Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol into 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and CMP from CDP-DIACYLGLYCEROL and MYOINOSITOL.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase subclass that includes enzymes formed through the association of a p110gamma catalytic subunit and one of the three regulatory subunits of 84, 87, and 101 kDa in size. This subclass of enzymes is a downstream target of G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase subclass that includes enzymes whose specificity is limited to 1-phosphatidylinositol. Members of this class play a role in vesicular transport and in the regulation of TOR KINASES.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).
A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.
A viral oncoprotein originally isolated from a murine T CELL LYMPHOMA infected with the acutely transforming retrovirus AKT8. v-akt protein is the viral homologue of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-AKT.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase subclass that includes enzymes formed through the heterodimerization of a p110 catalytic and a p85, p55, or p50 regulatory subunit. This subclass of enzymes is a downstream target of TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS and G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase subclass that includes enzymes with a specificity for 1-phosphatidylinositol, 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, and 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Members of this enzyme subclass are activated by cell surface receptors and occur as heterodimers of enzymatic and regulatory subunits.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is structurally defined by the presence of an N-terminal pleckstrin-homology and EF-hand domains, a central catalytic domain, and a C-terminal calcium-dependent membrane-binding domain.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A family of closely-related serine-threonine kinases that were originally identified as the cellular homologs of the retrovirus-derived V-RAF KINASES. They are MAP kinase kinase kinases that play important roles in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.

A plant 126-kDa phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase with a novel repeat structure. Cloning and functional expression in baculovirus-infected insect cells. (1/398)

Phosphatidylinositol metabolism plays a central role in signaling pathways in animals and is also believed to be of importance in signal transduction in higher plants. We report here the molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a previously unidentified 126-kDa phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase (AtPI4Kbeta) from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The novel protein possesses the conserved domains present in animal and yeast PI 4-kinases, namely a lipid kinase unique domain and a catalytic domain. An additional domain, approximately 300 amino acids long, containing a high percentage (46%) of charged amino acids is specific to this plant enzyme. Recombinant AtPI4Kbeta expressed in baculovirus-infected insect (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol exclusively at the D4 position of the inositol ring. Recombinant protein was maximally activated by 0.6% Triton X-100 but was inhibited by adenosine with an IC50 of approximately 200 microM. Wortmannin at a concentration of 10 microM inhibited AtPI4Kbeta activity by approximately 90%. AtPI4Kbeta transcript levels were similar in all tissues analyzed. Light or treatment with hormones or salts did not change AtPI4Kbeta transcript levels to a great extent, indicating constitutive expression of the AtPI4Kbeta gene.  (+info)

Functional expression and characterisation of a new human phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase PI4K230. (2/398)

By constructing DNA probes we have identified and cloned a human PtdIns 4-kinase, PI4K230, corresponding to a mRNA of 7.0 kb. The cDNA encodes a protein of 2044 amino acids. The C-terminal part of ca. 260 amino acids represents the catalytic domain which is highly conserved in all recently cloned PtdIns 4-kinases. N-terminal motifs indicate multiple heterologous protein interactions. Human PtdIns 4-kinase PI4K230 expressed in vitro exhibits a specific activity of 58 micromol mg-1min-1. The enzyme expressed in Sf9 cells is essentially not inhibited by adenosine, it shows a high Km for ATP of about 300 microM and it is half-maximally inactivated by approximately 200 nM wortmannin. These data classify this enzyme as type 3 PtdIns 4-kinase. Antibodies raised against the N-terminal part moderately activate and those raised against the C-terminal catalytic domain inhibit the enzymatic activity. The coexistence of two different type 3 PtdIns 4-kinases, PI4K92 and PI4K230, in several human tissues, including brain, suggests that these enzymes are involved in distinct basic cellular functions.  (+info)

G-protein-stimulated phospholipase D activity is inhibited by lethal toxin from Clostridium sordellii in HL-60 cells. (3/398)

Lethal toxin (LT) from Clostridium sordellii has been shown in HeLa cells to glucosylate and inactivate Ras and Rac and, hence, to disorganize the actin cytoskeleton. In the present work, we demonstrate that LT treatment provokes the same effects in HL-60 cells. We show that guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)-stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) activity is inhibited in a time- and dose-dependent manner after an overnight treatment with LT. A similar dose response to the toxin was found when PLD activity was stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate via the protein kinase C pathway. The toxin effect on actin organization seemed unlikely to account directly for PLD inhibition as cytochalasin D and iota toxin from Clostridium perfringens E disorganize the actin cytoskeleton without modifying PLD activity. However, the enzyme inhibition and actin cytoskeleton disorganization could both be related to a major decrease observed in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4, 5)P2). Likely in a relationship with this decrease, recombinant ADP-ribosylation factor, RhoA, Rac, and RalA were not able to reconstitute PLD activity in LT-treated cells permeabilized and depleted of cytosol. Studies of phosphoinositide kinase activities did not allow us to attribute the decrease in PtdIns(4,5)P2 to inactivation of PtdIns4P 5-kinase. LT was also found to provoke a major inhibition in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that could not account for the inhibition of PLD activity because wortmannin, at doses that fully inhibit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, had no effect on the phospholipase activity. Among the three small G-proteins, Ras, Rac, and RalA, inactivated by LT and involved in PLD regulation, inactivation of Ral proteins appeared to be responsible for PLD inhibition as LT toxin (strain 9048) unable to glucosylate Ral proteins did not modify PLD activity. In HL-60 cells, LT treatment appeared also to modify cytosol components in relationship with PLD inhibition as a cytosol prepared from LT-treated cells was less efficient than one from control HL-60 cells in stimulating PLD activity. Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins involved in the regulation of polyphosphoinositides and ADP-ribosylation factor, a major cytosolic PLD activator in HL-60 cells, were unchanged, whereas the level of cytosolic protein kinase Calpha was decreased after LT treatment. We conclude that in HL-60 cells, lethal toxin from C. sordellii, in inactivating small G-proteins involved in PLD regulation, provokes major modifications at the membrane and the cytosol levels that participate in the inhibition of PLD activity. Although Ral appeared to play an essential role in PLD activity, we discuss the role of other small G-proteins inactivated by LT in the different modifications observed in HL-60 cells.  (+info)

Coupled inositide phosphorylation and phospholipase D activation initiates clathrin-coat assembly on lysosomes. (4/398)

Adaptors appear to control clathrin-coat assembly by determining the site of lattice polymerization but the nucleating events that target soluble adaptors to an appropriate membrane are poorly understood. Using an in vitro model system that allows AP-2-containing clathrin coats to assemble on lysosomes, we show that adaptor recruitment and coat initiation requires phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) synthesis. PtdIns(4,5)P2 is generated on lysosomes by the sequential action of a lysosome-associated type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and a soluble type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase. Phosphatidic acid, which potently stimulates type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity, is generated on the bilayer by a phospholipase D1-like enzyme located on the lysosomal surface. Quenching phosphatidic acid function with primary alcohols prevents the synthesis of PtdIns(4, 5)P2 and blocks coat assembly. Generating phosphatidic acid directly on lysosomes with exogenous bacterial phospholipase D in the absence of ATP still drives adaptor recruitment and limited coat assembly, indicating that PtdIns(4,5)P2 functions, at least in part, to activate the PtdIns(4,5)P2-dependent phospholipase D1. These results provide the first direct evidence for the involvement of anionic phospholipids in clathrin-coat assembly on membranes and define the enzymes responsible for the production of these important lipid mediators.  (+info)

Involvement of PITPnm, a mammalian homologue of Drosophila rdgB, in phosphoinositide synthesis on Golgi membranes. (5/398)

Phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP) is involved in phospholipase C-mediated signaling and membrane trafficking. We previously reported cloning and characterization of a gene encoding for membrane-bound PITP, named PITPnm, that is a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila retinal degeneration B (rdgB) gene (Aikawa, Y., Hara, H., and Watanabe, T. (1997) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 236, 559-564). Here we report the subcellular localization of PITPnm protein and provide evidence for its involvement in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns 4-P) synthesis. PITPnm is an integral membrane protein that largely localized in close association with membranes of Golgi vacuoles and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The amino terminus region of PITPnm was exposed to cytoplasmic side. Interaction with various phosphoinositides was observed in the amino terminus region spanning from 196 amino acids to 257 amino acids of PITPnm. At the amino terminus regions of 1-372 amino acids, PITPnm formed a complex with type III PtdIns 4-kinase. The transmembrane and carboxyl-terminal portions (residues 418-1242) functioned to retain the PITPnm in the Golgi vacuole. These results suggest that PITPnm plays a role in phosphoinositide synthesis on the Golgi vacuoles and possibly in the PtdIns signaling pathway in mammalian cells.  (+info)

p85/p110-type phosphatidylinositol kinase phosphorylates not only the D-3, but also the D-4 position of the inositol ring. (6/398)

Activation of p85/p110-type phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase has been implicated in various cellular activities. This PI kinase phosphorylates the D-4 position with a similar or higher efficiency than the D-3 position when trichloroacetic acid-treated cell membrane is used as a substrate, although it phosphorylates almost exclusively the D-3 position of the inositol ring in phosphoinositides when purified PI is used as a substrate. Furthermore, the lipid kinase activities of p110 for both the D-3 and D-4 positions were completely abolished by introducing kinase-dead point mutations in their lipid kinase domains (DeltaKinalpha and DeltaKinbeta, respectively). In addition, both PI 3- and PI 4-kinase activities of p110alpha and p110beta immunoprecipitates were similarly inhibited by either wortmannin or LY294002, specific inhibitors of p110. Insulin induced phosphorylation of not only the D-3 position, but also the D-4 position. Indeed, overexpression of p110 in Sf9 or 3T3-L1 cells induced marked phosphorylation of the D-4 position to a level comparable to or much greater than that of D-3, whereas inhibition of endogenous p85/p110-type PI kinase via overexpression of dominant-negative p85alpha (Deltap85alpha) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes abolished insulin-induced synthesis of both. Thus, p85/p110-type PI kinase phosphorylates the D-4 position of phosphoinositides more efficiently than the D-3 position in vivo, and each of the D-3- or D-4-phosphorylated phosphoinositides may transmit signals downstream.  (+info)

Identification of a mating type-like locus in the asexual pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. (7/398)

Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal pathogen in humans, is thought to lack a sexual cycle. A set of C. albicans genes has been identified that corresponds to the master sexual cycle regulators a1, alpha1, and alpha2 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating-type (MAT) locus. The C. albicans genes are arranged in a way that suggests that these genes are part of a mating type-like locus that is similar to the mating-type loci of other fungi. In addition to the transcriptional regulators a1, alpha1, and alpha2, the C. albicans mating type-like locus contains several genes not seen in other fungal MAT loci, including those encoding proteins similar to poly(A) polymerases, oxysterol binding proteins, and phosphatidylinositol kinases.  (+info)

Receptor-mediated signaling pathways: potential targets of modulation by dietary fatty acids. (8/398)

Extracellular signals are transmitted to intracellular targets through many signal-transduction pathways. Each signaling pathway is composed of a network of interacting signaling molecules that regulate diverse cellular responses. A modulation of the functional activities of these signaling molecules as a result of altered nutritional status could lead to qualitative and quantitative changes in cellular responses to extracellular signals. Growing evidence now suggests that fatty acids can directly and indirectly modulate signaling pathways at multiple levels. Elucidating the mechanism of this modulation could help us to understand how different types of dietary fat modify the risks of many chronic diseases.  (+info)

Type II phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 4-kinases produce PtdIns 4-phosphate, an early key signaling molecule in phosphatidylinositol cycle, which is indispensable for T cell activation. Type II PtdIns 4-kinase alpha and beta have similar biochemical properties. To distinguish these isoforms Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been evaluated as a specific inhibitor. EGCG is the major active catechin in green tea having anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic and cancer chemopreventive properties. The precise mechanism of actions and molecular targets of EGCG in early signaling cascades are not well understood. In the present study, we have shown that EGCG inhibits type II PtdIns 4-kinases (alpha and beta isoforms) and PtdIns 3-kinase activity in vitro. EGCG directly bind to both alpha and beta isoforms of type II PtdIns 4-kinases with a Kd of 2.62 mu M and 1.02 mu M, respectively. Type II PtdIns 4-kinase-EGCG complex have different binding pattern at its excited state. Both isoforms showed significant ...
Recent evidence suggests that concanavalin A modulates tyrosyl phosphorylation and activation of a type II PtdIns 4-kinase in rat splenic lymphocytes. However, the regulatory protein tyrosine kinase(s) remain to be elusive. The present manuscript provides evidence that a type II PtdIns 4-kinase associates with p56(lck) in Con A stimulated rat splenic lymphocytes. In vitro phosphorylation studies suggest that p561(lck) regulates phosphorylation and activation of type II PtdIns 4-kinase. Inhibition of p561(lck) activity in vivo has shown to reduce tyrosyl phosphorylation and activation of PtdIns 4-kinase by Con A. These results suggest that p56(lck) may be the physiological regulator of type II PtdIns 4-kinase ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 - Phosphatidylinositol kinases. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of the actin cytoskeleton in the regulation of Na+ transport by phosphatidylinositol kinases in the frog skin. AU - Krutetskaya, Z. I.. AU - Lebedev, O. E.. AU - Melnitskaya, A. V.. AU - Nozdrachev, A. D.. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33750374692&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1134/S001249660605005X. DO - 10.1134/S001249660605005X. M3 - Article. C2 - 17278836. AN - SCOPUS:33750374692. VL - 410. SP - 367. EP - 369. JO - Doklady Biological Sciences. JF - Doklady Biological Sciences. SN - 0012-4966. IS - 1. ER - ...
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One challenge in studying the second messenger inositol(1,4,5)-trisphosphate (InsP3) is that it is present in very low amounts and increases only transiently in response to stimuli. To identify events downstream of InsP3, we generated transgenic plants constitutively expressing the high specific activity, human phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase Iα (HsPIPKIα). PIP5K is the enzyme that synthesizes phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2); this reaction is flux limiting in InsP3 biosynthesis in plants. Plasma membranes from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing HsPIPKIα had 2-3 fold higher PIP5K specific activity, and basal InsP3 levels in seedlings and leaves were |2-fold higher than wild type. Although there was no significant difference in photosynthetic electron transport, HsPIPKIα plants had significantly higher starch (2-4 fold) and 20% higher anthocyanin compared to controls. Starch content was higher both during the day and at the end of dark period. In addition, transcripts
Oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA lead to an increase in instrinsic phosphoinositide kinase activity, but it is thought that increased access of PI3Kα to its plasma membrane localised substrate is also required for increased levels of downstream PIP3/Ak
These siRNAs have been previously validated as targeting MAP kinase proteins in these cell lines. siRNA mediated knockdown of VEB Raf, MEK , or ERK genes decreased the expression and exercise ofAURKB andWEE in each UACC and Lu cell lines . In contrast, only AURKB protein ranges decreased with all the knockdown of cyclin D, which can be a vital downstream transcription element from the B Raf MEK ERK cascade. No modify was observed in GSKA amounts, that is consistent with its part in regulating apoptosis with the phosphatidylinositol kinase pathway. TPK protein ranges had been up regulated on knockdown of VEB Raf and MEK proteins; then again, knockdown of neither ERK nor cyclinD altered TPK levels, indicating that an additional cascade downstream of MEK protein might possibly be regulating TPK protein ranges . Within a very well established cell line tumor progression model , all melanoma cell lines had decreased TPK expression compared with all the melanocyte management; however, no statistically ...
PP121 is a dual inhibitor of tyrosine and phosphoinositide kinases. PP121 inhibits both tyrosine kinases and PI3-Ks but not serine-threonine kinases. It potently inhibits p110α, p110β, p110γ, p110δ, DNA-PK and mTOR with IC50 values of 52nM, 1.4μM, 1.1μM..
Mutations in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3CA), encoding the p110α catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K, have been implicated in colon, lung, ovarian and breast cancer.
Mutations in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3R1), encoding the regulatory subunit of p85, have been implicated in colon, lung, ovarian and breast cancer.
In a phase 1 trial, idelalisib (GS-1101, CAL-101), a selective inhibitor of the lipid kinase PI3K delta, was evaluated in 54 patients with relapsed/refractory ...
Seema Verma, the Indiana health care consultant who has been tapped to head the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, will face senators questions Thursday on how she would approach the job if confirmed.
The phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPkins) are a family of enzymes involved in regulating levels of several functionally important inositol phospholipids within cells. The PIPkin family is subdivided into three on the basis of substrate specificity, each subtype presumably regulating levels of different subsets of the inositol lipids. The physiological function of the type II isoforms, which exhibit a preference for phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate, a lipid about which very little is known, is particularly poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate interaction between, and co-immunoprecipitation of, type IIα PIPkin with the related, but biochemically and immunologically distinct, type I PIPkin isoforms. Type IIα PIPkin interacts with all three known type I PIPkins (α, β and γ), and in each case co-expression of the type I isoform with type IIα results in recruitment of the latter from the cytosol to the plasma membrane of the cell. This change in subcellular ...
Lenti ORF particles, PIGP (Myc-DDK tagged) - Human phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class P (PIGP), transcript variant 2 , 200 uL, |10^7 TU/mL, 200 µl.
Page 1 of 5 - [WIP] Grand Theft Auto III Beta Version - posted in GTA III, VC & SA: AboutThis mod simply plans to bring back different features seen in different early stages of gta3 mixed together to make it more fun enjoyable to play.ChecklistWhats been done so far: - the police car has been restored to its pre-9/11 look; - all cars have their beta names; - Esparanto now has Hydraulics; - The first mission have been modified to make it as in the original concept (8ball doesnt...
In a series of studies spanning several years, Cantley and colleagues demonstrated that a kinase activity associated with the middle T oncoprotein is a phosphoinositide kinase,[7] that it is a novel type of phosphoinositide kinase that phosphorylates the 3 position on the inositol ring,[8] and that this phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) is activated by growth factors to produce novel 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides, in particularly PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 [9] that had previously been identified in physiologically stimulated human neutrophils.[10] In subsequent years Cantley and colleagues identified critical aspects of the regulation of PI-3-kinase by growth factor receptors. Specifically, they discovered that the catalytic subunit p110 dimerizes with the regulatory subunit p85,[11] and that the SH2 domain of p85 specifically recognized phosphotyrosines[12] on growth factor receptors or adaptor proteins via the pY-X-X-M motif.[13][14]. The Cantley lab has also made seminal contributions ...
PI-3 kinase subunit gamma antibody for detecting human phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
Two cases of successful molecular replacement using NMR trial models are presented. One is the crystal structure of the E. coli colicin immunity protein Im7; the other is the previously unreported crystal structure of the carboxy-terminal SH2 domain from the p85α subunit of human phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase complexed to a PDGF receptor-derived specificity peptide ...
The beta keys have been bought from dedicated players whove earned their beta keys doing various things in-game (Diablo). We have also been handed a few extra ones from our fellow community members as a thank you for everything that we have given away during the last months ...
KIN Raiders Heroic Spine of Deathwing Video Now that Stars has defeated Heroic Spine of Deathwing 25, KIN Raiders has released their video of the kill. |iframe width=853 height=480 src=http://www.youtube.com/embed/gZHeTNr7xzM?rel=0&hd=1 frameborder=0 allowfullscreen||/iframe| KIN Raiders Raid Composition / Damage Meters KIN Raiders defeated Heroic Spine of Deathwing 25 utilizing lots of high burst DPS classes. You can see their damage meters from the Spine fight (only the
Description: mTOR is a protein encoded by the MTOR gene which is approximately 288,9 kDa. mTOR is localised to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and mitochondrion outer membrane. It is involved in RET signalling, regulation of lipid metabolism, mTOR signalling and glioma. This protein falls under the phosphatidylinositol kinase family. It is a central regulator of cellular metabolism, growth and survival in response to hormones, growth factors, nutrients, energy and stress signals. mTOR is expressed in numerous tissues, with highest levels expressed in the testis. Mutations in the MTOR gene may result in Smith-Kingsmore syndrome. STJ90336 was affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogen. This primary antibody specifically binds to endogenous mTOR protein which only binds about S2448 when S2448 is phosphorylated ...
Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) also known as frequenin homolog (Drosophila) (freq) is a protein that is encoded by the FREQ gene in humans. NCS-1 is a member of the neuronal calcium sensor family, a class of EF hand containing calcium-myristoyl-switch proteins. NCS-1 regulates synaptic transmission, helps control the dynamics of nerve terminal growth, is critical for some forms of learning and memory in C. elegans and mammals, regulates corticohippocampal plasticity; and enhancing levels of NCS-1 in the mouse dentate gyrus increases spontaneous exploration of safe environments, potentially linking NCS-1 to curiosity. NCS-1 is a calcium sensor, not a calcium buffer (chelator); thus it is a high-affinity, low-capacity, calcium-binding protein. Frq can substitute for calmodulin in some situations. It is thought to be associated with neuronal secretory vesicles and regulate neurosecretion. It is the Ca2+-sensing subunit of the yeast phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)-4-OH kinase, PIK1 It binds to many ...
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Membrane-bound phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase (PI4-kinase) that catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), a lipid that plays important roles in endocytosis, Golgi function, protein sorting and membrane trafficking. Besides, phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) is the first committed step in the generation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a precursor of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3).
Lipid components in biological membranes are essential for maintaining cellular function. Phosphoinositides, the phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PI), regulate many critical cell processes involving membrane signaling, trafficking, and reorganization. Multiple metabolic pathways including phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases and phospholipases tightly control spatio-temporal concentration of membrane phosphoinositides. Metabolizing enzymes responsible for PI 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) production or degradation play a regulatory role in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and trafficking. These enzymes include PI 4-phosphate 5-kinase, phosphatase and tensin homolog, PI 3-kinase, and phospholipase C. PI(4,5)P2 mediates the interaction with target cytosolic proteins to induce their membrane translocation, regulate vesicular trafficking, and serve as a precursor for other signaling lipids. TLR activation is important for the innate immune response and is implicated in ...
PI-273 is a first reversibly and specific phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KIIα) inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.47 μM. PI-273 can inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation, block the cell cycle and induce cell apoptosis. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) generate lipids that are implicated in receptor-stimulated signalling and in the regulation of membrane traffic. Several distinct classes of PI3Ks have now been identified that have been conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution. Potential signalling pathways downs …
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immune Uncategorized PP121, Rabbit polyclonal to BMPR2 Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases that regulate diverse cellular procedures including PP121 proliferation adhesion success and motility. III tests in individuals with advanced indolent non-Hodgkins lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma. With this review we summarized the main substances of PI3K signaling pathway and talked about the preclinical versions and clinical tests of powerful small-molecule PI3K inhibitors. Intro Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases that play central part in rules of cell routine apoptosis DNA restoration senescence angiogenesis mobile rate of metabolism and motility [1]. They become intermediate signaling substances PP121 and are renowned for their jobs in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway [2 3 PI3Ks transmit indicators through the cell surface towards the cytoplasm by producing second messengers - phosphorylated phosphatidylinositols - which activate multiple effector ...
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) to form phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). PtdIns(4,5)P2 is involved in a variety of cellular processes and is the substrate to form phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), another second messenger. The majority of PtdIns(4,5)P2 is thought to occur via type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases given the abundance of PtdIns4P. Participates in a variety of cellular processes such as vesicle mediated transport, cell adhesion, cell polarization and cell migration. Together with PIP5K1A is required for phagocytosis, but they regulate different types of actin remodeling at sequential steps. Promotes particle attachment by generating the pool of PtdIns(4,5)P2 that induces controlled actin depolymerization to facilitate Fc-gamma-R clustering. Mediates RAC1-dependent reorganization of actin filaments. Required for synaptic vesicle transport. Controls the plasma membrane pool of ...
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling pathway is one of the most frequently genetically altered pathways in human cancers (Samuels et al., 2004). Class I PI3Ks are lipid kinases that bind to the cell membrane and phosphorylate the lipid substrate, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI[4,5]P2), in order to produce the second messenger, PIP3. In turn, this regulates several biological signalling pathways involved in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival (Qiu et al., 1998; Roche, Koegl, & Courtneidge, 1994; Yao & Cooper, 1995). The work in this thesis explores how different PI(4,5)P2 fatty acyl chain arrangements and specific PI3K amino acids can affect membrane binding interactions and catalysis events for both wild-type (WT) and oncogenic class I PI3Ks. Firstly, the effects of different PI(4,5)P2 lipid species were investigated on PI3K lipid kinase activity using biochemical methods, and on PI3K membrane binding using biophysical methods. The influences of ...
In support of these views, experimental evidence has been acquired on the enlargement of the arteries at the base of the brain.The initial arterial dilation is probably flowinduced, involving the activation of nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase, and phosphatidylinositol kinase. Furthermore, vascular remodeling and arteriogenesis take place, as indicated by the appearance of extracranial collaterals emanating from the vertebral arteries and by the tortuosity of the basilar and vertebral arteries. At the level of the microvessels, the specific compensatory mechanisms are still uncertain.Nitric oxide is a very potent vasodilator, which is released at increased concentration in the brain parenchyma in response to cerebral ischemic insults.The accumulation of collagen fibers in the microvascular basement membrane may hinder specific BBB transport for important nutrients such as glucose and essential amino acids and could hamper the fine regulation of the regional CBF. In the aging brain, a ...
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is believed to be of key importance in pediatric glioblastoma. in protein appearance levels of regulatory digestive enzymes involved in glucose and choline rate of metabolism including GLUT1, HK2, LDHA and CHKA. Our results display that by using NMR we can detect unique biomarkers following PI3E pathway inhibition compared to treatment with the DNA-damaging anti-cancer agent TMZ. This is definitely the 1st study reporting that lactate 590-46-5 IC50 590-46-5 IC50 and choline metabolites are potential non-invasive biomarkers for monitoring response to PI3E pathway inhibitors in pediatric glioblastoma. Intro Approximately 40% of all pediatric mind tumors are astrocytomas (gliomas), and of these some 15C20% are malignant gliomas, i.elizabeth. high-grade (WHO grade III and IV) tumors [1], [2]. High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are very aggressive tumors and are one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in children with a median survival of just 12C15 ...
ITV has appointed travel management company ATPI as its sole travel management company (TMC) in the UK. The multi-year contract sees ATPI take responsibility for travel logistics, with a keen eye on supporting the organisation reach its sustainability targets. Working to create the biggest shows with the smallest environmental footprint, ATPIs sustainability and technology credentials, global footprint, years of experience in production travel and moving large groups of people, were all factors supporting the appointment. ATPI will work closely with ITV to
Order Anti-human phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase type III PAb 02012560599 at Gentaur phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate/phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase, III PAb
Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in autophagy in response to starvation. Acts upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PIK3C3 to regulate the formation of autophagophores, the precursors of autophagosomes. Part of regulatory feedback loops in autophagy: acts both as a downstream effector and negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) via interaction with RPTOR. Activated via phosphorylation by AMPK and also acts as a regulator of AMPK by mediating phosphorylation of AMPK subunits PRKAA1, PRKAB2 and PRKAG1, leading to negatively regulate AMPK activity. May phosphorylate ATG13/KIAA0652 and RPTOR; however such data need additional evidences. Plays a role early in neuronal differentiation and is required for granule cell axon formation. May also phosphorylate SESN2 and SQSTM1 to regulate autophagy (PubMed:25040165).
ProQinase offers off-the-shelf a significant panel of lipid kinases, active recombinant lipid kinases which can be used for biochemical enzyme assays
Phosphorylation of inositol phospholipids plays a key role in cellular regulation via the generation of intracellular second messengers. In addition, it represents a mechanism to regulate interactions of the lipid bilayer with proteins and protein scaffolds involved in vesicle budding, cytoskeletal …
The p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase interacts with the phosphodomain of TARP.a) Binding of CMTPX-labeled C. trachomatis L2 EBs to cells expressing
Online Cover This week features a Research Article that identifies ARAP3 as the downstream effector of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in the regulation of sprouting angiogenesis during development. The image shows a wild-type mouse embryo stained for a marker of vascular endothelial cells. [Image: Laure Gambardella, Inositide Laboratory, The Babraham Institute] ...
The STT3A gene currently has no well-established disease association; however, there is preliminary evidence supporting a correlation with autosomal recessive STT3A-congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG-Iw) (PMID: 23842455).
4 kpl sarjan hinta sisältää vanteelle asennuksen, tasapainotuksen ja kierrätysmaksun. Autoon alle asennus + 20 euroa. Tuotteita rajoitettu erä! ...
The family of PI3Ks (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases) was discovered several decades ago, but until now most attention has been given to class I PI3Ks, mainly due to their previously established role in human disorders such as cancer and metabolic diseases. Class II PI3K has therefore been a bit in the shadow of the more intensively studied other families. Nevertheless, the number of reports about class II has started to increase over the past few years and we are now beginning to gain a clearer picture about the role of class II enzymes in different cellular functions and their involvement in human diseases. The fact that class II PI3K generates different second messengers (phosphoinositides) than the other PI3K family members, gives an indication that these enzymes might play a specific role in the regulation of distinct cellular functions. However, there is still a lot to be learned about the molecular mechanism of activation, the cellular function and the physiological and pathological role ...
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) has long been recognized as an important source of second messengers. Hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 by phospholipase C yields diacylglycerol, a potent activator of most protein kinase C isoforms and other enzymes bearing C1 domains, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, which induces release of calcium stored in the endoplasmic reticulum (Taylor, 2002). In addition, phosphorylation of PtdIns(4,5)P2 by class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases generates phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, a ligand and activator of various effectors that contain pleckstrin homology (PH) domains (Vanhaesebroeck et al., 2001; Lemmon, 2003). Not only are its metabolites critical for signal transduction, but PtdIns(4,5)P2 itself serves multiple regulatory functions in the cell. It affects several stages of actin microfilament assembly and remodeling, including uncapping of barbed ends, severing and bundling of filaments, and de novo nucleation (Hilpela et al., 2004; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation is required for stress protocol-induced modification of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. AU - Yang, Ping Chun. AU - Yang, Chih Hao. AU - Huang, Chiung Chun. AU - Hsu, Kuei Sen. PY - 2008/2/1. Y1 - 2008/2/1. N2 - Stress dramatically affects the induction of hippocampal synaptic plasticity; however, the molecular details of how it does so remain unclear. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling plays a crucial role in promoting neuronal survival and neuroplasticity, but its role, if any, in stress-induced alterations of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) is unknown. We found here that inhibitors of PI3K signaling blocked the effects of acute restraint-tail shock stress protocol on LTP and LTD. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to explore the signaling events involving PI3K in terms of its role in mediating stress protocol-induced alterations of LTP and LTD. We found that stress protocol-induced ...
Order GDP-mannose-dependent alpha- 1-6 -phosphatidylinositol dimannoside mannosyltransferase-E coli 01022698370 at Gentaur GDP-mannose-dependent alpha (1-6) phosphatidylinositol dimannoside mannosyltransferase
Ito, K., Caramori, G. and Adcock, I.M. (2007) Therapeu tic potential of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors in inflammatory respiratory disease. The Journal of Phar macology and Experimental Therapeutics, 321, 1-8. Epub 4 October 2006. doi10.1124/jpet.106.111674
In this esp32 tutorial, we will check how we can get humidity measurements from a DHT22 sensor, with the Arduino core running on the ESP32.
http://www.india-forums.com/tellybuzz/wassup/8079-sharmi-fails-in-the-pavitrata-test-in-ganga-kii-dheej.htm Sharmi fails the Pavitara Test in Ganga Ki Dheej... Tuesday, November 16, 2010 | 6:09:52 PM IST (+05:30 GMT) 29 Comments Tonights episode of Sahara Ones Ganga Kii dheej ... | Page: 2 | 1568176 | Ganga Kii Dheej Forum
Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2-beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PI4K2B gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... "Entrez Gene: PI4K2B phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 beta". Griffioen M, van der Meijden ED, Slager EH, et al. (2008). " ... 2003). "Type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase beta is a cytosolic and peripheral membrane protein that is recruited to the ... Balla A, Tuymetova G, Barshishat M, Geiszt M, Balla T (May 2002). "Characterization of type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase ...
"Stimulation of phosphatidylinositol kinase type I-mediated phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate synthesis by AP-2mu-cargo ... 2007). "Type Igamma phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase modulates adherens junction and E-cadherin trafficking via a direct ... 2006). "Type Igamma661 phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase directly interacts with AP2 and regulates endocytosis". J. Biol. ... 2002). "Recruitment and regulation of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type 1 gamma by the FERM domain of talin". Nature. ...
"Entrez Gene: PIP5K1B phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, beta". Bayot A, Reichman S, Lebon S, Csaba Z, Aubry L, ... 2004). "Identification and characterization of a phosphoinositide phosphate kinase homolog". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (12): 11672-9. ... Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-1 beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIP5K1B gene. Abnormal ... Loijens JC, Anderson RA (1997). "Type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinases are distinct members of this novel lipid ...
2003). "Membrane ruffling requires coordination between type Ialpha phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase and Rac signaling". J ... Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-1 alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIP5K1A gene. GRCh38: ... "Entrez Gene: PIP5K1A phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, alpha". Honda A, Nogami M, Yokozeki T, et al. (1999). " ... 2000). "Type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase directly interacts with ADP-ribosylation factor 1 and is responsible ...
1994). "Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and PI 4-kinase binding to the CD4-p56lck complex: the p56lck SH3 domain binds to PI ... 2013). "The lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase III alpha regulates the phosphorylation status of hepatitis C virus NS5A ... "The lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase III alpha regulates the phosphorylation status of hepatitis C virus NS5A". PLoS ... Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PI4KA gene. This gene encodes a 1- ...
... map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.300 - map kinase kinase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.700.700.750 - phospholipase c gamma MeSH D08.811.277.352. ... map kinase kinase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.100 - map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... map kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.565.300 - map kinase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.565.400 - ...
Hsu H, Huang J, Shu HB, Baichwal V, Goeddel DV (1996). "TNF-dependent recruitment of the protein kinase RIP to the TNF receptor ... "A novel interaction between the juxtamembrane region of the p55 tumor necrosis factor receptor and phosphatidylinositol-4- ... phosphate 5-kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (9): 5861-70. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.9.5861. PMID 9038203. Boldin MP, Mett IL, Wallach D ( ... 367 (1): 39-44. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00534-G. PMID 7601280. S2CID 21442471. Dunbar JD, Song HY, Guo D, Wu LW, Donner DB ( ...
... kinase domain can be divided into N-terminal and C-terminal lobes with the ATP binding groove and putative phosphatidylinositol ... Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase 2-alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PI4K2A gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: PI4KII phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type II". Balla, A; Tuymetova, G; Barshishat, M; Geiszt, M; Balla, T (31 May ... PI4K2A is composed of a proline-rich N-terminal region and a kinase domain located C-terminally. The proline-rich N-terminal ...
"Centaurin-alpha1 is a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent activator of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases". The ... "Casein kinase I associates with members of the centaurin-alpha family of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-binding ... "Casein kinase I associates with members of the centaurin-alpha family of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-binding ... Protein kinase D1, and Protein kinase Mζ. Model organisms have been used in the study of ADAP1 function. A conditional knockout ...
"Complementary DNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of a novel phosphatidylinositol kinase gene". DNA Research. 4 (4): 301-5. doi ... "Protein kinase D regulates vesicular transport by phosphorylating and activating phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase IIIbeta at the ... The kinase domain can be divided into N-terminal and C-terminal lobes with the ATP binding groove and putative ... Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PI4KB gene. This gene encodes a ...
... phosphatidylinositol kinase, type II phosphatidylinositol kinase, PI kinase, and PI 4-kinase. This enzyme participates in ... Other names in common use include phosphatidylinositol kinase (phosphorylating), phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, ... "Type I phosphatidylinositol kinase makes a novel inositol phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate". Nature. 332 (6165): ... Kai M, White GL, Hawthorne JN (1966). "The phosphatidylinositol kinase of rat brain". Biochem. J. 101 (2): 328-37. doi:10.1042/ ...
Kihara A, Kabeya Y, Ohsumi Y, Yoshimori T (April 2001). "Beclin-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex functions at the trans- ... Zeng X, Overmeyer JH, Maltese WA (January 2006). "Functional specificity of the mammalian Beclin-Vps34 PI 3-kinase complex in ... April 2004). "Ceramide-mediated macroautophagy involves inhibition of protein kinase B and up-regulation of beclin 1". The ... Beclin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BECN1 gene. Beclin-1 is a mammalian ortholog of the yeast autophagy- ...
Other names in common use include diphosphoinositide kinase, PIP kinase, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate kinase, ... and type I PIP kinase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: inositol phosphate metabolism, phosphatidylinositol ... Kai M, Salway JG, Hawthorne JN (1968). "The diphosphoinositide kinase of rat brain". Biochem. J. 106 (4): 791-801. doi:10.1042/ ... "A new pathway for synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate". Nature. 390 (6656): 192-6. Bibcode:1997Natur.390..192R. ...
This enzyme is also called type II PIP kinase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: inositol phosphate metabolism ... Rameh LE, Tolias KF, Duckworth BC, Cantley LC (1997). "A new pathway for synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate". ... phosphatidylinositol signaling system, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. ... In enzymology, a 1-phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase (EC 2.7.1.149) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ...
Ling K, Doughman RL, Firestone AJ, Bunce MW, Anderson RA (Nov 2002). "Type I gamma phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase ... coordinating phosphatidylinositol synthesis, and modulating actin dynamics through interactions with PIP kinase type 1γ, the ... "Recruitment and regulation of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type 1 gamma by the FERM domain of talin". Nature. 420 ( ... Chen HC, Appeddu PA, Parsons JT, Hildebrand JD, Schaller MD, Guan JL (Jul 1995). "Interaction of focal adhesion kinase with ...
It is the Ca2+-sensing subunit of the yeast phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)-4-OH kinase, PIK1 It binds to many proteins, some in ... G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) D2 dopamine receptor IL1RAPL1 (interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 protein) ... type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase β) IP3 receptor (this activity is inhibited by lithium - a drug used for the treatment ... NCS-1 is a member of the neuronal calcium sensor family, a class of EF hand containing calcium-myristoyl-switch proteins. NCS-1 ...
September 2002). "A crucial role for the p110delta subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in B cell development and ... Cook JA, August A, Henderson AJ (July 2002). "Recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to CD28 inhibits HIV transcription ... October 1997). "Identification and chromosome assignment of a human gene encoding a novel phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase". DNA ... François F, Klotman ME (February 2003). "Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ...
"Casein kinase I associates with members of the centaurin-alpha family of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-binding ... Casein kinase I isoform alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSNK1A1 gene. Casein kinase 1, alpha 1 has been ... Zhang Y, Qiu WJ, Chan SC, Han J, He X, Lin SC (May 2002). "Casein kinase I and casein kinase II differentially regulate axin ... Casein kinase 1 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000113712 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024576 ...
"The phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase pathway is required for the survival signal of leukocyte tyrosine kinase". Oncogene. 14 (25 ... Cook JA, August A, Henderson AJ (Jul 2002). "Recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to CD28 inhibits HIV transcription by ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling ... The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is sensitive to low nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmannin. The C2 domain of this ...
3-kinase. Substrate presentation by phosphatidylinositol transfer protein to the p150.Ptdins 3-kinase complex". J. Biol. Chem. ... Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3 is an enzyme subunit that in humans is encoded by the PIK3C3 gene. It's ... Vogel LB, Fujita DJ (1994). "The SH3 domain of p56lck is involved in binding to phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase from T ... Cook JA, August A, Henderson AJ (2002). "Recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to CD28 inhibits HIV transcription by a ...
Cook JA, August A, Henderson AJ (2002). "Recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to CD28 inhibits HIV transcription by a ... François F, Klotman ME (2003). "Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Regulates Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling ... production by primary human macrophages is mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase and mitogen-activated protein (MAP ...
This enzyme participates in inositol phosphate metabolism and phosphatidylinositol signaling system. Shears SB (1989). "The ... In enzymology, an inositol-tetrakisphosphate 5-kinase (EC 2.7.1.140) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 1D ... This enzyme is also called 1D-myo-inositol-tetrakisphosphate 5-kinase. ... 5-kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (45): 42711-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M209112200. PMID 12226109. Biology portal v t e. ...
AASDH: aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase ACVR1: activin-like kinase 2 (ALK-2) ACOX3: encoding enzyme Peroxisomal acyl- ... Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2-beta PKD2: polycystic kidney disease 2 (autosomal dominant) PLK4: Serine/threonine-protein ... Kinase insert domain receptor (Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2) KIAA1530: UV stimulated scaffold protein A LCORL ... Chromosome 4 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 4 ...
An alternate pathway for erythropoietin-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (42): 26173-8. ... The product of this gene is phosphorylated by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase upon receptor stimulation, as well as by an ... Potential role of JAK kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (48): 28527-30. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.48.28527. PMID 7499365. Patti ME, Sun XJ ... 1997). "P110delta, a novel phosphoinositide 3-kinase in leukocytes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (9): 4330-5. doi:10.1073/ ...
Effects of lipid kinase expression and cellular stimuli on phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate levels in mammalian cell lines. ... Type I phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 4-phosphatase regulates stress-induced apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 ... Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate is one of the 7 known cellular phosphoinositides with less understood functions. It is ... In T-cells, two "downstream of tyrosine kinase" proteins DOK1 and DOK2 are proposed as PtdIns5P-binding proteins and effectors ...
C2-domain-containing phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. This enzyme participates in phosphatidylinositol ... In enzymology, a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase (EC 2.7.1.154) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP ... Other names in common use include type II phosphoinositide 3-kinase, ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol-4-phosphate 3-phosphotransferase. ...
5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity. • kinase activity. • phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. • phosphatidylinositol-3,4- ... phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex. • cytosol. • phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, class IA. • plasma membrane. • ... positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • phosphatidylinositol biosynthetic process. • regulation of ... positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • cytokine-mediated signaling ...
... phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase beta, and protein kinase Cepsilon". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (48): 32016-22. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.48. ... 1995). "Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity by association with 14-3-3 proteins in T cells". Proc. Natl. Acad ... Hu P, Schlessinger J (1994). "Direct association of p110 beta phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with p85 is mediated by an N- ... 1999). "Synergistic activation of a family of phosphoinositide 3-kinase via G-protein coupled and tyrosine kinase-related ...
Putative phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase alpha-like protein P2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PI4KAP2 gene. "Human ... "Entrez Gene: LOC375133 similar to phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase alpha". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Kimura K, ... 16 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1101/gr.4039406. PMC 1356129. PMID 16344560. Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, et al. (2005). "Towards a ... 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial ...
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase) results in activation of AKT/PKB (Protein Kinase B). This kinase is involved in cell survival ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase) regulates gene transcription through successive kinase ... which leads to the binding of Syk/Zap-70 kinases to ITAM and its activation. Syk kinase is specific of lymphocytes B and Zap-70 ... Besides NUAK1, LKB1 kinase acts under other effectors enzymes as SAD-A/B and MARK, therefore regulating neuronal polarization ...
... of 17α-Hydroxylase Activity Is Mediated by Phosphatidyl Inositol 3-Kinase But Not Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase-1/2 in ... 2007-02-22: 4 [29 March 2013]. ISBN 9781139462037.. *^ 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 ... 多囊性卵巢會受基因遺傳與環境因素影響[6][7]。其危險因子包含肥胖症、運動量不足或是有家族病史[8]。如果有以下三種症狀中的兩種便可診斷患者有多囊性卵巢:無排卵、雄性激素過高與卵
... interactions with focal adhesion kinase and suppression of the extracellular matrix-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt ... Tropomyosin receptor kinase B § Agonists. References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000176697 - Ensembl, May ... positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... 6 (1): 79-85. doi:10.3758/CABN.6.1.79. PMID 16869232.. *^ a b c d e Baj G, Carlino D, Gardossi L, Tongiorgi E (October 2013). " ...
Atg14L and the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI(3)K) VPS34.[41] The active ULK and Beclin-1 complexes re- ... Once active, VPS34 phosphorylates the lipid phosphatidylinositol to generate phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) on ... These two kinases regulate autophagy through inhibitory phosphorylation of the Unc-51-like kinases ULK1 and ULK2 (mammalian ... 1 (3): 131-40. doi:10.4161/auto.1.3.2017. PMID 16874025.. *^ a b c Tavassoly, Iman (2015). Dynamics of Cell Fate Decision ...
"Embryonic mesoderm cells spread in response to platelet-derived growth factor and signaling by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase". ... The ligands interact with the two tyrosine kinase receptor monomers, PDGFRα (PDGFRA) and -Rβ (PDGFRB).[6] The PDGF family also ... The receptor for PDGF, PDGFR is classified as a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), a type of cell surface receptor. Two types of ... receptor tyrosine kinases". EMBO J. 15 (2): 290-298. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1996.tb00359.x. PMC 449944. PMID 8617204.. ...
Atg14L and the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI(3)K) Vps34.[49] The active ULK and Beclin-1 complexes re- ... Once active, VPS34 phosphorylates the lipid phosphatidylinositol to generate phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) on ... These two kinases regulate autophagy through inhibitory phosphorylation of the Unc-51-like kinases ULK1 and ULK2 (mammalian ... 1 (1): e10. doi:10.1038/cddis.2009.8. PMC 3032517. PMID 21364612.. *^ a b c He C, Bassik MC, Moresi V, Sun K, Wei Y, Zou Z, An ...
insulin receptor signaling pathway via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. • positive regulation of multicellular organism growth. • ... protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity. • receptor ligand activity. Cellular component. • extracellular region. • ... positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • ossification. • platelet ... positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • carbohydrate metabolic process. • regulation of receptor ...
October 2004). "Sphingosine kinase 1 is an intracellular effector of phosphatidic acid". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (43): 44763-74. doi ... "Phosphatidic acid is a specific activator of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (11): 7207-10. PMID ... This will show whether the phosphate group is newly derived from the kinase activity or whether it originates from the PC.[18] ... Olivera A, Rosenthal J, Spiegel S (March 1996). "Effect of acidic phospholipids on sphingosine kinase". J. Cell. Biochem. 60 (4 ...
Type I phosphatidylinositol kinase makes a novel inositol phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate". Nature. 332: 644-646 ... Kai, M., White, G.L. and Hawthorne, J.N. (1966). „The phosphatidylinositol kinase of rat brain". Biochem. J. 101: 328-337. PMID ... Walker, D.H., Dougherty, N. and Pike, L.J. (1988). „Purification and characterization of a phosphatidylinositol kinase from ... A novel family of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases conserved from yeast to humans". J. Biol. Chem. 276: 7705-7708. PMID 11244087. ...
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • inflammatory response. • calcium-mediated signaling using ... 84 (1): 92-9. doi:10.1172/JCI114175. PMC 303957 . PMID 2472431.. *^ Herrmann SM, Ricard S, Nicaud V, Mallet C, Evans A, ... 79 (1): 181-213. PMID 9922371.. *^ Lorenzon P, Vecile E, Nardon E, Ferrero E, Harlan JM, Tedesco F, Dobrina A (September 1998 ... 28 (1): 53-66. doi:10.1055/s-2002-20564. PMID 11885026.. *. Furie B, Furie BC (2004). "Role of platelet P-selectin and ...
Fyn and Lyn kinase. It also activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and AKT signaling pathway and induce expression of ... kinase pathway and the phosphorylation of Lck (lymphocyte-activated protein tyrosine kinase) and Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) ... kinase pathway and the phosphorylation of Lck (lymphocyte-activated protein tyrosine kinase) and Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) ... CD8+ memory T cell number is controlled by a balance between IL-15 and IL-2. When IL-15 binds its receptor, JAK kinase, STAT3, ...
Excessive eryptosis is observed in red blood cells lacking the cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I or the AMP-activated ... Both PS and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) can regulate membrane mechanical function, due to their interactions ... Red blood cells, also known as RBCs, red cells,[1] red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek ... R.Lipowsky and E.Sackmann, vol.1, Elsevier, 1995 *^ a b J. A. Blom (15 December 2003). Monitoring of Respiration and ...
Kinase fosfatidil inositol-3 (bahasa Inggris: phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase, Phosphoinositide 3-kinases, PI3K) merupakan enzim ... 21 (FVII · FIX · FX · FXI · FXII · FD · PROC · Trombin) · .22 · .23 · .24 (.1 ALA · .7 MMP-1 · .17 MMP-3/MMP-6 · .19 BMP-1 · . ... Fosfatidil inositol-3 kinase. Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas. (Dialihkan dari Kinase fosfatidil inositol-3 ... Enzim ini memiliki koenzim (PKB/c-Akt/Rac) yang menghambat enzim glikogen sintase kinase 3 dan mengaktivasi serina kinase yang ...
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • regulation of p38MAPK cascade. • cell proliferation. • ... protein tyrosine kinase activity. • Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. • phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3- ... phosphatidylinositol phosphorylation. • mitotic cell cycle. • regulation of receptor activity. • positive regulation of protein ... regulation of tau-protein kinase activity. • proteolysis. • positive chemotaxis. • MAPK cascade. • peptidyl-tyrosine ...
These events promote many signaling cascades (such as the MAP kinase pathway) that generate responses like chemotaxis, ... PLC cleaves a molecule called phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) into two second messenger molecules known as ... 1 (2): 95-104. PMID 16212895.. *^ a b Graham GJ, Locati M (January 2013). "Regulation of the immune and inflammatory responses ... DAG activates another enzyme called protein kinase C (PKC), and IP3 triggers the release of calcium from intracellular stores. ...
2000). „Interleukin-6 activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, which inhibits apoptosis in human prostate cancer cell lines.". ... 1993). „IL-6-induced homodimerization of gp130 and associated activation of a tyrosine kinase.". Science. 260 (5115): 1808-10. ... 1-50. CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 ... the receptor is crucial for kinase activation". Biochem. J. England. 361 (Pt 1): 105-11. ISSN 0264-6021. PMC 1222284 . PMID ...
PLC cleaves Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) to form two second messenger molecules called inositol triphosphate ... At the same time, the G-protein subunit Gα directly activates an enzyme called protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), which ... IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG); DAG activates another enzyme called protein kinase C (PKC), and IP3 triggers the release of ... The initiated MAP kinase pathway activates specific cellular mechanisms involved in chemotaxis, degranulation, release of ...
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. • 多細胞個体の発生. • regulation of cell population proliferation. • ... protein kinase activity. • JUN kinase binding. • non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transferase activity ... FAK(focal adhesion kinase、フォーカルアドヒージョンキナーゼ、焦点接着キナーゼ、接着斑キナーゼ)またはPTK2(protein tyrosine kinase 2)は、ヒトではPTK2遺伝子にコードされるタンパク質
Protein kinase C activation[edit]. PIP2 cleavage to IP3 and DAG initiates intracellular calcium release and PKC activation. ... and is a product of the hydrolysis of the phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) by the enzyme phospholipase ... Diacylglycerol can be phosphorylated to phosphatidic acid by diacylglycerol kinase. Insulin resistance[edit]. Activation of PKC ... whereas DAG is a physiological activator of protein kinase C (PKC). The production of DAG in the membrane facilitates ...
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • positive regulation of DNA binding. • Ras protein signal transduction. • cell ... positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • myoblast differentiation. • glycolate metabolic process. • ... protein kinase B signaling. • regulation of multicellular organism growth. • positive regulation of cell migration. • platelet ... activation of protein kinase B activity. • insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of ...
... element-binding protein through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Mauceri D, Cattabeni F, Di Luca M, Gardoni F (May 2004). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation drives ... S818 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and is necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP; for GluA1's role in LTP, see ... and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK).[28] Messages are translated on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) and ...
phosphatidylinositol phosphorylation. • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • توصيل الإشارة. • negative ... protein tyrosine kinase activity. • phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity. • Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange ... positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • ERBB2 signaling pathway. • regulation of cell motility. • epidermal growth ... 96 (4): 1633-8. PMC 15542. . PMID 9990076. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.4.1633. الوسيط ,السنة=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة); الوسيط ,الصفحات=. تم ...
"Interferon-γ activates transglutaminase 2 via a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent pathway: implications for celiac sprue ... positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling. • positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration ... Mishra S, Murphy LJ (June 2004). "Tissue transglutaminase has intrinsic kinase activity: identification of transglutaminase 2 ... tTG is proposed to also act as kinase,[30] and protein disulfide isomerase,[31] and deamidase.[32] This latter activity is ...
"Type I phosphatidylinositol kinase makes a novel inositol phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate". Nature. 332 (6165): ... and that this phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) is activated by growth factors to produce novel 3'-phosphorylated ... "Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and its novel product, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, are present in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... PI-3-kinase. Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. Oriented Peptide Libraries/Scansite. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate ...
"Recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to CD28 inhibits HIV transcription by a Tat-dependent mechanism". J. Immunol. 169 ... Firstly, it binds with high affinity to Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), found on the inner surface of the ... phosphorylates hSPT5 and RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain independently of cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase" ... In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1.[1][2] Tat is a regulatory protein that ...
protein tyrosine kinase activity. • Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. • phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3- ... phosphatidylinositol phosphorylation. • positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity. • activation of transmembrane ... positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • negative regulation of Notch signaling pathway. • regulation of JAK-STAT ... positive regulation of MAP kinase activity. • epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • regulation of protein ...
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • innate immune system. • viral process. • positive regulation of dendritic cell ... C1QBP has been shown to interact with Protein kinase D1,[10] BAT2,[11] PRKCD,[10] PKC alpha[10] and Protein kinase Mζ.[10] ... protein kinase C binding. • complement component C1q binding. • adrenergic receptor binding. • translation activator activity. ... 2000). "Protein kinase C [micro] is regulated by the multifunctional chaperon protein p32". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (32): 24601-7. ...
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. • cellular protein localization. • positive regulation of ... mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase binding. • protein binding. • thioesterase binding. • protein kinase binding. • ... "The MAP kinase kinase kinase MLK2 co-localizes with activated JNK along microtubules and associates with kinesin superfamily ... regulation of protein kinase activity. • regulation of attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochore. • regulation of small ...
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • positive regulation of apoptotic process. • intracellular ... negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • cell differentiation. • immune system process. • negative regulation of ... The protein binds estradiol, resulting in intracellular calcium mobilization and synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)- ... doi:10.1007/s12672-014-0174-1. PMC 4091989. PMID 24718936.. *^ a b c Lappano R, Pisano A, Maggiolini M (2014). "GPER Function ...
... a role for phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase". Cancer Research. 62 (15): 4469-77. PMID 12154057.. ... 46 (4): 497-504. doi:10.1177/002215549804600409. PMID 9524195.. *. Ivanov SV, Kuzmin I, Wei MH, Pack S, Geil L, Johnson BE, ... oxygen tension induces expression of the hypoxia marker MN/carbonic anhydrase IX in the absence of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 ...
... phosphatidylinositol kinase, type II phosphatidylinositol kinase, PI kinase, and PI 4-kinase. This enzyme participates in ... Other names in common use include phosphatidylinositol kinase (phosphorylating), phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, ... "Type I phosphatidylinositol kinase makes a novel inositol phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate". Nature. 332 (6165): ... Kai M, White GL, Hawthorne JN (1966). "The phosphatidylinositol kinase of rat brain". Biochem. J. 101 (2): 328-37. doi:10.1042/ ...
Other names in common use include diphosphoinositide kinase, PIP kinase, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate kinase, ... and type I PIP kinase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: inositol phosphate metabolism, phosphatidylinositol ... Kai M, Salway JG, Hawthorne JN (1968). "The diphosphoinositide kinase of rat brain". Biochem. J. 106 (4): 791-801. doi:10.1042/ ... "A new pathway for synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate". Nature. 390 (6656): 192-6. Bibcode:1997Natur.390..192R. ...
Participates in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Mediates RAC1-dependent reorganization of actin ... 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate + ATP = a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol-4,5- ...
... phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase alpha pseudogene 1), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... X Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 NA PI4KAP1 (phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase alpha pseudogene 1). ... 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity intracellular plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol phosphorylation ... phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling Ontology : EGO-EBI. 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity intracellular plasma ...
... to form phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). PtdIns(4,5)P2 is involved in a variety of cellular processes and ... P2 is thought to occur via type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases given the abundance of PtdIns4P. Participates in a ... Controls the plasma membrane pool of PtdIns(4,5)P2 implicated in synaptic vesicle endocytosis and exocytosis. Plays a role in ... is the substrate to form phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), another second messenger. The majority of ...
... kinase (ppk-1) in ovulation of Caenorhabditis elegans. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Role of Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5 Kinase (ppk-1) in Ovulation of Caenorhabditis Elegans. Exp Cell Res. 2007 Jul 1;313 ... Role of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5 kinase (ppk-1) in ovulation of Caenorhabditis elegans. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313(11): ... Role of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5 kinase (ppk-1) in ovulation of Caenorhabditis elegans.. Exp Cell Res. 2007 Jul 01; ...
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, ... Synergism between Wnt3a and heparin enhances osteogenesis via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/RUNX2 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010 ... the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. ... "1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ...
Human phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, catalytic, alpha (PI4KA), transcript variant 1 - 10 µg - RC218825 from OriGene ... PI4KA (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, catalytic, alpha (PI4KA), transcript variant 1 - 10 µg ... PI4KA (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, catalytic, alpha (PI4KA), transcript variant 1. ... RC218827: ZNF419 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human zinc finger protein 419 (ZNF419), transcript variant 1. Note: ORF is codon optimized ...
Mouse phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type 1 beta (cDNA clone MGC:41200 IMAGE:3326897), (10ug), 10 µg. ... Home » cDNA » Mouse cDNA » Pip5k1b (untagged) - Mouse phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type 1 beta (cDNA clone MGC: ... Properties for Pip5k1b (untagged) - Mouse phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type 1 beta (cDNA clone MGC:41200 IMAGE: ... MC217732 Pip5k1b (untagged) - Mouse phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type 1 beta (cDNA clone MGC:41200 IMAGE:3326897 ...
Other names in common use include diphosphoinositide kinase, PIP kinase, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate kinase, ... and type I PIP kinase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: inositol phosphate metabolism, phosphatidylinositol ... Kai M, Salway JG, Hawthorne JN (1968). "The diphosphoinositide kinase of rat brain". Biochem. J. 106: 791-801. PMID 4295336.. ... Rameh LE, Tolias KF, Duckworth BC, Cantley LC (1997). "A new pathway for synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate". ...
PIP5KL1 is a phosphoinositide kinase-like protein that lacks intrinsic lipid kinase activity but associates with type I PIPKs ( ... HCA RNA Cell Line for Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase-like protein 1. ... P 5-kinases to specific compartments within the cell, where they generate PI(4,5)P2 for actin nucleation, signaling and ... May act as a scaffold to localize and regulate type I PI(4) ... Brain - Spinal cord (cervical c-1) 17,973 Colon - Transverse ...
1) year after it arises, except to the extent such limitation is not enforceable. To the fullest extent permitted by law, each ...
... suggest that phosphatidylinositol kinase (PtdInsK) and phospholipase C (PLC) are elevated in this renal disorder. Therefore, ... suggest that phosphatidylinositol kinase (PtdInsK) and phospholipase C (PLC) are elevated in this renal disorder. Therefore, ... Overexpression of kidney phosphatidylinositol 4-kinasebeta and phospholipase C(gamma1) proteins in two rodent models of ... Disease-related increases in phosphatidylinositol 4-kinasebeta (PtdIns4Kbeta) and PLC(gamma1) levels were present in both ...
The generation of second messengers from the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP2) by ... Type I phosphatidylinositol kinase makes a novel inositol phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate Nature. 1988 Apr 14; ... The first step in the production of PtdInsP2 from phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) is catalysed by PtdIns kinase. A PtdIns kinase ... We have now characterized the site on the inositol ring phosphorylated by type I PtdIns kinase, and find that this kinase ...
... phosphate 5-kinase type-1 gamma PIP5K1C 01011393927 at Gentaur for Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 1 gamma (PIP5K1C) ... Human Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-1 gamma (PIP5K1C) ELISA Kit is manufactured by highest quality antibodies ... Store and ship all of of the comptents of the EIA assay for Human Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-1 gamma ( ... ELISA test for Human Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-1 gamma (PIP5K1C). * ...
phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type 1 gamma. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close ... This locus encodes a type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase. The encoded protein catalyzes phosphorylation of ... Catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) to form phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate ( ... producing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This enzyme is found at synapses and has been found to play roles in ...
Phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol (PI) in the first committed step in the production of the second messenger inositol-1,4,5,- ... Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase betaAdd BLAST. 815. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... kinase_CS. IPR015433 PI_Kinase. IPR001263 PInositide-3_kin_accessory_dom. ... kinase_CS. IPR015433 PI_Kinase. IPR001263 PInositide-3_kin_accessory_dom. ...
Thus, inositol phosphate analogues inter alia are shown for the first time to inhibit PI 3-kinase and may be useful tools for ... PI 3-kinase) activity immunoprecipitated from a leukemic T cell line by a p85 monoclonal antibody. A 3-position ring-modified ... did not inhibit PI 3-kinase activity under identical conditions. L-chiro-Ins(2,3,5)P3 closely resembles Ins(1,4,5)P3 and D-Ins( ... P3 did not inhibit PI 3-kinase activity, this suggests that the orientation of the two hydroxyl groups at the 2- and 3- ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits 1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase activity (ortholog); INVOLVED IN chemotaxis ( ... phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 3-kinase C2 domain-containing subunit gamma. Orthologs:. Homo sapiens (human) : PIK3C2G ( ... phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 2 gamma. Description:. ENCODES a protein that exhibits 1- ... Gene: PIK3C2G (phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 2 gamma) Pan paniscus. {{ watchLinkText }} ...
5 expression by protein kinase C. Lippoldt, Andrea; Liebner, Stefan; Andbjer, Beth; More ... 5 expression by protein kinase C. Lippoldt, Andrea; Liebner, Stefan; Andbjer, Beth; More ... 5 expression by protein kinase C. Lippoldt, Andrea; Liebner, Stefan; Andbjer, Beth; More ... 5 expression by protein kinase C. Lippoldt, Andrea; Liebner, Stefan; Andbjer, Beth; More ...
phosphatidylinositol kinase (phosphorylating);. phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase;. phosphatidylinositol kinase;. type II ... Type I phosphatidylinositol kinase makes a novel inositol phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate. ... A novel family of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases conserved from yeast to humans. ... Pathway (7) KEGG PATHWAY (6) KEGG MODULE (1) Chemical substance (4) KEGG COMPOUND (4) Chemical reaction (3) KEGG REACTION (1) ...
kinase binding. PIP5K1A. IDA. Human. PMID:15157668. Molecular Function. GO:0005515. protein binding. PIP5K1A. IPI. UniProtKB: ... phosphatidylinositol metabolic process. Pip5k1a. IDA. Mouse. MGI:MGI:83079,PMID:8798574. Biological Process. GO:0008654. ... phosphatidylinositol biosynthetic process. Pip5k1a. IGI. MGI:MGI:1298224. Mouse. MGI:MGI:4844021,PMID:20622009. Biological ... 1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase activity. Pip5k1a. IDA. Mouse. MGI:MGI:83079,PMID:8798574. Molecular Function. GO: ...
Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase Alpha Pseudogene 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression ... Putative phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase alpha-like protein P2. Protein Accession:. A4QPH2. Secondary Accessions: *Q6ICJ0 ... Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include kinase activity and phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as ... Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase, Catalytic, Alpha Pseudogene 2 2 3 * Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase, Catalytic, Alpha Polypeptide ...
phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type 1 beta. 15. 4. 9. 22. ... pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:19:24294794:24555872:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000031802 transcript:OTTMUST00000078826 gene_biotype:protein_ ... coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Pip5k1b description:phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type 1 beta ...
... type 1 gamma) targeted mutation leads to a major impairment of PI(4,5)P2 synthesis primarily in brain, leading to early ... This Pip5k1c (phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type 1 gamma) targeted mutation leads to a major impairment of PI(4,5) ... Impaired PtdIns(4,5)P2 synthesis in nerve terminals produces defects in synaptic vesicle trafficking. Nature 431(7007):415-22 ... Impaired PtdIns(4,5)P2 synthesis in nerve terminals produces defects in synaptic vesicle trafficking. Nature 431(7007):415-22 ...
Phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate 5 kinase type III. *Phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate/phosphatidylinositol 5 kinase type III ... The PI(3,5)P2 regulatory complex regulates both the synthesis and turnover of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5 ... to form phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate. Required for endocytic-vacuolar pathway and nuclear migration. Plays a role in ... P2). Catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate on the fifth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring, ...
Diacylglycerol kinase. ST. 2.6. 0.015. 1.6. 0.093. Le. TC125973. 3-Phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase, FAB1. ST. 2.3. 0.029. 1.6. ... Leu rich repeat containing protein kinase. ST. 2.1. 0.047. 1.8. 0.087. Le. TC122585. Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase Dβ ... diacylglycerol kinase (DGK; BE434771), or polyubiquitin (UBQ) as loading control. The ethidium bromide-stained gel (EtBr) is ... 1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase. ST. 3.1. 0.068. 2.7. 0.018. Le. TC120983. Protein phosphatase type 2C. ST. 3.1. 0.038. 3.9. ...
Analysis of changes in aortic mRNA showed that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS ... phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; RENAAL, Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with ... 732-P) reported the use of an assay of monocyte protein kinase Cβ activity, which was increased in patients with diabetes and ... An interesting observation was that those whose mean HbA1c was ,7.5% had a decline in GFR of 7.5 ml · min−1 · 1.73 m−2 per year ...
Phosphatidyl Inositol Kinase 1 Comparative Info. Integrated model organism details available at the Alliance of Genome ... Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase; catalyzes first step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate; may control ... Essential gene; conditional mutations disturb phosphatidylinositol phosphate pools and cause multiple abnormalities in actin ... PIK1 1 Systematic Name. YNL267W. SGD ID. SGD:S000005211. Aliases. PIK41 28 , PIK120 28 Feature Type. ORF , Verified Description ...
Diphosphoinositide kinase. *LCCS3. *Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type I gamma. *Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5 ... Participates in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. ...
  • Synergism between Wnt3a and heparin enhances osteogenesis via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/RUNX2 pathway. (umassmed.edu)
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (mTOR) pathway is often constitutively activated in human tumor cells, providing unique opportunities for anticancer therapeutic intervention. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In cellular settings using human tumor cell lines, this molecule is able to effectively and specifically block the dysfunctional activation of the PI3K pathway, inducing G 1 arrest. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this regard, application of computational tools firstly to predict newer combinations against phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, protein kinase b and mammalian target of rapamycin involved in a single pathway have been proposed. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) is a major signalling pathway, which involved in cell cycle regulation as well as progression[ 7 , 8 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Disruption of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) pathway, one of the signaling pathways downstream from NGF-receptor binding, completely eliminates NGF effects on mitochondrial behavior in axons. (biologists.org)
  • A key component during sepsis is the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway, of which the PI3K-γ isoform is a major regulator in many inflammatory responses. (bireme.br)
  • In the absence of STAT5 activity, Shc was unable to sustain activation of the Akt/p70S6 kinase pathway or promote lymphocyte proliferation and viability. (jimmunol.org)
  • The PI3K/Akt pathway was found to activate the E2F transcription factor, which is pivotal for G 1 to S phase progression ( 25 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 2006. Class I and III Phosphatidylinositol 3'-Kinase Play Distinct Roles in TLR Signaling Pathway. (invivogen.com)
  • Further detection of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway compared to LY294002 (PI3K kinase inhibitor), RAP (mTOR kinase inhibitor) and insulin (an activator of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway) showed that PD induced autophagy through inhibiting the pathway at p-Akt (Ser473), p-p70S6K (Thr389) and p-4EBP1 (Thr37/46) in both cell lines. (jcancer.org)
  • Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activity is negatively regulated by several signal transduction cascades that protect neurons against apoptosis, including the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase) pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because the PI-3 kinase-Akt pathway is neural-protective and negatively regulates GSK3β activity, GSK3β may be an important downstream proapoptotic target that contributes to apoptosis in neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have found that 4-HQN activated the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt pathway in lung, liver, and spleen, and down-regulated two elements of the MAP kinase system. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our results provide evidence for the first time that the beneficial effects of PARP inhibition in endotoxic shock, such as attenuation of NF-κB- and AP-1 transcription factor activation, are mediated, at least partially, through the regulation of the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway and MAP kinase cascades. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2015) Resveratrol Attenuates Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats: Involvement of Sirtuin 1 and the Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-Bisphosphate 3-Kinase/AKT Pathway. (hanspub.org)
  • OBJECTIVE- The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) generates pancreatic β-cells apoptosis mainly through activation of the c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study was designed to investigate whether the long-acting agonist of the hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor exendin-4 (ex-4), which mediates protective effects against cytokine-induced β-cell apoptosis, could interfere with the JNK pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS- Ex-4 inhibited induction of the JNK pathway elicited by IL-1β. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This effect was mimicked with the use of cAMP-raising agents isobutylmethylxanthine and forskolin and required activation of the protein kinase A. Inhibition of the JNK pathway by ex-4 or IBMX and forskolin was concomitant with a rise in the levels of islet-brain 1 (IB1), a potent blocker of the stress-induced JNK pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cancer including glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive form of brain cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • NVP-BEZ235 is an imidazo[4,5- c ]quinoline derivative that inhibits PI3K and mTOR kinase activity by binding to the ATP-binding cleft of these enzymes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream effector Akt are frequently deregulated in human cancers ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genetic ablation of the PI3K mutant allele in the colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and DLD-1 reduced their oncogenic properties ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Under some circumstances, the Ras oncogene or activated receptor tyrosine kinases have also been shown to mediate their transforming potential through aberrant PI3K signaling ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • TCR engagement in the absence of CD28 costimulation does not efficiently activate the MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and IKK pathways (reviewed in Ref. 8 ), which results in reduced AP-1 and NFκB activity, defective transactivation of the CD28 response element (CD28RE) in the il2 promoter, and induction of anergy. (jimmunol.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. (nih.gov)
  • cDNA cloning of a third human C2-domain-containing class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase, PI3K-C2gamma, and chromosomal assignment of this gene (PIK3C2G) to 12p12. (nih.gov)
  • Data indicate substituents of benzensulfonamide and pyrazine as phosphoinositide 3-kinase-C2gamma (PI3K-C2GAMMA) inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream effector AKT were constitutively activated during stress conditions in the MUT PIK3CA cells but not in the WT cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) are a family of lipid kinases that are involved in a wide range of cancer-related signaling pathways, including proliferation, survival, motility, differentiation, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and angiogenesis ( 1 - 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • AKT, the major downstream effector of PI3K, is activated by phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1, which is recruited and phosphorylated by activation of PI3K. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The protein mTOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase and has a downstream substrate of PI3K and Akt. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) has been implicated in the regulation of these processes. (asm.org)
  • IL-3 was found to repress the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 KIP1 through activation of PI3K, and this occurs at the level of transcription. (asm.org)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream target protein kinase B (PKB) have been linked to regulation of proliferation and survival in a variety of hematopoietic systems ( 14 , 16 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • PI3K activity is negatively regulated by the PTEN phosphatase, which specifically dephosphorylates the D3 position of phosphatidylinositol, thus inhibiting the action of PI3K ( 22 , 36 , 50 , 62 ). (asm.org)
  • To identify a potential mechanism by which PI3K could exert its proliferative and antiapoptotic effects, we focused on cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27 KIP1 . (asm.org)
  • Formation of the Shc/Grb2/Gab2/p85 complex ultimately leads to catalytic activation of p110α PI3K, which converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP 3 ) 4 in the cell membrane ( 15 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The ability of ERas to rescue cells from the toxic effect of chemotherapeutic agents was inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor PD294002. (biomedsearch.com)
  • LY294002 is a potent, cell permeable inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) that acts on the ATP binding site of the enzyme [1]. (invivogen.com)
  • Furthermore, PI3K is required for autophagy [4]. (invivogen.com)
  • Inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 can inhibit autophagic sequestration [4]. (invivogen.com)
  • We report here that the stimulation of the lowaffinity receptor for immunoglobulin G (IgG) (Fc RIIIA, CD16) on primary human natural killer (NK) cells induces a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)- dependent activation of the small G protein Arf6. (semanticscholar.org)
  • BTK regulates PtdIns-4,5-P2 synthesis: importance for calcium signaling and PI3K activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A large part of our understanding of how PI3K participates in cell signalling is based on the use of two structurally distinct cell-permeable inhibitors of PI3K, LY294002 [ 3 ] and wortmannin [ 4 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • In the case of insulin signalling, use of these inhibitors has provided strong evidence that PI3K activity is necessary for a wide range of insulin's effects on cells [ 1 , 5 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • However, the PI3K lipid kinase family comprises eight enzymes, divided into three classes (I, II and III) based on sequence homology comparisons. (biochemj.org)
  • one of the most robust biochemical signals elicited by chemokines in T-lymphocytes is the activation of several members of the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) family. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Development of first lead structures for phosphoinositide 3-kinase-C2γ inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • These proteins are characterized by their large size (>200 KDa) and by the presence of a highly conserved phosphoinositide 3-kinase-like catalytic domain. (eu.org)
  • Phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha-dependent regulation of branching morphogenesis in murine embryonic lung:Evidence for a role in determining morphogenic properties of FGF7. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 Bisphosphate 3 Kinase Catalytic Subunit Alpha Isoform (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 Bisphosphate 3 Kinase 110 kDa Catalytic Subunit Alpha or Phosphoinositide 3 Kinase Catalytic Alpha Polypeptide or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PIK3CA or PIK3CA or EC 2.7.11.1 or EC 2.7.1.153) - The phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha also called p110α is a protein encoded by the PIK3CA gene. (giiresearch.com)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 Bisphosphate 3 Kinase Catalytic Subunit Alpha Isoform (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 Bisphosphate 3 Kinase 110 kDa Catalytic Subunit Alpha or Phosphoinositide 3 Kinase Catalytic Alpha Polypeptide or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PIK3CA or PIK3CA or EC 2.7.11.1 or EC 2.7.1.153) pipeline Target constitutes close to 26 molecules. (giiresearch.com)
  • Therapies targeting essential survival pathways in glioblastoma [e.g., inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) or signaling molecules] have achieved modest, yet encouraging, therapeutic benefits in recurrent glioblastoma ( 11 - 22 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A screen of 72 inhibitors against 456 human kinases. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 2010) Activation state-dependent binding of small molecule kinase inhibitors: structural insights from biochemistry. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Therefore, it is of particular note that analysis of CBL should be introduced in routine leukemia diagnostics, as patients who harbor CBL mutations might benefit from treatment with FLT3 protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1997. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 inhibit autophagy in isolated rat hepatocytes. (invivogen.com)
  • Additionally, the effects assessed with a panel of pharmacologic inhibitors, including U0126 (Erk1/2 kinase inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK kinase inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 MAPK kinase inhibitor) suggested that the activation of JNK and p38 MAPK participated in PD-induced autophagy. (jcancer.org)
  • Neurons were subjected to several apoptotic paradigms, including serum deprivation, serum deprivation combined with exposure to NMDA receptor antagonists, or treatment with PI-3 kinase inhibitors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because PARP-1 knockout mice are resistant to endotoxin-induced shock and inhibitors of the enzyme were reported to have similar beneficial properties, we investigated the effect of 4-hydroxyquinazoline (4-HQN), a potent PARP-1 inhibitor, on the modulation of kinase cascades and the regulation of transcription factors in a rodent septic shock model. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS- The data establish the requirement of IB1 in the protective action of ex-4 against apoptosis elicited by IL-1β and highlight the GLP-1 mimetics as new potent inhibitors of the JNK signaling induced by cytokines. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The function of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ) explored using a specific inhibitor that targets the PI5P-binding site. (springer.com)
  • A Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Inhibitor Induces a Senescent-like Growth Arrest in Human Diploid Fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1994. A specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, 2-(4- morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (LY294002). (invivogen.com)
  • T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed the pattern of anatomical localization of the inflammatory response in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice and the anti-inflammatory effect of the PARP-1 inhibitor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2011) Discovery of 9-(6-aminopyridin-3-yl)-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)benzo[h][1,6]naphthyridin-2(1H)-one (Torin2) as a potent, selective, and orally available mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor for treatment of cancer. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) to form phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). (uniprot.org)
  • PtdIns(4,5)P2 is involved in a variety of cellular processes and is the substrate to form phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), another second messenger. (uniprot.org)
  • The majority of PtdIns(4,5)P2 is thought to occur via type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases given the abundance of PtdIns4P. (uniprot.org)
  • Promotes particle attachment by generating the pool of PtdIns(4,5)P2 that induces controlled actin depolymerization to facilitate Fc-gamma-R clustering. (uniprot.org)
  • Controls the plasma membrane pool of PtdIns(4,5)P2 implicated in synaptic vesicle endocytosis and exocytosis. (uniprot.org)
  • The first step in the production of PtdInsP2 from phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) is catalysed by PtdIns kinase. (nih.gov)
  • A PtdIns kinase activity has been found to associate specifically with several oncogene products, as well as with the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously identified two biochemically distinct PtdIns kinases in fibroblasts, and have found that only one of these, designated type I, specifically associates with activated tyrosine kinases. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that type I PtdIns kinase is responsible for the generation of PtdIns(3)P in intact cells, and that this novel phosphoinositide could be important in the transduction of mitogenic and oncogenic signals. (nih.gov)
  • Impaired PtdIns(4,5)P2 synthesis in nerve terminals produces defects in synaptic vesicle trafficking. (jax.org)
  • The PI(3,5)P2 regulatory complex regulates both the synthesis and turnover of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2). (abcam.com)
  • This enzyme can also phosphorylate PtdIns3 P in the 4-position, and PtdIns, PtdIns3 P and PtdIns(3,4) P 2 in the 5-position in vitro, but to a lesser extent. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Supervised membrane swimming: small G-protein lifeguards regulate PIPK signalling and monitor intracellular PtdIns(4,5)P2 pools. (semanticscholar.org)
  • also known as PtdIns(4) P ] derivatives via its PH domain, and its subcellular localization is dependent upon this motif. (zfin.org)
  • Here, we identify annexin 2 as a phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5) P 2 )-interacting protein, thereby explaining this specific membrane association. (biologists.org)
  • Using the pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain of phospholipase Cδ1 fused to yellow fluorescent protein as a marker for PtdIns(4,5) P 2 , we show that annexin 2 and its ligand p11 (S100A10) are targeted to sites of PtdIns(4,5) P 2 enrichment where F-actin accumulates. (biologists.org)
  • At the plasma membrane, adhesion of pedestal-forming enteropathogenic Escherichia coli induces a recruitment of 1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PtdIns4 P 5-kinase) and an enrichment of PtdIns(4,5) P 2 and annexin 2-p11 at sites of bacterial adhesion. (biologists.org)
  • Induction of PtdIns(4,5) P 2 -enriched ruffles and PtdIns(4,5) P 2 -positive, actin-coated vacuoles by Arf6-mediated activation of PtdIns4 P 5-kinase also leads to a concomitant accumulation of the annexin 2-p11 complex and the PH domain. (biologists.org)
  • Binding studies with immobilized phosphoinositides and phosphoinositide-containing liposomes reveal that the purified annexin 2-p11 complex directly and specifically binds to PtdIns(4,5) P 2 with an affinity comparable to that of the PH domain of phospholipase Cδ1. (biologists.org)
  • Experiments using individual subunits identify annexin 2 as the PtdIns(4,5) P 2 -binding entity. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the direct interaction of annexin 2 with PtdIns(4,5) P 2 is a means of specifically recruiting the annexin 2-p11 complex to sites of membrane-associated actin assembly. (biologists.org)
  • PI3Ks (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases) catalyse the phosphorylation of the D-3 position of the inositol headgroup of PI (phosphatidylinositol) leading to the synthesis of second messengers PtdIns3 P , PtdIns(3,4) P 2 , PtdIns(3,5) P 2 and PtdIns(3,4,5) P 3 [ 1 , 2 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • Growth Rate of pip5k4 Mutant Pollen Grains Is Rescued by PtdIns(4,5)P 2 . (plantcell.org)
  • (A ) Confocal imaging of a wild-type and a pip5k4 pollen tube grown (for 8 h) in the presence of extracellular fluorescently labeled PtdIns(4,5)P 2 (5 μM). (plantcell.org)
  • This enzyme participates in inositol phosphate metabolism and phosphatidylinositol signaling system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: inositol phosphate metabolism, phosphatidylinositol signaling system, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • inositol phosphate metabolism , phosphatidylinositol signaling system , and regulation of actin cytoskeleton . (wikidoc.org)
  • Our studies of renal phosphoinositide levels and metabolism in the pcy mouse with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) suggest that phosphatidylinositol kinase (PtdInsK) and phospholipase C (PLC) are elevated in this renal disorder. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Heath, E.C. and Ghalambor, M.A. The metabolism of L -fucose. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • How precisely PI(4,5)P(2) metabolism is controlled spatially and temporally is still uncertain, but recent data indicate that direct interactions between type I PIPK and components of the endocytic machinery, in particular the AP-2 adaptor complex, are involved. (rcsb.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 19p13.3 that encodes a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine-protein kinase which controls the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family members, playing a role in various cellular processes such as cell metabolism, cell polarity, apoptosis and DNA damage response. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Members of the chemokine superfamily play a key role in providing navigational cues for T-cells and chemokine receptors couple with a wide range of biochemical signals including phosphoinositide lipid metabolism, elevation of intracellular calcium levels, activation of a wide array of protein kinases as well as small GTPases. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Silencing of the expression of genes involved in cholesterol ( DHCR7 , CYP51A1 ) and fatty acid ( FASN ) synthesis, phosphatidylinositol ( PI4KIIIβ ) and inositol phosphate ( ITPR3 ) metabolism, and RNA helicase activity ( DDX23 ) significantly decreased the amounts of Yuc8 genomic and antigenomic RNA, synthesis of the structural protein VP90, and virus yield. (asm.org)
  • The encoded protein catalyzes phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, producing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. (nih.gov)
  • CBL is a negative regulator of activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This phenotype resembles that seen with activated receptor tyrosine kinases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CBL, a known negative regulator of activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), is localized on human chromosome 11q23, a region frequently associated with chromosomal aberrations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In enzymology, a 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (EC 2.7.1.67) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol, whereas its two products are ADP and 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Translocations t(4;11) and t(11;14), and mixed-lineage leukemia fusion genes involving CBL have been described in patients with leukemia and lymphoma ( 1 - 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Similar observations were made for PIP5K5 and PIP5K6 genes (see Supplemental Figure 1 online). (plantcell.org)
  • The phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) binding function of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain is essential for the activation of oncogenic Akt/PKB kinase. (harvard.edu)
  • Coordinated activation of the nuclear ubiquitin ligase Cul3-SPOP by the generation of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate. (springer.com)
  • In the setting of a high-salt diet, proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 served as the scaffold for c-Src-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Engagement of the T cell Ag receptor is not sufficient for full activation and induction of il2 gene expression but requires a second signal provided by the CD28 costimulatory receptor ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Activation of the ATM kinase by ionizing radiation and phosphorylation of p53. (eu.org)
  • Intracellular signaling is mediated by IL-2Rβ and γ c , which undergo IL-2-induced heterodimerization followed by activation of the associated tyrosine kinases Jak1 and Jak3 ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Dectin-1 activation unlocks IL12A expression and reveals the TH1 potency of neonatal dendritic cells. (invivogen.com)
  • Activation of type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase isoforms by the Rho GTPases, RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We conclude that inhibition of GSK3β is one of the mechanisms by which PI-3 kinase activation protects neurons from programmed cell death. (jneurosci.org)
  • Namely, it dramatically attenuated the activation of the LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in a tissue-specific manner. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As a consequence of the aforementioned effects on the kinase pathways, 4-HQN decreased the activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) in LPS-induced endotoxic shock. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lim S, Strahl T, Thorner J, Ames JB (2011) Structure of a Ca 2+ - myristoyl switch protein that controls activation of a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase in fission yeast. (springer.com)
  • Activation of GLP-1R, in turn, elevates cAMP levels and activates the protein kinase A (PKA) signal transduction system ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) phosphorylate inositol lipids and are involved in the immune response. (nih.gov)
  • PI3Ks are categorized into three families according to their subunit structure, regulation, and substrate selectivity ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The PI3Ks phosphorylate phosphatidylinositol-4,5- bisphosphate (PIP2) to PIP3, which leads to the phosphorylation of Akt, which has an impact on cancer cell survival, growth and cell cycle[ 9 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Recent genetic knock-in and pharmacological approaches have suggested that, of class IA PI3Ks (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases), it is the p110α isoform (PIK3CA) that plays the predominant role in insulin signalling. (biochemj.org)
  • This Pip5k1c (phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type 1 gamma) targeted mutation leads to a major impairment of PI(4,5)P2 synthesis primarily in brain, leading to early postnatal lethality (within 24 hours of birth). (jax.org)
  • This targeted mutation leads to a major impairment of PI(4,5)P 2 synthesis primarily in brain, leading to early postnatal lethality (within 24 hours of birth). (jax.org)
  • We postulate a model according to which multiple interactions between PIPKI gamma-p90 and AP-2 lead to spatiotemporally controlled PI(4,5)P(2) synthesis during clathrin-mediated SV endocytosis. (rcsb.org)
  • We show Fwd is required for synthesis of PI 4-phosphate (PI4P) on Golgi membranes and for formation of PI4P-containing secretory organelles that localize to the midzone. (rupress.org)
  • The sequence of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase defines a novel family of lipid kinases. (springer.com)
  • OCRL1 is a lipid phosphatase that converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate by hydrolyzing the 5′ phosphate of PIP 2 ( 44 , 56 ). (physiology.org)
  • The phosphoinositide-3-OH-kinase related kinases (PIKKs) are atypical protein kinases exclusive to eukaryotes. (eu.org)
  • The PIKKs are a group of ancient eukaryotic protein kinases including ATM, ATR and DNA-PK. (eu.org)
  • They appear to function principally as protein kinases, however ( Yang,2004 ). (eu.org)
  • ATM and related protein kinases: safeguarding genome integrity. (eu.org)
  • These signal transduction pathways activate multiple transcription factors, among which NFAT, AP-1, CREB, and NFκB are particularly important for transactivation of the il2 gene ( 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Because CD28- and cAMP-coupled signaling pathways antagonize each other, a shift toward cAMP/protein kinase A signaling would favor anergy. (jimmunol.org)
  • PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. (nih.gov)
  • However till date the treatment of cancer is a major challenge for the reasons associated with the complexity of cell signalling pathways, heterogeneity of tumor cell, development of resistance to current therapy[ 4 ] and inevitable side effects[ 5 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) phosphorylate phosphatidylinositol to generate phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), an immediate precursor of several important signaling and scaffolding molecules. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • PI4Ks, in turn, phosphorylate PI on the D-4 position of the inositol ring, producing phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), one of seven different PI phosphates (also called phosphoinositides). (rupress.org)
  • Participates in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. (rcsb.org)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. (umassmed.edu)
  • Doering, T.L., Masteron, W.J., Englund, P.T. and Hart, G.W. Biosynthesis of the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol membrane anchor of the trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein. (enzyme-database.org)
  • Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases, a multifaceted family of signaling enzymes. (springer.com)
  • Thus, inositol phosphate analogues inter alia are shown for the first time to inhibit PI 3-kinase and may be useful tools for determining the function of PI 3-kinase and its substrate binding specificities. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase (PI5P4K) is an enzyme activity capable of converting a monophosphorylated lipid substrate into a bisphosphorylated product, a reaction that is fundamental in the maintenance of the cellular phosphoinositide (PI) cycle. (springer.com)
  • 18,19 In particular, NOS3 can serve as a substrate for protein kinase B (Akt), which promotes serine phosphorylation at residue 1176 in the carboxyl terminal portion of NOS3 and increases NOS3 sensitivity to calcium/calmodulin and enzyme activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Substrate specificities and identification of putative substrates of ATM kinase family members. (eu.org)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 Bisphosphate 3 Kinase Catalytic Subunit Beta Isoform (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 Bisphosphate 3 Kinase 110 kDa Catalytic Subunit Beta or PIK3CB or EC 2.7.1.153) pipeline Target constitutes close to 13 molecules. (medindia.net)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 Bisphosphate 3 Kinase Catalytic Subunit Beta Isoform (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 Bisphosphate 3 Kinase 110 kDa Catalytic Subunit Beta or PIK3CB or EC 2.7.1.153) - Phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform is an enzyme encoded by the PIK3CB gene. (medindia.net)
  • It also reviews key players involved in Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 Bisphosphate 3 Kinase Catalytic Subunit Beta Isoform (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 Bisphosphate 3 Kinase 110 kDa Catalytic Subunit Beta or PIK3CB or EC 2.7.1.153) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (medindia.net)
  • Localization of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase IIgamma in kidney to a membrane trafficking compartment within specialized cells of the nephron. (springer.com)
  • In the current study, we found that the plasma membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) localizes to polarized dynamic structures in C. elegans zygotes, distributing in a PAR-dependent manner along the anterior-posterior (A-P) embryonic axis. (biologists.org)
  • We previously found that increases in cellular PIP 2 mediated by overexpression of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase type Iβ (PI5KIβ) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells stimulated delivery kinetics of a subset of apical membrane proteins ( 18 ). (physiology.org)
  • PIP 3 recruits to the cell membrane proteins containing pleckstrin homology domains, such as 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and Akt. (jimmunol.org)
  • Osteoarthritis-associated basic calcium phosphate crystals activate membrane proximal kinases in human innate immune cells. (invivogen.com)
  • ADP-ribosylation factor 6 regulates insulin secretion through plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphotransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol-4-phosphate 5-phosphotransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate , whereas its two products are ADP and 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate . (wikidoc.org)
  • The phosphatidylinositol (PI)-5-phosphate 4-kinase type II enzyme controls insulin signaling by regulating PI-3,4,5-trisphosphate degradation. (springer.com)
  • Evolutionarily conserved structural changes in phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase (PI5P4K) isoforms are responsible for differences in enzyme activity and localization. (springer.com)
  • Type II PtdInsP kinases: location, regulation and function. (springer.com)
  • Localization, regulation and function of type II phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases. (springer.com)
  • This situation as been modeled experimentally by inducing a blockade or a genetic deficiency in the ligands for CD28 (B7-1 and B7-2), but it is thought to occur physiologically when T cells meet their cognate Ag on APCs that have not received the inflammatory signals necessary for up-regulation of costimulatory ligands. (jimmunol.org)
  • Accumulating studies have suggested that autophagy (Type II PCD), consistent with apoptosis (Type I PCD), is also important for the regulation of cancer development and progression, and may be regarded as a potential therapeutic approach for anticancer researches [ 4 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Furthermore, phosphorylation of p90RSK, a downstream target of ERK1/2, showed a similar pattern of down-regulation as did the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 after LPS and 4-HQN treatment. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The three PIKK proteins with repair and checkpoint functions in mammalian cells are: DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase), ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), and ATR (ATM and Rad3 related). (eu.org)
  • Expression of CBLΔexon8 and CBLΔexon8+9 in FLT3-WT-Ba/F3 cells induced growth factor-independent proliferation associated with autophosphorylation of FLT3 and activated the downstream targets signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and protein kinase B (AKT). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include kinase activity and phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor . (genecards.org)
  • WASHC4 (WASH Complex Subunit 4) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The 5-year overall survival for glioblastoma is only about 5% even after aggressive treatments including maximal surgical removal of the tumor, ionizing radiation, and chemotherapy ( 1 - 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Castellino AM, Parker GJ, Boronenkov IV, Anderson RA, Chao MV. A novel interaction between the juxtamembrane region of the p55 tumor necrosis factor receptor and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. (springer.com)
  • PTEN-inactivated tumor cells exhibit elevated Akt kinase activity due to uncontrolled phosphorylation of T308 and S473. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 22,25-27 Binding to Pyk2 activates c-Src and PI3-kinase, and this signaling complex participates in a variety of intracellular processes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Identification and characterization of a phosphoinositide phosphate kinase homolog. (springer.com)
  • The PIKK members are large proteins with Ser/Thr kinase activity serving important roles in DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoints. (eu.org)
  • Minichromosome maintenance proteins are direct targets of the ATM and ATR checkpoint kinases. (eu.org)
  • SQ/TQ cluster domains: concentrated ATM/ATR kinase phosphorylation site regions in DNA-damage-response proteins. (eu.org)
  • IL-2 initiates a program of lymphocyte proliferation by binding IL-2R, which consists of three transmembrane proteins, IL-2Rα, IL-2Rβ, and γ c ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Increased kinase activity upon interaction with NCS1/FREQ. (uniprot.org)
  • Several natural and unnatural inositol phosphates and analogues were analyzed for their ability to inhibit the in vitro phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity immunoprecipitated from a leukemic T cell line by a p85 monoclonal antibody. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Since Ins(1,4,5)P3, DL-Ins(1,4,6)P3, and DL-scyllo-Ins(1,2,4)P3 did not inhibit PI 3-kinase activity, this suggests that the orientation of the two hydroxyl groups at the 2- and 3-positions plays a pivotal role in the inhibitory action of inositol phosphate analogues on PI 3-kinase activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Bultsma Y, Keune WJ, Divecha N. PIP4Kbeta interacts with and modulates nuclear localization of the high-activity PtdIns5P-4-kinase isoform PIP4Kalpha. (springer.com)
  • Functionally, CBL negatively regulated FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) activity and interacted with human FLT3 via the autophosphorylation sites Y589 and Y599 and colocalized in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • CBL-70Z deregulates the cellular tyrosine kinase machinery, as NIH3T3 serum-starved cells expressing CBL-70Z showed significantly increased endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase activity after EGF stimulation ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This modulation of mitochondrial motility in concert with axonal growth occurs via two mechanisms: (1) the up- and downregulation of anterograde motor activity and (2) the recruitment of mitochondria between persistently motile and stationary states ( Morris and Hollenbeck, 1993 ). (biologists.org)
  • Restoring STAT5 activity via a heterologous receptor rescued Shc-induced Akt/p70S6 kinase activity and cell proliferation with kinetics consistent with a transcriptional mechanism. (jimmunol.org)
  • Consistent with this hypothesis, Pap and Cooper (1998) demonstrated that GSK3β activity is required for apoptosis induced by inhibition of PI-3 kinase in Rat1 fibroblasts and neuronal-like PC12 cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • JNK activity was assessed by solid-phase JNK kinase assay and quantification of c-Jun expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Other names in common use include phosphatidylinositol kinase (phosphorylating), phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, phosphatidylinositol kinase, type II phosphatidylinositol kinase, PI kinase, and PI 4-kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include diphosphoinositide kinase, PIP kinase, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, and type I PIP kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • May act as a scaffold to localize and regulate type I PI(4)P 5-kinases to specific compartments within the cell, where they generate PI(4,5)P2 for actin nucleation, signaling and scaffold protein recruitment and conversion to PI(3,4,5)P3. (nih.gov)
  • Store and ship all of of the comptents of the EIA assay for Human Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-1 gamma (PIP5K1C) on blue ice/ice packs at +4 degrees Celcius. (phosphatidylinositol.com)
  • Human Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-1 gamma (PIP5K1C) ELISA Kit is manufactured by highest quality antibodies and plates to provide you with excellent and reproducible results in your work. (phosphatidylinositol.com)
  • This locus encodes a type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase. (nih.gov)
  • Contains 1 FYVE-type zinc finger. (abcam.com)
  • Nuclear targeting of the beta isoform of type II phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase) by its alpha-helix 7. (springer.com)
  • 1998) Structure of type IIbeta phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase: a protein kinase fold flattened for interfacial phosphorylation. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 22 This nonreceptor tyrosine kinase is typically activated by extracellular stress signals, such as shear stress, 23 but also by G protein-coupled receptors, such as the angiotensin type 1 receptor. (ahajournals.org)
  • Equine herpesvirus type 1 enhances viral replication in CD172a+ monocytic cells upon adhesion to endothelial cells. (invivogen.com)
  • Toward the long-term improvement of β-cell mass, a new class of hypoglycemic mimetic agents and analogs of the glucoincretin glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) ( 1 - 5 ) offer a promising feature for patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Increased levels of IL-1β and reduction in IL-1β-receptor antagonist content have been observed in pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes ( 14 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The siliques produced by homozygous mutant and wild-type plants were compared with respect to silique length (mm), seed count, incidence of seed gaps, and incidence of deformed seeds (columns 1 to 4, respectively). (plantcell.org)
  • (A) Growth pattern of wild-type pollen tubes in the wild-type female organs 4 h after pollination (hap). (plantcell.org)
  • The generation of second messengers from the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP2) by phosphoinositidase C has been implicated in the mediation of cellular responses to a variety of growth factors and oncogene products. (nih.gov)
  • Catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate on the fifth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring, to form phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate. (abcam.com)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) is an essential determinant in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). (rcsb.org)
  • The X-linked disorder Lowe syndrome arises from mutations in OCRL1, a lipid phosphatase that hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ). (physiology.org)
  • Phosphatidyl Inositol 3 Kinase-Gamma Balances Antiviral and Inflammatory Responses During Influenza A H1N1 Infection: From Murine Model to Genetic Association in Patients. (nih.gov)
  • Results emphasize the physiological importance of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-gamma (PI3Kgamma) in restraining inflammation and promoting appropriate adaptive immune responses in both humans and mice. (nih.gov)
  • Distribution and neuronal expression of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase II gamma in the mouse brain. (springer.com)
  • Hendricks KB, Wang BQ, Schnieders EA, Thorner J (1999) Yeast homologue of neuronal frequenin is a regulator of phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase. (springer.com)
  • Einicker-Lamas M, Wenceslau LD, Bernardo RR, Nogaroli L, Guilherme A, Oliveira MM, Vieyra A. Sphingosine-1-phosphate formation activates phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase in basolateral membranes from kidney cells: crosstalk in cell signaling through sphingolipids and phospholipids. (umassmed.edu)
  • Recent studies show that dietary salt intake activates proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2). (ahajournals.org)