- In vitro, AcSDKP blocked fibrin-elevated TGF-β1, PAI-1, and NF-κB proteins in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
- 1) Chronic hyperinsulinemia, in affected individuals, may promote cancer, as insulin can exert its oncogenic potential via abnormal stimulation of multiple cellular signaling cascades, enhancing growth factor-dependent cell proliferation and/or by directly affecting cell metabolism. (hindawi.com)
- Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ involved in storage and release of energy but also in regulation of energy metabolism in other organs via secretion of peptide and protein hormones (adipokines). (mcponline.org)
- Of the hemostatic variables, only PAI-1 antigen was identified as an independent marker for the occurrence of VOD. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Furthermore, PAI-1 antigen and bilirubin were independent variables for predicting severe VOD. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- For free (but not total) protein S antigen levels, the distributions of persons with and persons without the mutation did not overlap. (annals.org)
- Accumulation of PAI-1 protein, assayed with an ELISA, decreased in conditioned media by 72% in 48 hours in a specific, concentration-dependent fashion. (ahajournals.org)
- Moreover, newborns need 11 times the usual concentration of urokinase given to adults and 5 times the usual concentration of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) in order to achieve the same rate of plasminogen activation. (medscape.com)
- The intensity of this colored product is directly proportional to the concentration of Human PAI-1 present in the original specimen. (thermofisher.com)
- Visceral adipose tissue was cultured in five experimental setups, and the quality of resulting samples was evaluated in terms of protein concentration and protein composition. (mcponline.org)
- Previously, however, non-phosphorylation PTMs with equally important regulatory functions have emerged, producing a growing library of reversibly and differentially-modified cytoplasmic PTRPs, including RBPs, whose modification state may alter their structure/conformation and thereby regulate their function, e.g. by influencing their cellular localization, RNA-binding activity, protein-protein interactions or combinations thereof [ 5 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- Since its discovery in 1967 ( 3 ), Vn has been the focus of intensive studies aimed at understanding the molecular basis for its functions ( 1 ), targeting its interactions for therapeutic intervention ( 4 ), and harnessing its adhesive properties for cell and tissue engineering applications ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Our results suggest that PAI-1 is a novel potential marker of initial invasion in oral SCC, and that the coordinated expression of PAI-1 with uPAR and lam-gamma2 sustain the features of the early invasive cancer cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- While circulating PAI-1 may add 16kDa-PRL to induce vascular impairment via the uPAR/NF-κB/miR-146a pathway, experimental data suggest that cardiac PAI-1 expression seems to protect the PPCM heart from fibrosis. (nih.gov)
- Thus, measuring circulating PAI-1 and miR-146a, together with an uPAR/NF-κB-activity assay could be developed into a specific diagnostic marker assay for PPCM, but unrestricted reduction of PAI-1 for therapy may not be advised. (nih.gov)
- In contrast to PAI-1, the association of CRP and fibrinogen with incident diabetes was significantly attenuated after adjustment for body fat (BMI or waist circumference) or insulin sensitivity (S I ), as assessed by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Environmental and genetic factors in relation to elevated circulating levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in Caucasian patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (semanticscholar.org)
- PAI-1 and SREBP-1c ) that remain sensitive to insulin in IR states. (pnas.org)
- Studies of genetically obese mice and cultured adipocytes demonstrate that insulin and TNF-α are two mediators that regulate PAI-1 expression in the adipocyte in vivo ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
- Frank T2D in insulin-resistant individuals develops when beta cells fail to compensate [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- In the endothelium, insulin simultaneously stimulates the production of the vasodilator NO and the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) through signaling pathways that closely parallel the insulin signaling pathways which regulate glucose uptake and cell growth and differentiation in skeletal muscle, adipose, and other tissues. (intechopen.com)
Residues in proteins1
- SERBP1 protein expression was investigated in extracts of cryoconserved human breast cancer tissues with low (n = 8) and high (n = 8) levels of protein PAI-1 by using Western blot analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Extracts with low PAI-1 protein levels (number: 1-3) were associated with intense SERBP1 expression by trend and vice versa high PAI-1 protein levels (number: 4-6) correlated with low SERBP1 expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- PAI-1 is present in increased levels in various disease states (such as a number of forms of cancer ), as well as in obesity and the metabolic syndrome . (wikidoc.org)
- Background- Angiotensin II (Ang II) increases levels of aldosterone and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). (ahajournals.org)
- Increased circulating levels of PAI-1 are independently associated with primary cardiovascular events 7 and reinfarction. (ahajournals.org)
- In addition, neonates have low levels of antithrombin and plasminogen, which cause relative resistance to heparin and thrombolytic agents, respectively. (medscape.com)
- Materials and Methods: Levels of PAI-1, MMP-3, MMP-8, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in 35 patients with post-cholecystectomy BDI by complete biliary obstruction were measured and compared to a healthy control group. (scirp.org)
- These results suggest an imbalance between fibrogenic/fibrinolytic protein levels. (scirp.org)
- Extended passage, telomerase-immortalized fibroblasts had increased levels of APA-1 as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16. (asm.org)
- MMP1 and PAI2 transcript levels also increased in telomerase-immortalized fibroblasts that had high levels of APA-1, demonstrating that the matrix-remodeling phenotype of senescent fibroblasts was not induced by telomere attrition alone. (asm.org)
- Both keratinocytes and mammary epithelial cells arrest after fewer than 30 population doublings due to elevated levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16. (asm.org)
- Levels of vitamin K-dependent procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins in over-anticoagulated patients. (biomedsearch.com)
- There are no reports that focus on the levels of these proteins in over-anticoagulated patients. (biomedsearch.com)
- Increased levels of PAI-1 have also been reported in a number of conditions including malignancy, liver disease, the postoperative period, septic shock, the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, obesity, and coronary heart disease. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Admission PAI-1 levels were quantified using a Luminex analyte platform. (elsevier.com)
- These findings suggest that PAI-1 levels may reflect the burden of endothelial damage and platelet activation after injury. (elsevier.com)