A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
A colorless liquid with a fragrant odor. It is used as an intermediate, solvent and in cosmetics.
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
Miniaturized methods of liquid-liquid extraction.
An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)

N-Substituted analogues of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine: chemical stability and prolonged nitric oxide mediated vasodilatation in isolated rat femoral arteries. (1/84)

Previous studies show that linking acetylated glucosamine to S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) stabilizes the molecule and causes it to elicit unusually prolonged vasodilator effects in endothelium-denuded, isolated rat femoral arteries. Here we studied the propanoyl (SNPP; 3 carbon side-chain), valeryl (SNVP; 5C) and heptanoyl (SNHP; 7C) N-substituted analogues of SNAP (2C), to further investigate other molecular characteristics that might influence chemical stability and duration of vascular action of S-nitrosothiols. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that SNVP was the most stable analogue in solution. Decomposition of all four compounds was accelerated by Cu(II) and cysteine, and neocuproine, a specific Cu(I) chelator, slowed decomposition of SNHP. Generation of NO from the compounds was confirmed by electrochemical detection at 37 degrees C. Bolus injections of SNAP (10 microl; 10(-8)-10(-3) M) into the perfusate of precontracted, isolated rat femoral arteries taken from adult male Wistar rats (400-500 g), caused concentration-dependent, transient vasodilatations irrespective of endothelial integrity. Equivalent vasodilatations induced by SNVP and SNHP were transient in endothelium-intact vessels but failed to recover to pre-injection pressures at moderate and high concentrations (10(-6)-10(-3) M) in those denuded of endothelium. This sustained effect (> 1 h) was most prevalent with SNHP and was largely reversed by the NO scavenger, haemoglobin. We suggest that increased lipophilicity of SNAP analogues with longer sidechains facilitates their retention by endothelium-denuded vessels; subsequent slow decomposition within the tissue generates sufficient NO to cause prolonged vasodilatation. This is a potentially useful characteristic for targeting NO delivery to areas of endothelial damage.  (+info)

A solvent model for simulations of peptides in bilayers. I. Membrane-promoting alpha-helix formation. (2/84)

We describe an efficient solvation model for proteins. In this model atomic solvation parameters imitating the hydrocarbon core of a membrane, water, and weak polar solvent (octanol) were developed. An optimal number of solvation parameters was chosen based on analysis of atomic hydrophobicities and fitting experimental free energies of gas-cyclohexane, gas-water, and octanol-water transfer for amino acids. The solvation energy term incorporated into the ECEPP/2 potential energy function was tested in Monte Carlo simulations of a number of small peptides with known energies of bilayer-water and octanol-water transfer. The calculated properties were shown to agree reasonably well with the experimental data. Furthermore, the solvation model was used to assess membrane-promoting alpha-helix formation. To accomplish this, all-atom models of 20-residue homopolypeptides-poly-Leu, poly-Val, poly-Ile, and poly-Gly in initial random coil conformation-were subjected to nonrestrained Monte Carlo conformational search in vacuo and with the solvation terms mimicking the water and hydrophobic parts of the bilayer. All the peptides demonstrated their largest helix-forming tendencies in a nonpolar environment, where the lowest-energy conformers of poly-Leu, Val, Ile revealed 100, 95, and 80% of alpha-helical content, respectively. Energetic and conformational properties of Gly in all environments were shown to be different from those observed for residues with hydrophobic side chains. Applications of the solvation model to simulations of peptides and proteins in the presence of membrane, along with limitations of the approach, are discussed.  (+info)

Agonist and potentiation actions of n-octanol on gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. (3/84)

The n-octanol effects on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor were studied in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with alpha1, beta2, and gamma2S subunit cDNAs. GABA-evoked currents had an EC50 of 13.3 +/- 1.7 microM and a Hill coefficient (nH) of 1.4 +/- 0.1. n-Octanol was also capable of evoking a small current with an EC50 of 1000 microM and an nH of 2. In addition, n-octanol modulated GABA-induced currents in a concentration-dependent manner. Coapplications of n-octanol increased peak currents evoked by 3 microM GABA with an EC50 of 190 microM and an nH of 1.8. The extent of potentiation decreased with increasing GABA concentrations and no potentiation was observed when n-octanol was coapplied with 1000 microM GABA. One-minute preapplication of 1000 microM n-octanol slightly potentiated 3 microM GABA-induced current, whereas it suppressed 300 microM GABA-induced current to 16% of the control, suggesting that 84% of the receptors underwent desensitization. Two models were used to explain n-octanol agonistic and potentiating actions on the alpha1beta2gamma2S GABAA receptor: n-octanol binds to multiple sites to exert multiple actions, or n-octanol acts as a partial agonist to manifest these actions. The partial agonist model is unique because it is a simpler model to explain n-octanol actions on the GABAA receptor.  (+info)

Functional gap junctions in the early sea urchin embryo are localized to the vegetal pole. (4/84)

Using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique we have studied electrical coupling and dye coupling between pairs of blastomeres in 16- to 128-cell-stage sea urchin embryos. Electrical coupling was established between macromeres and micromeres at the 16-cell stage with a junctional conductance (G(j)) of 26 nS that decreased to 12 nS before the next cleavage division. G(j) between descendants of macromeres and micromeres was 12 nS falling to 8 nS in the latter half of the cell cycle. Intercellular current intensity was independent of transjunctional voltage, nondirectional, and sensitive to 1-octanol and therefore appears to be gated through gap junction channels. There was no significant coupling between other pairs of blastomeres. Lucifer yellow did not spread between these electrically coupled cell pairs and in fact significant dye coupling between nonsister cells was observed only at the 128-cell stage. Since 1-octanol inhibited electrical communication between blastomeres at the 16- to 64-cell stage and also induced defects in formation of the archenteron, it is possible that gap junctions play a role in embryonic induction.  (+info)

Quantitative trait loci influencing honeybee alarm pheromone levels. (5/84)

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping procedures were used to identify loci that influence the levels of alarm pheromones found in the stinging apparatus of worker honeybees. An F1 queen was produced from a cross between a queen of European origin and a drone descended from an African subspecies. Haploid drones from the hybrid queen were individually backcrossed to European queens to produce 172 colonies. Samples of stings were taken from backcross workers of these colonies. Alarm pheromone levels were determined by gas chromatography. RAPD markers were scored from the haploid drone fathers of these colonies. The multiple-QTL model (MQM) of MapQTL was used to identify QTLs that influence the levels of four alarm pheromone components. Seven independent, potential QTLs were identified with LOD scores greater than two, and one at LOD 1.88. We identified one QTL for n-decyl acetate, three for n-octanol, four for isopentyl acetate, and one for hexyl acetate. One region of linkage group XI shows a strong influence on body size and the levels of three alarm pheromone components. This locus explained 40% of the variance for the amount of n-decyl acetate (LOD 6.57). In general, the QTLs influencing alarm pheromone levels were independent of previously identified loci that influenced the stinging behavior of these colonies. The only exception was a potential locus influencing levels of n-octanol, which was inversely correlated with stinging behavior.  (+info)

A cell type-specific and gap junction-independent mechanism for the herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase gene/ganciclovir-mediated bystander effect. (6/84)

Tumor cells expressing the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene are killed by nucleoside analogues such as ganciclovir (GCV). GCV affects not only the cells expressing HSV-tk but also neighboring cells that do not express the gene; this phenomenon commonly is called "bystander effect." GCV metabolites transfer via gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) accounts for the bystander effect in different cell lines, but other mechanisms have also been described. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms of the bystander effect in two cell lines exhibiting different capacities of communication (DHD/K12 and 9L). The 9L cells exhibited a very good bystander effect, which was completely blocked by a long-term inhibitor of GJIC, 18 alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid. DHD/K12 cells exhibited a moderate bystander effect that was not abolished by 18 alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid or 1-octanol, another strong inhibitor of GJIC. Interestingly, we also observed a bystander effect in cultures where HSV-tk-expressing DHD/K12 cells were physically separated from their untransfected counterparts but grown in the same medium. Moreover, the transfer of filtered conditioned medium from GCV-treated HSV-tk-expressing DHD/K12 cells to DHD/K12 parental cells induced a decrease of survival in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that the bystander effect in this cell line was mediated by a soluble factor.  (+info)

Blocking and the detection of odor components in blends. (7/84)

Recent studies of olfactory blocking have revealed that binary odorant mixtures are not always processed as though they give rise to mixture-unique configural properties. When animals are conditioned to one odorant (A) and then conditioned to a mixture of that odorant with a second (X), the ability to learn or express the association of X with reinforcement appears to be reduced relative to animals that were not preconditioned to A. A recent model of odor-based response patterns in the insect antennal lobe predicts that the strength of the blocking effect will be related to the perceptual similarity between the two odorants, i.e. greater similarity should increase the blocking effect. Here, we test that model in the honeybee Apis mellifera by first establishing a generalization matrix for three odorants and then testing for blocking between all possible combinations of them. We confirm earlier findings demonstrating the occurrence of the blocking effect in olfactory learning of compound stimuli. We show that the occurrence and the strength of the blocking effect depend on the odorants used in the experiment. In addition, we find very good agreement between our results and the model, and less agreement between our results and an alternative model recently proposed to explain the effect.  (+info)

Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on in vitro final oocyte maturation and ovarian steroidogenesis in striped bass, Morone saxatilis. (8/84)

Recombinant human (rh) insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was more potent than rhIGF-II at inducing in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), a marker for resumption of meiosis, in oocytes of striped bass. Treatment of ovarian fragments containing oocytes in intact follicles with rhIGF-I increased concentrations of estradiol-17beta and maturation-inducing steroid (MIS) 17,20beta, 21-trihydoxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20beta-S) in the culture medium and decreased testosterone levels. The follicles were too immature for oocytes to complete GVBD in response to 20beta-S (MIS incompetent) or hCG. Addition of 20beta-S to cultures did not increase the percentage of oocytes completing GVBD in response to rhIGF-I or rhIGF-II. Bovine insulin was without effect on GVBD or steroid production. Incubation of MIS-competent follicles with actinomycin D, cyanoketone, trilostane, 1-heptanol, or 1-octanol had no effect on rhIGF-I-induced GVBD, but attenuated hCG-induced GVBD and 20beta-S production. Cycloheximide inhibited rhIGF-I-induced GVBD. Collectively, these observations indicate that IGF-I can induce GVBD via MIS- and transcription-independent pathways without coupled gap junctions between oocytes and granulosa cells or among granulosa cells, but requires protein synthesis to do so. An rhIGF-I analogue that does not bind IGF-binding proteins, des(1,3)IGF-I, was more potent than rhIGF-I in inducing GVBD, suggesting ovarian IGF-binding proteins may inhibit IGF-I action.  (+info)

1-Octanol is a fatty alcohol with the chemical formula C8H17OH. It is a colorless oily liquid that is slightly soluble in water and miscible with most organic solvents. 1-Octanol is used as an intermediate in the synthesis of other chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and fragrances.

In medical terminology, 1-octanol may be used as a reference standard for measuring the partition coefficient of drugs between octanol and water, which can help predict their distribution and elimination in the body. This value is known as the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and is an important parameter in pharmacokinetics and drug design.

Octanols are a type of chemical compound known as alcohols, specifically they are fatty alcohols with a chain of 8 carbon atoms. The most common octanol is called 1-octanol, which has the chemical formula CH3(CH2)7OH. It is a colorless oily liquid that is used in the synthesis of other chemicals and as a solvent. Octanols are often used as standards for measuring the partition coefficient between octanol and water, which is a measure of a compound's hydrophobicity or lipophilicity. This property is important in understanding how a compound may be absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted in the body.

In chemistry, an alcohol is a broad term that refers to any organic compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. This means that alcohols are essentially hydrocarbons with a hydroxyl group. The simplest alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH), also known as ethyl alcohol, is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.

In the context of medical definitions, alcohol primarily refers to ethanol, which has significant effects on the human body when consumed. Ethanol can act as a central nervous system depressant, leading to various physiological and psychological changes depending on the dose and frequency of consumption. Excessive or prolonged use of ethanol can result in various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, neurological damage, and increased risk of injuries due to impaired judgment and motor skills.

It is important to note that there are other types of alcohols (e.g., methanol, isopropyl alcohol) with different chemical structures and properties, but they are not typically consumed by humans and can be toxic or even lethal in high concentrations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "octanes" is not a medical term. It is a term used in chemistry and physics, particularly in reference to fuel. Octane is a hydrocarbon molecule found in gasoline, and it is used as a measure of the fuel's ability to resist engine knocking or pinging during combustion.

The octane rating of gasoline typically ranges from 87 (regular) to 91-93 (premium). Higher-octane fuels are often recommended for high-performance vehicles that have higher compression ratios in their engines. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

Hexanols are a class of organic compounds that contain a hexanol functional group, which is a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a linear or branched carbon chain containing six carbon atoms. They can be either primary, secondary, or tertiary alcohols depending on the position of the hydroxyl group in relation to the carbon chain. Hexanols are used in various applications such as in the production of flavors, fragrances, and industrial chemicals.

Heptanol is not a medical term, but a chemical compound. It is more accurately referred to as n-heptanol or normal heptanol in chemistry. It is a primary alcohol with the molecular formula C7H16O. Heptanol is a colorless liquid that is used in the production of perfumes and flavors due to its mild, floral scent.

In medical contexts, heptanol might be encountered as a component of certain laboratory reagents or research tools, but it does not have specific medical applications or implications for human health.

2-Propanol is a type of alcohol, also known as isopropanol or isopropyl alcohol. It is a colorless, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor. 2-Propanol is miscible with water and most organic solvents.

It is commonly used as a solvent and as an antiseptic or disinfectant, due to its ability to denature proteins and disrupt microbial cell membranes. In medical settings, 2-Propanol is often used as a skin sanitizer or hand rub to reduce the number of microorganisms on the skin.

Ingestion or prolonged exposure to 2-Propanol can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and may lead to central nervous system depression, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms. It is important to handle 2-Propanol with care and follow appropriate safety precautions when using it.

Anesthetics are medications that are used to block or reduce feelings of pain and sensation, either locally in a specific area of the body or generally throughout the body. They work by depressing the nervous system, interrupting the communication between nerves and the brain. Anesthetics can be administered through various routes such as injection, inhalation, or topical application, depending on the type and the desired effect. There are several classes of anesthetics, including:

1. Local anesthetics: These numb a specific area of the body and are commonly used during minor surgical procedures, dental work, or to relieve pain from injuries. Examples include lidocaine, prilocaine, and bupivacaine.
2. Regional anesthetics: These block nerve impulses in a larger area of the body, such as an arm or leg, and can be used for more extensive surgical procedures. They are often administered through a catheter to provide continuous pain relief over a longer period. Examples include spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, and peripheral nerve blocks.
3. General anesthetics: These cause a state of unconsciousness and are used for major surgical procedures or when the patient needs to be completely immobile during a procedure. They can be administered through inhalation or injection and affect the entire body. Examples include propofol, sevoflurane, and isoflurane.

Anesthetics are typically safe when used appropriately and under medical supervision. However, they can have side effects such as drowsiness, nausea, and respiratory depression. Proper dosing and monitoring by a healthcare professional are essential to minimize the risks associated with anesthesia.

Gap junctions are specialized intercellular connections that allow for the direct exchange of ions, small molecules, and electrical signals between adjacent cells. They are composed of arrays of channels called connexons, which penetrate the cell membranes of two neighboring cells and create a continuous pathway for the passage of materials from one cytoplasm to the other. Each connexon is formed by the assembly of six proteins called connexins, which are encoded by different genes and vary in their biophysical properties. Gap junctions play crucial roles in many physiological processes, including the coordination of electrical activity in excitable tissues, the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Mutations or dysfunctions in gap junction channels have been implicated in various human diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurological disorders, skin disorders, and cancer.

Glycyrrhetinic acid is defined medically as a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from glycyrrhizin, which is found in the root of licorice plants. It has been used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory and expectorant properties.

Glycyrrhetinic acid works by inhibiting the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which is responsible for converting cortisol to cortisone. This can lead to increased levels of cortisol in the body, which can have various effects, including lowering potassium levels and increasing sodium levels, leading to fluid retention and high blood pressure in some individuals.

In addition to its use in traditional medicine, glycyrrhetinic acid has been studied for its potential benefits in treating a variety of conditions, including cancer, HIV, and hepatitis. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to fully understand the risks and side effects associated with its use.

1-Butanol, also known as n-butanol or butyl alcohol, is a primary alcohol with a chemical formula of C4H9OH. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a solvent and in the manufacture of other chemicals. 1-Butanol has a wide range of applications including use as a paint thinner, in the production of rubber, and as a fuel additive. It is also found naturally in some foods and beverages.

In medical terms, 1-butanol may be used as an ingredient in topical medications or as a solvent for various pharmaceutical preparations. However, it is not typically used as a therapeutic agent on its own. Exposure to high levels of 1-butanol can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure may lead to more serious health effects.

"Pentanols" is not a recognized medical term. However, in chemistry, pentanols refer to a group of alcohols containing five carbon atoms. The general formula for pentanols is C5H12O, and they have various subcategories such as primary, secondary, and tertiary pentanols, depending on the type of hydroxyl (-OH) group attachment to the carbon chain.

In a medical context, alcohols like methanol and ethanol can be toxic and cause various health issues. However, there is no specific medical relevance associated with "pentanols" as a group. If you have any further questions or need information about a specific chemical compound, please let me know!

Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) is a sample preparation technique used in analytical chemistry and clinical laboratory medicine. It is a miniaturized version of traditional liquid-liquid extraction, which involves the separation of analytes from a sample matrix based on their partitioning between two immiscible liquids.

In LPME, a small volume (microliters to nanoliters) of an organic extractant phase is placed in a micro-syringe or contained within a porous membrane or hollow fiber. This extractant phase is then introduced into a larger sample solution, where analytes partition from the aqueous sample matrix into the organic phase due to their higher solubility in the organic solvent. After equilibrium has been reached, the extractant phase is withdrawn and analyzed for the presence of the target analytes using various analytical techniques such as gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or mass spectrometry (MS).

LPME offers several advantages over traditional liquid-liquid extraction, including reduced solvent consumption, lower cost, shorter analysis time, and higher enrichment factors. It is commonly used for the preconcentration and cleanup of environmental, biological, and clinical samples prior to analysis.

Carbenoxolone is a synthetic derivative of glycyrrhizin, which is found in the root of the licorice plant. It has been used in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers due to its ability to increase the mucosal resistance and promote healing. Carbenoxolone works by inhibiting the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which leads to an increase in the levels of cortisol and other steroids in the body. This can have various effects on the body, including anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions.

However, long-term use of carbenoxolone has been associated with serious side effects such as hypertension, hypokalemia (low potassium levels), and edema (fluid retention). Therefore, its use is generally limited to short-term treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers.

Medical Definition: Carbenoxolone

A synthetic derivative of glycyrrhizin, used in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers due to its ability to increase mucosal resistance and promote healing. It is an inhibitor of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, leading to increased levels of cortisol and other steroids in the body, with potential anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, long-term use is associated with serious side effects such as hypertension, hypokalemia, and edema.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Solvents, in a medical context, are substances that are capable of dissolving or dispersing other materials, often used in the preparation of medications and solutions. They are commonly organic chemicals that can liquefy various substances, making it possible to administer them in different forms, such as oral solutions, topical creams, or injectable drugs.

However, it is essential to recognize that solvents may pose health risks if mishandled or misused, particularly when they contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Prolonged exposure to these VOCs can lead to adverse health effects, including respiratory issues, neurological damage, and even cancer. Therefore, it is crucial to handle solvents with care and follow safety guidelines to minimize potential health hazards.

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS), also known as Idiosyncratic Intolerance, is a chronic condition characterized by symptoms that the affected person attributes to low-level exposure to chemicals in the environment. These reactions are not part of a recognized allergic response and are often delayed in onset.

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) defines MCS as: "A heightened sensitivity to chemicals that most people tolerate well... Symptoms can include headache, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, confusion, joint pain, and digestive disturbances."

However, it's important to note that the medical community has not reached a consensus on the definition, cause, or diagnosis of MCS. Some healthcare providers question its validity as a distinct medical entity due to lack of consistent scientific evidence supporting the relationship between exposure levels and symptoms.

Octanol and water are immiscible. The distribution of a compound between water and octanol is used to calculate the partition ... Esters of octanol, such as octyl acetate, occur as components of essential oils. It is used to evaluate the lipophilicity of ... 2-Octanol Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Bhattacharjee, A.; Roy, M ... Octanol is mainly produced industrially by the oligomerization of ethylene using triethylaluminium followed by oxidation of the ...
In enzymology, an octanol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.73) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 1-octanol + NAD+ ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is octanol:NAD+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called 1-octanol dehydrogenase. ... Portal: Biology v t e (CS1 French-language sources (fr), EC 1.1.1, NADH-dependent enzymes, Enzymes of unknown structure, All ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 1-octanal + NADH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 1-octanol and NAD+, whereas ...
Other commercially important octanols are 2-octanol and 2-ethylhexanol. There are 89 possible isomers of octanol.[citation ... Octanols are alcohols with the formula C8H17OH. A simple and important member is 1-octanol, with an unbranched chain of carbons ... "Octanol". Human Metabolome Database. Retrieved 29 December 2019. (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... needed] Some octanols occur naturally in the form of esters in some essential oils. " ...
PLOS ONE 6(8): 1-11. Spromberg JA, and Scholz NL. 2011. Estimating the future decline of wild Coho salmon populations resulting ... Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 9999: 1-9. Chow, M. I., Lundin, J. I., Mitchell, C. J., Davis, J. W., Young ... PLOS ONE 6(12): 1-12. NOAA Coastal Storm Programs. Available online at: Stormwater and Salmon- Pre-spawn Mortality of Coho ... American Fisheries Society Symposium 64: 1-21. Kolodziej, Edward (3 December 2020). "A ubiquitous tire rubber-derived chemical ...
7 (1): 28-49. doi:10.1002/ieam.100. PMID 21184568. S2CID 20133190. McKim JM, Schmieder PK, Carlson RW, Hunt EP (1987). "Use of ... ISBN 1-56032-091-5. Escher BI, Hermens JL (October 2002). "Modes of action in ecotoxicology: their role in body burdens, ... tricaine methanesulfonate and 1-octanol". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 6 (4): 295-312. doi:10.1002/etc.5620060407. ...
12 (1): 1208. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-70. PMC 3541197. PMID 22643043. William A Correll, Jr. (5 February 2019). "(Example, one ... Flowers have 4 sepals and 4 petals, yellow to greenish yellow in color sometimes tipped with red, about 1 to 3.5 millimetres ( ... in China the main components are geraniol and 1-octanol; and in India the main component is phenethyl alcohol. Cinnamyl alcohol ...
... is classified fatty alcohol. A secondary alcohol, it is chiral. 2-Octanol is produced commercially by base-cleavage ... 2-Octanol (octan-2-ol, 2-OH) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3CH(OH)(CH2)5CH3. It is a colorless oily liquid ... Record of 2-octanol in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, accessed on 2 ... 2-Octanol is mainly used as: Flavor low-volatility solvent : Diverses Resins (Paints & Coatings, Adhesives, Inks, etc.), ...
... is the ester of 1-octanol and gallic acid. As a food additive, it is used under the E number E311 as an ...
The solubility of 1-octanol in water is 2.3 grams per liter. It was first prepared in 1908 by Bouveault-Blanc reduction of a ... "MSDS for 1,4-Cyclohexanedimethanol". Sigma-Aldrich. Reddy, LV; KY Sudheer; OV Reddy (June 2010). "Analysis of volatile aroma ... Like other 8-carbon alcohols, such as 1-octanol, this compound is only slightly soluble in water but highly soluble in many ... 1%) in the production of cyclohexanedimethanol, a commodity chemical, during hydrogenation of dimethyl terephthalate. C6H4( ...
The n-octanol-water partition coefficient, Kow is a partition coefficient for the two-phase system consisting of n-octanol and ... The value is greater than one if a substance is more soluble in fat-like solvents such as n-octanol, and less than one if it is ... Corwin Hansch later proposed the use of n-octanol as an inexpensive synthetic alcohol that could be obtained in a pure form as ... A variant of the UNIFAC system can also be used to estimate octanol-water partition coefficients. Definition of the Kow or P- ...
... and 2-Octanol Catalyzed by KOH". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 35 (11): 3848-3853. doi:10.1021/ie960200c. ... 214 (1-2): 1-38. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2005.06.001. ISSN 0300-483X. PMID 16011869. Stickney, Julie A; Sager, Shawn L; Clarkson, ... 9 (1): 69-75. doi:10.1007/s11743-006-0377-8. S2CID 94398901. Guckert, J.B.; Walker, D.D.; Belanger, S.E (1996). "Environmental ... In the usual application, alcohols and phenols are converted into R(OC2H4)nOH where n ranges from 1 to 10. Such compounds are ...
It is usually produced by hydroformylation of heptene and the dehydrogenation of 1-octanol. Octanal can also be referred to as ...
... (systematically named 3-methyloctan-3-ol) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)4C(CH3)( ... 3-Methyl-3-octanol is a chiral compound, with each isomer yielding a different flavour. Methyl n-amyl ketone, PubChem Database ... NCBI/NIH) 3-Methyl-3-Octanol, Sigma-Aldrich Hsu, Chen-Ming; Peterson, Robert J.; Jin, Qi Zhang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chang, Stephen S ... 1 November 1982). "Characterization of new volatile compounds in the neutral fraction of roasted beef flavor". Journal of Food ...
... in a biphasic system of n-octanol (hereafter simply "octanol") and water: log ⁡ P oct/wat = log 10 ⁡ ( [ solute ] octanol un- ... For instance, for an octanol-water partition, it is log ⁡ P oct/wat I = log 10 ⁡ ( [ solute ] octanol I [ solute ] water I ... The partition coefficient between n-Octanol and water is known as the n-octanol-water partition coefficient , or Kow. It is ... octanol}}^{\text{ionized}}+{\big [}{\text{solute}}{\big ]}_{\text{octanol}}^{\text{un-ionized}}}{{\big [}{\text{solute}}{\big ...
9 (1): 17-20. doi:10.1515/cdbme-2023-1005. Chang JW, Park CK, Lipsman N, Schwartz ML, Ghanouni P, Henderson JM, Gwinn R, Witt J ... Pharmacokinetic research on 1-octanol lead to the discovery that 1-octanol metabolized into caprylic acid in the body and that ... 135 (Pt 1): 105-16. doi:10.1093/brain/awr301. PMID 22120148. Vilariño-Güell C, Soto-Ortolaza AI, Rajput A, Mash DC, ... 241 (1): 54-61. doi:10.1007/bf00870673. PMID 8138823. S2CID 9502687. Louis ED, Barnes L, Albert SM, Cote L, Schneier FR, ...
ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0. Acetic acid, octyl ester in Linstrom, Peter J.; Mallard, William G. (eds.); NIST Chemistry WebBook, ... It is classified as an ester that is formed from 1-octanol (octyl alcohol) and acetic acid. It is found in oranges, grapefruits ... 37 (1): 80-95. doi:10.1021/je00005a024. "Octyl acetate". chemdats.blogspot.com. 2014-11-04. Archived from the original on 2014- ... Octyl acetate can be synthesized by the Fischer esterification of 1-octanol and acetic acid: CH3(CH2)7OH + CH3CO2H → CH3(CH2) ...
In addition to 1,3-butadiene also substituted dienes such as isoprene or cyclic dienes such as cyclopentadiene can be used. A ... Subsequent cracking of 1-methoxyoctane gives 1-octene and methanol for recycle. While the reaction is catalyzed by Pd(0) ... ISBN 978-1-891389-53-5. A. Behr: Angewandte homogene Katalyse (as Google-Book) in German (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ... Upon displacement by new 1,3-butadiene the product telomer is liberated while the catalyst is regenerated and can continue the ...
M. Kaisheva, R. De Levie, Kinetic observations of the capacitance of near-saturated 1-octanol solutions, J. Electroanal. Chem ... V. Ilieva, B. Damaskin, M. Kaisheva, Study of Differential Capacity and Adsorption Parameters of 1-Propanol, Bulgarian Chemical ... Milliana Kroumova Kaisheva (Bulgarian: Миляна Крумова Кайшева) (1 November 1945 in Sofia, Bulgaria - 24 March 2003 in Sofia, ... A Comparison Based on Nonlinear Regression Analysis, Langmuir, 1 (1985) 760. M. Kaisheva, Correlation Between Adsorption ...
Jan/Feb 2008: 1 - via Bio-Integral Resource Center (BIRC). "A Review of "Organic" and Other Alternative Methods for Fire Ant ... Limonene and its oxidation products are skin irritants, and limonene-1,2-oxide (formed by aerial oxidation) is a known skin ... Long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon alcohols and aldehydes like 1-octanol and octanal are second important group of substances. ...
622 (1-2): 85-95. doi:10.1016/S0166-1280(02)00620-6. McKim JM, Schmieder PK, Carlson RW, Hunt EP (April 1987). "Use of ... ISBN 1-56032-091-5. Kaiser KLE (March 2003). "The use of neural networks in QSARs for acute aquatic toxicological endpoints". ... 27 (1): 77-90. doi:10.1002/qsar.200710099. Schultz TW (1989). "Nonpolar Narcosis: A review of the mechanism of action for ... 10 (1): 115-131. doi:10.1002/etc.5620100113. Veith GD, Broderius SJ (July 1990). "Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause ...
For example, from 1-decene, hydroformylation gives the C11 alcohol: C8H17CH=CH2 + H2 + CO → C8H17CH2CH2CHO C8H17CH2CH2CHO + H2 ... Tests of repeated bolus dosages of 1-hexanol and 1-octanol showed potential for CNS depression and induced respiratory distress ... 1⁄2 Al2O3 Alternatively ethylene can be oligomerized to give mixtures of alkenes, which are subjected to hydroformylation, this ...
A set of solvation parameters derived for protein interior from protein engineering data was also different from octanol scale ... Newer parameters have thus been derived from octanol-water partition coefficients or other similar data. Such parameters ... it was close to cyclohexane scale for nonpolar atoms but intermediate between cyclohexane and octanol scales for polar atoms. ... The model has the following functional form: G s = − 1 8 π ϵ 0 ( 11 ϵ ) ∑ i , j N q i q j f G B {\displaystyle G_{s}=-{\frac ...
The pheromone contains more than 40 different compounds, including pentylacetate, butyl acetate, 1-hexanol, n-butanol, 1- ... octanol, hexylacetate, octylacetate, and 2-nonanol. These components have a low molar mass and evaporate quickly. This ...
Agonists include: 1-Octanol 1-Nonanol 1-Decanol 1-Heptanol Coumarin Olfactory receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Sangster, J. (1997-05-28). Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients: Fundamentals and Physical Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN ... 1-Octanol, with eight carbons, is practically insoluble in water, and its immiscibility leads it to be used as a standard for ... For example, among the alcohols, ethanol has two carbon atoms and is miscible with water, whereas 1-butanol with four carbons ...
ISBN 978-1-947172-04-3. Retrieved 14 May 2023. "Amphipathic". Biology-Online Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-11-17. "Structure of a ... and 1-octanol (long-chain alcohol, non-ionic).[citation needed] Many biological compounds are amphiphilic: phospholipids, ...
It has a constant octanol-water partition coefficient of log P = 1.23 in the pH range between 1 and 7. The synthesis starts ... 434 (1-2): 21-28. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(01)01502-3. PMID 11755161. Dündar Y, Dodd S, Strobl J, Boland A, Dickson R, Walley T ( ... 434 (1-2): 21-28. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(01)01502-3. PMID 11755161. Patat A, Paty I, Hindmarch I (July 2001). "Pharmacodynamic ... 317 (1): 369-77. doi:10.1124/jpet.105.096701. PMID 16399882. S2CID 46510829. "Zaleplon". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. U.S. ...
30 (1): 69-80. doi:10.1093/chemse/bji002. PMID 15647465. Matarazzo V, Clot-Faybesse O, Marcet B, Guiraudie-Capraz G, Atanasova ... "Entrez Gene: OR1G1 olfactory receptor, family 1, subfamily G, member 1". Sanz G, Thomas-Danguin T, Hamdani EH, Le Poupon C, ... Examples of agonists include: nonanal (strong) 1-nonanol (strong) 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (strong) γ-decalactone (strong) ethyl ... hexanal 1-hexanol cyclohexanone The pattern of 6-carbon antagonists compared to ~9-carbon agonists is likely explained by OR1G1 ...
The molecular formula C8H18O may refer to: Di-tert-butyl ether Dibutyl ether 2-Ethylhexanol Octanols 1-Octanol 2-Octanol 3- ... Octanol 4-Octanol 3,5-dimethylhexan-3-ol 2,3,4-trimetilpentan-2-ol This set index page lists chemical structure articles ...
A small amount of the diene 1,7-octadiene is required as a proton acceptor. The reaction mechanism for this reaction is a four- ... 1: 32. doi:10.1016/j.chempr.2016.05.002. Toyomi Matsu-ura; Satoshi Sakaguchi; Yasushi Obora; Yasutaka Ishii (2006). "Guerbet ... Oxo alcohols - a different reaction which gives similar products Guerbet alcohols 2-Ethyl-1-butanol 2-Ethylhexanol 2- ... Propylheptan-1-ol 2-Butyl-1-octanol 2-Butyl-1-octanol Noweck, Klaus; Grafahrend, Wolfgang (2006). "Fatty Alcohols". Ullmann's ...
Octanol and water are immiscible. The distribution of a compound between water and octanol is used to calculate the partition ... Esters of octanol, such as octyl acetate, occur as components of essential oils. It is used to evaluate the lipophilicity of ... 2-Octanol Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Bhattacharjee, A.; Roy, M ... Octanol is mainly produced industrially by the oligomerization of ethylene using triethylaluminium followed by oxidation of the ...
Stock available in Belgium will be delivered in 1 to 3 days. *Stock available in Japan will be delivered in 1 to 2 weeks ( ... In particular, please check O (letter) or 0 (number) and I (letter) or 1 (number). ...
1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid. PKC. protein kinase C.. ... The effects of 1-octanol were also abolished by chelation of intracellular calcium ions with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N, ... In contrast, 1-octanol was up to 30-fold less potent in inhibiting recombinant CaV3.3 T-channels heterologously expressed in ... We found that 1-octanol inhibited native T-currents at subanesthetic concentrations with an IC50 of approximately 4 μM. ...
1. Specific target organ toxicity - single (STOT-SE). Reason for no classification:. data lacking. 1. Specific target organ ...
1 Reversibility:. fully reversible. Irritation parameter:. conjunctivae score. Basis:. mean. Time point:. 24/48 h. Score:. 1.5 ... animal #1. Time point:. 24/48 h. Remarks on result:. other: not observed. Irritation parameter:. iris score. Basis:. animal #2 ... animal #1. Time point:. 24/48 h. Score:. 1 Reversibility:. fully reversible. Irritation parameter:. cornea opacity score. Basis ... animal #1. Time point:. 24/48 h. Score:. 0.5 Reversibility:. not fully reversible within: 5 days. Irritation parameter:. ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
However, self-dimerization was suppressed in the octanol phase, allowing oxidized (-)-epigallocatechin gallate to participate ... However, self-dimerization was suppressed in the octanol phase, allowing oxidized (-)-epigallocatechin gallate to participate ... However, self-dimerization was suppressed in the octanol phase, allowing oxidized (-)-epigallocatechin gallate to participate ... However, self-dimerization was suppressed in the octanol phase, allowing oxidized (-)-epigallocatechin gallate to participate ...
88436-1 - Section Title Not Found In Database Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide). ... At Week 1, patients who received 8 mg of Ramelteon Tablets had a mean VAS score (46 mm on a 100 mm scale) indicating more ... In this study, when the PSG results from nights 1 and 2 of Month 7 were compared to the results from nights 22 and 23 of Month ... 1. Take Ramelteon Tablets exactly as prescribed. Do not take more Ramelteon Tablets than prescribed. Take Ramelteon Tablets ...
Linearity was observed in the range of 20-960 mug L(-1) for piroxicam, and 10-2560 mug L(-1) for diclofenac, with correlation ... After debonding, the amount of resin remaining on the teeth was determined using the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scored 1 to 5 ... The limits of detection were 4.58 mug L(-1) for piroxicam and 0.40 mug L(-1) for diclofenac. ... YAG laser at 1 W; and Group 3- irradiation with Er:YAG laser at 1.5 W. Metal brackets were bonded on prepared enamel using a ...
1-Pentanol. 88.149. 0.8108. 137.983. 2.19. 0.568. 55. 27:46. 10. 1-Octanol. 130.23. 0.82157. 195.156. 0.0538. 0.537. 55. 28:35 ... Table 1: List of VOCs tested in the adsorption experiment.. Goto home» ...
Fan, W.; Qian, M.C., Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry Dilution Analysis of Young and Aged Chinese Yanghe Daqu Liquors, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 20, 7931-7938, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf051011k . 89 matching species were found. For each matching species the following will be displayed: ...
2-Buten-1-one, 1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-, (E)- (C13H18O) ... 3-Buten-2-one, 4-(2,2,6-trimethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.1.0]hept-1-yl)- (C13H20O2) ... 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, (E)- (C10H18O) ... 2-Hexen-1-ol, (E)- (C6H12O). *2,4-Heptadienal, (E,E)- (C7H10O) ... 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, (Z)- (C10H18O) ... 2-Penten-1-ol, (E)- (C5H10O). *3,7-Octadiene-2,6-diol, 2,6- ...
Fruits were harvested ripe and stored at 12.5°C for 1 day, at 20°C for 2 days, and afterward at either 20 or 7°C for another 4 ... FIGURE 1. Figure 1. The post-harvest handling, simulating the post-harvest chain of the fruits from the harvest to the retailer ... TABLE 1. Table 1. Fruit quality parameters (mean ± standard deviation) of the five cultivars/breeding lines shown for fresh ... R version 3.6.1 was used.. Results. Fruit Quality Parameters. The five cultivars/breeding lines investigated are shown in ...
A Thermodynamic Analysis of the Relationships between Molecular Size, Hydrophobicity, Aqueous Solubility and Octanol-Water ... Chem. 10(1), 9-20.. Gobas, F.A.P.C., L. Lovett-Doust and G.D. Haffner. 1991. A Comparative Study of the Bioconcentration and ... 8(1): 64-84.. Alava, J.J., P.S. Ross, M.G. Ikonomou , M. Cruz, G. Jimenez-Uzcátegui, D.P. Costa, S. Villegas-Amtmann, P. ... 39(1): 171-188.. Gobas F.A.P.C., Y.S. Lee. 2019. Growth Correcting the BCF and BMF in Bioaccumulation Assessments. Environ. ...
in 1-octanol/buffer pH 9: log P = 2.91. Toxicity: There are data for 3 trophic levels, most sensitive Bluegill sunfish ( ... Bioaccumulation: The average apparent partition coefficient (total solute measured, regardless of from) of R064766 in 1- ... octanol/aqueous solution at 25°C as determined by UV spectrometry is:. *in 1-octanol/buffer pH 5: log P = 0.22 ... in 1-octanol/buffer pH 7: log P = 1.67. * ...
Estimation of Water Solubility and Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient of Hydrophobic Dyes. Part 1. Relationship between ... 1. Approach for Describing Electrical Characteristics of Precipitated Dust Layers.. 1980. 2. Dependence of the polarization ... Showing: Items 1 - 19. Your Search: (SUBJECT=Polarization) Sort Results: Publication dates (newest-oldest). Publication dates ( ...
The odr-1 promoter was used to drive unc-103(gf) in AWC [110]. (F) Behaviors of animals of the indicated genotypes to a 1:200 ... The odr-1p::odr-3::SL2::mCherry (PSAB1269) plasmid was injected at 10 ng/μl together with the unc-122p::gfp co-injection marker ... Test odorant: 1:9,000 dilution of IAA. (D) Chemotaxis indices calculated from behavioral assays shown in C. (E) Behaviors of ... Test odorants: 1:200 dilution of BZ, 1:1,000 dilution of IAA. (B) Behaviors of wild-type animals on control and sIAA plates ...
It has a pKa of 10.6 and an octanol-water partition coefficient: 6,000:1 at pH 7. ... 1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 2.1 Anorexia Associated with Weight Loss in Adult Patients with AIDS 2.2 ... 1) *Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in patients who have failed to respond adequately to conventional ... Reproduction studies with dronabinol have been performed in mice at 15 to 450 mg/m2, equivalent to 1 to 30 times the MRHD of 15 ...
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 2.82 Viscosity: 0.45 mPa*s at 20°C ... Relative density (water = 1): 0.89 (20°C). Solubility in water, g/l at 25°C: 0.87 (practically insoluble). Vapour pressure, kPa ... Relative vapour density (air = 1): 3.2 Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1.2. Flash point: -12°C. ...
Lookchem Provide Cas 107-21-1 Basic information: structure,molecular formula,safety information, MSDS, technical documents, ... We also Provide suppliers and manufacturers and reference price for 107-21-1. ... With sodium hydroxide; In octanol; at 183 ℃; for 0.0833333h; Product distribution / selectivity; ... polyethylene terephthalate; With sodium hydroxide; In propan-1-ol; at 89 ℃; for 0.25h; ...
Martin Philpott1 Graham Wells1 Henry Penn3 Henrik Oerum4 Viia Valge-Archer5 Marc Feldmann6 Udo Oppermann1,7,8* ... FIGURE 1. Figure 1 Tandem BET BRD targeting. (A) Domain organization of BET (BRD2,3,4) proteins highlighting the N-terminal ... The inhibitor (shown as a CPK model) engages BRD4(1) via N140 and BRD4(2) via N433 linking the tandem BRD modules as indicated ... The inhibitor is shown as a CPK model engaging BRD4(1) via Asn140 (N140), the amino acid residue in the acetyl-Lys binding ...
CAS Number 7440-03-1 catalog search results at American Elements. Products, health & safety data (MSDS / SDS) ... Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): No data available.. Viscosity:. Dynamic: N/A. Kinematic: N/A. Other information. No ... SECTION 1. IDENTIFICATION. Product Identifiers: All applicable American Elements product codes for CAS #7440-03-1 ... Tel: +1 310-208-0551. Fax: +1 310-208-0351. Emergency telephone number:. Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300. International ...
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water):. No data available.. Viscosity:. Dynamic:. N/A. Kinematic:. N/A. Other information. No ... 13709-46-1 Praseodymium(III) fluoride, anhydrous (100.0%). PEL (USA). Long-term value: 2.5 mg/m3 as F. REL (USA). Long-term ... 1. 0 0 Health = 1. Fire = 0. Reactivity = 0. Other hazards. Results of PBT and vPvB assessment. PBT: N/A. vPvB: N/A ... 13709-46-1 Praseodymium(III) fluoride, anhydrous (100.0%). BEI (USA) 2 mg/L. Medium: urine. Time: prior to shift. Parameter: ...
... n-Octanol/water partition coefficient In common with those of other synthetic pyrethroids, the n-octanol/water partition ... GRAY, K. & GRAYSON, B.T. (1980) Determination of the n-octanol/water partition coefficients of BIRLANE AND GARDONA and a ... 1980) reported a calculated log n-octanol/water partition coefficient of 2.44. 4.5.2. Bioaccumulation in fish The accumulation ... n-Octanol water-partition coefficient 4.5.2. Bioaccumulation in fish 4.5.3. Bioaccumulation in aquatic invertebrates 5. ...
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 1.65 EXPOSURE & HEALTH EFFECTS. Routes of exposure The substance can be ... Relative density (water = 1): 1.3 Solubility in water: none. Relative vapour density (air = 1): 3.6 ...
Sec-Octyl alcohol ethoxylates;2-Octanol ethoxylates. Good dispersion, 1% aqueous liquid is milky, white liquid. No gel phase ... About Sec-Octyl alcohol ethoxylates;2-Octanol ethoxylates: Good dispersion, 1% solution in water is a white milky liquid. No ...
Its partition coefficient in octanol/water is constant (log PC = 1.23) over the pH range of 1 to 7. ... Table 1: Incidence (%) of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events in Long-Term (28 and 35 Nights) Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials ... Studies of binding of zaleplon to recombinant GABAA receptors (α1β1γ2 [omega-1]and α2β1γ2 [omega-2]) have shown that zaleplon ... The no-effect dose for offspring development was 1 mg/kg/day (a dose equivalent to 0.5 times the MRHD of 20 mg on a mg/m2 basis ...
Abbreviations: Koc, organic carbon-water partition coefficient; Kow, octanol-water partition coefficient.. 1 Values and units ... KOWWIN] Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient Program for Microsoft Windows [Estimation Model]. 2008. Version 1.67a. Washington ( ... 1 Model does not provide an estimate for this type of structure.. 2 Output is a numerical score from 0 to 5.. 3 Output is a ... Lowest effect levels1/Results. 1 LC50, median lethal concentration; LD50, median lethal dose; LOEC, lowest-observed-effect ...
  • Good dispersion, 1% aqueous liquid is milky, white liquid. (actionext.com)
  • The aqueous solubility of these chemicals is poor and ranged from 0.67 × 10-4 to 1.98 × 10-3 mol·L-1. (bvsalud.org)
  • Estimation of Water Solubility and Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient of Hydrophobic Dyes. (epa.gov)
  • The present study investigates the availability and quality of the data in the ECHA database for the logarithmic octanol-water partition coefficient (log 10 K OW ), solubility in water ( S W ), vapor pressure ( p V ), air-water partition coefficient, boiling point ( T b ), second-order rate constant for the degradation with OH radicals, and the soil adsorption coefficient. (aip.org)
  • Physicochemical properties such as the octanol-water partition coefficient ( K OW ), the octanol-air partition coefficient ( K OA ), vapor pressure ( p V ), or the solubility in water ( S W ) are important substance-specific properties that determine the environmental fate of substances. (aip.org)
  • The important physicochemical properties of three novel bioactive hybrid compounds with different groups (-CH3, -F and -Cl) were studied, including kinetic and thermodynamic solubility in pharmaceutically relevant solvents (buffer solutions and 1-octanol) as well as partition coefficient in system 1-octanol/buffer pH 7.4. (bvsalud.org)
  • The isothermal saturation method was used to determine the drug solubility in seven pharmaceutically relevant solvents within the temperature range from 293.15 to 313.15 K. The IVZ solubility in the studied solvents increased in the following order: buffer pH 7.4, buffer pH 2.0, buffer pH 1.2, hexane, 1-octanol, 1-propanol, ethanol. (bvsalud.org)
  • Depending on the solvent chemical nature, the compound solubility varied from 6.7 × 10-6 to 0.3 mol·L-1. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we recorded T-currents and underlying low-threshold calcium spikes from neurons of nucleus reticularis thalami (nRT) in brain slices from young rats and investigated the mechanisms of their modulation by an anesthetic alcohol, 1-octanol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • About Sec-Octyl alcohol ethoxylates;2-Octanol ethoxylates: Good dispersion, 1% solution in water is a white milky liquid. (actionext.com)
  • Oxycodone hydrochloride dissolves in water (1 g in 6 to 7 mL) and is considered slightly soluble in alcohol (octanol water partition coefficient is 0.7). (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • 1-Octanol, also known as octan-1-ol, is the organic compound with the molecular formula CH3(CH2)7OH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Octanol is mainly produced industrially by the oligomerization of ethylene using triethylaluminium followed by oxidation of the alkylaluminium products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycol;Norkool;Ethylene dihydrate;1,2-Dihydroxyethane;Monoethylene glycol;146AR;M.e.g. (lookchem.com)
  • The temperature dependencies of partition coefficients of new hybrids in the model system 1-octanol/buffer pH 7.4 as a surrogate lipophilicity were measured by the shake flask method. (bvsalud.org)
  • Temperature dependences of the compound partition coefficients were obtained in a binary 1-octanol/buffer pH 7.4 system and the transfer thermodynamic functions were calculated. (bvsalud.org)
  • The distribution of a compound between water and octanol is used to calculate the partition coefficient, P, of that molecule (often expressed as its logarithm to the base 10, log P). Water/octanol partitioning is a relatively good approximation of the partitioning between the cytosol and lipid membranes of living systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemicals having log octanol/water partition coefficients between 1 and 2 are well absorbed. (cdc.gov)
  • Its partition coefficient in octanol/water is constant (log PC = 1.23) over the pH range of 1 to 7. (rxlist.com)
  • The octanol/water partition coefficient for propofol is 6761:1 at a pH of 6 to 8.5. (guidelinecentral.com)
  • Esters of octanol, such as octyl acetate, occur as components of essential oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-Octanol is manufactured for the synthesis of esters for use in perfumes and flavorings. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,3-Butadiene is dimerized concomitant with the addition of one molecule of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Octanol and water are immiscible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium n - Octanol Sulfate is easily dispersible in water. (tatayoung.com)
  • Furthermore, the preferential localization of theaflavin 3-gallate in the octanol phase prevented (-)-epicatechin-quinone-induced degradation. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Animals continuously encounter heterogenous mixtures of chemicals that fluctuate in their concentrations and temporal properties, and provide information about the presence and location of food, mates, competitors, and predators [ 1 , 2 ]. (plos.org)
  • A temperature dependence of saturated vapor pressure of isavuconazole (IVZ), an antimycotic drug, was found by using the method of inert gas-carrier transfer and the thermodynamic functions of sublimation were calculated at a temperature of 298.15 K. The value of the compound standard molar enthalpy of sublimation was found to be 138.1 ± 0.5 kJ·mol-1. (bvsalud.org)
  • Many other isomers are also known generically as octanols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Density, Viscosity, and Speed of Sound of (1-Octanol + 2-Methoxyethanol),(1-Octanol + N,N-Dimethylacetamide), and (1-Octanol + Acetophenone) at Temperatures of (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K". Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of 1-octanol were also abolished by chelation of intracellular calcium ions with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane- N , N , N ′, N ′-tetraacetic acid. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2023. The atmospheric fate of 1,2-Dibromo-1 4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH): Spatial patterns, seasonal variability, and deposition to Canadian coastal regions . (sfu.ca)
  • In the present study, we found that a 1-octanol/buffer biphasic system improved the yield of theaflavin 3-gallate in a tyrosinase-catalyzed synthetic reaction with (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Numerical data for all behavioral and calcium imaging experiments shown in Figs 1 - 4 and S1 - S5 are provided in https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6537728 . (plos.org)
  • 2-Octanol Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Bhattacharjee, A. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 The physicochemical properties of a substance are also important parameters in the planning and realization of experiments. (aip.org)
  • In contrast, 12-(2-cyanoethyl)-6,7,12,13-tetrahydro-13-methyl-5-oxo-5 H -indolo(2,3- a )pyrrolo(3,4- c )-carbazole (Go 6976), an inhibitor of calcium-dependent PKC, decreased baseline T-current amplitude in nRT cells and abolished the effects of subsequently applied 1-octanol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pursuant to section 74 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999), the Ministers of the Environment and of Health have conducted a screening assessment on benzene, 1-methyl-2-nitro- (2-nitrotoluene), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 88-72-2. (gc.ca)
  • We found that 1-octanol inhibited native T-currents at subanesthetic concentrations with an IC 50 of approximately 4 μM. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MRLs are derived for acute (1-14 days), intermediate (15-364 days), and chronic (365 days and longer) durations and for the oral and inhalation routes of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRAL ® is contraindicated in opioid non-tolerant patients ( 1 ) and in management of acute or postoperative pain, including headache/migraines ( 4 , 5.1 ). (drugs.com)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that inhibition of calcium-dependent PKC signaling is a possible molecular substrate for modulation of T-channels in nRT neurons by 1-octanol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To explore the mechanisms underlying higher 1-octanol potency in inhibiting native nRT T-currents, we tested the effect of the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and PKC inhibitors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The chemical name of zaleplon is N-[3-(3-cyanopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)phenyl]-N-ethylacetamide. (rxlist.com)
  • Natural killer cells are cytolytic lymphocytes belonging to the innate immune system and are involved in anti-viral and anti-tumor responses ( 1 ) and are recognized as major players in immune-mediated anti-tumor therapies ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The IVZ thermophysical properties-melting point and enthalpy-equaled 302.7 K and 29.9 kJ mol-1, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • With a flash point of 81 °C, 1-octanol is not seriously flammable, though its autoignition temperature is as low as 245 °C. 1-Octanol is mainly consumed as a precursor to perfumes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Kuraray process defines an alternative route to 1-octanol, but using C4 + C4 building strategy. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, self-dimerization was suppressed in the octanol phase, allowing oxidized (-)-epigallocatechin gallate to participate in coupling with (-)-epicatechin quinone, leading to effective production of theaflavin 3-gallate. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In our scientific activity at the Division of Physical Chemistry 1 we find it essential to establish long-term goals and policies that are based on an unbiased analysis of the specific situation, rather than an uncritical following of the current trends. (lu.se)
  • The recommended starting dosage is 5 mg/m 2 , administered 1 to 3 hours prior to the administration of chemotherapy, then every 2 to 4 hours after chemotherapy, for a total of 4 to 6 doses per day. (nih.gov)